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1.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(3): 260-264, jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407791

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La toxoplasmosis es una enfermedad zoonótica cuyo contagio se produce por vía oral por ingestión de quistes al consumir carne contaminada o al tener contacto con heces de felinos contaminadas con ooquistes. Con menor frecuencia, se adquiere por transmisión vertical o por trasplante de órganos infectados. En Chile, existen estudios serológicos en personas sanas e inmunodeprimidas, pero no en grupos de riesgo ocupacional, como son los estudiantes de Medicina Veterinaria. OBJETIVO: Determinar la seroprevalencia para T. gondii en estudiantes de Medicina Veterinaria de una universidad ubicada en el centro-sur del país, y ver su asociación con variable intrínsecas. MÉTODOS. Se tomaron muestras de sangre a 74 estudiantes de una universidad del centro-sur de Chile. Se determinó la presencia de anticuerpos específicos clase IgG contra Toxoplasma gondii mediante la técnica de inmunoanálisis por quimioluminiscencia en fase solida secuencial. RESULTADOS. Del total de alumnos, 16 fueron seropositivos lo que equivale a 21,6%, el mayor número de estudiantes seropositivos fue de sexo femenino (75%), se encontraban en el rango etario entre 24 y 26 años de edad (43,7%), todos consumían carne y verduras (100%) y realizaban la recolección de heces de gatos sin protección 50 (68,7%). CONCLUSIONES. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran la presencia de anticuerpos contra T. gondii en alumnos de Medicina Veterinaria. Según el conocimiento de los autores, es el primer estudio serológico para toxoplasmosis realizado en estudiantes universitarios de Medicina Veterinaria en Chile.


BACKGROUND: Toxoplasmosis is a disease that results from infection with the Toxoplasma gondii parasite, one of the world's most common parasites. The zoonotic infection usually occurs by eating undercooked contaminated meat or by contact with contaminated cat feces. A few studies of toxoplasmosis in healthy and immuno-compromised persons were done in Chile, but investigations related to occupational risk groups, such as Veterinary Medicine students were not studied. AIM: Determine the seroprevalence for T. gondii in Veterinary Medicine students at a university located in the center-south of the country, and evaluated to association with intrinsic variables. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were taken from 74 veterinary students from a university in south-central Chile. Immunoassay with sequential chemiluminescent was used as diagnostic technique. RESULTS. Of the total number of students, 16 were seropositive, which is equivalent to 21.6%, the largest number of seropositive students was female (75%), they were in the age range between 24 and 26 years of age (43.7%), all consumed meat and vegetables (100%) and collected pet cat feces without protection 50 (68,7%). CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained show the presence of antibodies against T. gondii in Veterinary Medicine students. To the authors' knowledge, it is the first serological study for toxoplasmosis performed in university students of Veterinary Medicine in Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiology , Students , Occupational Risks , Antibodies, Protozoan , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Risk Factors
2.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(3): 265-272, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407793

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La toxoplasmosis ocular (TO) es una retinocoroiditis que evoluciona con varios episodios de inflamación y puede presentarse, tanto en la forma congénita o adquirida de la enfermedad, OBJETIVO: Describir la frecuencia y características clínicas de la TO en lactantes de 0 a 12 meses, hijos de madres con serología positiva para toxoplasmosis en el periodo perinatal. METODOLOGÍA: Estudio descriptivo transversal, ambispectivo. Ingresaron lactantes de 0 a 12 meses de edad, cuyas madres tenían serología positiva para toxoplasmosis en el periodo perinatal, remitidos al servicio de oftalmología pediátrica para evaluación. Se recogieron variables demográficas, serología materna y de los lactantes, y los resultados del examen oftalmológico. Los datos fueron analizados en SPSS-v21. RESULTADOS: El 46,4% de 125 lactantes tenían TO, de ellos, 67,2% era de sexo femenino (p = 0,04), la mediana de edad fue de 6 meses, el 41% tenía IgG e IgM positiva. Las lesiones fueron bilaterales en 82,8%, central en 86,2%, e inactivas en 81%. La retinocoroiditis se acompañó de estrabismo en 41%. CONCLUSIONES: La frecuencia de TO en esta población de lactantes con toxoplasmosis congénita, fue elevada. Más de 80% de las lesiones oculares eran inactivas, de localización central y compromiso bilateral.


BACKGROUND: Ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) is a retinochoroiditis that evolves with several episodes of inflammation and can occur both in the congenital or acquired form of the disease, AIM: To describe the frequency and clinical characteristics of OT in infants aged 0 to 12 months, children of mothers with positive serology for toxoplasmosis in the perinatal period. METHODS: Cross-sectional descriptive, ambispective study. RESULTS: Infants from 0 to 12 months of age, whose mothers had positive serology for toxoplasmosis in the perinatal period, referred to the pediatric ophthalmology service for evaluation, were admitted. Demographic variables, maternal and infant serology and the results of the ophthalmological examination were collected. Data were analyzed in SPSS v21 RESULTS: 46.4% of 125 infants had OT, of them 67.2% were female, (p = 0.04) the median age was 6 months, 41% had IgG and IgM positive. The lesions were bilateral in 82.8%, central in 86.2%, and inactive in 81%. Retinochoroiditis was accompanied by strabismus in 41%. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of OT in this population of infants with congenital toxoplasmosis was high. more than 80% of the eye lesions were inactive, centrally located and bilaterally involved.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/epidemiology , Toxoplasmosis, Ocular/complications , Toxoplasmosis, Ocular/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis, Ocular/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Antibodies, Protozoan , Cross-Sectional Studies
3.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(2): 132-137, abr. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388350

ABSTRACT

Resumen La toxoplasmosis es una de las parasitosis con mayor prevalencia en el mundo. Se asocia a morbimortalidad perinatal y en población inmunocomprometida. Actualmente se cuenta con varias pruebas diagnósticas, tanto serológicas como moleculares, que pueden ayudar a confirmar el diagnóstico y diferenciar una infección reciente de una pasada. Proponemos algunas recomendaciones para el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la toxoplasmosis en distintos escenarios clínicos basados en la evidencia actualmente disponible.


