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Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(2): e202310172, abr. 2024. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1551321


Introducción. La insuficiencia respiratoria es la causa más común de paro cardíaco en pediatría; su reconocimiento y el manejo adecuado son cruciales. La simulación se utiliza para mejorar las habilidades médicas. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la proporción de residentes de pediatría que reconocieron un paro respiratorio (PR) pediátrico en un centro de simulación. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio observacional con 77 médicos residentes. Se utilizó un caso simulado de un paciente con dificultad respiratoria que progresa a PR. Resultados. De los 77 participantes, 48 reconocieron el paro respiratorio (62,3 %). El tiempo medio para reconocer el PR fue de 34,43 segundos. Conclusión. El 62,3 % de los participantes logró reconocer el paro respiratorio. Entre aquellos que lo identificaron, el tiempo promedio fue de 34,43 segundos. Se observaron graves deficiencias en algunas de las intervenciones esperadas.

Introduction. Respiratory failure is the most common cause of cardiac arrest in pediatrics. Recognizing and managing it adequately is critical. Simulation is used to improve medical skills. The objective of this study was to establish the proportion of pediatric residents who recognized a respiratory arrest in a child at a simulation center. Methods. This was an observational study in 77 residents. A simulation of a patient with respiratory distress that progressed to respiratory arrest was used. Results. Among the 77 participants, 48 recognized respiratory arrest (62.3%). The mean time to recognize respiratory arrest was 34.43 seconds. Conclusion. Respiratory arrest was recognized by 62.3% of participants. Among those who did so, the average time was 34.43 seconds. Severe failures were noted in some of the expected interventions.

Humans , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Heart Arrest/therapy , Internship and Residency , Clinical Competence , Airway Management
Acta otorrinolaringol. cir. cuello (En línea) ; 51(2): 144-149, 20230000. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1442514


Introducción: las infecciones profundas del cuello son patologías complejas con gran potencial de complicaciones graves, que, debido a su ubicación pueden ser de difícil reconocimiento y manejo. Es de gran importancia realizar un diagnóstico asertivo y ofrecer el tratamiento adecuado para poder disminuir las complicaciones que se pudieran presentar. La ecografía es una ayuda diagnóstica cada vez más utilizada que nos puede ayudar a guiar nuestras conductas de manera rápida y efectiva. Caso clínico: presentamos un caso de un paciente con un absceso en cuello, en el que la utilización de la ecografía de manera intraoperatoria facilitó la toma de decisiones y evitó procedimientos invasivos innecesarios. Conclusiones: el Point of Care Ultrasound (PoCUS) es una forma rápida y práctica de resolver preguntas y facilitar la toma de decisiones objetivas en el entorno perioperatorio.

Introduction: Deep neck infections are a complex group of pathologies with great potential for serious complications due to their location. Therefore, recognition and management can be a challenge. To reduce the risk of complications it is extremely important to have an assertive diagnosis y and offer the proper treatment. An ultrasound is a diagnosis tool that is being used more often because it can help us guide our medical decisions in a quick and effective way. Clinical case: We present a case of a patient who had an intraoperative ultrasound which helped in the decision making and avoided any further invasive procedures. Conclusions: The Point of Care Ultrasound (PoCUS) is a quick and practical way to solve questions and facilitate objective decisions in the perioperative environment.

Humans , Male , Female , Airway Management , Neck , Case Reports , Ultrasonography , Abscess
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(3): 301-304, May-June 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439607


Abstract Aspiration of gastric contents during induction of general anesthesia remains a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in anesthesia. Recent data show that pulmonary aspiration still accounts for many cases with implications on mortality despite technical and technological evolution. Practical, ethical, and methodological issues prevent high-quality research in the setting of aspiration and rapid sequence induction/intubation, and significant controversy is ongoing. Patients' position, drugs choice, dosing and timing, use of cricoid force, and a reliable risk assessment are widely debated with significant questions still unanswered. We focus our discussion on three approaches to promote a better understanding of rapid sequence induction/intubation and airway management decision-making. Firstly, we review how we can use qualitative and quantitative assessment of fasting status and gastric content with the point-of-care ultrasound as an integral part of preoperative evaluation and planning. Secondly, we propose using imaging-based mathematical models to study different patient positions and aspiration mechanisms, including identifying aspiration triggers. Thirdly, we promote the development of a global data collection system aiming to obtain precise epidemiological data. Therefore, we fill the gap between evidence-based medicine and experts' opinion through easily accessible and diffused computer-based databases. A better understanding of aspiration epidemiology obtained through focused global data gathering systems, the widespread use of ultrasound-based prandial status evaluation, and development of advanced mathematical models might potentially guide safer airway management decision making in the 21st century.

