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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1816-1823, dic. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528777

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: To evaluate the anti-cancer effects of yeast extract on resistant cells, autophagy and necroptosis were investigated in 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-resistant colorectal cancer cells. Further underlying characteristics on drug resistance were evaluated, focused on ERK-RSK-ABCG2 linkage. SNU-C5 and 5-FU resistant SNU-C5 (SNU-C5/5-FUR) colorectal cancer cells were adopted for cell viability assay and Western blotting to examine the anti-cancer effects of yeast extract. Yeast extract induced autophagy in SNU-C5 cells with increased Atg7, Atg12-5 complex, Atg16L1, and LC3 activation (LC3-II/LC3-I), but little effects in SNU-C5/5-FUR cells with increased Atg12-5 complex and Atg16L1. Both colorectal cancer cells did not show necroptosis after yeast extract treatment. Based on increased ABCG2 and RSK expression after yeast extract treatment, drug resistance mechanisms were further evaluated. As compared to wild type, SNU-C5/5-FUR cells showed more ABCG2 expression, less RSK expression, and less phosphorylation of ERK. ABCG2 inhibitor, Ko143, treatment induces following changes: 1) more sensitivity at 500 mM 5-FU, 2) augmented proliferation, and 3) less phosphorylation of ERK. These results suggest that protective autophagy in SNU-C5/5-FUR cells with increased ABCG2 expression might be candidate mechanisms for drug resistance. As the ERK responses were different from each stimulus, the feasible mechanisms among ERK-RSK-ABCG2 should be further investigated in 5-FU-resistant CRC cells.


Para evaluar los efectos anticancerígenos del extracto de levadura en células resistentes, se investigaron la autofagia y la necroptosis en células de cáncer colorrectal resistentes al 5-fluorouracilo (5-FU). Además se evaluaron otras características subyacentes de la resistencia a los medicamentos centrándose en el enlace ERK-RSK-ABCG2. Se usaron células de cáncer colorrectal SNU-C5 (SNU-C5/5-FUR) resistentes a SNU-C5 y 5- FU para el ensayo de viabilidad celular y la transferencia Western para examinar los efectos anticancerígenos del extracto de levadura. El extracto de levadura indujo autofagia en células SNU-C5 con mayor activación de Atg7, complejo Atg12-5, Atg16L1 y LC3 (LC3-II/LC3-I), pero pocos efectos en células SNU-C5/5-FUR con aumento de Atg12-5 complejo y Atg16L1. Ambas células de cáncer colorrectal no mostraron necroptosis después del tratamiento con extracto de levadura. Se evaluaron los mecanismos de resistencia a los medicamentos. en base al aumento de la expresión de ABCG2 y RSK después del tratamiento con extracto de levadura.En comparación con las de tipo salvaje, las células SNU-C5/5-FUR mostraron más expresión de ABCG2, menos expresión de RSK y menos fosforilación de ERK. El tratamiento con inhibidor de ABCG2, Ko143, induce los siguientes cambios: 1) más sensibilidad a 5-FU 500 mM, 2) proliferación aumentada y 3) menos fosforilación de ERK. Estos resultados sugieren que la autofagia protectora en células SNU-C5/5-FUR con mayor expresión de ABCG2 podría ser un mecanismo candidato para la resistencia a los medicamentos. Como las respuestas de ERK fueron diferentes de cada estímulo, los mecanismos factibles entre ERK-RSK- ABCG2 deberían investigarse más a fondo en células CCR resistentes a 5-FU.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Yeasts , Tumor Cells, Cultured , Cell Survival/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa , Electrophoresis , Fluorouracil , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily G, Member 2 , Necroptosis
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981574

ABSTRACT

The synergistic effect of drug combinations can solve the problem of acquired resistance to single drug therapy and has great potential for the treatment of complex diseases such as cancer. In this study, to explore the impact of interactions between different drug molecules on the effect of anticancer drugs, we proposed a Transformer-based deep learning prediction model-SMILESynergy. First, the drug text data-simplified molecular input line entry system (SMILES) were used to represent the drug molecules, and drug molecule isomers were generated through SMILES Enumeration for data augmentation. Then, the attention mechanism in the Transformer was used to encode and decode the drug molecules after data augmentation, and finally, a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) was connected to obtain the synergy value of the drugs. Experimental results showed that our model had a mean squared error of 51.34 in regression analysis, an accuracy of 0.97 in classification analysis, and better predictive performance than the DeepSynergy and MulinputSynergy models. SMILESynergy offers improved predictive performance to assist researchers in rapidly screening optimal drug combinations to improve cancer treatment outcomes.


