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Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 781-788, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385681


SUMMARY: High-intensity physical exercises can cause oxidative stress and muscle damage. Several medicinal plants have been used as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents. The present study evaluated high-intensity resistance exercise (HIRE) associated with Schinus Terebentifholius ethanolic extract (EE) on oxidative parameters and muscle damage in Wistar rats. Animals were divided into 04 groups (n=10/group): 1. Control (CG) - animals that did not undergo HIRE and were treated with vehicle (distilled water, orally); 2. Acute exercise (AE) - animals submitted to acute exercise session; 3. Exercise + vehicle (EV) - animals that underwent HIRE and were treated with vehicle and 4. Exercise + extract (EX) animals administered with Schinus terebenthifolius EE (100mg/Kg, orally) and submitted to the exercise session. Schinus terebenthifolius EE showed high in vitro antioxidant activity (13.88 ± 0.36 mg/mL). Before the experimental period, lactate was measured at pre and post moments of AE (p<0.0001) and EX (p<0.0001) groups. After the acute session, the following were evaluated: oxidative stress {malondialdehyde (MDA), sulfhydryl groups (SH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)}, muscle damage (creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In the in vivo analyses of the EX group compared to AE and EV groups, respectively: hepatic (MDA: p<0.0001 and SH: p=0.0033, in both; FRAP: p=0.0011 and p=0.0047), muscle (MDA, SH and FRAP: p<0.0001, in both; CK: p=0.0001 and p<0.0001; LDH: p<0.0001, in both), serum levels (MDA: p=0.0003, p=0.0012, SH: p=0.0056, p=0.0200, FRAP: p=0.0017 and p=0.0165) were significant. There was no significant difference in ALT and AST markers. It could be concluded that Schinus terebenthifolius EE associated with HIRE attenuated oxidative stress and muscle damage in rats.

RESUMEN: Los ejercicios físicos de alta intensidad pueden causar estrés oxidativo y daño muscular. Varias plantas medicinales se han utilizado como agentes antioxidantes y antiinflamatorios. El presente estudio evaluó el ejercicio de resistencia de alta intensidad (HIRE) asociado con el extracto etanólico (EE) de Schinus terebentifholius sobre los parámetros oxidativos y el daño muscular en ratas Wistar. Los animales se dividieron en 4 grupos (n=10/grupo): 1. Control (GC) - animales que no se sometieron a HIRE y fueron tratados con vehículo (agua destilada, por vía oral); 2. Ejercicio agudo (AE) - animales sometidos a sesión de ejercicio agudo; 3. Ejercicio + vehículo (EV) - animales que se sometieron a HIRE y fueron tratados con vehículo y 4. Ejercicio + extracto (EX) animales administrados con Schinus terebenthifolius EE (100 mg/kg, por vía oral) y sometidos a la sesión de ejercicio. Schinus terebenthifolius EE mostró una alta actividad antioxidante in vitro (13,88 ± 0,36 mg/mL). Antes del período experimental, se midió el lactato en los momentos pre y post de los grupos AE (p<0,0001) y EX (p<0,0001). Tras la sesión aguda, se evaluaron: el estrés oxidativo malondialdehído (MDA), grupos sulfhidrilo (SH) y poder antioxidante reductor férrico (FRAP), daño muscular (creatina quinasa (CK) y lactato deshidrogenasa (LDH)), alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) y aspartato aminotransferasa (AST). En los análisis in vivo del grupo EX frente a los grupos AE y EV, respectivamente: hepático (MDA: p<0,0001 y SH: p=0,0033, en ambos; FRAP: p=0,0011 y p=0,0047), muscular (MDA, SH y FRAP: p<0,0001, en ambos; CK: p=0,0001 y p<0,0001; LDH: p<0,0001, en ambos), niveles séricos (MDA: p=0,0003, p=0,0012, SH: p=0,0056, p=0,0200, FRAP: p=0,0017 y p=0,0165) fueron significativas. No hubo diferencia significativa en los marcadores ALT y AST. Se podría concluir que Schinus terebenthifolius EE asociado con HIRE atenuó el estrés oxidativo y el daño muscular en ratas.

Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Exercise , Anacardiaceae , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Physical Endurance , Plants, Medicinal , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Biomarkers , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress , Dietary Supplements , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(2): 256-267, mar. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395304


Gentamicin induced acute nephrotoxicity (GIAN) is considered as one of the important causes of acute renal failure. In recent years' great effort has been focused on the introduction of herbal medicine as a novel therapeutic agent for prevention of GIAN. Hence, the current study was designed to investigate the effect of green coffee bean extract (GCBE) on GIAN in rats. Results of the present study showed that rat groups that received oral GCBE for 7 days after induction of GIAN(by a daily intraperitoneal injection of gentamicin for 7days), reported a significant improvement in renal functions tests when compared to the GIAN model groups. Moreover, there was significant amelioration in renal oxidative stress markers (renal malondialdehyde, renal superoxide dismutase) and renal histopathological changes in the GCBE-treated groups when compared to GIAN model group. These results indicate that GCBE has a potential role in ameliorating renal damage involved in GIAN.

La nefrotoxicidad aguda inducida por gentamicina (GIAN) se considera una de las causas importantes de insuficiencia renal aguda. En los últimos años, el gran esfuerzo se ha centrado en la introducción de la medicina herbal como un nuevo agente terapéutico para la prevención de GIAN. Por lo tanto, el estudio actual fue diseñado para investigar el efecto del extracto de grano de café verde (GCBE) sobre la GIAN en ratas. Los resultados del presente estudio mostraron que los grupos de ratas que recibieron GCBE oral durante 7 días después de la inducción de GIAN (mediante una inyección intraperitoneal diaria de gentamicina durante 7 días), informaron una mejora significativa en las pruebas de función renal en comparación con los grupos del modelo GIAN. Además, hubo una mejora significativa en los marcadores de estrés oxidativo renal (malondialdehído renal, superóxido dismutasa renal) y cambios histopatológicos renales en los grupos tratados con GCBE en comparación con el grupo del modelo GIAN. Estos resultados indican que GCBE tiene un papel potencial en la mejora del daño renal involucrado en GIAN.

Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Gentamicins/toxicity , Coffea/chemistry , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Coffee , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/pathology , Kidney Function Tests , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Int. j. morphol ; 40(5): 1294-1299, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405302


SUMMARY: Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) of the small intestine causes serious abdominal pathologies including tissue dysfunction and organ failure. L-carnitine (L-C), a powerful antioxidant, may help lessen the severity of these pathological effects since it plays a key role in energy metabolism. In this work we aimed to study the effects of L-C on the isolated ileal and duodenal contractility and histological changes in intestinal ischemia and reperfusion injury. Twenty eight Wistar rats were divided into four groups. The first group is the control group. Second group, I/R group, had rats submitted to 45-minutes of intestinal ischemia and to 45-minutes reperfusion. The third group, I/R+ L-C group, rats were treated with L-C 5 minutes before reperfusion and than submitted to ischemia. The fourth group, included rats that were treated with L-C without ischemia or reperfusion. Intestinal ischemia was conducted by obstructing superior mesentery arteries by silk loop. The ileal and duodenal segments were isolated and suspended in tissue bath. Contractile responses were induced by acetylcholine (Ach) and relaxation was achieved with phenylephrine. At the same time the terminal ileal and duodenal segments were examined for histological changes. Ach-induced contraction responses were higher in the I/R+L-C group, the L-C group, and the control group compared to the I/R group, in both ileal and duodenal segments. On the other hand, the phenylephrine-induced relaxations were higher in the I/R+L-C and L-C groups, especially in duodenal segments. In I/R group intestinal morphology was observed to be severely damaged whereas in I/R+L-C group the damage was noticeably lower possibly due to protective properties of L-C. I/R injury caused severe cellular damage response within the muscularis resulting in decreased gastrointestinal motility. Treatment with the L-C has significantly affected the gastrointestinal contractility. Also L-C treatment reduced the damage in intestinal morphology that occurs after IR injury.