Humans , Airway Management , Anesthesia, General , Incidence , Data Collection , Mathematics
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(3): 250-257, May-June 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439608


Abstract Background: High-fidelity (HF) pediatric patient simulators are expensive. This randomized study aimed to compare the quality and educational impact of a full-scale simulation workshop with an HF infant simulator (SimBaby™, Laerdal) or with a low-cost (LC) simulator composed of an inert infant manikin with SimBaby™ software that displays respiratory/hemodynamic parameters on a monitor for medical education in pediatric difficult airway management. Methods: After written informed consent, anesthetists and emergency or ICU physicians participated in teams (4 to 6 participants) in a training session that included direct participation and observation of two difficult intubation scenarios. They were randomized into two groups (HF group, n = 65 and LC group, n = 63). They filled out a simulation quality score (SQS, 0 to 50), self-evaluated their anesthetists' non-technical skills (ANTS) score (15 to 60), and an educational quality score (EQS, 0 to 60) immediately (T0, main criteria), as well as 3 (T3) and 6 (T6) months after the training session. Results: We enrolled 128 physicians. Direct participation SQS (39 ± 5 HF group versus 38 ± 5 LC group), observation SQS (41 ± 4 H F group versus 39 ± 5 LC group), ANTS scores (38 ± 4 HF group versus 39 ± 6 LC group), T0 SQS (44 ± 5 HF group versus 43 ± 6 LC group), T3 and T6 SQS were not different between groups. Conclusion: Our low-cost simulator should be suggested as a less expensive alternative to an HF simulator for continuing medical education in pediatric difficult airway management.

Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Education, Medical, Continuing , Simulation Training , Clinical Competence , Airway Management
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(3): 351-353, May-June 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439623


Abstract Stenting for lower tracheal stenosis is a tricky situation and for the safe conduct of anesthesia, it is imperative to maintain spontaneous respiration. Airway topicalization is routinely recommended for anticipated difficult airway. We report a case of upper airway obstruction following lidocaine nebulization in a patient to be taken for tracheal stenting for lower tracheal stenosis. We would like to highlight that close monitoring of the patient is advisable during airway topicalization to detect any airway obstruction at the earliest and how fiberoptic intubation can play a pivotal role to secure the airway in an emergency scenario.

Humans , Tracheal Stenosis/surgery , Airway Obstruction/etiology , Anesthesia , Airway Management , Intubation, Intratracheal , Lidocaine
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(2): 223-226, March-Apr. 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439598


Abstract The authors report the case of a 71-year-old woman presented to the Emergency Department with acute ischemic stroke. She was treated with rt-PA and interventional endovascular revascularization and developed rapidly progressing angioedema that led to emergency intubation. The standard treatment was not very effective and the swelling improved after infusion of fresh frozen plasma. Angioedema after rt-PA infusion could be a life-threatening emergency that requires quick airway management by skilled professionals. As this condition is triggered by several factors, such as unregulated histamine and bradykinin production, the traditional treatment recommended by the guidelines may not be sufficient and the use of FFP can be considered as a safe and valuable aid.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Angioedema/chemically induced , Angioedema/therapy , Plasma , Histamine , Airway Management
Rev. colomb. cir ; 38(2): 357-362, 20230303. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425216


Introducción. Los tumores glómicos provienen de los cuerpos glómicos, que son estructuras con función de termorregulación y se encuentran distribuidas por todo el cuerpo humano, principalmente a nivel distal de las extremidades, donde es común encontrar lesiones características, aunque hay reportes de casos que se presentaron como neoformación en localizaciones más inusuales. Su etiología aun es desconocida. No se sospechan en muchos pacientes y el diagnostico se realiza de manera incidental, por estudios imagenológicos o anatomopatológicos. Caso clínico. Paciente femenina de 66 años, con presencia de tumor glómico en vía aérea, diagnosticado por histopatología e inmunohistoquímica, que fue sometido a resección quirúrgica, con buena evolución posterior. Discusión. Esta presentación atípica de tumor glómico en vía aérea se manifiesta principalmente con síntomas y signos relacionados con obstrucción de la vía aérea. El manejo oportuno es primordial y el diagnóstico definitivo es por histopatología e inmunohistoquímica, donde se observan las características de las células glómicas, estructuras vasculares, músculo liso y la positividad en la inmunotinción de marcadores como actina del músculo liso, CD34, y actina específica del músculo, entre otras. Conclusión. Los tumores glómicos son neoformaciones benignas raras, con presentación más común en zonas distales. Su aparición depende de factores intrínsecos y extrínsecos de los pacientes. Su tasa de recidiva es muy baja en comparación de otros tumores