Subject(s)
Electric Power Supplies , Neural Networks, Computer , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology
3.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 1170-1185, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010819

ABSTRACT

OX40 is a costimulatory receptor that is expressed primarily on activated CD4+, CD8+, and regulatory T cells. The ligation of OX40 to its sole ligand OX40L potentiates T cell expansion, differentiation, and activation and also promotes dendritic cells to mature to enhance their cytokine production. Therefore, the use of agonistic anti-OX40 antibodies for cancer immunotherapy has gained great interest. However, most of the agonistic anti-OX40 antibodies in the clinic are OX40L-competitive and show limited efficacy. Here, we discovered that BGB-A445, a non-ligand-competitive agonistic anti-OX40 antibody currently under clinical investigation, induced optimal T cell activation without impairing dendritic cell function. In addition, BGB-A445 dose-dependently and significantly depleted regulatory T cells in vitro and in vivo via antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. In the MC38 syngeneic model established in humanized OX40 knock-in mice, BGB-A445 demonstrated robust and dose-dependent antitumor efficacy, whereas the ligand-competitive anti-OX40 antibody showed antitumor efficacy characterized by a hook effect. Furthermore, BGB-A445 demonstrated a strong combination antitumor effect with an anti-PD-1 antibody. Taken together, our findings show that BGB-A445, which does not block OX40-OX40L interaction in contrast to clinical-stage anti-OX40 antibodies, shows superior immune-stimulating effects and antitumor efficacy and thus warrants further clinical investigation.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor/physiology , Receptors, OX40 , Membrane Glycoproteins , Ligands , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971323

ABSTRACT

Cancers have high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Current anticancer therapies have demonstrated specific signaling pathways as a target in the involvement of carcinogenesis. Autophagy is a quality control system for proteins and plays a fundamental role in cancer carcinogenesis, exerting an anticarcinogenic role in normal cells and can inhibit the transformation of malignant cells. Therefore, drugs aimed at autophagy can function as antitumor agents. Flavonoids are a class of polyphenolic secondary metabolites commonly found in plants and, consequently, consumed in diets. In this review, the systematic search strategy was used, which included the search for descriptors "flavonoids" AND "mTOR pathway" AND "cancer" AND "autophagy", in the electronic databases of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Scopus, from January 2011 to January 2021. The current literature demonstrates that flavonoids have anticarcinogenic properties, including inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, autophagy, necrosis, cell cycle arrest, senescence, impaired cell migration, invasion, tumor angiogenesis and reduced resistance to multiple drugs in tumor cells. We demonstrate the available evidence on the roles of flavonoids and autophagy in cancer progression and inhibition. (Registration No. CRD42021243071 at PROSPERO).


Subject(s)
Humans , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Neoplasms , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Apoptosis , Cell Proliferation , Carcinogenesis , Cell Line, Tumor
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971095

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the expression pattern and clinical significance of Integral membrane protein 2A(ITM2A) in drug resistant patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).@*METHODS@#The expression of ITM2A in CML was evaluated by qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunocytochemistry. In order to understand the possible biological effects of ITM2A, apoptosis, cell cycle and myeloid differentiation antigen expression of CML cells were detected by flow cytometry after over-expression of ITM2A. The nuderlying molecular mechanism of its biological effect was explored.@*RESULTS@#The expression of ITM2A in bone marrow of CML resistant patients was significantly lower than that of sensitive patients and healthy donors(P<0.05). The CML resistant strain cell K562R was successfully constructed in vitro. The expression of ITM2A in the resistant strain was significantly lower than that in the sensitive strain(P<0.05). Overexpression of ITM2A in K562R cells increased the sensitivity of K562R cells to imatinib and blocked the cell cycle in G2 phase(P<0.05), but did not affect myeloid differentiation. Mechanistically, up-regulation of ITM2A reduced phosphorylation in ERK signaling (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The expression of ITM2A was low in patients with drug resistance of CML, and the low expression of ITM2A may be the key factor of imatinib resistance in CML.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , K562 Cells , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Signal Transduction
6.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 349-354, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986141

