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1.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 125-133, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927588

ABSTRACT

Captopril can have nephrotoxic effects, which are largely attributed to accumulated renin and "escaped" angiotensin II (Ang II). Here we test whether angiotensin converting enzyme-1 (ACE1) inhibition damages kidneys via alteration of renal afferent arteriolar responses to Ang II and inflammatory signaling. C57Bl/6 mice were given vehicle or captopril (60 mg/kg per day) for four weeks. Hypertension was obtained by minipump supplying Ang II (400 ng/kg per min) during the second 2 weeks. We assessed kidney histology by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and Masson staining, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by FITC-labeled inulin clearance, and responses to Ang II assessed in afferent arterioles in vitro. Moreover, arteriolar H2O2 and catalase, plasma renin were assayed by commercial kits, and mRNAs of renin receptor, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the renal cortex, mRNAs of angiotensin receptor-1 (AT1R) and AT2R in the preglomerular arterioles were detected by RT-qPCR. The results showed that, compared to vehicle, mice given captopril showed lowered blood pressure, reduced GFR, increased plasma renin, renal interstitial fibrosis and tubular epithelial vacuolar degeneration, increased expression of mRNAs of renal TGF-β and COX-2, decreased production of H2O2 and increased catalase activity in preglomerular arterioles and enhanced afferent arteriolar Ang II contractions. The latter were blunted by incubation with H2O2. The mRNAs of renal microvascular AT1R and AT2R remained unaffected by captopril. Ang II-infused mice showed increased blood pressure and reduced afferent arteriolar Ang II responses. Administration of captopril to the Ang II-infused mice normalized blood pressure, but not arteriolar Ang II responses. We conclude that inhibition of ACE1 enhances renal microvascular reactivity to Ang II and may enhance important inflammatory pathways.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II/pharmacology , Animals , Arterioles/metabolism , Captopril/pharmacology , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Kidney , Mice
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880634

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Silence of SET domain containing lysine methyltransferase 7 (SET7) alleviates myocardial tissue injury caused by ischemia-reperfusion. But the effects of SET7 on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced myocardial fibroblast proliferation and the collagen synthesis are not clear. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of SET7 on the proliferation and collagen synthesis of myocardial fibroblasts and its mechanisms.@*METHODS@#Myocardial fibroblasts were isolated and identified by immunofluorescence. Myocardial fibroblasts were randomly divided into 4 groups: a control group (cells were normally cultured), an Ang II group (cells were treated with 100 nmol/L Ang II for 24 h), a siCtrl group (cells were transfected with siRNA control and were then treated with 100 nmol/L Ang II for 24 h), and a siSET7 group (cells were transfected with siRNA SET7 and were then treated with 100 nmol/L Ang II for 24 h). Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay were used to evaluate cell proliferation. Real-time PCR was used to detect the mRNA levels of SET7, collagen I, collagen III, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Western blotting was used to detect the protein expression of SET7, collagen I, collagen III, α-SMA, sonic hedgehog (Shh), ptched1 (Ptch1), and glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (Gli1).@*RESULTS@#Fluorescence microscopy showed positive vimentin staining, and myocardial fibroblasts were in good condition. As compared to the control group, the mRNA and protein levels of SET7 in the Ang II group were significantly upregulated; cell proliferation rate and EdU fluorescence intensity in the Ang II group were significantly increased; the mRNA and protein levels of collagen I, collagen III, and α-SMA were significantly upregulated (all @*CONCLUSIONS@#Silence of SET7 gene inhibits Ang II-induced proliferation and collagen synthesis of myocardial fibroblasts. Shh signaling pathway may be involved in this process.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Collagen/genetics , Fibroblasts , Hedgehog Proteins
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(2): e8793, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055493

ABSTRACT

Aliskiren (ALS) is well known for its antihypertensive properties. However, the potential underlying the molecular mechanism and the anti-hypertrophic effect of ALS have not yet been fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of ALS in mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and apoptosis signaling using in vivo and in vitro models of cardiac hypertrophy. A rat model of cardiac hypertrophy was induced by isoproterenol treatment (5 mg·kg-1·day-1) for 4 weeks, with or without ALS treatment at 20 mg·kg-1·day-1. The expression of hypertrophic, fibrotic, and apoptotic markers was determined by RT-qPCR. The protein expression of apoptotic markers mTOR and p-mTOR was assessed by western blot analysis. The proliferation of H9C2 cells was monitored using the MTS assay. Cell apoptosis was analyzed using flow cytometry. In vivo, isoproterenol-treated rats exhibited worse cardiac function, whereas ALS treatment reversed these dysfunctions, which were associated with changes in p-mTOR, Bcl-2, Bax, and cleaved caspase-3 expression, as well as the number of apoptotic cells. In vitro, H9C2 cardiomyocyte viability was significantly inhibited and cardiac hypertrophy was induced by Ang II administration, but ALS reversed Ang II-induced H9C2 cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and death. Furthermore, Ang II triggered the activation of the mTOR and apoptosis pathways in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes that were inhibited by ALS treatment. These results indicated that ALS alleviated cardiac hypertrophy through inhibition of the mTOR and apoptosis pathways in cardiomyocytes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cardiomegaly/prevention & control , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Fumarates/administration & dosage , Amides/administration & dosage , Fibrosis/chemically induced , Fibrosis/prevention & control , Angiotensin II/pharmacology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Cardiomegaly/chemically induced , Cardiomegaly/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Disease Models, Animal , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/drug effects , Flow Cytometry , Isoproterenol/pharmacology
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(1): e7914, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974273