Introduction. Glomus tumors originate from glomus bodies, which are structures with thermoregulatory function and are distributed throughout the human body, mainly at the distal level of the extremities where it is common to find these characteristic lesions. Although, there are case reports of neoformation presentations with more unusual locations. Their etiology is still unknown. Many times when there is evidence of lesions in atypical areas they are not suspected in many patients and the diagnosis is made incidentally by imaging and/or anatomopathological studies. Clinical case. A 66-year-old female patient with the presence of a glomus tumor in the airway diagnosed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry, underwent surgical resection and presented good evolution after surgery. Discussion. This atypical presentation of glomus tumor in the airway presents mainly with symptoms and signs related to airway obstruction. Timely management is paramount in these patients, and the definitive diagnosis is by histopathology and immunohistochemistry where the presence of the characteristics of glomus cells, vascular structures, smooth muscle and immunostaining positivity towards some markers such as smooth muscle actin, CD34, muscle specific actin, among others, are seen. Conclusion. This type of tumors are rare benign neoformations, with common presentations in distal areas. Their appearance depends on intrinsic and extrinsic factors of the patients and their recurrence rate is very low compared to other tumors

Humans , Tracheal Neoplasms , Immunohistochemistry , Glomus Tumor , Trachea , Biopsy , Airway Management
In. Machado Rodríguez, Fernando; Liñares Divenuto, Norberto Jorge; Gorrasi Delgado, José Antonio; Terra Collares, Eduardo Daniel; Borba, Norberto. Traslado interhospitalario: pacientes graves y potencialmente graves. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2023. p.77-101, ilus.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1523986
In. Machado Rodríguez, Fernando; Liñares Divenuto, Norberto Jorge; Gorrasi Delgado, José Antonio; Terra Collares, Eduardo Daniel; Borba, Norberto. Traslado interhospitalario: pacientes graves y potencialmente graves. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2023. p.229-245, ilus.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1524004
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(4): 510-513, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447631


Abstract Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) are a group of rare genetic inherited diseases with a progressive course due to the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans resulting in anatomic abnormalities and organ dysfunction, including the respiratory, cardiovascular, skeletal, and neurological systems that can increase the risk of anesthesia complications. Clinical manifestations are variable, multisystemic, and include severe morphological changes. The anesthetic management of these patients is complex, particularly airway management, which can be planned to include a fiberoptic airway investigation prior to surgery. We present two cases of patients with MPS type VI and VII who underwent fiberoptic airway mapping under conscious sedation, with no complications. Since MPS is a rare but challenging disease concerning the airway management, we propose a safe and effective anesthetic technique that could be used for fiberoptic bronchoscopy and allow fiberoptic-assisted tracheal intubation at the time of surgery.

Humans , Wakefulness , Mucopolysaccharidoses/complications , Bronchoscopy/methods , Airway Management/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods
Rev. baiana enferm ; 37: e52988, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1529691


Objetivos: descrever as boas práticas realizadas pela equipe multiprofissional durante a aspiração de vias aéreas inferiores em pacientes adultos, internados na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. Método: estudo quantitativo, observacional, descritivo e prospectivo, norteado pela ferramenta STROBE, realizado em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva adulto, entre maio e agosto de 2022. A amostra foi composta por 25 observações e a coleta de dados através de checklist, incluídos os profissionais de enfermagem, fisioterapia e medicina. Os dados foram processados no Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, sendo calculadas as frequências absolutas e relativas. Resultados: a maioria das aspirações foram realizadas pela equipe de enfermagem, 20 (80%) profissionais não regularam a fração inspirada de oxigênio antes e após o procedimento, 06 (60%) profissionais não clampearam a sonda durante a sua inserção. O uso de máscara (100%), capote (92%) e luva (100%) foram as boas práticas com maior aderência entre os participantes. Conclusão: reforça-se a necessidade de incentivar os treinamentos abordando as boas práticas durante a aspiração endotraqueal.