Abstract Toxoplasmosis is one of the most prevalent parasitosis in the world. It is associated with perinatal morbidity and in immunocompromised population. Currently, there are several diagnostic tests, both serological and molecular, that can help confirm the diagnosis and differentiate a recent infection of a pass. We propose some recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis in different clinical scenarios based on the currently available evidence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis/drug therapy , Antibodies, Protozoan , Immunocompromised Host
4.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e189444, fev. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363181

ABSTRACT

Felines play a leading role in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection, but there is scarce information about the epidemiology of Neospora caninum, particularly in feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cats. Cats seropositive to T. gondii do not usually show symptoms unless they are immunosuppressed, such as FIV-infected cats. The same relationship remains poorly known for N. caninum, although it has been associated with neurological disorders in HIV-infected people. Since FIV-infected cats are prone to develop encephalitis of unknown etiology, this study aimed to evaluate the presence of specific antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum in a shelter for stray cats naturally infected with FIV. A total of 104 serum samples from cats living in a shelter, located in São Paulo city (Brazil), was assessed for T. gondii and N. caninum specific antibody by indirect fluorescent-antibody test (IFAT). Of the 104 cats, 25 (24%) were infected with FIV and, aside from these, 8 (32%) had antibodies against T. gondii (titers from 16 to 128). Only 1 (4%) of the FIV-infected cats had antibodies against N. caninum, which was the first record of coinfection. Among the FIV-naïve cats, 11 (14%) were positive for T. gondii(titers from 16 to 256) and only 1 (1.2%) had antibodies against N. caninum. Serologically positive reactions to T. gondii and N. caninum were not correlated with age or sex (p>0.05), and there was no correlation between FIV and the occurrence of anti-T. gondii or anti-N. caninum antibodies (p>0.05). Further studies encompassing larger cat populations from different origins and locations are essential to clarify the prevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies in FIV-positive cats.(AU)


Os felinos têm um papel importante na epidemiologia da infecção por Toxoplasma gondii, mas pouco se sabe sobre a epidemiologia da infecção por Neospora caninum em gatos, particularmente em gatos infectados com o vírus da imunodeficiência felina (FIV). Gatos soropositivos para Toxoplasma gondii geralmente não apresentam sintomas a não ser que estejam imunossuprimidos, como gatos infectados com FIV. A mesma relação ainda é pouco conhecida para N. caninum, embora tenha sido associada a distúrbios neurológicos em pessoas infectadas pelo HIV. Considerando que gatos infectados com FIV são propensos a desenvolver encefalite de etiologia desconhecida, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a presença de anticorpos específicos para T. gondii e N. caninum em gatos infectados com FIV. Um total de 104 amostras de soro de gatos residentes em um abrigo na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil, foram avaliadas para a presença de anticorpos contra T. gondii e N. caninum pelo teste de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI). Dos 104 gatos, 25 (24%) estavam infectados com FIV e destes 8, (32%) tinham anticorpos contra T. gondii (titulação entre 16 e 128). Apenas 1 (4%) dos gatos infectados com FIV apresentava anticorpos contra N. caninum, sendo este o primeiro registro dessa coinfecção. Entre os gatos não infectados com FIV, 11 (14%) foram positivos para T. gondii (titulação entre 16 e 256) e apenas 1 (1,2%) tinha anticorpos contra N. caninum. A reação sorologicamente positiva para T. gondii e N. caninum não foi correlacionada com a idade ou sexo (p> 0,05), nem houve correlação entre FIV e ocorrência de anticorpos para T. gondii ou N. caninum(p> 0,05). Estudos subsequentes abrangendo populações maiores de gatos de diferentes origens e locais são essenciais para esclarecer a prevalência de anticorpos contra T. gondii e N. caninum em animais acometidos por FIV.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Cats , Toxoplasma/immunology , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/epidemiology , Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/immunology , Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline/immunology , Neospora/immunology , Brazil/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/diagnosis , Coinfection
5.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(1): .45-52, feb. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388331

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La enfermedad de Chagas es una infección parasitaria crónica sistémica, de importancia global, causada por Trypanosoma cruzi. OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de anticuerpos contra T cruzi en mujeres embarazadas en el estado de Morelos, México. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se analizaron 1.620 sueros de mujeres embarazadas mediante dos pruebas serológicas: ELISAc (antígeno crudo nativo) y ELISAr (antígeno recombinante, no nativo). Las muestras reactivas se analizaron posteriormente mediante hemaglutinación indirecta (HAI). Se utilizaron dos enfoques de detección, en paralelo (son positivas las muestras reactivas por cualquier método) y en serie (son positivas las muestras confirmadas por HAI). Se evaluaron factores sociodemográficos y de salud asociados a la presencia de anticuerpos contra T. cruzi mediante razones de momios al 95%. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvo una seroprevalencia de 4,87% con el diagnóstico en paralelo y de 0,43% en serie. A partir de los resultados en paralelo las mujeres que fueron atendidas en los hospitales generales de Tetecala y Jojutla tuvieron, respectivamente, 2,2 y 2,0 veces mayor posibilidad de presentar anticuerpos contra T cruzi con respecto a las mujeres que fueron atendidas en el Hospital General de Cuautla. CONCLUSIÓN: La prevalencia de anticuerpos contra T cruzi en mujeres embarazadas en el estado de Morelos fluctuó entre 0,43 y 4,87%, según el antígeno y el abordaje utilizado. Es necesario continuar con la vigilancia de la seroprevalencia de anticuerpos contra T cruzi en mujeres embarazadas en el estado de Morelos, México, con las técnicas de mayor sensibilidad y especificidad disponibles.


BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a globally important chronic systemic parasitic infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. AIM: To determine the prevalence of antibodies against T cruzi in pregnant women from the state of Morelos, México. METHODS: 1,620 sera from pregnant women were analyzed using two serological tests: ELISAc (native crude antigen) and ELISAr (recombinant, non-native antigen). Reactive samples were subsequently analyzed by indirect hemagglutination (IHA). Two detection approaches were used, in parallel (reactive samples by any method are positive) and serial (samples confirmed by IHA are positive). Sociodemographic and health factors associated with the presence of antibodies against T cruzi were evaluated using 95% odds ratios. RESULTS: A seroprevalence of 4.87% was obtained with parallel diagnosis and 0.43% in series. From the parallel results, the women who were attended at the general hospitals of Tetecala and Jojutla had respectively 2.2 and 2.0 times greater chance of presenting antibodies against T cruzi compared to the women who were attended at the General Hospital of Cuautla. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of antibodies against T cruzi in pregnant women from the state of Morelos fluctuated between 0.43 and 4.87%, depending on the antigen and the approach used. It is necessary to continue with the surveillance of the seroprevalence of antibodies against T cruzi in pregnant women from the state of Morelos, Mexico, using the techniques with the highest sensitivity and specificity available.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Trypanosoma cruzi , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Antibodies, Protozoan , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Pregnant Women , Mexico/epidemiology
6.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 31(3): e009322, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1394894