ABSTRACT

Liver histological assessment is of great clinical significance for the diagnosis, classification, and prognosis prediction of drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Liver histological evaluation can effectively supplement RUCAM. The clinical phenotypes of DILI are complex and diverse, including acute, chronic and severe hepatic injury. DILI has multiple insult-targets, including hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, and vascular endothelial cells and others. The pathological damage patterns are similar to many types of non-DILI liver diseases, therefore making differential diagnosis difficult. New anti-tumor drugs such as immune checkpoints inhibitors and targeted therapy are widely used in clinical antineoplastic practice, thus the growing incidence of related liver injury occurs. Liver histological examination can effectively assess the pathological phenotypes and severity of DILI, so as to guide treatment. In uncommon conditions such as special types of DILI (such as hepatic vascular disease), DILI with other competitive etiology overlapping, chronic DILI, and DILI induced liver failure, liver histological assessment can provide strong support for identifying the cause, rational treatment, and prognosis. Currently, the histological evaluation system for drug-induced liver injury seems to be a lack of consensus, and the diagnosis of DILI is short of highly specific and sensitive serological markers. All in all, liver histological assessment plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of DILI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Endothelial Cells , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Liver/pathology , Hepatocytes , Phenotype , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology
7.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1584-1587, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010010

ABSTRACT

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a common plasma cell malignancy, accounting for the second largest hematological malignancy. Proteasome inhibitors represented by bortezomib (BTZ) have been the main treatment for patients with newly diagnosed and relapsed or refractory myeloma in nearly two decades. Although BTZ has improved the prognosis of MM patients, MM remains incurable in most patients, mainly because MM cells become resistant to BTZ. This review is to better understand the mechanism of MM resistance to BTZ and explore possible new therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bortezomib/therapeutic use , Multiple Myeloma/pathology , Proteasome Inhibitors/pharmacology , Prognosis , Plasma Cells/pathology , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor
8.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1579-1583, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010009

ABSTRACT

BCR-ABLT315I mutation is the main mechanism of resistance to the first and second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Ponatinib as the third generation TKI has been found that can significantly improve the prognosis of CML patients with T315I mutation. However, the latest report has discovered that the T315I compound mutant is even resistant to ponatinib, which aroused the enthusiasm of research on the mechanism of CML resistance and targeted therapy once again. Previous studies have shown that TKI combined with other targeted drugs is effective to CML patients with drug resistance or relapse due to T315I mutation. The latest research has found that the allosteric inhibitor asciminib combined with TKI therapy is equally effective to CML patients with T315I compound mutant, but the specific mechanism is not yet clarified. This review will focus on the latest research progress of therapy for CML with BCR-ABLT315I mutation, hoping to provide reference for researching new drugs and improve therapy for treating CML with T315I mutation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/genetics , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/genetics , Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Mutation , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009916

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the effects and mechanisms of deubiquitinating enzyme Josephin domain containing 2 (JOSD2) on susceptibility of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells to anti-cancer drugs.@*METHODS@#The transcriptome expression and clinical data of NSCLC were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus. Principal component analysis and limma analysis were used to investigate the deubiquitinating enzymes up-regulated in NSCLC tissues. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to investigate the relationship between the expression of deubiquitinating enzymes and overall survival of NSCLC patients. Gene ontology enrichment and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) were used to analyze the activation of signaling pathways in NSCLC patients with high expression of JOSD2. Gene set variation analysis and Pearson correlation were used to investigate the correlation between JOSD2 expression levels and DNA damage response (DDR) pathway. Western blotting was performed to examine the expression levels of JOSD2 and proteins associated with the DDR pathway. Immunofluorescence was used to detect the localization of JOSD2. Sulforhodamine B staining was used to examine the sensitivity of JOSD2-knock-down NSCLC cells to DNA damaging drugs.@*RESULTS@#Compared with adjacent tissues, the expression level of JOSD2 was significantly up-regulated in NSCLC tissues (P<0.05), and was significantly correlated with the prognosis in NSCLC patients (P<0.05). Compared with the tissues with low expression of JOSD2, the DDR-related pathways were significantly upregulated in NSCLC tissues with high expression of JOSD2 (all P<0.05). In addition, the expression of JOSD2 was positively correlated with the activation of DDR-related pathways (all P<0.01). Compared with the control group, overexpression of JOSD2 significantly promoted the DDR in NSCLC cells. In addition, DNA damaging agents significantly increase the nuclear localization of JOSD2, whereas depletion of JOSD2 significantly enhanced the sensitivity of NSCLC cells to DNA damaging agents (all P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Deubiquitinating enzyme JOSD2 may regulate the malignant progression of NSCLC by promoting DNA damage repair pathway, and depletion of JOSD2 significantly enhances the sensitivity of NSCLC cells to DNA damaging agents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , DNA Damage , DNA , Deubiquitinating Enzymes/genetics
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982712

