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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e239323, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339341

ABSTRACT

Abstract The β-lactam/lactamase inhibitors (BLBLIs) combination drugs are considered an effective alternative to carbapenems. However, there is a growing concern that the increased use of BLBLIs may lead to increased resistance. This study determined the temporal association between the consumption of BLBLI and the antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. In this retrospective study, electronic data on the Gram-negative bacterial isolates, including A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and K. pneumoniae from in-patients and susceptibility testing results were retrieved from the medical records of the clinical laboratory. A linear regression and cross-correlation analysis were performed on the acquired data. Increasing trends (p<0.05) in the consumption of BIBLI and carbapenem with a median use of 27.68 and 34.46 DDD/1000 PD per quarter were observed, respectively. A decreased trend (p=0.023) in the consumption of fluoroquinolones with a median use of 29.13 DDD/1000 PD per quarter was observed. The resistance rate of K. pneumoniae was synchronized with the BIBLI and carbapenem consumptions with a correlation coefficient of 0.893 (p=0.012) and 0.951 (p=0.016), respectively. The cross-correlation analysis against the consumption of BIBLI and meropenem resistant K. pneumoniae was peaked at 0-quarter lag (r=951, p=0.016). There was an increasing trend in the consumption of BLBLI and carbapenems. The increasing trend in the rates of resistance to piperacillin/tazobactam, in line with the increasing consumption of BLBLI, suggests that BLBLI has to be used with caution and cannot be directly considered as a long-term alternative to carbapenems.


Resumo Os medicamentos combinados de β-lactâmicos / inibidores da lactamase (BLBLIs) são considerados uma alternativa eficaz aos carbapenêmicos. No entanto, existe uma preocupação crescente de que o aumento do uso de BLBLIs pode levar ao aumento da resistência. Este estudo determinou a associação temporal entre o consumo de BLBLI e a resistência antimicrobiana em bactérias gram-negativas. Neste estudo retrospectivo, os dados eletrônicos sobre as bactérias gram-negativas isoladas, incluindo A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, E. coli e K. pneumoniae de pacientes internados e os resultados dos testes de suscetibilidade foram recuperados dos registros médicos do laboratório clínico. Uma regressão linear e análise de correlação cruzada foram realizadas nos dados adquiridos. Foram observadas tendências crescentes (p < 0,05) no consumo de BIBLI e carbapenem com uma mediana de uso de 27,68 e 34,46 DDD/1000 PD por trimestre, respectivamente. Foi observada uma tendência de diminuição (p = 0,023) no consumo de fluoroquinolonas com uma mediana de uso de 29,13 DDD/1000 PD por trimestre. A taxa de resistência de K. pneumoniae foi sincronizada com os consumos de BIBLI e carbapenem com coeficiente de correlação de 0,893 (p = 0,012) e 0,951 (p = 0,016), respectivamente. A análise de correlação cruzada contra o consumo de BIBLI e K. pneumoniae resistente ao meropenem atingiu o pico no intervalo de 0 quarto (r = 951, p = 0,016). Houve uma tendência de aumento no consumo de BLBLI e carbapenêmicos. A tendência crescente nas taxas de resistência a piperacilina/tazobactam, em linha com o consumo crescente de BLBLI, sugere que BLBLI deve ser usado com cautela e não pode ser considerado diretamente como alternativa de longo prazo aos carbapenêmicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Retrospective Studies , Escherichia coli , Gram-Negative Bacteria
2.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 88(2): 257-262, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374726

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The standard management of orbital cellulitis is to administer a combination of intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics along with treatment of associated sinusitis. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the addition of corticosteroids could lead to earlier resolution of inflammation and improve disease outcome. Methods: We independently searched five databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, Embase, the Web of Science, and the Cochrane database) for studies published as recent as December 2019. Of the included studies, we reviewed orbital cellulitis and disease morbidity through lengths of hospitalization, incidence of surgical drainage, periorbital edema, vision, levels or C-reactive protein, and serum WBC levels in order to focus on comparing steroid with antibiotics treated group and only antibiotics treated group. Results: Lengths of hospitalization after admission as diagnosed as orbital cellulitis (SMD = −4.02 [−7.93; −0.12], p -value = 0.04, I2 = 96.9%) decrease in steroid with antibiotics treated group compared to antibiotics only treated group. Incidence of surgical drainage (OR = 0.78 [0.27; 2.23], p -value = 0.64,I2 = 0.0%) was lower in the steroid with antibiotics treated group compared to the antibiotics only treated group. Conclusion: Use of systemic steroids as an adjunct to systemic antibiotic therapy for orbital cellulitis may decrease orbital inflammation with a low risk of exacerbating infection. Based on our analysis, we concluded that early use of steroids for a short period can help shorten hospitalization days and prevent inflammation progression.


Resumo Introdução: O tratamento padrão da celulite orbitária inicia-se com uma combinação de antibióticos intravenosos de amplo espectro concomitante ao tratamento do seio comprometido. Objetivos: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se a adição de corticosteroides poderia levar a uma resolução mais precoce da inflamação e melhorar o desfecho da doença. Método: Fizemos uma pesquisa independente em cinco bancos de dados (PubMed, SCOPUS, Embase, Web of Science e o banco de dados Cochrane) em busca de estudos publicados até dezembro de 2019. Dos estudos incluídos, revisamos a celulite orbitária e a morbidade da doença através dos períodos de internação, incidência de drenagem cirúrgica, edema periorbital, visão, níveis de proteína C-reativa e níveis séricos de leucócitos com foco na comparação do grupo tratado com esteroides e antibióticos e do grupo tratado apenas com antibióticos. Resultados: Os tempos de internação após a admissão dos diagnosticados com celulite orbitária (SMD = -4,02 [-7,93; -0,12], p-valor = 0,04, I2 = 96,9%) diminuíram no grupo tratado com esteroides e antibióticos em comparação ao grupo tratado apenas com antibióticos. A incidência de drenagem cirúrgica (OR = 0,78 [0,27; 2,23], p-valor = 0,64, I2 =0,0%) foi menor no grupo tratado com esteroides e antibióticos em comparação com o grupo tratado apenas com antibióticos. Conclusão: O uso de esteroides sistêmicos como adjuvante da antibioticoterapia sistêmica para celulite orbitária pode diminuir a inflamação orbitária com baixo risco de agravar a infecção. Com base em nossa análise, concluímos que o uso precoce de esteroides por um curto período pode ajudar a encurtar os dias de internação e prevenir a progressão da inflamação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Orbital Diseases/complications , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy , Orbital Cellulitis/diagnosis , Orbital Cellulitis/etiology , Orbital Cellulitis/drug therapy , Steroids , Cellulitis/complications , Cellulitis/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Inflammation , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(2): 142-146, Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365338