ABSTRACT

Abstract The seroprevalence of Sarcocystis spp. and Toxoplasma gondii was researched in swine raised in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Serum samples from 84 pigs from 31 farms were tested using indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for both agents. Additionally, 53 samples of pork sausages and tissues destined for human consumption, including: salami, sausage, black pudding, heart, tongue, brain, and rib muscle, were submitted to PCR to detect DNA for each agent. The frequency of anti-Sarcocystis spp. antibodies was 36.9% (31/84), with titers ranging from 32 to 1024, and 25% (21/84) for anti-T. gondii antibodies, with titers ranging from 64 to 2048. Sarcocystis spp. and T. gondii DNA were detected in 67.9% (36/53) and 13.2% (7/53) of samples, respectively. The presence of antibodies and the detection of DNA from Sarcocystis spp., and T. gondii suggests that the pigs were infected and may serve as an important reservoir for both parasites. The infection by these protozoa in the swine population is relevant to public health due to their zoonotic potential.


Resumo A soroprevalência de Sarcocystis spp. e Toxoplasma gondii foi pesquisada em suínos criados em Santa Maria, RS, Brasil. Amostras de soro de 84 suínos de 31 fazendas foram testadas pela reação deimunofluorescência indireta (IFA) para ambos os agentes. Adicionalmente, 53 amostras de embutidos suínos e tecidos cárneos destinados ao consumo humano, incluindo: salame, linguiça, morcela, coração, língua, cérebro e músculo da costela foram submetidas à PCR para detecção de DNA para cada agente. A frequência de anticorpos anti-Sarcocystis spp. foi de 36,9% (31/84), com títulos variando de 32 a 1.024; e 25% (21/84) para anticorpos anti-T. gondii, com títulos variando de 64 a 2048. A presença de DNA de Sarcocystis spp. e T. gondii foi detectada em 67,9% (36/53) e 13,2% (7/53) das amostras avaliadas, respectivamente. A detecção de anticorpos e DNA de Sarcocystis spp. e T. gondii sugere que os suínos foram infectados e podem servir como um importante reservatório de ambos os parasitas. A circulação desses agentes na população suína é relevante para a saúde pública devido ao seu potencial zoonótico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Swine Diseases/parasitology , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/diagnosis , Sarcocystosis/diagnosis , Sarcocystosis/veterinary , Swine/parasitology , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Toxoplasma/genetics , Toxoplasma/immunology , Antibodies, Protozoan/analysis , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/epidemiology , Prevalence , DNA, Protozoan/immunology , Sarcocystis/genetics , Sarcocystis/immunology , Sarcocystosis/epidemiology , Pork Meat/parasitology
7.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(12): 887-893, Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357098

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The purpose of the present study is to standardize and evaluate the use of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody avidity test on blood samples from newborns collected on filter paper to perform the heel test aiming at its implementation in ongoing programs. Methods Blood samples from newborns were collected on filter paper simultaneously with the heel prick test. All samples were subjected to immunoglobulin M IgM and IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Peripheral blood was collected again in the traditional way and on filter paper from newborns with high IgG levels (33). Three types of techniques were performed, the standard for measuring IgG in serum, adapted for filter paper and the technique of IgG avidity in serum and on filter paper. The results of the avidity test were classified according to the Rahbari protocol. Results Among the 177 samples, 17 were collected in duplicate from the same child, 1 of peripheral blood and 1 on filter paper. In this analysis, 1 (5.88%) of the 17 samples collected in duplicate also exhibited low IgG avidity, suggesting congenital infection. In addition, the results obtained from serum and filter paper were in agreement, that is, 16 (94.12%) samples presented high avidity, with 100% agreement between the results obtained from serum and from filter paper. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that the avidity test may be another valuable method for the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis in newborns.


Resumo Objetivo O objetivo do presente estudo é padronizar e avaliar a utilização do teste de avidez de anticorpos imunoglobulina G (IgG) em amostras de sangue de recémnascidos (RNs) coletadas em papel filtro para a realização do teste do pezinho visando a implementação nos programas já vigentes. Métodos Foram coletadas amostras de sangue de recém-nascidos em papel filtro simultaneamente ao teste do pezinho. Em todas as amostras, foram realizados os testes imunoenzimáticos (ELISA) imunoglobulina M (IgM) e IgG. Dos RNs que apresentaram altos índices de IgG (33), foi novamente coletado sangue periférico da forma tradicional e em papel filtro. Foram realizadas técnicas padrão para a dosagem de IgG em soro, adaptadas para papel filtro, e a técnica de avidez de IgG em soro e em papel filtro. Os valores obtidos para o teste de avidez foram classificados de acordo com o protocolo de Rahbari. Resultados Dentre as 177 recoletas, em 17 amostras foi realizada a coleta simultânea de sangue periférico e papel filtro da mesma criança. Nesta análise, 1 (5,88%) das 17 amostras coletadas em duplicata obteve também baixa avidez de IgG, sugerindo infecção congênita da criança, e houve concordância entre os resultados obtidos em soro e em papel filtro: 16 (94,12%) das amostras apresentaram alta avidez, com concordância de 100% entre os resultados obtidos em soro e em papel filtro. Conclusão Os dados do presente trabalho evidenciam que o teste de avidez poderá ser mais um método valioso a ser utilizado no diagnóstico da toxoplasmose congênita em RNs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Toxoplasma , Immunoglobulin G , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin M , Antibodies, Protozoan , Early Diagnosis
8.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 28(4): 206-210, out./dez. 2021. il.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363766

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite with worldwide distribution. Dogs are considered sentinel animals, useful for the detection of environmental infections and outbreaks of disease through serological surveys. Considering this, we aimed to assess the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in dogs from rural areas of the hinterland of the state of Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil. A total of 77 blood samples were collected from dogs and analyzed by the Indirect Hemagglutination test for the detection of anti-T. gondii antibodies Samples were considered positive when titers greater than or equal to 1:16 were observed. In addition, an epidemiological questionnaire designed to identify characteristics of the animal was performed to owners regarding sex, breed, age, sterilization, access to areas outside the house, environmental hygiene, contact with other animals and dog food. A total of 49.3% of dogs (n = 38) were positive for anti-T. gondii antibodies, most with high titers (44.7%). A higher relative frequency of seropositivity was observed in male dogs, not sterilized, mixed breed, which were fed exclusively on homemade food and had access to the street and contact with other animals. Taken together, our data reinforce the importance of developing health education actions within the scope of public health aimed at preventing this zoonosis.