ABSTRACT

Yes-associated protein (YAP) is an important regulator of cellular proliferation and transdifferentiation. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying myofibroblast transdifferentiation in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). We investigated the role of YAP in the pathological process of cardiac matrix remodeling. A classic model of DCM was established in BALB/c mice by immunization with porcine cardiac myosin. Cardiac fibroblasts were isolated from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats by density gradient centrifugation. The expression levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen volume fraction (CVF) were significantly increased in DCM mice. Angiotensin II (Ang II)-mediated YAP activation promoted the proliferation and transdifferentiation of neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts, and this effect was significantly suppressed in the shRNA YAP + Ang II group compared with the shRNA Control + Ang II group in vitro (2.98±0.34 ×105 vs 5.52±0.82 ×105, P<0.01). Inhibition of endogenous Ang II-stimulated YAP improved the cardiac function by targeting myofibroblast transdifferentiation to attenuate matrix remodeling in vivo. In the valsartan group, left ventricular ejection fraction and fractional shortening were significantly increased compared with the DCM group (52.72±5.51% vs 44.46±3.01%, P<0.05; 34.84±3.85% vs 26.65±3.12%, P<0.01). Our study demonstrated that YAP was a regulator of cardiac myofibroblast differentiation, and regulation of YAP signaling pathway contributed to improve cardiac function of DCM mice, possibly in part by decreasing myofibroblast transdifferentiation to inhibit matrix remodeling.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Angiotensin II/pharmacology , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/physiopathology , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/drug effects , Cell Transdifferentiation/drug effects , Myofibroblasts/drug effects , Phosphoproteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Phosphoproteins/physiology , Swine , Echocardiography , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/pathology , Cell Differentiation , Blotting, Western , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Cell Cycle Proteins , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/antagonists & inhibitors , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/physiology , Disease Models, Animal , Myofibroblasts/physiology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Microscopy, Fluorescence
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-35998

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: There has been controversy about the role of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in renal injury following ureteric obstruction. Although inhibition of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) reduces TLR2 expression in mice, the exact relationship between TLR2 and RAS is not known. The aim of this study was to determine whether the RAS modulates TLR2. METHODS: We used 8-week-old male wild type (WT) and TLR2-knockout (KO) mice on a C57Bl/6 background. Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) was induced by complete ligation of the left ureter. Angiotensin (Ang) II (1,000 ng/kg/min) and the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren (25 mg/kg/day) were administrated to mice using an osmotic minipump. Molecular and histologic evaluations were performed. RESULTS: Ang II infusion increased mRNA expression of TLR2 in WT mouse kidneys (p < 0.05). The expression of renin mRNA in TLR2-KO UUO kidneys was significantly higher than that in WT UUO kidneys (p < 0.05). There were no differences in tissue injury score or mRNA expression of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), osteopontin (OPN), or transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) between TLR2-KO UUO and WT UUO kidneys. However, aliskiren decreased the tissue injury score and mRNA expression of TLR2, MCP-1, OPN, and TGF-beta in WT UUO kidneys (p < 0.05). Aliskiren-treated TLR2-KO UUO kidneys showed less kidney injury than aliskiren-treated WT UUO kidneys. CONCLUSIONS: TLR2 deletion induced activation of the RAS in UUO kidneys. Moreover, inhibition of both RAS and TLR2 had an additive ameliorative effect on UUO injury of the kidney.