Objetivos: describir las buenas prácticas realizadas por el equipo multiprofesional durante la aspiración de vías aéreas inferiores en pacientes adultos, ingresados en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. Método: estudio cuantitativo, observacional, descriptivo y prospectivo, guiado por la herramienta STROBE, realizado en una unidad de cuidados intensivos adulta, entre mayo y agosto de 2022. La muestra fue compuesta por 25 observaciones y la recogida de datos a través de checklist, incluidos los profesionales de enfermería, fisioterapia y medicina. Los datos fueron procesados en el Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, siendo calculadas las frecuencias absolutas y relativas. Resultados: la mayoría de las aspiraciones fueron realizadas por el equipo de enfermería, 20 (80%) profesionales no regularon la fracción inspirada de oxígeno antes y después del procedimiento, 06 (60%) profesionales no clampearon la sonda durante su inserción. El uso de máscara (100%), capucha (92%) y guante (100%) fueron las mejores prácticas con mayor adherencia entre los participantes. Conclusión: se refuerza la necesidad de incentivar los entrenamientos abordando las buenas prácticas durante la aspiración endotraqueal.

Objective: to describe the good practices performed by the multiprofessional team during lower airway aspiration in adult patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit. Method: quantitative, observational, descriptive and prospective study, guided by the STROBE tool, conducted in an adult intensive care unit, between May and August 2022. The sample consisted of 25 observations and data collection through checklist, including nursing, physiotherapy and medicine professionals. The data were processed in the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, and the absolute and relative frequencies were calculated. Results: most aspirations were performed by the nursing team, 20 (80%) professionals did not regulate the inspired fraction of oxygen before and after the procedure, 06 (60%) professionals did not clamp the tube during its insertion. The use of mask (100%), cloak (92%) and glove (100%) were the best practices with greater adherence among participants. Conclusion: there is the need to encourage training addressing good practices during endotracheal aspiration.

Humans , Male , Female , Suction/methods , Practice Guideline , Airway Management/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/nursing
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(5): 539-547, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520353


Abstract Background: Clinical airway screening tests intend to predict difficult airways, but none have a high predictive value. Recent systematic reviews correlate ultrasound with difficult laryngoscopy. This study aimed primarily to correlate ultrasound measurements of anatomical upper airway structures in the sniffing position with difficult direct laryngoscopy. The secondary aim was to observe gender-based differences. Methods: This prospective, cross-sectional, single-center observational study included 209 patients requiring general anesthesia for elective surgery. Preoperatively, we performed six clinical airway assessments and three ultrasound measurements, which were the Distance from Skin to the Hyoid Bone (DSHB), to the Epiglottis (DSE), and to the anterior commissure of the vocal cords (DSAC) in a sniffing position. Benumof's criteria for the "best view at the first attempt" for direct laryngoscopy assessed the difficulty of laryngoscopy. Results: The distance from skin to the epiglottis was the best predictor of direct difficult laryngoscopy (defined as Cormack-Lehane grade > 2b) with a minimum thickness cut-off at 2.70 ± 0.19 cm (sensitivity 91.3%; specificity 96.9%). The skin to the hyoid bone distance cut-off was 1.41 ± 0.30 cm with moderate correlation (sensitivity 80.4%; specificity 60.1%). No correlation was found for the distance to the anterior commissure of the vocal cords. In women compared to men, the skin to the epiglottis distance was more sensitive (92.3% vs. 90.9%) and specific (98.8% vs. 95.2%). Conclusions: DSE in the sniffing position is the most reliable parameter for preoperative airway ultrasound assessment in the Caucasian population, with higher sensitivity and specificity in women, and might be considered as an independent predictor for direct difficult laryngoscopy.

Airway Management , Intubation , Anesthesia , Ultrasonography , Laryngoscopy
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(5): 556-562, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520354