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The vast majority of patients who hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 are given empirical antibiotic therapy. However, information on the frequency, microorganism species, and resistance rates of secondary bacterial infections in coronavirus disease 2019 patients are insufficient. We aimed to show the frequency of secondary infections and resistance conditions in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 hospitalized in the intensive care unit. METHODS: The results of tracheal aspirate culture, blood culture, and urine culture obtained from coronavirus disease 2019 patients - at least 2 days after their admission to the intensive care unit - were examined microbiologically. RESULTS: A total of 514 patients hospitalized in intensive care unit were included in our study. Tracheal aspirate, blood, or urine cultures were collected from 369 patients (71.8%). Bacterial reproduction was detected in at least one sample in 171 (33.3%) of all patients. The rate of respiratory tract infection and/or bloodstream infection was found to be 21%. Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in tracheal aspirate culture; Coagulase-negative staphylococci, K. pneumoniae, and A. baumannii in blood culture; and Escherichia coli, K. pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecalis in urine culture were the most common microorganisms. A. baumannii was resistant to most antibiotics except colistin and P. aeruginosa strains were resistant to most antibiotics except amikacin, colistin, cefepime, and imipenem. In K. pneumoniae, the highest meropenem sensitivity (73%) was observed; there was a strong resistance to most of the remaining antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: We think that our study can be useful in choosing empirical antibiotic therapy in the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and reducing the mortality that may occur with secondary infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia , Bacterial Infections/complications , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Acinetobacter baumannii , Coinfection , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928720

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical features, distribution of pathogenic bacteria, and drug resistance of bloodstream infection in children with acute leukemia.@*METHODS@#Clinical data of 93 blood culture-positive children with acute leukemia from January 2015 to December 2019 in Department of Pediatrics, The Second Hospital of Anhui Medical University were analyzed retrospectively.@*RESULTS@#In these 93 cases, 78 cases were in the period of neutrophil deficiency. There were 54 Gram-negative bacteria (G-) (58.1%) found through blood culture, and the top 4 strains were Escherichia coli (15.1%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (13.9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6.5%), and Enterobacter cloacae (6.5%). There were 39 Gram-positive bacteria (G+) (41.9%) detected, and the top 4 strains were Staphylococcus epidermidis (10.8%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (6.5%), Staphylococcus hemolyticus (5.4%), and Staphylococcus human (5.4%). Among 74 strains of pathogenic bacteria from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) children, there were 29 strains of G+ bacteria (39.2%) and 45 strains of G- bacteria (60.8%). While in 19 strains from acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) patients, G- bacteria accounted for 47.4% and G+ bacteria accounted for 52.6%. In 15 ALL children without neutropenia, G+ bacteria made up the majority of the strains (66.7%). In the 93 strains of pathogenic bacteria, 13 (13.9%) strains were multidrug-resistant. Among them, extended-spectrum β-lactamases accounted for 42.9%, carbapenemase-resistant enzyme Klebsiella pneumoniae 15.4%, and carbapenemase-resistant enzyme Enterobacter cloacae strains 33.3%, which were detected from G- bacteria. While, 13.3% of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci accounted for 13.3% detected from G+ bacteria, but linezolid, vancomycin, teicoplanin Staphylococcus and Enterococcus resistant were not found. The average procalcitonin (PCT) value of G- bacteria infection was (11.02±20.282) ng/ml, while in G+ infection it was (1.81±4.911) ng/ml, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The mean value of C-reactive protein (CRP) in G- infection was (76.33±69.946) mg/L, and that in G+ infection was (38.34±57.951) mg/L. The prognosis of active treatment was good, and only one case died of septic shock complicated with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and gastrointestinal bleeding caused by carbapenemase-resistant enzyme enterobacteriaceae.@*CONCLUSION@#G- is the major bacteria in acute leukemia children with bloodstream infection, but the distribution of ALL and AML strains is different. G- bacteria dominates in ALL, while G+ bacteria and G- bacteria are equally distributed in AML. Non-agranulocytosis accompanied by bloodstream infections is dominant by G+ bacteria. The mean value of PCT and CRP are significantly higher in G- bacteria infection than in G+ bacteria.


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteria , Child , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Procalcitonin , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/drug therapy
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928638