Subject(s)
Amides/pharmacology , Angiotensin II/pharmacology , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Fibrosis , Fumarates/pharmacology , Kidney/drug effects , Male , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Nephritis, Interstitial/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Renin/antagonists & inhibitors , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Toll-Like Receptor 2/deficiency , Ureteral Obstruction/drug therapy
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-122517

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin II (Ang II) induces the pathological process of vascular structures, including renal glomeruli by hemodynamic and nonhemodynamic direct effects. In kidneys, Ang II plays an important role in the development of proteinuria by the modification of podocyte molecules. We have previously found that Ang II suppressed podocyte AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) via Ang II type 1 receptor and MAPK signaling pathway. In the present study, we investigated the roles of AMPK on the changes of p130Cas of podocyte by Ang II. We cultured mouse podocytes and treated them with various concentrations of Ang II and AMPK-modulating agents and analyzed the changes of p130Cas by confocal imaging and western blotting. In immunofluorescence study, Ang II decreased the intensity of p130Cas and changed its localization from peripheral cytoplasm into peri-nuclear areas in a concentrated pattern in podocytes. Ang II also reduced the amount of p130Cas in time and dose-sensitive manners. AMPK activators, metformin and AICAR, restored the suppressed and mal-localized p130Cas significantly, whereas, compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, further aggravated the changes of p130Cas. Losartan, an Ang II type 1 receptor antagonist, recovered the abnormal changes of p130Cas suppressed by Ang II. These results suggest that Ang II induces the relocalization and suppression of podocyte p130Cas by the suppression of AMPK via Ang II type 1 receptor, which would contribute to Ang II-induced podocyte injury.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Aminoimidazole Carboxamide/analogs & derivatives , Angiotensin II/pharmacology , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/pharmacology , Animals , Blotting, Western , Cell Line , Cell Nucleus/metabolism , Crk-Associated Substrate Protein/metabolism , Cytoplasm/metabolism , Focal Adhesion Kinase 1/metabolism , Losartan/pharmacology , Metformin/pharmacology , Mice , Microscopy, Confocal , Podocytes/cytology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Ribonucleotides/pharmacology , Signal Transduction/drug effects
8.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 34(2): 120-129, 2015. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-762613

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Angiotensina (Ang)-(1-9) posee propiedades anti-hipertensivas y efecto protector a nivel cardiovascular en ratas hipertensas. Sin embargo, se desconoce si estos efectos están asociados a un mecanismo de desbalance de sodio a nivel renal. Objetivo: Determinar si el efecto anti-hipertensivo de Ang-(1-9) está asociado a un mecanismo diurético-na-triurético. Método: Ratas macho Sprague Dawley (200 ± 10g) fueron aleatorizadas para recibir Ang II (400 ng/kgmin) vía bomba osmótica. Como control se utilizaron ratas con operación sham (n=18). Después de 2 semanas desde la instalación de bomba, las ratas Sham e hipertensas fueron randomizadas para recibir vehículo (n=10), Ang-(1-9) (602 ng/kg/min, n=17) o una co-administración de Ang-(1-9) y A779 (100 ng kg-1min-1, n=7 bloqueador del receptor MAS) por 2 semanas. Resultados: Se determinó la presión arterial sistólica (PAS), masa ventricular relativa (MVR), área y perímetro de los cardiomiocitos (AC y PC) y la fracción volumétrica de colágeno total (FVCT). Para evaluar la diuresis y natriuresis se utilizaron ratas normotensas que fueron randomizadas para recibir vehículo (n=8) o Ang-(1-9) (600 ngKg-1min-1, n=8) por 6 días. Se observó un incremento significativo(p<0.05) de PAS (33%), MVR (17%), AC (64%), PC (20%), FVCT (46%). La administración crónica de Ang-(1-9) disminuyó PAS (20%), MVR (13 %), AC (35%), PC (20%) y FVCT (20%). Estos efectos no fueron mediados por el receptor MAS. Al comparar las ratas normotensas tratadas con vehículo o Ang-(1-9), se observó un aumento significativo de la diuresis y natriuresis en los días 2 y 3 en los animales con infusión de Ang-(1-9). Conclusión: Ang-(1-9) reduce la hipertensión y el remodelamiento cardíaco en ratas hipertensas. En animales normotensos se demostró que el tratamiento con Ang-(1-9)-induce diuresis y natriuresis. Este es el primer reporte que señala que el efecto de Ang-(1-9) está asociado a una regulación del sodio a nivel renal.