Abstract Background: Awake fiberoptic tracheal intubation is an established method of securing difficult airways, but there are some reservations about its use because many practitioners find it technically complicated, time-consuming, and unpleasant for patients. Our main goal was to test the safety and efficacy of a 300-mm working length fiberscope (video rhino-laryngoscope) when used for awake nasotracheal intubation in difficult airway cases. Methods: This was a prospective, single-center study involving adult patients, having an ASA physical status between I and IV, with laryngopharyngeal pathology causing distorted airway anatomy. Awake nasotracheal intubation, using topical anesthesia and light sedation, was performed using a 300 mm long and 2.9 mm diameter fiberscope equipped with a lubricated reinforced endotracheal tube. The primary outcomes were the success and duration of the procedure. Patients' periprocedural satisfaction and other incidents were recorded. Results: We successfully intubated all 25 patients included in this study. The mean ± SD duration of the procedure, starting from the passage of the intubating tube through one of the nostrils until the endotracheal intubation, was 76 ± 36 seconds. Most of the patients showed no discomfort during the procedure with statistical significance between the No reaction Group with the Slight grimacing Group (95%CI 0.13, 0.53, p = 0.047) and the Heavy grimacing Group (95%CI 0.05, 0.83, p = 0.003). The mean ±SD satisfaction score 24 hours post-intervention was 1.8 ± 0.86 - mild discomfort. No significant incidents occurred. Conclusions: Our study showed that a 300-mm working length flexible endoscope is fast, safe, and well-tolerated for nasotracheal awake intubation under challenging airways.

Endoscopy , Airway Management , Patient Satisfaction , Anesthesia, Local
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(5): 683-685, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520358


Abstract Merosin-deficient muscular dystrophy is caused by an autosomal recessive mutation on laminin-α2 gene characterized by severe progressive muscle weakness associated with neuromuscular scoliosis and restrictive lung disease. In this case report, we describe an alternative airway approach performed in a child with anticipated difficult airway and merosin-deficient muscular dystrophy. Significant anesthetic implications may increase the perioperative risk, requiring accurate knowledge to anticipate an adequate management and provide patient-safety strategies.

Child , Airway Management , Orthopedics , Pediatrics , Laminin , Anesthesia, Intravenous
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(5): 570-577, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520359


Abstract Background: Predicting difficult direct laryngoscopies remains challenging and improvements are needed in preoperative airway assessment. We conceived two new tests (the upper airway angle and the glottic height) and assessed their association with difficult direct laryngoscopies as well as their predictive performance. Methods: A prospective cohort was conducted with 211 patients undergoing general anesthesia for surgical procedures. We assessed the association between difficult laryngoscopies and modified Mallampati Test (MMT), Upper Lip Bite Test (ULBT), Mandibular Length (ML), Neck Circumference (NC), Mouth Opening (MO), Sternomental Distance (SMD), Thyromental Distance (TMD), Upper Airway Angle (UAA), and Glottic Height (GH). We also estimated their predictive values. Results: Difficult laryngoscopy was presented by 12 patients (5.7%). Six tests were significantly associated with difficult laryngoscopies and their area under the ROC curve, and 95% CIs were as follows: UAA = 88.82 (81.86-95.78); GH = 86.43 (72.67-100); ML = 83.75 (72.77-94.74); NC = 79.17 (64.98-93.36); MO = 65.58 (45.13-86.02); and MMT = 77.89 (68.37-87.41). Conclusion: We have found two new features (the UAA and the GH) to be significantly associated with the occurrence of difficult direct laryngoscopies. They also presented the best predictive performance amongst the nine evaluated tests in our cohort of patients. We cannot ensure, however, these tests to be superior to other regularly used bedside tests based on our estimated 95% CIs.

Predictive Value of Tests , Airway Management , Laryngoscopy , Sensitivity and Specificity
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(5): 532-538, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520363


Abstract Introduction: Adequate and continuous airway management by health professionals is fundamental to ensure patient safety and protection. Among several techniques, laryngoscopy for orotracheal intubation is considered a basic skill, so it is taught and learned in medical school and used during the future years of professional practice. However, in some clinical scenarios, physical and anatomical characteristics can make laryngoscopy exceedingly difficult. In the last decade, some new devices have emerged to apply indirect or video-assisted imaging systems, so-called videolaryngoscopes. They have shown great efficiency in difficult intubation cases and have improved teaching and training. Our study introduced a videolaryngoscope, the McGrathTM MAC, in the regular laryngoscopy training rotation for 3rd-year undergraduate medical students and evaluated whether there was any associated optimization of the students' performance. Method: Students from two different classes and years (2017 and 2018) were randomly divided into two groups and received theoretical and practical training in the techniques of Direct Laryngoscopy (DL) and Videolaryngoscopy (VL). The students in each group applied the manoeuvres and simulated three tracheal intubation attempts on mannequins. They were evaluated for their success rate on the first attempt, the time required to finalize the intubation, and the visualization of the glottic structures according to the classification of Cormack-Lehane (C&L). Results: Two hundred and four students with an average age of 21 ± 2 years participated in the study; the groups were similar. There was a significant difference between the VL and DL groups in the 1st attempt success rate (97% and 89.4%, respectively, p = 0.0497 - 95% CI), but such a difference was not seen for the other attempts or regarding the number of oesophageal intubations (3% and 7.7%). The students in the VL group were faster than those in the DL group in all intubation attempts; in parallel, the vast majority of the VL group reported excellent visualization conditions, with 75% of the attempts classified as Cormack-Lehane grade 1. Conclusion: The introduction of a videolaryngoscope in medical students' training improved the visualization of anatomical structures and allowed tracheal intubation maneuvers to be performed faster and with a higher success rate on the first attempt. Thus, under the conditions of this prospective study, the videolaryngoscope had a positive impact on training and proved to be a promising tool for teaching laryngoscopy.