Toxoplasma gondii é um protozoário com distribuição mundial. Os cães são considerados animais sentinela, úteis para a detecção de infecções ambientais e surtos da doença por meio de levantamentos sorológicos. Portanto, o presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a soroprevalência da toxoplasmose em cães da zona rural da região rural do Alto Sertão Sergipano, Brasil. Um total de 77 amostras de sangue de cães foram coletadas no município de Nossa Senhora da Glória, Sergipe e submetidas ao teste de Hemaglutinação Indireta para detecção de anticorpos anti-T. gondii, considerando títulos maiores ou iguais a 1:16 como positivos. Além disso, foi aplicado um questionário epidemiológico aos proprietários solicitando informações sobre sexo, raça, idade, esterilização, acesso às ruas, limpeza do ambiente, contato com outros animais e ração, além de dados do proprietário, como renda familiar e nível de educação. 49,3% dos cães (38/77) apresentaram anticorpos anti-T. gondii, a maioria com títulos elevados (44,7%). Foi observado maior frequência relativa de soropositividade em cães macho, não esterilizados, sem raça definida, que se alimentam exclusivamente de comida caseira e tem acesso a rua e contato com outros animais. Os dados obtidos reforçam a importância do desenvolvimento de ações de educação em saúde no âmbito da saúde pública voltadas à prevenção dessa zoonose.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Antibodies, Protozoan , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasmosis , Dogs , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Rural Areas
9.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 28(3): 156-161, jul./set. 2021. il.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1366780

ABSTRACT

Equine piroplasmosis is the most important tick-borne disease to affect horses in Brazil. Theileria equi is one of the causative agents of equine piroplasmosis. Chronic cases are expected, in which the animals show no apparent signs of infection and remain asymptomatic but constitute a source of the infectious agent that ticks can spread. This study was conducted across 81 ranches located in the municipality of Sinop, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. A sample calculation was performed to estimate the apparent prevalence of T. equi among horses. A total of 1,853 animals were included in the sampling analysis based on the information available from the Institute of Agricultural and Livestock Defense of Mato Grosso State. The serological analysis of 367 serum samples using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect anti-T. equi antibodies revealed that 337 animals were positive, representing a frequency of 90.70%. The molecular analysis to amplify the EMA-1 gene showed positivity in 20 of 89 tested samples. The fragments of four samples were sequenced and analyzed to determine their similarities to sequences from other species, based on sequences deposited at GenBank. All showed 100% similarity with T. equi. Our study represents the first report of T. equi antibodies among the equids in north-central region of Mato Grosso, revealing the widespread distribution of seropositive animals.


A piroplasmose equina é a doença transmitida por carrapatos mais importante em cavalos no Brasil. Theileria equi é um dos agentes causadores da piroplasmose equina. São esperados casos crônicos, nos quais os animais não apresentam sinais aparentes de infecção e permanecem assintomáticos, mas constituem uma fonte de infecção e disseminação por carrapatos. Este estudo foi realizado em 81 fazendas localizadas no município de Sinop, Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil. Um cálculo amostral foi realizado para estimar a prevalência aparente de T. equi entre cavalos. No total, 1.853 animais foram incluídos na análise amostral com base nas informações disponíveis no Instituto de Defesa Agropecuária do Estado de Mato Grosso. A análise sorológica de 367 amostras de soro por meio de ensaio imunoenzimático indireto (ELISA) para detecção de anticorpos anti-T. equi revelou que 337 animais eram positivos, representando uma frequência de 90,70%. A análise molecular para o gene EMA-1 mostrou positividade em 20 das 89 amostras testadas. Os fragmentos de quatro amostras foram sequenciados e analisados para determinar suas semelhanças com sequências de outras espécies, a partir das sequências depositadas no GenBank. Todos mostraram 100% de similaridade com T. equi. Nosso estudo representa o primeiro relato de anticorpos contra T. equi entre os equídeos na região centro norte de Mato Grosso, revelando a ampla distribuição de animais soropositivos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Babesiosis/immunology , Tick-Borne Diseases/veterinary , Horse Diseases , Serologic Tests/veterinary , Antibodies, Protozoan , Immunoenzyme Techniques/veterinary
10.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 53(2): 51-60, June 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376407

ABSTRACT

Resumen El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer la seroprevalencia de Neospora caninum en los bovinos de los tambos del Valle del Lerma (Salta, Argentina) y los factores de riesgo asociados a la transmisión de este parásito en esta región. Se tomaron muestras de suero de aproximadamente 40 vacas en cada tambo, que fueron analizadas por ELISA indirecto para detectar anticuerpos contra N. caninum. También se discriminó entre infecciones crónicas y agudas midiendo la avidez de dichos anticuerpos. Todos los tambos presentaron al menos un bovino seropositivoy la media fue de 35,3 ± 14,9% de animales positivos. También se detectaron anticuerpos específicos en caninos presentes en 9 de los 16 tambos, con un valor de seropositi- vidad del 71,7 ± 19,9%. El 56,3% de los bovinos seropositivos cursaban infecciones agudas. Se halló una asociación negativa entre la seroprevalencia y el índice de avidez de los anticuerpos específicos, lo que indica que la presencia de animales con infecciones agudas se asocia a mayor seroprevalencia. Los campos con pastoreo presentaron mayor cantidad de infecciones recien tes. Estos resultados revelan por primera vez la importancia de este parásito en los tambos de la región y la necesidad de propiciar el desarrollo de programas de control considerando los distintos factores de riesgo que afectan la situación epidemiológica de la enfermedad.