Background: Angiotensin-(1-9) has anti-hypertensive properties and protective cardiovascular effect in hypertensive rats. However, it is unknown whether its effects are related to a kidney mechanism to balance sodium. Aim: To determine if the anti-hypertensive effect of Ang-(1-9) is associated to a diuretic-natriuretic mechanism. Method: Sprague Dawley male rats (200±10 grs) were randomized to receive Angiotensin II by osmotic pump (400 ng/kg/min). Sham operated rats were utilized as control (n=18). Two weeks after pump setting, Sham rats with hypertension were randomized to receive placebo (n=10), Ang-(1-9)(602 ng/kg/min, n=17) or Ang-(1-9) plus A779 (Ang-(1-7) Receptor Mas blocker, 100ng/kg-1min-1, n=7) co-administration for two weeks. Arterial systolic pressure (PAS), ventricular relative mass (MVR), cardiomyocytes area and perimeter (AC and PC) and total collagen volume fraction (FVCT) were measured. Normotensive rats were utilized to evaluate diuresis and natriuresis which were randomized to receive placebo (n=8) or Ang-(1-9) (600ng/kg-1/min-1, n=8) for six days. Results: It was observed a significant rise (p<0.05) of PAS (33%), MVR (17%), AC (64%), PC (26%), FVCT (46%) was observed. Chronic administration of Ang-(1-9) reduced PAS (20%), MVR (13%), AC (35%), PC (20%) and FCVT (20%). All those effects were not mediated by Mas receptor. A significant raise was observed of diuresis and natriuresis at the second and third day of treatment in rats receiving Ang-(1-9) in comparison with normotensive rats treated with placebo. Conclusion: Ang-(1-9) reduces hypertension and cardiac remodeling in hypertensive rats. Ang-(1-9) induces natriuresis and diuresis in normotensive rats. This is the first report showing that Ang-(1-9) is associated to sodium balance in the kidney.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Angiotensin II/pharmacology , Diuresis/drug effects , Natriuresis/drug effects , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Heart/drug effects
9.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 36(5): 331-335, nov. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-733236

ABSTRACT

Desde diciembre de 2013, la Región de las Américas se enfrenta por primera vez a una epidemia de chikungunya. Los casos iniciales se registraron en el Caribe francés y, debido al comercio y la movilización de personas, esta epidemia no tardó en llegar a la República Dominicana, cuya población es de 10 millones de habitantes y comparte con Haití la isla La Española. En este artículo se difunde información extraída de diversos artículos y documentos oficiales sobre el virus, la infección y la epidemia de chikungunya, que han sido de gran ayuda para orientar la respuesta en la República Dominicana y pueden ser útiles para mejorar tanto el conocimiento como las actuaciones frente a la epidemia de los trabajadores del sector salud de la Región. Se destaca la importancia que revisten las investigaciones realizadas en países y territorios afectados del océano Índico, como la isla de Reunión, durante la epidemia declarada entre 2005 y 2007, cuando se registró una tasa de ataque mayor de 30%, se identificaron los grupos de riesgo, las formas graves y atípicas de la infección, la transmisión vertical del virus, las formas crónicas, que pueden provocar dolores recurrentes durante tres años, y las defunciones directa o indirectamente relacionadas con el virus chikungunya. Por su alta tasa de ataque, el virus chikungunya se convierte en un reto sin precedentes para los ministerios de salud, que exige una adecuada organización de los servicios de salud, la priorización de la atención a los grupos de riesgo y a los pacientes con formas graves de la enfermedad, así como una adecuada comunicación social y respuesta intersectorial.


The Region of the Americas has been affected since December 2013 by a chikungunya epidemic for the first time. Although the first cases were recorded in the French Caribbean, the epidemic quickly spread to the Dominican Republic due to trade and people movements. The Dominican Republic, which shares the island of Hispaniola with Haiti, has a population of 10 million. This article contains information from a range of different publications and official documents about the chikungunya virus infection and epidemic. These papers were extremely helpful for guiding the response to the epidemic in the Dominican Republic and may also be useful for enhancing knowledge of the virus and responses among health workers elsewhere in the region. Particular attention is drawn to the important research undertaken in countries and territories affected by the epidemic in the Indian Ocean area. This is the case, for example, of the island of La Réunion, where the epidemic had an attack rate of more than 30% between 2005 and 2007. Researchers were able to identify risk groups, severe and atypical forms of the infection, cases of vertical transmission, chronic disease causing recurrent pain over three years, and directly- or indirectly-related deaths from the virus. Given its high attack rate, the chikungunya virus has emerged as an exceptional challenge for health ministries and calls for appropriate organized responses from the health services, prioritization of care for risk groups and patients exhibiting severe forms of the disease, and effective social communication and intersectoral actions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Angiotensin II/pharmacology , DNA , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , /analogs & derivatives , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Benzimidazoles/pharmacology , Biphenyl Compounds/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Cell Division/physiology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/physiology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/biosynthesis , Rats, Inbred WKY , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Tetrazoles/pharmacology , /pharmacology
10.
J. bras. nefrol ; 35(4): 259-264, out.-dez. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697085