ABSTRACT

Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring bioactive compounds that are widely distributed in various food sources and Traditional Chinese Medicine. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms of alkaloid extract from Codonopsis Radix (ACR) in ameliorating hepatic lipid accumulation in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). The results revealed that ACR treatment effectively mitigated the abnormal weight gain and hepatic injury associated with HFD. Furthermore, ACR ameliorated the dysregulated lipid metabolism in NAFLD mice, as evidenced by reductions in serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein levels, accompanied by a concomitant increase in the high-density lipoprotein level. ACR treatment also demonstrated a profound anti-oxidative effect, effectively alleviating HFD-induced oxidative stress and promoting ATP production. These effects were achieved through the up-regulation of the activities of mitochondrial electron transfer chain complexes I, II, IV, and V, in addition to the activation of the AMPK/PGC-1α pathway, suggesting that ACR exhibits therapeutic potential in alleviating the HFD-induced dysregulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism. Moreover, ACR administration mitigated HFD-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and suppressed the overexpression of ubiquitin-specific protease 14 (USP14) in NAFLD mice. In summary, the present study provides compelling evidence supporting the hepatoprotective role of ACR in alleviating lipid deposition in NAFLD by improving energy metabolism and reducing oxidative stress and ER stress. These findings warrant further investigation and merit the development of ACR as a potential therapeutic agent for NAFLD.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Codonopsis , Liver , Lipid Metabolism , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Energy Metabolism , Lipids , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Mice, Inbred C57BL
11.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 291-302, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982159

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is the most common malignancy in the world and the leading cause of cancer death. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) refers to the NSCLC caused by mutation, amplification or overexpression of the HER2 gene, resulting in its dysfunction. HER2 is the most active receptor in the HER family and can combine with other members to form dimers, which can activate multiple signaling pathways and regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis. In NSCLC, HER2 positivity is usually considered a poor prognostic marker. At present, the diagnosis and treatment of HER2-positive NSCLC are not mature. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), next generation sequencing (NGS) and other technologies are often used to detect the positive status of HER2 mutation, amplification or overexpression. In previous studies, antitumor drugs did not show ideal therapeutic effects in HER2-positive NSCLC. However, in recent years, related researches have shown that antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) and new tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in targeted therapy show good antitumor activity against HER2 positive NSCLC. This article summarized the progress in diagnosis and treatment of HER2-positive NSCLC, so as to provide reference for subsequent researches.
.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Receptor, ErbB-2/genetics , Mutation , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982099

ABSTRACT

The treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) was revolutionized with the advent of the first-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), but drug resistance developed during treatment, leading to the development of the second-generation (dasatinib, nilotinib, and bosutinib) and third-generation (ponatinib) TKI. Compared with previous treatment regimens, specific TKI can significantly improve the response rate, overall survival rate and prognosis of CML. Only a few patients with BCR-ABL mutation are insensitive to the second-generation TKIs, so it is suggested to select the second-generation TKIs for patients with specific mutations. For patients with other mutations and without mutations, the second-generation TKI should be selected according to the patient's medical history, while the third-generation TKIs should be selected for mutations that are insensitive to the second-generation TKIs, such as T315I mutation that is sensitive to ponatinib. Due to different BCR-ABL mutations in patients with different sensitivity to the second and third-generation TKIs, this paper will review the latest research progress of the efficacy of the second and third-generation TKIs in CML patients with BCR-ABL mutations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Dasatinib/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/genetics , Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl/genetics , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Mutation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
13.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(6): 725-736, nov. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554682