RESUMEN: La isquemia-reperfusión (I/R) del intestino delgado provoca graves patologías abdominales que incluyen disfunción tisular y falla orgánica. La L-carnitina (L-C), un poderoso antioxidante, puede ayudar a disminuir la gravedad de estos efectos patológicos, ya que desempeña un papel clave en el metabolismo energético. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar los efectos de L-C sobre la contractilidad ileal y duodenal aislada y los cambios histológicos en la lesión por isquemia y reperfusión intestinal. Se dividieron 28 ratas Wistar en cuatro grupos. El primer grupo fue el control. El segundo grupo, grupo I/R, de ratas sometidas durante 45 minutos de isquemia intestinal y a 45 minutos de reperfusión. El tercer grupo, grupo I/R+ L-C, las ratas se trataron con L-C, 5 minutos antes de la reperfusión y luego se sometieron a isquemia. El cuarto grupo, las ratas fueron tratadas con L-C sin isquemia ni reperfusión. La isquemia intestinal se realizó obstruyendo la arteria mesentérica superior con un asa de seda. Los segmentos ileal y duodenal se aislaron y suspendieron en un baño de tejido. Las respuestas contráctiles fueron inducidas por acetilcolina (Ach) y la relajación se logró con fenilefrina. Al mismo tiempo, se examinaron cambios histológicos de los segmentos del íleon terminal y del duodeno. Las respuestas de contracción inducidas por Ach fueron mayores en el grupo I/R+L-C, el grupo L-C y el grupo control en comparación con el grupo I/R, tanto en el segmento ileal como en el duodenal. Por otra parte, las relajaciones inducidas por fenilefrina fueron mayores en los grupos I/R+L-C y L-C, especialmente en los segmentos duodenales. En el grupo I/R se observó que la morfología intestinal estaba dañada significativamente, mientras que en el grupo I/R+L-C el daño fue notablemente menor, posiblemente debido a las propiedades protectoras de L-C. La lesión por I/R causó una respuesta de daño celular severo dentro de la capa muscular que resultó en una disminución de la motilidad gastrointestinal. El tratamiento con L-C afectó significativamente la contractilidad gastrointestinal. Por otra parte, el tratamiento L-C redujo el daño en la morfología intestinal que ocurre después de la lesión por IR.

Animals , Female , Rats , Carnitine/administration & dosage , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Gastrointestinal Motility/drug effects , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Carnitine/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Intestines/pathology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Int. j. morphol ; 40(4): 1060-1066, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405249


SUMMARY: N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is used for contrast induced acut kidney injury (CI-AKI) prophylaxis because of its antioxidant effects. Paricalcitol, which has reno-protective effects, is likely to provide a more effective prophylaxis when added to NAC treatment. The study was designed based on this hypothesis. The study was organised to include 4 groups each consisting of 7 rats. Group 1 was the control group, and Group 2 included rats with CI-AKI. Rats in Group 3 were administered NAC at a dose of 100 mg/kg via oral gavage once a day for 5 days. Rats in group 4 were administered paricalcitol at a dose of 0.4 mcg/kg once a day for 5 days in addition to NAC. CI-AKI was induced after the treatments in both groups. The study was terminated on the sixth day. Samples were collected from the rats' sera and kidney tissues to study oxidant and antioxidant parameters; kidney function tests were also studied. There were significant differences between the contrast nephropathy group (Group 2) and NAC and NAC+paricalcitol groups with respect to serum urea and creatinine levels. When the same groups were compared regarding oxidant (TOS-MDA) and antioxidant (TAC-Paraoxonase) parameters, we observed that the oxidant parameters increased in serum and kidney tissue samples with NAC use, and that effect was strengthened by the addition of paricalcitol to NAC treatment. However, despite increased antioxidant effectiveness, we observed no decrease in urea and creatinine levels when paricalcitol was added for CI-AKI in rats. There was no significant difference between Group 3 and Group 4. Paricalcitol provides a more potent antioxidant effect in both serum and kidney tissue samples when added to NAC treatment in rats with CI-AKI. Despite increased antioxidant parameters, however, paricalcitol does not provide a significant decrease in urea and creatinine levels.