Abstract The objective of this work was to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in cattle in Valle de Lerma, province of Salta, Argentina, and the risk factors associated with the disease. Serum samples were taken from 40 cows in each dairy herd, which were analyzed by indirect ELISA to detect antibodies against N. caninum. Chronic and acute infections were discriminated by measuring the avidity of these antibodies. All the herds exhibited at least one seropositive animal, the mean being 35.3 ± 14.9% of positive animals. Specific antibodies were also detected in dogs present in 9of the herds, which showed a seropositivity value of 71.7% ± 19.9%. Among the seropositive animals, 56.3% showed acute infections. A negative association was found between seroprevalence and the avidity index of specific antibodies, indicating that the presence of animals with acute infections is associated with higher seroprevalence. Fields with grazing showed more recent infections. These results show for the first time the importance of this parasite in this particular region and the need to promote the development of control programs considering the different risk factors that affect the epidemiological situation of the disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Dogs , Female , Cattle Diseases , Coccidiosis , Neospora , Argentina/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Antibodies, Protozoan , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Risk Factors , Coccidiosis/veterinary , Coccidiosis/epidemiology , Farms
11.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(5): 351-356, May 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288563

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Most prenatal screening programs for toxoplasmosis use immunoassays in serum samples of pregnant women. Few studies assess the accuracy of screening tests in dried blood spots, which are of easy collection, storage, and transportation. The goals of the present study are to determine the performance and evaluate the agreement between an immunoassay of dried blood spots and a reference test in the serum of pregnant women from a population-based prenatal screening program for toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed to compare the immunoassays Imunoscreen Toxoplasmose IgM and Imunoscreen Toxoplasmose IgG (Mbiolog Diagnósticos, Ltda., Contagem, Minas Gerais, Brazil)in dried blood spots with the enzymelinked fluorescent assay (ELFA, BioMérieux S.A., Lyon, France) reference standard in the serum of pregnant women from Minas Gerais Congenital Toxoplasmosis Control Program. Results The dried blood spot test was able to discriminate positive and negative results of pregnant women when comparedwith the reference test, with an accuracy of 98.2% for immunoglobulin G (IgG), and of 95.8% for immunoglobulin M (IgM). Conclusion Dried blood samples are easy to collect, store, and transport, and they have a good performance,making this a promisingmethod for prenatal toxoplasmosis screening programs in countries with continental dimensions, limited resources, and a high prevalence of toxoplasmosis, as is the case of Brazil.


Resumo Objetivo A maioria dos programas de triagem pré-natal para toxoplasmose utiliza imunoensaios em amostras de soro de gestantes. Poucos estudos avaliam a acurácia dos testes de triagem em amostras de sangue seco, que são de fácil coleta, armazenamento e transporte. Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar o desempenho e avaliar a concordância entre um imunoensaio em sangue seco e um teste de referência em soro de gestantes de um programa de rastreamento pré-natal de base populacional para toxoplasmose no Brasil. Métodos Realizou-se um estudo transversal para comparar os imunoensaios Imunoscreen Toxoplasmose IgM e Imunoscreen Toxoplasmose IgG (Mbiolog Diagnósticos, Ltda., Contagem, Minas Gerais, Brazil) em sangue seco com o padrão de referência ensaio fluorescente ligado a enzimas (enzyme-linked fluorescent assay, ELFA, BioMérieux S.A., Lion, França) no soro de gestantes do Programa de Controle de Toxoplasmose Congênita de Minas Gerais. Resultados O exame em sangue seco foi capaz de discriminar os resultados positivos e negativos das gestantes quando comparado ao teste de referência, com acurácia de 98,2% para imunoglobulina G (IgG), e de 95,8% para imunoglobulina M (IgM). Conclusão O sangue seco apresenta bom desempenho e é uma amostra de fácil coleta, armazenamento e transporte, o que o torna um método promissor para programas de triagem pré-natal de toxoplasmose em países com dimensões continentais, recursos limitados, e alta prevalência de toxoplasmose, como é o caso do Brasil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Toxoplasma/isolation & purification , Toxoplasmosis/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/diagnosis , Immunoenzyme Techniques/methods , Dried Blood Spot Testing/methods , Prenatal Diagnosis , Toxoplasma/immunology , Brazil/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiology , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/epidemiology , Mass Screening , Population Surveillance , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pregnant Women
12.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(2): 212-217, abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388219

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Toxoplasma gondii es un protozoo que afecta a un tercio de la población mundial y cuya seroprevalencia actualizada en niños con cáncer en nuestro medio, se desconoce. OBJETIVO: Describir la seroprevalencia de IgG anti-T. gondii en población pediátrica con cáncer atendida en hospitales públicos de la Región Metropolitana, Chile. MÉTODO: Estudio transversal de pacientes pediátricos oncológicos atendidos en la ciudad de Santiago. Se tomó una muestra de suero de 100 pacientes entre junio de 2016 y mayo de 2019. Se les realizó ELISA IgG T. gondii. RESULTADOS: Se analizaron 100 muestras, 51% de sexo masculino. Resultaron 12 positivas, 84 negativas y 4 indeterminadas. Los sueros de los pacientes se estratificaron por edad: 0-5 años 43%, 6-10 años 29%, 11-15 años 20% y > 15 años, 8%. El 61% eran pacientes con leucemia aguda. El porcentaje de mujeres con IgG positiva fue de 21% en comparación a 4% en hombres (P < 0,0011). CONCLUSIÓN: El 84% de los niños en tratamiento por cáncer son seronegativos para T. gondii, por lo que es importante educar en la prevención de la adquisición de este parásito en esta población, por el riesgo de desarrollar enfermedad grave con riesgo de muerte.


BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan that affects a third of the world population and whose updated seroprevalence in children with cancer in our environment is unknown. AIM: To describe the seroprevalence of IgG anti-T. gondii in pediatric population with cancer treated in hospitals of the Metropolitan Region, Chile. METHOD: Cross-sectional study of the population of pediatric cancer patients treated in Santiago city, A serum sample was taken from 100 patients between June 2016 and May 2019. ELISA IgG T. gondii was performed. RESULTS: Of 100 children, 51% male. 12 were positive (12%), 84 negative (84%) and 4 indeterminate (4%). The stratification by age showed 43% patients between 0-5 years, 29% between 6-10 years, 20% in the group of 11-15 years and 8% in patients > 15 years. Sixty one percent of the samples came from patients with acute leukemia. The percentage of women who tested positive for IgG was 21% compared to 4% in men (P < 0.0011). CONCLUSION: 84% of children undergoing cancer treatment are seronegative for T. gondii, so it is important to educate on the prevention of the acquisition of this parasite in this population, due to the risk of developing serious and fatal disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Antineoplastic Agents , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Antibodies, Protozoan , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Chile/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Cities
13.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(4): e008721, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351875