ABSTRACT

This study reports the biotechnological importance of seven Lippia albaspecimens collected in different places in Brazil, and evaluation of some activities as larvicidal against Aedes spp., antifungal against dermatophytes; cytotoxicity against SNB-19 (astrocytoma), HCT-116 (human colon) and PC-3 (human prostate) cancer cell lines, and inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The essential oils, whose extraction yield was about 1.24 w/w ± 0.9%, showed differences in their chemical composition and considered as chemotypes. The essential oils containing neral and geranial as main constituents showed better action against HCT-116 cell lines (IC50 value was 9.22 µg/mL), larvicidal activity against arbovirus vectors (LC50 value against A. aegypti was 1.59 µg/mL) and inhibition of AChE (halo inhibition zone was 1 cm). The essential oils containing mainly monoterpenoids showed better antifungal action with MIC values range from 0.15 to 1.25 mg/mL. This chemical and biological characterization may be useful for biotechnological applications.


Este estudio reporta la importancia biotecnológica de siete especímenes de Lippia alba recolectados en diferentes lugares de Brasil, y evaluación de algunas actividades como larvicida contra Aedes spp., Antifúngico contra dermatofitos; citotoxicidad contra líneas celulares de cáncer SNB-19 (astrocitoma), HCT-116 (colon humano) y PC-3 (próstata humana), e inhibición de la enzima acetilcolinesterasa (AChE). Los aceites esenciales, cuyo rendimiento de extracción fue de aproximadamente 1,24 p/p ± 0,9%, mostraron diferencias en su composición química y se consideraron quimiotipos. Los aceites esenciales que contienen neral y geranial como constituyentes principales mostraron una mejor acción contra las líneas celulares HCT-116 (el valor de CI50 fue de 9.22 µg/mL), actividad larvicida contra los vectores de arbovirus (el valor de LC50 contra A. aegypti fue de 1.59 µg/mL) e inhibición de AChE (la zona de inhibición del halo era de 1 cm). Los aceites esenciales que contienen principalmente monoterpenoides mostraron una mejor acción antifúngica con valores de CMI en el rango de 0.15 a 1.25 mg/mL. Esta caracterización química y biológica puede ser útil para aplicaciones biotecnológicas.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Lippia/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Medicine, Traditional , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology
14.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 29(3): 1-7, 2022-08-18. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1393174

ABSTRACT

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most diagnosed cancers worldwide. Chemoprevention of HCC can be achieved using natural or synthetic compounds that reverse, suppress, detect, or prevent cancer progression. Objectives: In this study, both the antiproliferative effects and luminescent properties of 2'-hydroxychalcones were evaluated. Methods: Cell viability was evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay, spectroscopy assays, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to determine the luminescent properties of 2 ́-hydroxychalcones. Results: Cytotoxic effects of 2 ́-hydroxychalcones were observed over the HepG2 and EA.hy926 cells. Since the chalcone moiety could be used as a fluorescent probe, these compounds may be helpful in cancer diagnosis and tumor localization. They may enable tumor observation and regression through the fluorescence during treatment; therefore, the compounds are a potential candidate as novel anticancer agents acting on human hepatomas. Conclusions: This report describes the chalcones' use as a specific luminescent biomarker in tumor cells. We also report the cellular uptake of 2'-hydroxychalcones, their cellular distribution, and the mechanisms that may be responsible for their cytotoxic effects


ANTECEDENTES: El carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC) es uno de los cánceres más diagnosticados en todo el mundo. La quimio prevención del CHC se puede lograr utilizando compuestos naturales o sintéticos que reviertan, supriman, detecten o prevengan la progresión del cáncer. OBJETIVOS: En este estudio, se investigó tanto los efectos antiproliferativos como las propiedades luminiscentes de las 2'-hidroxicalconas. MÉTODOS: La viabilidad celular se evaluó usando el ensayo colorimétrico (MTT), los ensayos de espectroscopia y los cálculos DFT se usaron para determinar las propiedades luminiscentes de las 2 ́-hidroxichalconas. RESULTADOS: Se observaron efectos citotóxicos sobre las líneas celulares del tipo HepG2 y EA.hy926. Dado que la estructura de la 2 ́-hidroxichalcona puede ser usada como sonda fluorescente, estos compuestos pueden ser útiles en el diagnóstico del cáncer y la localización del tumor, ya que pueden permitir la observación a través de la fluorescencia y la regresión del tumor durante el tratamiento, por lo que son candidatas potenciales como nuevos agentes anticancerígenos que podrían actuar sobre hepatomas humanos. CONCLUSIONES: Este trabajo describe el uso de las 2 ́-hidroxichalconas como un biomarcador luminiscente específico para células tumorales. También informamos la captación celular de 2>-hidroxicalconas, su distribución celular y los mecanismos que pueden ser responsables de sus efectos citotóxicos