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the effect of improvement in antibiotic use strategy on the short-term clinical outcome of preterm infants with a gestational age of <35 weeks.@*METHODS@#The medical data were retrospectively collected from 865 preterm infants with a gestational age of <35 weeks who were admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2016. The improved antibiotic use strategy was implemented since January 1, 2015. According to the time of implementation, the infants were divided into three groups: pre-adjustment (January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2014; n=303), post-adjustment Ⅰ (January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015; n=293), and post-adjustment Ⅱ (January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2016; n=269). The medical data of the three groups were compared.@*RESULTS@#There were no significant differences among the three groups in gestational age, proportion of small-for-gestational-age infants, sex, and method of birth (P>0.05). Compared with the pre-adjustment group, the post-adjustment I and post-adjustment Ⅱ groups had a significant reduction in the rate of use of antibiotics and the duration of antibiotic use in the early postnatal period and during hospitalization (P<0.05), with a significant increase in the proportion of infants with a duration of antibiotic use of ≤3 days or 4-7 days and a significant reduction in the proportion of infants with a duration of antibiotic use of >7 days in the early postnatal period (P<0.05). Compared with the post-adjustment Ⅰ group, the post-adjustment Ⅱ group had a significant reduction in the duration of antibiotic use in the early postnatal period and during hospitalization (P<0.05), with a significant increase in the proportion of infants with a duration of antibiotic use of ≤3 days and a significant reduction in the proportion of infants with a duration of antibiotic use of 4-7 days or >7 days (P<0.05). Compared with the pre-adjustment group, the post-adjustment I and post-adjustment Ⅱ groups had significantly shorter duration of parenteral nutrition and length of hospital stay (P<0.05). There were gradual reductions in the incidence rates of grade ≥Ⅲ intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and late-onset sepsis (LOS) after the adjustment of antibiotic use strategy. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the adjustment of antibiotic use strategy had no effect on short-term adverse clinical outcomes, and antibiotic use for >7 days significantly increased the risk of adverse clinical outcomes (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#It is feasible to reduce unnecessary antibiotic use by the improvement in antibiotic use strategy in preterm infants with a gestational age of <35 weeks, which can also shorten the duration of parenteral nutrition and the length of hospital stay and reduce the incidence rates of grade ≥Ⅲ IVH and LOS.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Infant, Premature , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/epidemiology
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928624

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the clinical and microbiological characteristics of children with drowning-associated aspiration pneumonia, so as to provide a reference for empirical selection of antibacterial agents.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 185 children with drowning-associated aspiration pneumonia who were admitted to Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from January 2010 to October 2020. According to the drowning environment, these children were divided into four groups: fecal group (n=44), freshwater group (n=69), swimming pool group (n=41), and contaminant water group (n=31). The clinical characteristics and pathogen detection results were reviewed and compared among the four groups.@*RESULTS@#The 185 children had an age of 4 months to 17 years (median 34 months). Sputum cultures were performed on 157 children, and 103 were tested positive (65.6%), with 87 strains of Gram-negative bacteria (68.5%), 37 strains of Gram-positive bacteria (29.1%), and 3 strains of fungi (2.4%). Gram-negative bacteria were the main pathogen in the fecal group and the contaminant water group, accounting for 88.2% (30/34) and 78.3% (18/23), respectively. The freshwater group had a significantly higher detection rate of Gram-positive bacteria than the fecal group (P<0.008), and the swimming pool group had an equal detection rate of Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria.@*CONCLUSIONS@#For pulmonary bacterial infection in children with drowning in feces or contaminant water, antibiotics against Gram-negative bacteria may be applied empirically, while for children with drowning in a swimming pool or freshwater, broad-spectrum antibiotics may be used as initial treatment, and subsequently the application of antibiotics may be adjusted according to the results of the drug sensitivity test.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Child , Drowning , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Humans , Pneumonia, Aspiration/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Water
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928584

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the changes in the distribution and drug resistance profiles of pathogens causing bloodstream infection after chemotherapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.@*METHODS@#The medical data were collected from the children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University between January 2015 and December 2020 and developed bloodstream infection after chemotherapy. The samples were divided into the first three years group and the next three years group according to the time of testing to investigate the differences in the distribution and drug resistance profiles of pathogens as time.@*RESULTS@#A total of 235 strains of pathogens were isolated, among which there were 159 Gram-negative strains (67.7%; mainly Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae), 61 Gram-positive strains (26.0%; mainly Staphylococcus epidermidis), and 15 strains of fungi (6.4%; mainly Candida albicans). There were no significant differences between the first three years group and the next three years group in the detection rate of Gram-negative bacteria (68.8% vs 66.9%, P>0.05) or Gram-positive bacteria (29.2% vs 23.7%, P>0.05). Compared with the first three years group, the next three years group had significant increases in the detection rate of Streptococcus mitis (5.8% vs 0.0%, P<0.05) and fungi (9.4% vs 2.1%, P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the drug resistance rate of Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria between the two groups (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Enterobacteriaceae bacteria are the main pathogens of bloodstream infection after chemotherapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, while the detection rates of Streptococcus mitis and fungi tend to increase as time, which needs to be taken seriously in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Child , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/drug therapy
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928573

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To systematically assess the risk factors for the colonization or infection of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in children.@*METHODS@#PubMed, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, Wanfang Data, China Biology Medicine disc were searched to obtain the articles on risk factors for the colonization or infection of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in children published up to May 31, 2021. RevMan 5.3 software was used to perform the Meta analysis.@*RESULTS@#A total of 13 articles were included, with 1 501 samples in total. The Meta analysis showed that indwelling gastric tube (OR=4.91), tracheal intubation (OR=5.03), central venous catheterization (OR=3.75), indwelling urinary catheterization (OR=4.11), mechanical ventilation (OR=3.09), history of hospitalization in the intensive care unit (OR=2.39), history of surgical operation (OR=3.22), previous use of third-generation cephalosporins (OR=2.62), previous use of carbapenem antibiotics (OR=3.82), previous use of glycopeptide antibiotics (OR=3.48), previous use of β-lactamase inhibitors (OR=2.87), previous use of antifungal drugs (OR=2.48), previous use of aminoglycoside antibiotics (OR=2.54), and Apgar score ≤7 at 1 minute after birth (OR=2.10) were risk factors for the colonization or infection of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in children (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Invasive operations, history of hospitalization in the intensive care unit, previous use of antibiotics such as carbapenem antibiotics, and Apgar score ≤7 at 1 minute after birth are risk factors for the colonization or infection of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in children.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Child , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Humans , Risk Factors
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928565