ABSTRACT

Abstract A serological, molecular and histopathological study was carried out in order to investigate occurrences of Toxoplasma gondii in pigs slaughtered with and without inspection service. Serum samples were collected from 60 pigs to detect anti-T. gondii antibody by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFAT). Tongue, masseter and diaphragm fragments were also collected for parasite DNA detection by means of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and histopathological analysis. The serological results showed that 77% (44/60) of the pigs were positive. Regarding PCR, 66.67% (40/60) were positive for T. gondii. Among the tissues evaluated, the diaphragm was the one with the highest frequency of positivity (40%; 24/60), followed by the masseter (38.33%; 23/60) and tongue (33.3%; 20/60). Histopathological changes were only observed in the diaphragm, which presented inflammatory infiltrates of lymphohistiocytic and neutrophilic types. These results not only show the potential threat of T. gondii to human health, but also demonstrate the dynamic epidemiological situation of toxoplasmosis in pigs in the city of São Luís, providing support for food security regarding pigs and for T. gondii control programs in Brazil.


Resumo Realizou-se um estudo sorológico, molecular e histopatológico com o objetivo de verificar a ocorrência de Toxoplasma gondii em suínos abatidos com e sem serviço de inspeção. Foram coletados soros de 60 suínos para a pesquisa de anticorpos anti-T. gondii pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI). Também foram coletados fragmentos de língua, masseter e diafragma para a detecção do DNA do parasito por meio da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) e análise histopatológica. A análise sorológica demonstrou que 77% (44/60) dos suínos apresentaram anticorpos anti-T. gondii. Com relação ao PCR, 66,67% (40/60) foram positivos para T. gondii. Dentre os tecidos avaliados, o diafragma foi o que obteve maior frequência de positividade (40%; 24/60), seguidos de masseter (38,33%; 23/60) e língua (33,3%; 20/60). Alterações histopatológicas foram observadas apenas no diafragma, que apresentou infiltrado inflamatório do tipo linfohistiocitário e neutrofílico. Esses resultados não evidenciam apenas a ameaça potencial de T. gondii à saúde humana, mas também demonstram a dinâmica situação epidemiológica da toxoplasmose em suínos na região da cidade de São Luís, fornecendo suporte para a segurança alimentar de suínos e programas de controle de T. gondii no país.


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/epidemiology , Swine , Brazil/epidemiology , Antibodies, Protozoan , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/veterinary
14.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(3): e008821, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1341183

ABSTRACT

Abstract This cross-sectional study investigates Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum among 445 recently spontaneously aborted (RSA) Jordanian women using ELISA and indirect fluorescent antibody (at a cut-off value of 1/200) tests, respectively. The type of hospital, age, cat and dog contacts, raw and barbecued meat and wild plant consumption, number of abortions, and stillbirths were tested as independent variables using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The true seroprevalences were 22.1% for T. gondii-IgG, 22.7% for N. caninum-IgG, 2.6% for T. gondii-IgM, 10.6% for N. caninum-IgM, 0% for T. gondii-IgG and IgM, 6.7% for N. caninum-IgG and IgM, and 4.6% and 0% for both parasite IgG and IgM, respectively. T. gondii-IgM-seropositivity was associated with the number of abortions with odds ratios (OR) of 2.4 and eating barbecued meat (OR = 0.12). N. caninum-IgG-seropositivity was associated with having a dog in the house (OR = 2.6), and with stillbirth (OR = 0.1). N. caninum-IgM was associated with visiting a private-hospital (OR = 2.7). RSA Jordanian women are equally exposed to both parasites with significantly (p < 0.05) higher seroprevalence of N. caninum-IgM compared to T. gondii-IgM suggestive of active infections among RSA women in Jordan.


Resumo Este é um estudo transversal, investigando Toxoplasma gondii e Neospora caninum entre 445 mulheres jordanianas recentemente abortadas espontaneamente (RSA), usando-se ELISA e testes de anticorpos fluorescentes indiretos (com valor de corte de 1/200), respectivamente. Tipo de hospital, idade, contato com o cão, consumo de carne, número de abortos foram testados como variáveis independentes, usando-se análises de regressão logística univariada e multivariada. As verdadeiras seroprevalências foram 22,1% para T. gondii-IgG; 22,7% para N. caninum-IgG; 2,6% para T. gondii-IgM; 10,6% para N. caninum-IgM, 0% para T. gondii-IgG e IgM, 6,7% para N. caninum-IgG e IgM, e 4,6% e 0% para ambos os parasitas IgG e IgM, respectivamente. A soropositividade para T. gondii-IgM foi associada ao número de abortos com "odds ratio" (OR) de 2,4 e ingestão de carne grelhada (OR = 0,12). A soropositividade para N. caninum-IgG foi associada à presença de cachorro em casa (OR = 2,6) e natimorto (OR = 0,1). N. caninum-IgM foi associada à visita a um hospital privado (OR = 2,7). Mulheres jordanianas com RSA estão igualmente expostas a ambos os parasitas com soroprevalência significativamente (p <0,05) maior de N. caninum-IgM, em comparação com T. gondii-IgM, sugestivo de infecções ativas entre mulheres com RSA na Jordânia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Cats , Dogs , Toxoplasma , Cat Diseases , Toxoplasmosis, Animal , Neospora , Dog Diseases , Antibodies, Protozoan , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Abortion, Veterinary/epidemiology
15.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(3): e010621, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1341185

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aimed with this study to evaluate vertical transmission of Neospora caninum in naturally infected sheep and to monitor the kinetics of antibodies against this protozoon in their lambs. Therefore, 48 pregnant ewes, from five herds, were divided into two groups: G1 - positive for anti-N. caninum antibodies, with 19 animals; and G2 - seronegative, with 29 animals. Blood samples were taken from the ewes and their lambs, immediately after birth, before ingesting colostrum, and 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56 days after birth. Analysis on serum antibodies was performed using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. Among the 19 seropositive mothers, six (31.6%) gave birth to lambs seropositive before ingesting colostrum and it was found that these lambs remained positive until the end of the study (56 days). Only one of the lambs, from a ewe that presented an antibody titer of 200, seroconverted after ingestion of colostrum. All the lambs that had been born from negative mothers remained negative throughout the experimental period. It was concluded that transplacental transmission was an important form of diffusion of N. caninum in the herds studied and that seropositive lambs maintained circulating antibodies during the period analyzed.