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers, Tumor , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chalcones/pharmacology , Luminescent Agents , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Hep G2 Cells/drug effects
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939683

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effect of hnRNPK/Beclin1 signaling on the drug resistance of imatinib in Ph+ leukemia.@*METHODS@#Expression level of hnRNPK was verified in the imatinib resistant and sensitive Ph+ leukemia cell lines by using Western blot. hnRNPK expression was down-regulated by using RNAi. Expression level of LC3I/II and Beclin1 were detected by Western blot and the sensitivity of imatinib was analyzed by CCK-8 assay before and after modulation of hnRNPK expression.@*RESULTS@#hnRNPK showed overexpressed in imatinib resistant leukemia cell line. After the expression level of hnRNPK was down-regulated by RNAi, the sensitivity of drug resistance lines to imatinib restored, while the expression level of LC3I/II and Beclin1 were consistant with the modulation of hnRNPK expression.@*CONCLUSION@#hnRNP K/Beclin1 signaling may be involved in the development of imatinib resistance in Ph+ leukemia through the regulation of autophagy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Beclin-1 , Cell Line, Tumor , Drug Resistance , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein K , Imatinib Mesylate/pharmacology , Leukemia
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928765

ABSTRACT

Follicular lymphoma is an indolent malignant tumor originating from lymph nodes and lymphoid tissues, which may affect the patients' quality of survival due to the recurrence and progression. In recent years, with the deepening understand of the molecular biology and signaling pathways, many new targeted drugs for follicular lymphoma have been discovered, such as monoclonal antibodies, checkpoint inhibitors, epigenetic regulation related targeted therapies and signaling pathway inhibitors. In this review, the new progress of immunotherapy for follicular lymphoma is summarized briefly.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Epigenesis, Genetic , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy , Lymphoma, Follicular/drug therapy
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e244735, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1249280

ABSTRACT

L-Asparaginase catalysing the breakdown of L-Asparagine to L-Aspartate and ammonia is an enzyme of therapeutic importance in the treatment of cancer, especially the lymphomas and leukaemia. The present study describes the recombinant production, properties and anticancer potential of enzyme from a hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi. There are two genes coding for asparaginase in the genome of this organism. A 918 bp gene encoding 305 amino acids was PCR amplified and cloned in BL21 (DE3) strain of E. coli using pET28a (+) plasmid. The production of recombinant enzyme was induced under 0.5mM IPTG, purified by selective heat denaturation and ion exchange chromatography. Purified enzyme was analyzed for kinetics, in silico structure and anticancer properties. The recombinant enzyme has shown a molecular weight of 33 kDa, specific activity of 1175 U/mg, KM value 2.05mM, optimum temperature and pH 80°C and 8 respectively. No detectable enzyme activity found when L-Glutamine was used as the substrate. In silico studies have shown that the enzyme exists as a homodimer having Arg11, Ala87, Thr110, His112, Gln142, Leu172, and Lys232 being the putative active site residues. The free energy change calculated by molecular docking studies of enzyme and substrate was found as ∆G ­ 4.5 kJ/mole indicating the affinity of enzyme with the substrate. IC50 values of 5U/mL to 7.5U/mL were determined for FB, caco2 cells and HepG2 cells. A calculated amount of enzyme (5U/mL) exhibited 78% to 55% growth inhibition of caco2 and HepG2 cells. In conclusion, the recombinant enzyme produced and characterized in the present study offers a good candidate for the treatment of cancer. The procedures adopted in the present study can be prolonged for in vivo studies.