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Mesangial cells (MC) may be involved in the glomerular alterations induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the response of immortalized MC (IMC) to 30 minutes of hypoxia followed by reoxygenation periods of 30 minutes (H/R30) or 24 hours (H/R24). METHODS: The intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca+2]i) was measured before (baseline) and after adding angiotensin II (AII, 10-5 M) in the presence and absence of glybenclamide (K ATP channel blocker). We estimated the level of intracellular ATP, nitric oxide (NO) and PGE2. RESULTS: ATP concentration decreased after hypoxia and increased after reoxygenation. Hypoxia and H/R induced increases in basal [Ca+2]i. AII induced increases in [Ca+2]i in normoxia (97 ± 9%), hypoxia (72 ± 10%) or HR30 (85 ± 17%) groups, but there was a decrease in the response to AII in group H/R24 since the elevation in [Ca+2]i was significantly lower than in control (61 ± 10%, p < 0.05). Glybenclamide did not modify this response. It was observed a significant increase in NO generation after 24 hours of reoxygenation, but no difference in PGE2 production was observed. Data suggest that H/R injury is characterized by increased basal [Ca+2]i and by an impairment in the response of cells to AII. Results suggest that the relative insensibility to AII may be at least in part mediated by NO but not by prostaglandins or vasodilator K ATP channels. CONCLUSION: H/R caused dysfunction in IMC characterized by increases in basal [Ca+2]i during hypoxia and reduction in the functional response to AII during reoxygenation.


INTRODUÇÃO: Células mesangiais (CM) podem estar envolvidas na lesão glomerular induzida por hipoxia/reperfusão (H/R). OBJETIVO: Avaliar a resposta de CM imortalizadas (CMI) à hipoxia por 30 minutos seguida de reoxigenação por 30 minutos (H/R30) ou 24 horas (H/R24). MÉTODOS: Concentração de cálcio intracelular ([Ca+2]i) foi avaliada antes (basal) e após a adição de angiotensina II (AII, 10-5 M), na presença e na ausência de glibenclamida (bloqueador de canais K ATP). Foram estimados o nível de ATP intracelular, de óxido nítrico (NO) e de PGE2. RESULTADOS: Nível de ATP diminuiu após hipóxia e aumentou após a reoxigenação. H/R induziu aumento na [Ca+2]i basal. A AII elevou a [Ca+2]i nas condições de normoxia (97 ± 9%), hipoxia (72 ± 10%) ou HR30 (85 ± 17%), porém no grupo H/R24, houve diminuição significativa na resposta à AII, uma vez que a elevação da [Ca+2]i foi mais baixa do que no controle (61 ± 10%, p < 0,05). Glibenclamida não alterou esta resposta. Houve um aumento significativo na geração de NO após 24 horas de reoxigenação, mas não foi observada nenhuma diferença na produção de PGE2. Os dados indicam que a injuria celular causada pela hipoxia/reoxigenação é caracterizada pelo aumento na [Ca+2]i basal e por uma diminuição na reatividade celular à AII. Resultados sugerem que a insensibilidade ao agonista constritor pode ser pelo menos em parte, mediada pelo NO, mas não pelas prostaglandinas ou por canais K ATP. CONCLUSÃO: H/R resultou em disfunção das CMI, caracterizada pelo aumento na [Ca+2]i basal durante a hipóxia e redução da resposta funcional a AII durante a reoxigenação.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Angiotensin II/pharmacology , Mesangial Cells/drug effects , Mesangial Cells/physiology , Angiotensin II/physiology , Cell Hypoxia , Cells, Cultured , Calcium/metabolism , Oxygen/pharmacology , Time Factors
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(12): 1150-1156, Dec. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-659639

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin II (Ang II) plays an important role in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. The combined effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and Ang II on cardiomyocytes is unknown. The present study was designed to determine the effect of HGF on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and to explore the combined effect of HGF and Ang II on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Primary cardiomyocytes were isolated from neonatal rat hearts and cultured in vitro. Cells were treated with Ang II (1 µM) alone, HGF (10 ng/mL) alone, and Ang II (1 µM) plus HGF (10 ng/mL) for 24, 48, and 72 h. The amount of [³H]-leucine incorporation was then measured to evaluate protein synthesis. The mRNA levels of β-myosin heavy chain and atrial natriuretic factor were determined by real-time PCR to evaluate the presence of fetal phenotypes of gene expression. The cell size of cardiomyocytes was also studied. Ang II (1 µM) increased cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Similar to Ang II, treatment with 1 µM HGF promoted cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Moreover, the combination of 1 µM Ang II and 10 ng/mL HGF clearly induced a combined pro-hypertrophy effect on cardiomyocytes. The present study demonstrates for the first time a novel, combined effect of HGF and Ang II in promoting cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Angiotensin II/pharmacology , Hepatocyte Growth Factor/pharmacology , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Animals, Newborn , Cells, Cultured , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Hypertrophy/chemically induced , Hypertrophy/pathology , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(3): 193-199, Mar. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-576067