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the effect of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) of group B streptococcus (GBS) infection on the incidence and bacteriological profile of early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS).@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 494 pregnant women with positive GBS screening results and 526 neonates born by these women. According to whether the pregnant woman received IAP, the neonates were divided into two groups: IAP (n=304) and control (n=222). The two groups were compared in terms of clinical indices, incidence rate of EONS, and distribution of pathogenic bacteria in blood culture.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the IAP group had a significantly lower proportion of children with abnormal clinical manifestations (P<0.001) and a significantly lower incidence rate of EONS (P=0.022). In the IAP group, Escherichia coli (2.3%) was the most common type of pathogenic bacteria in blood culture of the neonates with EONS, while GBS (3.2%) was the most common type of pathogenic bacteria in the control group. The IAP group had a significantly higher detection rate of ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli than the control group (P=0.029).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Although IAP can significantly reduce the incidence rate of EONS in neonates born to pregnant women with positive GBS screening results, the infection rate of ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli may increase after IAP treatment. Therefore, it is needed to enhance the monitoring of blood culture results of neonates with EONS and timely adjust treatment plan according to drug susceptibility test results.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Child , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Neonatal Sepsis/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Retrospective Studies , Streptococcal Infections/prevention & control , Streptococcus agalactiae
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928476

ABSTRACT

Prosthetic infection is one of the severe postoperative complications of arthroplasty. Mixed bacterial-fungal prosthetic infection is rare but can be disastrous. This case was a 76-year-old female suffered from prosthetic infection following total hip replacement due to femoral neck fracture and underwent multiple debridements. The culture of periprosthetic tissue was bacteriologically sterile following the first debridement, while the Staphylococcus hominis was identified in the second debridement in the previous hospitalization where fungal infection had not been considered. Thus the pathogen spectrum of anti-infection therapy failed to contain fungus. Ultimately, the culture result of our sampled periprosthetic tissue during the third debridement was Candida albicans without bacterium in our hospital. The fungal prosthetic infection was successfully treated by a two-stage revision with antifungal drugs. Accurate diagnosis and standardized treatment is the key to the therapy of infection after hip arthroplasty, especially for mixed bacterial-fungal prosthetic infection.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects , Debridement , Female , Fungi , Hip Prosthesis/adverse effects , Humans , Mycoses/drug therapy , Prosthesis-Related Infections/therapy , Reoperation , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
11.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 317-323, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927516

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Vancomycin treatment failure against vancomycin-susceptible gram-positive cocci is not rare in the intensive care unit (ICU). One of the reasons for this is the substandard drug trough concentration. We aimed to examine the hypothesis that the target serum concentration could be reached earlier with a loading dose of vancomycin.@*METHODS@#This retrospective cohort study was conducted at our ICU between June 2018 and June 2020 and involved patients who were suspected of having, or confirmed to have, gram-positive cocci infection and treated with vancomycin. One group of the patients was administered a loading dose of vancomycin (loading group) and compared with the group that did not receive a loading dose (control group). The baseline characteristics, vancomycin serum concentrations, and clinical outcomes were collected and analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Fifty-five patients were finally included, of which 29 received a loading dose of vancomycin. The serum concentration of vancomycin before the second dose was significantly higher for the loading group than for the control group (10.3 ± 6.1 mg/L vs. 5.7 ± 4.4 mg/L, P = 0.002). The results for both groups were similar before the fifth dose (12.4 ± 7.3 mg/L vs. 10.3 ± 6.3 mg/L in the loading and the control groups, respectively; P = 0.251). The 28-day mortality was lower for the loading group than for the control group (6.7% vs. 34.6% in the loading and control groups, respectively; P = 0.026). No significant differences were observed in serum creatinine (Cr) concentrations of the two groups.@*CONCLUSION@#With the loading dose of vancomycin, the target serum concentration of vancomycin may be reached earlier without increasing the risk of acute kidney injury.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#https://www.chictr.org.cn; ChiCTR2000035369.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Creatinine , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Retrospective Studies , Vancomycin
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927367

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the influence of acupoint application on the use of antibiotics in primary clinic practice, and explore the effect of acupoint application and its influence on the use of antibiotics based on common diseases in primary clinic (fever, cough, diarrhea, sore throat).@*METHODS@#With the help of the internet electronic diagnosis and treatment platform (the main TCM suitable technology promoted by this platform is acupoint application therapy), the diagnosis and treatment data of 1.23 million patients in 2 000 primary clinics from August 24, 2020 to March 31, 2021 were collected. The patients were divided into an application group (acupoint application treatment) and a non-application group (non-acupoint application treatment), and the proportion of antibiotic use in the two groups was compared. The propensity score was used to match age, gender, concomitant symptoms, diagnosed diseases and other confounding factors of treatment, and the disappearance rate of symptoms (fever, cough, diarrhea, sore throat) and the time to first disappearance of symptoms were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#A total of 1 230 923 patients were analyzed, including 1 048 382 cases in the application group, accounting for 85.2%; 182 541 cases in the non-application group, accounting for 14.8%. The most patients who used acupoint application treatment were 0-2 years old, followed by 3-6 years old, and the patients over 15 years old who did not use acupoint application treatment were the most. The proportion of antibiotic use in the application group was 2.4%, lower than that in the non-application group (44.2%, P<0.001). The proportion of antibiotic use in all ages of patients in the application group was lower than that in the non-application group (P<0.001). Among the common diseases in primary clinic (fever, cough, diarrhea and sore throat), the proportion of antibiotic use in the application group was lower than that in the non-application group (P<0.01); the disappearance rate of symptoms in the application group was higher than that in the non-application group, and the time to first disappearance of symptoms was shorter than that in the non-application group (P<0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#Acupoint application has a certain influence on the use of antibiotics in primary clinic patients. In the treatment of common diseases, patients treated with acupoint application have better curative effect and lower proportion of antibiotic use.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Adolescent , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Child , Child, Preschool , Cough/drug therapy , Diarrhea , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pharyngitis/drug therapy
13.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(6): e621-e625, dic. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353051