Airway Management , Laryngoscopy , Students, Medical , Intubation, Intratracheal , Manikins
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(5): 680-682, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520366


Abstract Airway management can be difficult in surgeries of patients with mucopolysaccharidosis. We performed a retrospective review of 31 surgeries performed between 2015 and 2019. The mean age of the patients was 127.6 months. MPS-IV and MPS-VI were the most frequent subtypes. Orthopedic surgeries were the most common surgery type. Difficult intubation was seen in 10 procedures. All patients with difficult intubation were aged over 36 months. Video laryngoscopy was the most common intubation method. Seventeen patients were followed up in the intensive care unit. Although video laryngoscopy seems to be a safe method in these patients, one should always be prepared for alternative methods.

Airway Management
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 94(4)dic. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1441814


La valoración pediátrica de urgencias tiene características especiales respecto al resto de la atención pediátrica. El diagnóstico final será una prioridad secundaria. Es una evaluación clínica, cuyo intento principal es la identificación de aspectos anatómicos y fisiológicos anormales, la estimación de la gravedad de la enfermedad o lesión y la determinación de la necesidad de tratamiento urgente. El objetivo de esta colaboración es brindar una sistemática clara, con una secuencia de valoraciones y acciones que sirvan de base para la toma de decisiones clínicas orientadas a la estabilización del paciente y a evitar situaciones que pueden amenazar la vida en poco tiempo. El triángulo de evaluación pediátrica, la secuencia ABCDE, una breve anamnesis y examen enfocado que identifique el motivo de consulta de mayor prioridad, signos de alarma que pueden cambiar la prioridad y las reevaluaciones frecuentes serán los pilares de la actuación médica. Con el propósito de respetar el derecho del niño al disfrute del más alto nivel posible de salud, de garantizar la calidad asistencial y la seguridad de los pacientes pediátricos con entidades agudas o traumatismos, el grupo nacional de pediatría desarrolló y aprobó la guía de valoración pediátrica de urgencias en Cuba. Mediante la aplicación de esta guía se puede optimizar el proceso de valoración pediátrica de urgencias de forma que los pacientes de este segmento de edad reciban el nivel de cuidados médicos más apropiado para su situación clínica(AU)

The pediatric emergency assessment has special characteristics with respect to the rest of pediatric care. The final diagnosis will be a secondary priority. It is a clinical evaluation, and the main purpose of it is the identification of abnormal anatomical and physiological aspects, the estimation of the severity of the disease or injury and the determination of the need for urgent treatment. The objective of this collaboration is to provide a clear system, with a sequence of assessments and actions that serve as a basis for clinical decision-making aimed at stabilizing the patient and avoiding life-threatening situations in a short time. The pediatric assessment triangle, the ABCDE sequence, a brief history and focused examination that identifies the highest priority reason for consultation, warning signs that may change priority and frequent re-evaluations will be the pillars of medical action. To respect the right of the child to have access to the highest possible level of health, to guarantee the quality of care and its safety in the face of acute conditions or trauma, the National Group of Pediatrics developed and approved the guide for pediatric emergency assessment in Cuba. Through its application, the pediatric emergency evaluation process can be optimized so that patients of this age segment receive the most appropriate level of medical care for their clinical situation(AU)

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Guideline , Respiration , Clinical Competence , Emergencies , Airway Management , Patient Care/methods , Neurologic Manifestations
MedUNAB ; 25(3): [492-498], 01-12-2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1436139