A L-asparaginase, que catalisa a degradação da L-asparagina em L-aspartato e amônia, é uma enzima de importância terapêutica no tratamento do câncer, especialmente dos linfomas e da leucemia. O presente estudo descreve a produção recombinante, propriedades e potencial anticancerígeno da enzima de Pyrococcus abyssi, um archaeon hipertermofílico. Existem dois genes que codificam para a asparaginase no genoma desse organismo. Um gene de 918 bp, que codifica 305 aminoácidos, foi amplificado por PCR e clonado na cepa BL21 (DE3) de E. coli usando o plasmídeo pET28a (+). A produção da enzima recombinante foi induzida sob 0,5mM de IPTG, purificada por desnaturação seletiva por calor e cromatografia de troca iônica. A enzima purificada foi analisada quanto à cinética, estrutura in silico e propriedades anticancerígenas. A enzima recombinante apresentou peso molecular de 33 kDa, atividade específica de 1.175 U / mg, valor de KM 2,05 mM, temperatura ótima de 80º C e pH 8. Nenhuma atividade enzimática detectável foi encontrada quando a L-glutamina foi usada como substrato. Estudos in silico mostraram que a enzima existe como um homodímero, com Arg11, Ala87, Thr110, His112, Gln142, Leu172 e Lys232 sendo os resíduos do local ativo putativo. A mudança de energia livre calculada por estudos de docking molecular da enzima e do substrato foi encontrada como ∆G ­ 4,5 kJ / mol, indicando a afinidade da enzima com o substrato. Valores de IC50 de 5U / mL a 7,5U / mL foram determinados para células FB, células caco2 e células HepG2. Uma quantidade de enzima (5U / mL) apresentou inibição de crescimento de 78% a 55% das células caco2 e HepG2, respectivamente. Em conclusão, a enzima recombinante produzida e caracterizada no presente estudo é uma boa possibilidade para o tratamento do câncer. Os procedimentos adotados na presente pesquisa podem ser aplicados para estudos in vivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asparaginase/biosynthesis , Asparaginase/pharmacology , Pyrococcus abyssi/enzymology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Substrate Specificity , Enzyme Stability , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology , Caco-2 Cells , Escherichia coli/genetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
18.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19801, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394060

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the recent past, drug delivery through nanoparticles is considered an effective tool to treat various diseases. Biopolymeric nanoparticles such as protein based nanoparticles have vital role as drug carrier as it is non-antigenic, and easily biodegradable. Curcumin, plant polyphenolic anticancerous compound was loaded into the casein nanoparticles by coacervation method. Particle size and surface charge of spherical casein nanoparticles as observed to be 201.4 nm and -86.9 mV. The loading efficiency of curcumin loaded casein nanoparticles was found to 85.05 %. In vitro drug release was performed at different pH (7.4 and 3.0), and the cumulative release was observed to be 24.8 and 20.13% and at different temperatures (25°C and 37°C), the cumulative release was observed to be 24.8 and 28.60 % respectively in 48 h. Curcumin release from casein nanoparticles was shown to be in a steady, and prolonged rate. The nanoparticles were observed to have an effective antimocrobial activity than curcumin in free form. The drug loaded casein nanoparticles were found to be potent particles to protect cells from hydrogen peroxide and UV light damage. The cytotoxic activity of nanoparticles on MCF7 and A549 cells were assayed and was observed to have an IC50 value of 609 and 825.2µg/ml. Cell death was observed to be through apoptosis, accompanied by DNA fragmentation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Caseins , Curcumin , Nanoparticles , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Apoptosis , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Curcumin/pharmacokinetics , Drug Liberation , A549 Cells , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacokinetics
19.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20476, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403722