Resumo Objetivou-se avaliar a ocorrência da transmissão vertical de Neospora caninum em ovelhas naturalmente infectadas e monitorar a cinética de anticorpos para esse protozoário nos cordeiros. Portanto, foram selecionadas 48 matrizes prenhes, provenientes de cinco propriedades, e estas foram divididas em dois grupos: G1- 19 matrizes positivas para anticorpos anti-N. caninum antes da prenhez; e G2 - 29 matrizes soronegativas. Foram realizadas colheitas sanguíneas nas mães e cordeiros, no G1 e G2, imediatamente após a parição, antes da ingestão do colostro. Também foi possível realizar colheitas de sangue com 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 e 56 dias após o nascimento. A pesquisa de anticorpos séricos foi realizada por meio da Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI). Das 19 matrizes soropositivas, seis (31,6%) pariram cordeiros soropositivos antes da ingestão do colostro, os quais mantiveram-se positivos até o final do experimento (56 dias). Apenas um dos cordeiros, filho de uma ovelha com título de anticorpos 200, soroconverteu após ingestão do colostro. Todos os cordeiros, filhos de mães negativas, mantiveram-se negativos durante todo o período experimental. Conclui-se que a transmissão transplacentária é uma importante forma de difusão do N. caninum nos rebanhos estudados e que os descendentes infectados, durante a gestação, mantiveram anticorpos circulantes durante o período analisado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Sheep Diseases , Coccidiosis/veterinary , Neospora , Brazil , Sheep , Antibodies, Protozoan , Kinetics , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/veterinary
16.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(2): e001921, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1288690

ABSTRACT

Abstract Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite of worldwide distribution that can infect several species of homeothermic animals. Few studies have evaluated the exposure of captive wild animals to T. gondii. This study involved a serological survey of anti-T. gondii antibodies in mammals kept in Cuba's National Zoo (PZN) and in the Rio de Janeiro Zoo (RIOZOO) in Brazil. The study consisted of a total of 231 serum samples from mammals, 108 from PZN and 123 from RIOZOO. All the samples were subjected to IgG anti-T. gondii testing by means of the inhibition ELISA method and the modified agglutination test, respectively. T. gondii antibodies were detected in 85.2% samples from PZN and 32.5% samples from RIOZOO. At the PZN, Perissodactyla (92.3%) was the order with the highest serological prevalence rate, whereas at the RIOZOO, the order Primates (46.7%) stood out (p<0.05). In addition to this association, the origin of the PZN animals was also associated with T. gondii infection. This finding demonstrates the need for constant veterinary monitoring of captive wild mammals in order to link the serological diagnosis with clinical alterations indicative of toxoplasmosis.


Resumo Toxoplasma gondii é um parasito zoonótico de distribuição mundial que pode infectar várias espécies de animais homeotérmicos. Poucos estudos avaliaram a exposição de animais silvestres em cativeiro ao T. gondii. Este estudo envolveu uma pesquisa sorológica de anticorpos anti-T. gondii em mamíferos mantidos no Zoológico Nacional de Cuba (PZN) e no Zoológico do Rio de Janeiro (RIOZOO) no Brasil. O estudo consistiu em um total de 231 amostras de soro de mamíferos, sendo 108 do PZN e 123 do RIOZOO. Todas as amostras foram submetidas à pesquisa de IgG anti-T. gondii pelos métodos de ELISA de inibição (PZN) e teste de aglutinação modificado (RIOZOO). Anticorpos de T. gondii foram detectados em 85,2% das amostras do PZN e 32,5% das amostras do RIOZOO. No PZN, Perissodactyla (92,3%) foi a ordem com maior taxa de prevalência sorológica, enquanto no RIOZOO a ordem Primatas (46,7%) se destacou (p <0,05). Além dessa associação, a origem dos animais PZN também foi associada à infecção por T. gondii. Esse achado demonstra a necessidade de monitoramento veterinário constante de mamíferos silvestres em cativeiro, a fim de vincular o diagnóstico sorológico a alterações clínicas indicativas de toxoplasmose.


Subject(s)
Animals , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Antibodies, Protozoan , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Risk Factors , Cuba/epidemiology , Animals, Zoo , Mammals
17.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(2): e027720, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1288691

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of Sarcocystis neurona antibodies in equines in the Ilhéus-Itabuna microregion (BA), and identify possible factors associated with infection. The presence of sporocysts/oocysts of Sarcocystis spp. was also verified in Didelphis spp. A total of 669 serum samples were collected from equines in 56 properties located in 12 municipalities in the region. Indirect fluorescent antibody test was performed with slides containing merozoites of the S. neurona, using a cut-off titer of 1:80. Occurrence of 7.92% of anti-S. neurona antibodies was observed in the sampled equines. The purposes trade and work were significantly associated with the presence of antibodies (p<0.05), and being used for the purpose of work (21.6%) was considered a risk factor, while being used for the purpose of trade (3.6%) was a protective factor. A total of 25 Didelphis spp. was captured for research on sporocysts/oocysts in stool samples and intestinal scrapings, being all negative. Didelphis spp. were all negative for the presence of Sarcocystis spp. and this circumstance does not change the fact that seroprevalence of S. neurona has been observed in horses raised in the southern Bahia.


Resumo O presente estudo foi realizado na microrregião de Ilhéus-Itabuna, Bahia. Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar a soroprevalência de anticorpos contra Sarcocystis neurona em equinos da microrregião Ilhéus-Itabuna (BA) e identificar possíveis fatores associados à infecção. A presença de esporocistos/oocistos de Sarcocystis spp. também foi pesquisada em Didelphis spp. Foram coletadas 669 amostras de soro de equinos em 56 propriedades localizadas em 12 municípios da região. Foi utilizada a reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI), utilizando-se lâminas confeccionadas com merozoítos de Sarcocystis neurona (cepa SN138) e ponto de corte na diluição de 1:80. A ocorrência de anticorpos anti- S. neurona, nos equinos amostrados, foi de 7,92%. As finalidades dos animais - comércio e trabalho - apresentaram-se significativas (p<0.05), sendo que a finalidade trabalho (21,6%) foi considerada fator de risco, enquanto a finalidade comércio (3,6%) foi considerada fator de proteção. Foram capturados 25 Didelphis spp., para pesquisa de esporocistos/oocistos em amostras de fezes e raspado de mucosa intestinal. Todos os Didelphis spp. foram negativos para a presença de Sarcocystis spp., mesmo assim essa circunstância não alterou o fato da ocorrência de S. neurona ter sido observada em cavalos criados na mesorregião do sul da Bahia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sarcocystis , Sarcocystosis/diagnosis , Sarcocystosis/epidemiology , Didelphis , Horse Diseases/diagnosis , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Opossums , Brazil/epidemiology , Antibodies, Protozoan , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Sarcocystosis/veterinary , Horses
18.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(3): e005121, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1288710