Introducción. El manejo de la vía aérea difícil anticipada es un reto anestésico que supone la valoración preoperatoria de las características anatómicas y los factores de riesgo específicos del paciente. La intubación difícil se presenta en 1.6 de 1,000 eventos y la intubación fallida en 0.06 de 1,000 eventos. El objetivo de este reporte es mostrar la importancia del uso de dispositivos (específicamente videolaringoscopio) en pacientes con predicción de vía aérea difícil. Presentación del caso. Hombre de 63 años con gran masa facial con extensión a nariz, labio superior, erosión a nivel del maxilar superior que ocupaba cavidad oral, con predictores de ventilación e intubación difícil, programado para rinectomía, osteotomía Lefort II, reconstrucción y traqueostomía, con intubación exitosa con videolaringoscopio en primer intento bajo sedación consciente y ventilación espontánea. Discusión. La vía aérea difícil es un escenario relacionado a factores externos e internos del paciente y a complicaciones pre e intraoperatorias. El videolaringoscopio es una herramienta útil que permite la intubación exitosa y disminuye los posibles eventos adversos (como se observó en el paciente del caso presentado) y es descrito en diferentes reportes de casos con compromiso parcial o total de la vía aérea. Conclusión. La videolaringoscopia, en casos de vía aérea difícil anticipada, está asociada con un menor tiempo de intubación, un buen perfil de seguridad y una alta tasa de éxito, comparable a la del fibrobroncoscopio, se logra la intubación en el primer intento en la mayoría de las veces y, por ello, debería considerarse como primera opción.

Introduction. Management of an anticipated difficult airway is an anesthetic challenge that involves preoperative assessment of the patient's specific anatomic characteristics and risk factors. Difficult intubation occurs in 1.6 of 1,000 events and failed intubation in 0.06 of 1,000 events. The objective of this report is to show the importance of the use of devices (specifically videolaryngoscope) in patients with predicted difficult airway. Case Presentation. 63-year-old man with large facial mass with extensión to the nose, upper lip, erosion at the level of the upper jaw occupying the oral cavity, with predictors of ventilation and difficult intubation, scheduled for rhinectomy, Lefort II osteotomy, reconstruction and tracheostomy, with successful intubation with videolaryngoscope on the first attempt under conscious sedation and spontaneous ventilation. Discussion. Difficult airway is a scenario related to external and internal patient factors and to pre- and intraoperative complications. The videolaryngoscope is a useful tool that allows successful intubation and decreases possible adverse events (as observed in the patient of the case presented) and is described in different reports of cases with partial or total airway compromise. Conclusion. Videolaryngoscopy, in cases of anticipated difficult airway, is associated with a shorter intubation time, a good safety profile and a high success rate, comparable to that of fibrobronchoscopy, intubation is achieved on the first attempt in most cases and should therefore be considered as a first choice.

Introdução. O manejo da via aérea difícil antecipada é um desafio anestésico que envolve a avaliação pré-operatória das características anatômicas e dos fatores de risco específicos do paciente. A intubação difícil ocorre em 1.6 de 1,000 eventos e a intubação falha em 0.06 de 1,000 eventos. O objetivo deste relato é mostrar a importância do uso de dispositivos (especificamente videolaringoscópio) em pacientes com previsão de via aérea difícil. Apresentação do caso. Homem de 63 anos com grande massa facial estendendo-se ao nariz, lábio superior e erosão ao nível do maxilar superior que ocupava a cavidade oral, com preditores de ventilação e intubação difícil, programado para rinectomia, osteotomia Lefort II, reconstrução e traqueostomia, com intubação bem-sucedida, com videolaringoscópio na primeira tentativa sob sedação consciente e ventilação espontânea. Discussão. A via aérea difícil é um cenário relacionado a fatores externos e internos do paciente e a complicações pré e intraoperatórias. O videolaringoscópio é uma ferramenta útil que permite o sucesso da intubação e reduz possíveis eventos adversos (como observado no paciente do caso apresentado) e está descrito em diversos relatos de casos com comprometimento parcial ou total da via aérea. Conclusão. A videolaringoscopia, em casos de via aérea difícil antecipada, está associada a um menor tempo de intubação, um bom perfil de segurança e uma alta taxa de sucesso, comparável à fibrobroncoscopia, a intubação é realizada na primeira tentativa na maioria dos casos e, portanto, deve ser considerada como a primeira opção.

Airway Management , Laryngoscopy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Intubation , Anesthesia