ABSTRACT

A pesar de los avances en las técnicas de diagnóstico y tratamiento, las infecciones intracraneanas son aún enfermedades graves con una incidencia estimada entre 0,3 y 1,3 casos por cada 100 000 habitantes. Se presenta un paciente previamente sano con un absceso cerebral de diagnóstico intraoperatorio en quien, si bien el cultivo evidenció desarrollo polimicrobiano, se identificó presuntivamente Actinomyces sp. en la anatomía patológica. Dado este hallazgo, se realizó antibioticoterapia combinada prolongada con buena evolución. La presentación de este proceso supurado fue inespecífica y la contribución de la anatomía patológica en el diagnóstico etiológico fue relevante. La identificación de un microorganismo inhabitual definió la necesidad de profundizar en la determinación de factores predisponentes


Despite advances in diagnostic and treatment techniques, intracranial infections remain serious diseases with an estimated incidence of between 0.3 and 1.3 cases/100,000 inhabitants. We present a previously healthy patient with an intraoperative diagnostic of brain abscess, in whom although the culture showed polymicrobial development, Actinomyces sp was presumptively identified in the pathological anatomy. Given this finding, prolonged combined antibiotic therapy was performed with good evolution The presentation of this suppurative process was nonspecific and the contribution of the anatomopathology in the etiological diagnosis was relevant. The identification of an unusual microorganism defined the need to deepen the identification of predisposing factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Brain Abscess/diagnosis , Actinomyces , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
14.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 92(2): e212, dic. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1339132

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la sepsis tardía por estafilococo coagulasa negativo (SCoN) es una causa común de morbimortalidad en la unidad neonatal. Los SCoN son los microorganismos más frecuentemente involucrados con aproximadamente el 50% de los casos. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar la incidencia y las características de los neonatos portadores de sepsis tardía por SCoN. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, longitudinal, retrospectivo. Se utilizaron las bases de datos del laboratorio de microbiología del hospital y las historias clínicas electrónicas para obtener la información. El período de estudio analizado fueron los años 2018 y 2019 en la unidad de cuidados intensivos e intermedios de recién nacidos del Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell. Resultados: obtuvimos una incidencia de 2,5% de los ingresos a cuidados intensivos e intermedios (25 pacientes). La edad gestacional al nacer fue de 28 semanas (25,0-35,0) y la mediana del peso fue de 1.070 g (730,0-2.365,0). La media de edad gestacional posmenstrual al momento del diagnóstico fue de 32,92±7,921 semanas. Por sospecha de sepsis precoz, 17 pacientes habían recibido un curso de antibióticos previo. El signo clínico más frecuentemente observado fue el deterioro del estado general, en 11 pacientes, seguido de distensión abdominal en 6 y fiebre en 5. Dentro de los SCoN, el más frecuentemente aislado fue el Staphylococcus epidermidis (13 pacientes); 22 pacientes recibieron tratamiento, 18 de ellos con vancomicina-meropenem y 4 con monoterapia con vancomicina. Conclusión: estos patógenos representan una causa importante de morbimortalidad en la unidad neonatal, particularmente en pacientes que presentan mayor gravedad y mayor necesidad de soporte vital. Se necesitan pautas claras de interpretación del rol de estos microorganismos y de abordaje de pacientes con riesgo de sepsis tardía, incluyendo el tratamiento antibiótico empírico.


Introduction: Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS) late onset sepsis is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). CoNS are the most frequently isolated microorganisms and total 50% of cases. The objective of this study is to analyze the incidence and characteristics of newborns carriers of late onset CoNS. Materials and methods: we performed a descriptive, retrospective, longitudinal study. Data was obtained from the hospital's microbiology laboratory database and electronic medical records. Patients included were those admitted to NICU during the period between 2018 and 2019. Results: we obtained an incidence of 2.5% of patients admitted to the NICU (25 patients). Median gestational age at birth was 28 weeks 25.0-35.0 and median birth weight was 1.070 g 730.0-2365.0. Mean gestational age at the time of diagnosis was 32.92±7.921 weeks. 17 patients had received an antibiotics course at birth because of early onset sepsis suspicion. The most frequently observed clinical symptom was deterioration of general condition, 11 patients, followed by abdominal distention in 6 and fever in 5. Among CoNS, the most frequently isolated pathogen was Staphylococcus epidermidis (13 patients). 22 patients received treatment, 18 a combination of vancomycin and meropenem and 4 received vancomycin monotherapy. Conclusion: these pathogens are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the newborn intensive care unit, particularly in patients with more serious conditions and in those who require more advanced life support measures. Clearer interpretation of their role is needed as well as to determine a proper approach to patients at risk of late onset sepsis, including empiric antibiotic treatment.


Sepse tardia para Staphylococcus coagulase negativa (SCoN) é uma causa comum de morbidade e mortalidade na unidade neonatal. SCoNs são os microrganismos mais frequentemente envolvidos e representam aproximadamente 50% dos casos. O objetivo deste estudo é analisar a incidência e as características de neonatos com sepse tardia por SCoN. Materiais e métodos: foi realizado um estudo descritivo, longitudinal e retrospectivo. Usamos os bancos de dados do laboratório de microbiologia e prontuários médicos eletrônicos de nosso hospital para obter as informações. O período de estudo analisado foi de 2018 e 2019 na unidade de terapia intensiva e intermediária para recém-nascidos do Centro Hospitalar Pereira Rossell. Resultados: obtivemos uma incidência de 2,5% de internações em Terapia Intensiva e Intermediária (25 pacientes). A idade gestacional ao nascer foi de 28 semanas 25,0-35,0 e o peso médio foi de 1070g 730,0-2365,0. A média da idade gestacional pós-menstrual no momento do diagnóstico foi de 32,92 ± 7,921 semanas. 17 pacientes haviam recebido um curso anterior de antibióticos por suspeita de sepse precoce. O sinal clínico mais frequentemente observado foi deterioração do estado geral em 11 pacientes, seguido por distensão abdominal em 6 e febre em 5. Dentre os SCoN, o mais isolado foi o Staphylococcus Epidermidis (13 pacientes). 22 pacientes receberam tratamento, 18 deles com Vancomicina-Meropenem e 4 com Vancomicina em monoterapia. Conclusão: esses patógenos representam uma importante causa de morbimortalidade na unidade neonatal, principalmente em pacientes com maior gravidade e maior necessidade de suporte de vida. Orientações claras são necessárias para interpretar o papel desses microrganismos e para abordar pacientes com risco de sepse tardia, incluindo tratamento com antibióticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Neonatal Sepsis/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcus epidermidis/virology , Uruguay/epidemiology , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Cross Infection , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Coagulase , Staphylococcus haemolyticus/virology , Staphylococcus hominis/virology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
15.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 92(2): e306, dic. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1278306