ABSTRACT

Abstract Melatonin (MLT) reportedly reduces side effects associated with certain antineoplastic agents. Accordingly, we investigated the effect of MLT on cisplatin (CP)-induced gastric emptying (GE) delay. Mice were intraperitoneally pretreated with vehicle (ethanol 5%; control group), MLT (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg), or N-acetylcysteine (NAC; 150 mg/kg), followed by CP treatment (5 mg/kg). Pharmacological modulation was analyzed using relevant receptor antagonists (luzindole: non-selective MT1/MT2 antagonist; 5 mg/kg or 4-P-PDOT: selective MT2 antagonist; 4 mg/kg) before treatment with MLT plus CP. All treatments were performed once daily for three days. GE was assessed using phenol red. Gut morphology was examined using scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy. Compared with the control, CP decreased GE. Pretreatment with NAC and MLT (5 and 10 mg/kg) did not prevent CP-induced gastric dysmotility; however, pretreatment with 20 mg/kg MLT prevented this effect. In addition, luzindole and 4-P-PDOT suppressed MLT-mediated gastroprotection against cytotoxic effects of CP. CP caused degeneration of the gut mucosa, which was attenuated by MLT treatment. Thus, 20 mg/kg MLT prevented the GE delay and decreased CP-induced adverse effects on the gut mucosa. In addition, the gastroprotective activity was mediated via the MT2 receptor.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Receptor, Melatonin, MT2/analysis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/chemically induced , Melatonin/adverse effects , Acetylcysteine/agonists , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods , Gastric Emptying , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology
20.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(4): 1108-1116, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405227

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Letrozole is mainly used for the treatment of unexplained infertility, breast cancer and polycystic ovarian syndrome, with secondary use in ovarian stimulation. In cases of unexpected or unknown pregnancy during the use of letrozole, letrozole may cause a teratogenic effect on the fetus. In this reason, in this study, we aimed to determine the effect of letrozole on fetal bone development. In this study, 32 pregnant Wistar albino rats were used. The rats were divided into four groups: Control (saline) and high; 0.3 mg/kg, medium; 0.03 mg/kg, low; 0.003 mg/ kg letrozole. Saline and letrozole were administered in 100 mL solutions by intraperitonaly from day 11 to day 15 of pregnancy. The skeletal system development of fetuses was examined with double skeletal staining, immunohistochemical staining methods and mineral density scanning electron microscopy. A total of 100 fetuses from female rats, 25 in each group, were included in the study. As a result of that, ossification rates were observed to decrease depending on the dose of letrozole in the forelimb limb (scapula, humerus, radius, ulna) and hindlimb (femur, tibia, fibula) limb bones. As a result of the statistical analysis, a statistically significant decrease was found in the ossification rates of all bones between the control group and low, medium, high letrozole groups (p<0.001). Exposure to letrozole during pregnancy adversely affected ossification and bone growth. However, the teratogenic effects of letrozole are unclear. Therefore, it needs to be investigated more extensively.


RESUMEN: Letrozol se usa principalmente para el tratamiento de la infertilidad inexplicable, el cáncer de mama y el síndrome de ovario poliquístico, con estimulación ovárica de uso secundario. En casos de embarazo inesperado o desconocido durante el uso de letrozol, puede causar un efecto teratogénico en el feto. Por esta razón, en este estudio, nuestro objetivo fue determinar el efecto de letrozol en el desarrollo óseo fetal. Se utilizaron 32 ratas albinas Wistar preñadas las cuales se distribuyeron en cuatro grupos: Control (solución salina) y alta; 0,3 mg/kg, medio; 0,03 mg/kg, bajo; 0,003 mg/kg de letrozol. Se administró solución salina y letrozol en soluciones de 100 mL por vía intraperitoneal desde el día 11 hasta el día 15 de la preñez. El desarrollo del sistema esquelético de los fetos se examinó con tinción esquelética doble, métodos de tinción inmunohistoquímica y microscopía electrónica de barrido de densidad mineral. Se incluyeron en el estudio un total de 100 fetos de ratas hembra, 25 en cada grupo. Como resultado, se observó que las tasas de osificación disminuían dependiendo de la dosis de letrozol en los huesos de los miembros torácicos (escápula, húmero, radio, ulna) y de las miembros pélvicos (fémur, tibia, fíbula). Se encontró una disminución estadísticamente significativa en las tasas de osificación de todos los huesos entre el grupo control y los grupos de letrozol bajo, medio y alto (p<0,001). La exposición a letrozol durante la preñez afectó negativamente la osificación y el crecimiento óseo. Sin embargo, los efectos teratogénicos del letrozol no están claros por lo que debe ser investigado más extensamente.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Teratogens/pharmacology , Bone Development/drug effects , Fetal Development/drug effects , Letrozole/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Staining and Labeling/methods , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , Letrozole/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects
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