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin II (ANG II), the main effector of the renin-angiotensin system, is implicated in endothelial permeability, recruitment and activation of the immune cells, and also vascular remodeling through induction of inflammatory genes. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are considered to be important inflammatory factors. Elucidation of ANG II signaling pathways and of possible cross-talks between their components is essential for the development of efficient inhibitory medications. The current study investigates the inflammatory signaling pathways activated by ANG II in cultures of human monocytic U-937 cells, and the effects of specific pharmacological inhibitors of signaling intermediates on MMP-9 gene (MMP-9) expression and activity. MMP-9 expression was determined by real-time PCR and supernatants were analyzed for MMP-9 activity by ELISA and zymography methods. A multi-target ELISA kit was employed to evaluate IκB, NF-κB, JNK, p38, and STAT3 activation following treatments. Stimulation with ANG II (100 nM) significantly increased MMP-9 expression and activity, and also activated NF-κB, JNK, and p38 by 3.8-, 2.8- and 2.2-fold, respectively (P < 0.01). ANG II-induced MMP-9 expression was significantly reduced by 75 and 67 percent, respectively, by co-incubation of the cells with a selective inhibitor of protein kinase C (GF109203X, 5 µM) or of rho kinase (Y-27632, 15 µM), but not with inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (wortmannin, 200 nM), tyrosine kinases (genistein, 100 µM) or of reactive oxygen species (α-tocopherol, 100 µM). Thus, protein kinase C and Rho kinase are important components of the inflammatory signaling pathways activated by ANG II to increase MMP-9 expression in monocytic cells. Both signaling molecules may constitute potential targets for effective management of inflammation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Angiotensin II/pharmacology , Inflammation/enzymology , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Monocytes/drug effects , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Monocytes/metabolism , Protein Kinase C/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Signal Transduction/drug effects , /metabolism , rho-Associated Kinases/metabolism
13.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135519

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: A wealth of information concerning the essential role of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in the regulation of renal function and mean arterial blood pressure homeostasis has been established. However, many important parameters with which RSNA interacts are yet to be explicitly characterized. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the impact of acute renal denervation (ARD) on sodium and water excretory responses to intravenous (iv) infusions of either norepinephrine (NE) or angiotensin II (Ang II) in anaesthetized spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods: Anaesthetized SHR were acutely denervated and a continuous iv infusion of NE (200 ng/min/kg) or Ang II (50 ng/min/kg) was instigated for 1 h. Three 20-min urine clearances were subsequently collected to measure urine flow rate (UV) and absolute sodium excretion (UNaV). Results: Higher UV and UNaV (P<0.05) were observed in denervated control SHR as compared to innervated counterparts. The administration of NE or Ang II to innervated SHR produced lower UV and UNaV (P<0.05 vs. innervated control SHR). Lower diuresis/natriuresis response to ARD was observed in NE-treated SHR compared to denervated control SHR (P<0.05). Salt and water excretions in denervated NE-treated SHR, however, were significantly higher (P<0.05) relative to the excretion levels in control denervated SHR. Conversely, there was a higher (all P<0.05) diuresis/natriuresis response to ARD when Ang II was administered to SHR compared to denervated control or innervated Ang II-treated SHR. Interpretation & conclusions: NE retains its characteristic antidiuretic/antinatriuretic action following ARD in SHR. Typical action of Ang II on salt and water excretions necessitates the presence of an intact renal innervation. Ang II is likely to facilitate the release of NE from renal sympathetic nerve terminals through a presynaptic site of action. Moreover, there is a lack of an immediate enhancement in the renal sensitivity to the actions of NE and Ang II following ARD in a rat model of essential hypertension.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II/pharmacology , Animals , Denervation , /drug effects , /innervation , /metabolism , Male , Norepinephrine/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Inbred SHR/physiology , Sodium, Dietary , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Water/metabolism
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-104282

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin II is a major effector molecule in the development of cardiovascular disease. In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), angiotensin II promotes cellular proliferation and extracellular matrix accumulation through the upregulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression. Previously, we demonstrated that small heterodimer partner (SHP) represses PAI-1 expression in the liver through the inhibition of TGF-beta signaling pathways. Here, we investigated whether SHP inhibited angiotensin II-stimulated PAI-1 expression in VSMCs. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of SHP (Ad-SHP) in VSMCs inhibited angiotensin II- and TGF-beta-stimulated PAI-1 expression. Ad-SHP also inhibited angiotensin II-, TGF-beta- and Smad3-stimulated PAI-1 promoter activity, and angiotensin II-stimulated AP-1 activity. The level of PAI-1 expression was significantly higher in VSMCs of SHP-/- mice than wild type mice. Moreover, loss of SHP increased PAI-1 mRNA expression after angiotensin II treatment. These results suggest that SHP inhibits PAI-1 expression in VSMCs through the suppression of TGF-beta/Smad3 and AP-1 activity. Thus, agents that target the induction of SHP expression in VSMCs might help prevent the development and progression of atherosclerosis.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae/genetics , Angiotensin II/pharmacology , Animals , Blotting, Northern , Cells, Cultured , Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Humans , Mice , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/drug effects , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1/genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , Rats , Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Smad3 Protein/genetics , Transforming Growth Factor beta/pharmacology
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 42(6): 531-536, June 2009. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-512762