ABSTRACT

Los estafilococos coagulasa negativos son microorganismos frecuentemente aislados cuya significancia clínica puede ser difícil de establecer por su carácter de comensales habituales de la piel. En la población neonatal estos patógenos han ido adquiriendo mayor protagonismo debido a la sobrevida de pacientes mas prematuros que en el pasado, así como sus necesidades de tratamiento, que determinan mayores tiempos de estadía hospitalaria. Estos elementos representan factores de riesgo también para el desarrollo de endocarditis en estos pacientes, particularmente debido a la utilización de catéteres intravasculares centrales por tiempo prolongado. En este caso clínico se presenta un paciente pretérmino severo que presentó una endocarditis a estafilococo coagulasa negativo a partir del cual discutiremos las características de las infecciones por estos microorganismos, las características de la endocarditis infecciosa en el recién nacido pretérmino y la utilización de antibióticos en estos pacientes, así como algunos elementos asociados a la vigilancia activa en el uso de antibióticos.


Coagulase negative staphylococcus (CoNS) are commonly isolated microorganisms whose clinical importance may be difficult to establish due to their role as part of our usual skin microbiota. These pathogens have gained relevance in neonatal population due to an improvement in neonatal care that determine longer survival rates and hospitals stays. Neonatal endocarditis is also affected by these microorganisms and particularly by the use of central intra vascular lines for long periods of time. In this clinical case we introduce a severe preterm patient who developed a CoNS endocarditis and discuss the characteristics of CoNS infections and endocarditis in preterm newborns as well as some antibiotic vigilance principles.


Os estafilococos coagulase negativos são microrganismos frequentemente isolados, cujo significado clínico pode ser difícil de estabelecer devido ao seu caráter de comensais cutâneos comuns. Na população neonatal, esses patógenos vêm adquirindo maior destaque devido à sobrevida de pacientes mais prematuros do que no passado, bem como suas necessidades de tratamento, as quais determinam tempos de internação mais longos. Esses elementos também representam fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de endocardite nesses pacientes, principalmente pelo uso prolongado de cateter intravascular central. Neste caso clínico apresentaremos um paciente pré-termo grave que apresentou endocardite estafilocócica coagulase-negativa a partir do qual discutiremos as características das infecções por esses microrganismos, as características da endocardite infecciosa no recém-nascido pré-termo e o uso de antibióticos nesses pacientes bem como alguns elementos associados à vigilância ativa no uso de antibióticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcus epidermidis/virology , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Endocarditis/diagnosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Staphylococcal Infections/complications , Coagulase , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Endocarditis/etiology , Infant, Extremely Premature
16.
J. bras. nefrol ; 43(4): 597-602, Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350909

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The emergence of resistance mechanisms not only limits the therapeutic options for common bacterial infections but also worsens the prognosis in patients who have conditions that increase the risk of bacterial infections. Thus, the effectiveness of important medical advances that seek to improve the quality of life of patients with chronic diseases is threatened. We report the simultaneous colonization and bacteremia by multidrug-resistant bacteria in two hemodialysis patients. The first patient was colonized by carbapenem- and colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The patient had a bacteremia by MRSA, and molecular typing methods confirmed the colonizing isolate was the same strain that caused infection. The second case is of a patient colonized by extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. During the follow-up period, the patient presented three episodes of bacteremia, one of these caused by ESBL-producing E. coli. Molecular methods confirmed colonization by the same clone of ESBL-producing E. coli at two time points, but with a different genetic pattern to the strain isolated from the blood culture. Colonization by multidrug-resistant bacteria allows not only the spread of these microorganisms, but also increases the subsequent risk of infections with limited treatments options. In addition to infection control measures, it is important to establish policies for the prudent use of antibiotics in dialysis units.


RESUMO O surgimento de mecanismos de resistência não apenas limita as opções terapêuticas para infecções bacterianas comuns, mas também piora o prognóstico em indivíduos com condições que aumentam o risco de infecções bacterianas. Assim, a eficácia de importantes avanços médicos que buscam melhorar a qualidade de vida de pacientes com doenças crônicas está ameaçada. Relatamos a colonização e bacteremia simultâneas por bactérias multirresistentes em dois pacientes em hemodiálise. O primeiro paciente foi colonizado por Klebsiella pneumoniae resistente a carbapenem e colistina, Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistente a carbapenem e Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (MRSA). O paciente apresentou bacteremia por MRSA, e os métodos de tipagem molecular confirmaram que o isolado colonizador era a mesma cepa que estava causando infecção. O segundo caso é de um paciente colonizado por Escherichia coli produtora de beta-lactamases de espectro estendido (ESBL) e Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistente ao carbapenem. Durante o período de seguimento, o paciente apresentou três episódios de bacteremia, um deles causado por E. coli produtora de ESBL. Os métodos moleculares confirmaram a colonização pelo mesmo clone de E. coli produtora de ESBL em dois momentos, mas com um padrão genético diferente da cepa isolada da hemocultura. A colonização por bactérias multirresistentes aumenta o potencial não apenas da disseminação desses microrganismos, mas também do risco subsequente de infecções com opções limitadas de tratamentos. Além das medidas de controle de infecção, é importante estabelecer políticas para o uso prudente de antibióticos nas unidades de diálise.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Quality of Life , Renal Dialysis , Escherichia coli , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
17.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 87(6): 683-688, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350346