ABSTRACT

Abstract Toxoplasmosis, caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, is zoonotic disease and is one of the most important foodborne parasitic diseases globally. The prevalence in humans is highly variable, being influenced by cultural habits, socioeconomic, and environmental conditions. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of T. gondii infection in humans on the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, Pernambuco State, Brazil, and to identify the risk factors associated with this infection. The seroprevalence of immunoglobulin G anti-T. gondii antibodies was 50.4% (172/341, 95% CI: 45.2%-55.7%). Factors associated with the infection were consumption of well water or rainwater (odds ratio [OR]: 2.43, p=0.020) and consumption of game meat (OR: 1.80, p=0.026). This is the first study to provide epidemiological information of T. gondii infection among the residents of the Island of Fernando de Noronha, revealing a considerable antibody seroprevalence in this population. This study provides information for the adoption of prevention and control measures in island environments.


Resumo A toxoplasmose, causada pelo protozoário Toxoplasma gondii, é uma zoonose e uma das doenças parasitárias transmitidas por alimentos mais importantes em todo o mundo. A prevalência em humanos é altamente variável, sendo influenciada por hábitos culturais, condições socioeconômicas e ambientais. O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar a prevalência de infecção por T. gondii em humanos, no arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, Pernambuco, Brasil, e identificar os fatores de risco associados a essa infecção nesse contexto insular. A soroprevalência de anticorpos IgG anti-T. gondii nos ilhéus foi de 50,4% (172/341, 95% CI: 45,2%-55,7%). Os fatores associados à infecção encontrados foram o consumo de água do poço ou de água da chuva (Odds ratio [OR]: 2,43, p=0,020) e consumo de carne de caça (OR: 1,80, p=0,026). Este é o primeiro estudo a fornecer informações epidemiológicas da infecção por T. gondii entre os moradores da Ilha de Fernando de Noronha, revelando uma considerável soroprevalência de anticorpos nessa população. Este estudo fornece informações para subsidiar a adoção de medidas de prevenção e controle em ambientes insulares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis, Animal , Brazil/epidemiology , Antibodies, Protozoan , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200428, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154875

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Dogs are the main peridomiciliary reservoir of Leishmania infantum thus the correct diagnosis of infection is essential for the control of the transmission and treatment as well. However, the diagnosis is based on serological assays that are not fully effective. OBJECTIVE We aimed to establish an effective serological assay for the diagnosis of L. infantum infected dogs using Leishmania-derived recombinant antigens. METHODS Leishmania derived rK39-, rK28-, rKR95-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was standardized using symptomatic and asymptomatic L. infantum-infected dogs. Then 2,530 samples from inquiry in endemic areas for VL were evaluated and the results compared with recommended assays by the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MH algorithm). Further samples from a cohort of 30 dogs were searched. FINDINGS For rK39-, rK28- and rKR95-ELISA the sensitivity was around 97% and specificity 100%. The positivity of these three ELISA in the inquiry samples was 27-28%, around 10% higher than the assays currently in use. When cohort samples were searched, we observed likely false-negative results (> 65%) with supposedly negative samples that turned positive six months later with the assays in use (MH algorithm). MAIN CONCLUSIONS For the diagnosis of L. infantum-infected dogs, rK39-based ELISA showed better diagnostic performance than other assays in use in Brazil and worldwide.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Brazil , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Serologic Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Leishmania infantum/isolation & purification , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/blood , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Antigens, Protozoan/biosynthesis
20.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(1): e020820, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156211

ABSTRACT

Abstract Livestock in the Amazon has grown significantly and, although neosporosis in cattle has been reported worldwide, there is no information about N. caninum in production systems in the state of Amazonas. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in cattle, their spatial distribution and the risk factors associated with N. caninum infection in the state of Amazonas. Questionnaires were applied to farmers to assess risk factors associated with N. caninum infection. Blood samples were collected from 1,073 animals on 47 farms in 33 municipalities in the four Amazonian subpopulations. IgG anti-N.caninum antibodies were detected by the indirect fluorescence test, with a general prevalence of 30.2%, being seropositive in 43 farms (91.5%), with prevalence ranging from 2.2% to 69.2%. The highest number of high density points was found in subpopulation 3 (municipality of Apuí and other municipalities on the Madeira River and affluent). It was concluded that N. caninum is present with high seroprevalence values, when compared to other cattle producing states in the Amazon region of Brazil. The identified factors can be used as risk indicators so that control measures can be implemented to prevent infection by N. caninum in these herds.


Resumo A pecuária na Amazônia tem crescido significativamente e, embora a neosporose em bovinos tenha sido relatada em todo o mundo, não há informações sobre N. caninum nos sistemas de produção no estado do Amazonas. Objetivou-se determinar a prevalência de anticorpos anti-Neospora caninum em bovinos, sua distribuição espacial e os fatores de risco associados à infecção por N. caninum no estado do Amazonas. Questionários foram aplicados aos fazendeiros, para avaliar fatores de risco associados à infecção por N. caninum. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas de 1.073 animais em 47 fazendas, em 33 municípios das quatro subpopulações amazonenses. Anticorpos IgG anti-N.caninum foram detectados pelo teste de imunofluorescência indireta, com prevalência geral de 30,2%, com soropositividade em 43 fazendas (91,5%), com prevalência variando de 2,2% a 69,2%. O maior número de pontos de alta densidade foi encontrado na subpopulação 3 (município de Apuí e demais municípios do rio Madeira e afluentes). Concluiu-se que N. caninum está presente com altos valores de soroprevalência, quando comparado a outros estados produtores de gado na região amazônica do Brasil. Os fatores identificados podem ser usados como indicadores de risco, para que medidas de controle possam ser implementadas para prevenir a infecção por N. caninum nesses rebanhos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coccidiosis/diagnosis , Coccidiosis/veterinary , Coccidiosis/epidemiology , Neospora , Brazil/epidemiology , Cattle , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Risk Factors
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