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin II (Ang II) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of renal diseases. The objective of the present study was to investigate the possible inflammatory effect of Ang II on glomerular endothelial cells and the underlying mechanism. We isolated and characterized primary cultures of rat glomerular endothelial cells (GECs) and observed that Ang II induced the synthesis of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in GECs as demonstrated by Western blot. Ang II stimulation, at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 µm, of rat GECs induced a rapid increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species as indicated by laser fluoroscopy. The level of p47phox protein, an NAD(P)H oxidase subunit, was also increased by Ang II treatment. These effects of Ang II on GECs were all reduced by diphenyleneiodonium (1.0 µm), an NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor. Ang II stimulation also promoted the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). Telmisartan (1.0 µm), an AT1 receptor blocker, blocked all the effects of Ang II on rat GECs. These data suggest that the inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase-dependent NF-κB signaling reduces the increase in MCP-1 production by GECs induced by Ang II. This may provide a mechanistic basis for the benefits of selective AT1 blockade in dealing with chronic renal disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Angiotensin II/pharmacology , /biosynthesis , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Kidney Glomerulus/cytology , NADPH Oxidases/antagonists & inhibitors , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/pharmacology , Blotting, Western , Benzimidazoles/pharmacology , Benzoates/pharmacology , /drug effects , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Inflammation/metabolism , Onium Compounds/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
16.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2007 Sep; 45(9): 770-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-63258

ABSTRACT

The effects of captopril and Ang II on morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and morphine self-administration in male Wistar rat were investigated. In CPP experiment, injection of captopril before test significantly decreased the difference of the time spent in compartment A between pre- and post-conditioning compared to morphine group. In self- administration experiment number of active lever pressing was significantly greater than passive in morphine group. In captopril group number of active lever pressing was significantly lower than morphine group however, there was not significant difference between active and passive lever pressed number. The results showed that captopril significantly decreased morphine-induced conditional place preference and morphine self-administration but the effect of Ang II was not significant. It can be concluded that RAS may have a role in rewarding properties of morphine.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Animals , Captopril/pharmacology , Conditioning, Psychological , Male , Morphine/administration & dosage , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Reward , Self Administration
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 40(5): 727-734, May 2007. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-449094

ABSTRACT

Sex differences in the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease have been described in humans and in animal models. In this paper we will review some of our studies which have as their emphasis the examination of the role of sex differences and sex steroids in modulating the central actions of angiotensin II (ANG II) via interactions with free radicals and nitric oxide, generating pathways within brain circumventricular organs and in central sympathomodulatory systems. Our studies indicate that low-dose infusions of ANG II result in hypertension in wild-type male mice but not in intact wild-type females. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that ANG II-induced hypertension in males is blocked by central infusions of the androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide, and by central infusions of the superoxide dismutase mimetic, tempol. We have also found that, in comparison to females, males show greater levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species in circumventricular organ neurons following long-term ANG II infusions. In female mice, ovariectomy, central blockade of estrogen receptors or total knockout of estrogen a receptors augments the pressor effects of ANG II. Finally, in females but not in males, central blockade of nitric oxide synthase increases the pressor effects of ANG II. Taken together, these results suggest that sex differences and estrogen and testosterone play important roles in the development of ANG II-induced hypertension.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Angiotensin II/pharmacology , Estrogens/metabolism , Hypertension/metabolism , Sex Characteristics , Testosterone/metabolism , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Hypertension/chemically induced , Infusions, Intravenous , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , Ovariectomy , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
18.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 66(3): 229-236, 2006. graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-440709