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: As a supplement, beta-glucan has various therapeutic healing effects generated by the immune cells. It has been scientifically approved and proven to be a biological defense modifier. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of beta-glucan on treatments administered in an acute otitis media model Objectives: This study investigated the effect of beta-glucan on the treatment of acute otitis media in an acute otitis media -induced animal model. Efficacy was evaluated both immunologically and histologically. Methods: The study sample comprised 35 adult rats, randomly separated into 5 groups of 7: Group 1 (control), Group 2 (acute otitis media, no treatment), Group 3 (acute otitis media + antibiotic), Group 4 (acute otitis media + beta-glucan) and Group 5 (acute otitis media + beta-glucan + antibiotic). Analyses were made of the histopathology and immunology examination results in respect of thickening of the tympanic membrane, epithelium damage, inflammation, and sclerosis. In all groups the serum levels of TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-1β were evaluated. Results: All serum cytokine levels were significantly lower in the beta-glucan and antibiotictreated groups compared to the acute otitis media Group. Significant differences in tympanic membrane thickness, inflammation, epithelium damage, and sclerosis values were observed between the acute otitis media + antibiotic and acute otitis media + beta-glucan Groups. According to these parameters, the values in aute otitis media + antibiotic + beta-glucan Group were markedly lower than those of the other groups. There was a significant difference in the acute otitis media + antibiotic + beta-glucan Groups compared to acute otitis media Group (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Both antibiotic and beta-glucan treatment reduced acute otitis media signs of inflammations in an acute otitis media-induced rat model, decreasing histological damage and cytokine levels. Co-administration of antibiotic and beta-glucan led to a significant reduction in tympanic membrane thickness, inflammation, and epithelium damage. Antibiotic + beta-glucan treatment resulted in a greater decrease in tympanic membrane thickness, inflammation, and epithelium damage than in the other groups. From these results, it can be suggested that beta-glucan, in combination with antibiotics may provide an alternative for the treatment of acute otitis media.


Resumo Introdução: Como suplemento, o beta-glucano apresenta vários efeitos terapêuticos gerados pelas células imunológicas. Cientificamente aprovado, mostrou ser um modificador de defesa biológica. Objetivo: Investigar os efeitos do beta-glucano nos tratamentos administrados em um modelo de otite média aguda induzida em um modeloanimal. A eficácia foi avaliada imunológica e histologicamente. Método: A amostra do estudo foi composta por 35 ratos adultos, divididos aleatoriamente em 5 grupos de 7: grupo 1 (controle), grupo 2 (otite média aguda, sem tratamento), grupo 3 (otite média aguda + antibiótico), grupo 4 (otite média aguda + beta-glucano) e grupo 5 (otite média aguda + beta-glucano + antibiótico). Foram feitas análises dos resultados dos exames histopatológicos e imunológicos em relação ao espessamento da membrana timpânica, dano ao epitélio, inflamação e esclerose. Os níveis séricos de TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6 e IL-β foram avaliados em todos os grupos. Resultados: Todos os níveis séricos de citocinas foram significativamente mais baixos nos grupos tratados com beta-glucano e antibióticos em comparação com o grupo otite média aguda. Diferenças significativas na espessura da membrana timpânica, inflamação, dano do epitélio e esclerose foram observadas entre os grupos otite média aguda + antibiótico e otite média aguda + beta-glucano. De acordo com esses parâmetros, os valores no grupo otite média aguda + antibiótico + beta-glucano foram acentuadamente inferiores aos dos demais grupos. Houve uma diferença significante no grupo otite média aguda + antibiótico + beta-glucano em comparação ao grupo otite média aguda (p < 0,001). Conclusão: Ambos os tratamentos com antibiótico e com beta-glucano reduziram os sinais de inflamação da otite média aguda em um modelo de rato com otite média aguda induzida, diminuíram os danos histológicos e os níveis de citocinas. A administração concomitante de antibiótico e beta-glucano levou a uma redução significativa na espessura da membrana timpânica, inflamação e danos ao epitélio. O tratamento com antibióticos + beta-glucano resultou em maior diminuição na espessura da membrana timpânica, inflamação e danos no epitélio do que nos outros grupos. A partir desses resultados, pode-se sugerir que o beta-glucano, em combinação com antibióticos, pode fornecer uma opção para o tratamento da otite média aguda.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Otitis Media/drug therapy , beta-Glucans , Tympanic Membrane , Acute Disease , Cytokines , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
18.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(6): 575-597, nov. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369745

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the antibacterial potential of Euphorbia hirtawhole plant extracts, honey and conventional antibiotics and their synergistic effects against selected multidrug resistant and typed bacterial strains associated with otitis media. E. hirtawhole plant extract was purified using column chromatography technique. The antibacterial assays of extracts were done using standard microbiological procedures. Protein, sodium and potassium ion leakage of the synergistic mixtures was determined using flame-photometry. At 100 mg/ml, acetone extracts presented highest inhibition against S. aureus (NCTC 6571) with 32 ± 0.83 mm zone of inhibition. The fractional inhibitory concentration indices displayed higher synergism in combination of plant extract, honey and ciprofloxacin against P. mirabilisat 0.02 compared to drug combination synergy standard (≤ 0.5). This work revealed augmentation of ciprofloxacin potency when combined with purified E. hirta acetone extract and honey and implies their high potential in the treatment of multidrug resistant infectionof otitis media.