ABSTRACT

Muchos de los efectos de la angiotensina II (Ang II) son mediados en realidad por la acción de endotelina (ET) endógena liberada y/o producida en respuesta a la Ang II. En este trabajo evaluamos la interacción Ang II/ET-1, sus consecuencias en la contractilidad cardíaca y el papel de las especies reactivas del oxígeno (EROs). Se usaron cardiomiocitos aislados de gato. La Ang II, 1 nM, produjo un efecto inotrópico positivo (EIP) de 31.8±3.8% que fue cancelado por inhibición de los receptores AT1, de los receptores de ET, del intercambiador Na+/H+ (NHE), del modo inverso del intercambiador Na+/Ca2+ (NCX) o por el secuestro de EROs. La Ang II, 100 nM, produjo un EIP de 70.5±7.6% que fue cancelado por inhibición de los receptores AT1y bloqueado en parte por inhibición de los receptores de ET, del NHE, del modo inverso del NCX o por el secuestro de EROs. La Ang II, 1 nM, incrementó el ARNm de la preproET-1 lo cual fue anulado por el bloqueo de los receptores AT1. Los resultados permiten concluir que el EIP de la Ang II es debido a la acción de la ET-1 endógena liberada/formada por la Ang II. La ET-1 produce: estimulación del NHE, activación del modo inverso del NCX y un consecuente EIP. Dentro de esta cascada también participarían los EROs.


Many of the effects thought to be due to angiotensin II (Ang II) are due to the release/formation of endothelin (ET). We tested whether Ang II elicits its positive inotropic effect (PIE) by the action of endogenous ET-1 and the role played by the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this mechanism. Experiments were performed in cat isolated ventricular myocytes in which sarcomere shortening (SS) was measured to asses contractility after pharmacological interventions and the effect of Ang II on inotropism were analyzed. Ang II 1 nM increased SS by 31.8±3.8% (p<0.05). This PIE was cancelled by AT1 receptor blockade, by ET-1 receptors blockade, by Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) inhibition, by reverse mode Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) blockade or by ROS scavenging. Ang II 100 nM increases SS by 70.5±7.6% (p<0.05). This PIE was completely abolished by AT1 receptors blockade and were partially bocked by ET-1 receptors blockade, by NHE inhibition, by reverse mode NCX blockade or by ROS scavenging. Ang II increased preproET-1 mRNA, effect that was blunted by AT1 receptors blockade. We conclude that Ang II induces (through its AT1 receptor) release/formation of ET-1, which acting in autocrine fashion on ET receptors of the isolated myocytes increases inotropism through NHE stimulation and NCX reverse mode activation. The participation of ROS is involved is this chain of events.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Angiotensin II/pharmacology , Endothelin-1/metabolism , Myocardial Contraction/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Papillary Muscles/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/metabolism , Sodium-Calcium Exchanger/metabolism
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69447

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin II (Ang II), which is an important mediator of both vascular responsiveness and growth, has been shown to induce vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) hypertrophy via the activation of a complex series of intracellular signaling events. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) has recently been shown to protect against Ang II-induced hypertension. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that Hsp70 can protect VSMC from Ang II-induced hypertrophy. We treated VSMCs with Ang II to induce hypertrophy and to activate MAPK signaling pathway. We observed that the augmentation of Hsp70 expression inhibited Ang II-stimulated VSMC hypertrophy. This inhibitory effect of Hsp70 appears to be partly due to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) inactivation, which in turn, may possibly result from the accumulation of MAP kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1).


Subject(s)
Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rats , RNA, Small Interfering/pharmacology , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases/metabolism , Phosphoprotein Phosphatases/metabolism , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3/antagonists & inhibitors , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1/antagonists & inhibitors , Male , MAP Kinase Kinase 2/metabolism , MAP Kinase Kinase 1/metabolism , Immediate-Early Proteins/metabolism , Hypertrophy , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Enzyme Stability/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism , Aorta/drug effects , Animals , Angiotensin II/pharmacology
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69445

ABSTRACT

Catechins, components of green tea, reduce the incidence of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is highly implicated in the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), resulting in atherosclerosis. The acting mechanisms of the catechins remain to be defined in the proliferation of VSMC induced by Ang II. Here we report that catechin, epicatechin (EC), epicatechingallate (ECG) or epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) significantly inhibits the Ang II-induced [3H]thymidine incorporation into the primary cultured rat aortic VSMC. Ang II increases the phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2), c-jun-N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK 1/2), or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and mRNA expression of c-jun and c-fos. The EGCG pretreatment inhibits the Ang II-induced phosphorylation of ERK 1/2, JNK 1/2, or p38 MAPK, and the expression of c-jun or c-fos mRNA. U0126, a MEK inhibitor, SP600125, a JNK inhibitor, or SB203580, a p38 inhibitor, attenuates the Ang II-induced [3H]thymidine incorporation into the VSMC. In conclusion, catechins inhibit the Ang II-stimulated VSMC proliferation via the inhibition of the Ang II-stimulated activation of MAPK and activator protein-1 signaling pathways. The antiproliferative effect of catechins may be associated with the reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases by the intake of green tea. Catechins may be useful in the development of prevention and therapeutics of vascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Signal Transduction/drug effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rats , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Female , DNA/biosynthesis , Cells, Cultured , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Culture Techniques , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Animals , Angiotensin II/pharmacology
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