Este estudio investigó el potencial antibacteriano de extractos de plantas enteras de Euphorbia hirta, miel y antibióticos convencionales y sus efectos sinérgicos contra cepas bacterianas seleccionadas multirresistentes y tipificadas asociadas con la otitis media. El extracto de la planta entera de E. hirtase purificó usando la técnica de cromatografía en columna. Los ensayos antibacterianos de extractos se realizaron utilizando procedimientos microbiológicos estándar. La fuga de iones de proteínas, sodio y potasio de las mezclas sinérgicas se determinó mediante fotometría de llama. A 100 mg/ml, los extractos de acetona presentaron la mayor inhibición contra S. aureus (NCTC 6571) con una zona de inhibición de 32 ± 0,83 mm. Los índices de concentración inhibitoria fraccional mostraron un mayor sinergismo en combinación de extracto de planta, miel y ciprofloxacina contra P. mirabilisa 0,02 en comparación con el estándar de sinergia de combinación de fármacos (≤ 0,5). Este trabajo reveló un aumento de la potencia de la ciprofloxacina cuando se combina con extracto de acetona purificado de E. hirtay miel e implica sualto potencial en el tratamiento de infecciones de otitis media resistentes a múltiples fármacos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Otitis Media/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Euphorbia/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Proteus mirabilis/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Terpenes/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Flame Emission Photometry , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Drug Synergism , Glycosides/analysis , Honey , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
19.
Rev. pediatr. electrón ; 18(3)oct.2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370877

ABSTRACT

La neumonía necrotizante se refiere a la necrosis del parénquima pulmonar producto de una infección. Existe escasa literatura nacional sobre esta complicación. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar a los pacientes que cursaron con neumonía necrotizante en el Hospital Roberto del Río entre los años 2014 y 2020. MÉTODO: Revisión retrospectiva y descriptiva. RESULTADOS: 22 pacientes. Promedio de edad 4 años 7 meses, 68% masculino, esta complicación correspondió a 1,3% de todos los casos de neumonía hospitalizados en ese periodo. Un 95,5% presentó fiebre y un 59% dificultad respiratoria y tos. La duración promedio de la hospitalización fue de 31 días y del tratamiento antibiótico de 30,3 días. El 63% de los pacientes requirió cirugía. En el laboratorio destaca la leucocitosis y proteína C reactiva elevados con 71,4% > a 90 mg/L (promedio: 211 mg/L) y 52,3% leucocitosis > 15.000 (promedio: 18.127). La ecografía torácica fue la imagen más frecuentemente utilizada (95,5%). Agentes identificados Streptococcus pneumoniae (40%) y Staphylococcus aureus (40%). Un 63,6% ingresó a UCI, 35,7% requirió ventilación mecánica invasiva, 35,7% recibió drogas vasoactivas, 9% requirió de soporte ECMO (Oxigenación por Membrana Extracorpórea) y 1 paciente falleció (4,5%). DISCUSIÓN: en nuestro estudio encontramos una baja incidencia de esta patología, un alto índice de gravedad y una evolución favorable en la gran mayoría de los casos.


Necrotizing pneumonia refers to necrosis of lung parenchyma resulting from an infection. There is little national literature on this complication. OBJECTIVE: To characterize patients with necrotizing pneumonia at the Roberto del Río Children´s Hospital between 2014 to 2020. METHOD: Retrospective and descriptive review. RESULTS: A total of 22 patients, average age 4 years 7 months, male (68%). Average incidence 1.3% in 7 years; 95.5% had fever 59% had respiratory distress and cough. Average duration of hospitalization was 31 days and antibiotic treatment 30.3 days. A 63% of the patients had surgery. Leukocytosis and C-reactive protein (CRP) were elevated, 71.4% CRP > 90 mg /L (average: 211 mg /L) and 52.3% leukocytosis > 15.000 (average: 18.127). Chest ultrasound was used in 95.5%. Main agents identified were Streptococcus pneumoniae (40%) and Staphylococcus aureus (40%). A 63.6% of patients were admitted to ICU, 35.7% required invasive mechanical ventilation, 35.7% received vasoactive drugs, 9% required ECMO (Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation), and one patient died (4,5%). DISCUSSION: In our study we found a low incidence of this pathology, a high severity index an a favorable evolution in most cases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Pneumonia, Necrotizing/epidemiology , Hospitals, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolation & purification , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Radiography, Thoracic , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Pneumonia, Necrotizing/complications , Pneumonia, Necrotizing/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Necrotizing/microbiology , Pneumonia, Necrotizing/therapy , Length of Stay , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
20.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 60(3): e1070, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347395

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El secuestro pulmonar está representado por masas de tejido pulmonar displásico, no funcionante, sin comunicación con el árbol bronquial. Objetivo: Presentar tres casos de secuestro pulmonar intralobar tratados por el autor. Caso clínico: Se presentan tres pacientes tratados entre 2013 y 2018 con diagnóstico de secuestro pulmonar. Dos fueron del sexo masculino (44 y 60 años de edad) y una del femenino (20 años de edad). Los síntomas fueron dolor torácico (1) y cuadro de infección pulmonar grave (2). En dos enfermos el secuestro se localizó en el lóbulo inferior derecho y en uno en el inferior izquierdo. Las operaciones fueron lobectomías inferiores derecha (1) e izquierda (1) y bilobectomía inferior y media derechas por afectación del lóbulo medio. Dos tuvieron una evolución satisfactoria y uno presentó un empiema pleural que resolvió con tratamiento antibiótico. Conclusiones: Los secuestros pulmonares son raros y los síntomas suelen asociarse con infección pulmonar. En la mayoría de los casos es necesario realizar una lobectomía. La evolución postoperatoria suele ser buena(AU)


Introduction: Pulmonary sequestration is characterized by masses of dysplastic, nonfunctioning lung tissue, without any communication with the bronchial tree. Objective: To present three cases of intralobar pulmonary sequestration treated by the author. Clinical case: The respective cases are presented of three patients with a diagnosis of pulmonary sequestration treated between 2013 and 2018. Two were male (44 and 60 years old, respectively) and one was female (20 years old). Their symptoms were chest pain (1) and severe lung infection (2). In two patients, the sequestration was located in the lower right lobe, while, in one, it was in the lower left lobe. The operations were right (1) and left (1) lower lobectomies and right lower and middle bilobectomy due to middle lobe involvement. Two had a satisfactory evolution, while one presented a pleural empyema healed with antibiotic treatment. Conclusions: Pulmonary sequestration is rare and their symptoms are usually associated with pulmonary infection. In most cases, a lobectomy is necessary. The postoperative evolution is usually good(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pneumonectomy/methods , Chest Pain/etiology , Thoracotomy/methods , Bronchopulmonary Sequestration/diagnosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
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