RESUMEN: Debido a sus efectos atioxidantes la N- acetilcisteína (NAC) se usa para la profilaxis de la lesión renal aguda inducida por contraste (CI-AKI). Es probable que el paricalcitol, que tiene efectos renoprotectores, proporcione una profilaxis más eficaz cuando se agrega al tratamiento con NAC. En base a esta hipótesis el estudio fue diseñado para incluir cuatro grupos cada uno compuesto por siete ratas. El grupo 1 fue el grupo control y el grupo 2 incluyó ratas con CI-AKI. A las ratas del Grupo 3 se les administró NAC con una dosis de 100 mg/kg por sonda oral una vez al día, durante 5 días. A las ratas del grupo 4 se les administró paricalcitol a una dosis de 0,4 mcg/kg una vez al día durante 5 días, además de NAC. Se indujo CI-AKI después de los tratamientos en ambos grupos. El estudio finalizó el sexto día. Se recolectaron muestras de suero y tejidos renales de ratas para estudiar los parámetros oxidantes y antioxidantes; También se estudiaron las pruebas de función renal. Hubo diferencias significativas entre el grupo de nefropatía por contraste (Grupo 2) y los grupos NAC y NAC+paricalcitol con respecto a los niveles séricos de urea y creatinina. Cuando se compararon los mismos grupos con respecto a los parámetros oxidantes (TOS-MDA) y antioxidantes (TAC-Paraoxonase), observamos que los parámetros oxidantes aumentaron en muestras de suero y tejido renal con el uso de NAC, y ese efecto se vio reforzado por la adición de paricalcitol a tratamiento NAC. Sin embargo, a pesar de una mayor eficacia antioxidante, no observamos una disminución en los niveles de urea y creatinina cuando se agregó paricalcitol para CI-AKI en ratas. No hubo diferencias significativas entre el Grupo 3 y el Grupo 4. El paricalcitol proporciona un efecto antioxidante más potente tanto en muestras de suero como de tejido renal cuando se agrega al tratamiento con NAC en ratas con CI-AKI. Sin embargo, a pesar del aumento de los parámetros antioxidantes, el paricalcitol no proporciona una disminución sig- nificativa en los niveles de urea y creatinina.

Animals , Rats , Acetylcysteine/administration & dosage , Ergocalciferols/administration & dosage , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Ergocalciferols/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Contrast Media/adverse effects , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Int. j. morphol ; 40(4): 1035-1042, 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405240


SUMMARY: Peripheral nerve damage (PNI) can cause demyelination, axonal degeneration and loss of motor and sensory function. Melatonin with its antioxidative effect, has been reported to reduce scar formation in nerve injury, take a role in repair process by suppressing fibroblast proliferation in the damaged area. It was aimed to investigate the effect of melatonin in the repair of peripheral nerve damage and the relationship between S100 proteins and angiogenic regulation. Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups. In the Defect group, 6 mm tibial bone defect using a motorized drill was created and kept immobile for 28 days. In Defect + graft group, tibial bone defect with allograft treatment was applied and kept immobile for 28 days. In Defect + graft + Melatonin group, melatonin was administered to defect + allograft group. All rats were sacrified by decapitation, skin and tibia bone were removed then fixed with 10 % neutral buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin, sections were examined under light microscopy. In the Defect+Graft group, enlargement and occlusion of the vessels with degeneration of the epineural sheath, thickening of the endoneural sheath and mild hyperplasia of schwannocytus (Schwann cells) were remarkable. In the Defect+Graft+Melatonin group, the epineural sheath was tight and regular, the axonal structures were prominent in the endoneural area. Mild S100 expression was observed in Defect+Graft group in fibers of the endoneural region with a prominent expression in schwannocytus. In Defect+Graft+Melatonin group (10mg/kg), S100 expression was moderate in areas where schwannocytus proliferated and nerve-connective tissue sheaths were reconstructed. VEGF expression was moderate in endoneural, perineural and epineural connective tissue sheaths in the Defect+Graft+Melatonin group, with negative expression in blood vessel endothelial cells, but with a positive expression in schwannocytus. We conclude that with the application of melatonin; oxidative stress decreases, schwannocytus proliferation increases, having positive influence on nerve repair with the regulation of S100 signaling and angiogenetic structuring.

RESUMEN: El daño a los nervios periféricos puede causar desmielinización, degeneración axonal y pérdida de la función motora y sensorial. Se ha informado que la melatonina, con su efecto antioxidante, reduce la formación de cicatrices en lesiones nerviosas y desempeña un papel en el proceso de reparación al suprimir la proliferación de fibroblastos en el área dañada. El objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar el efecto de la melatonina en la reparación del daño de los nervios periféricos y la relación entre las proteínas S100 y la regulación angiogénica. Ratas albinas Wistar se dividieron en 3 grupos. En el grupo Defecto, se creó un defecto óseo tibial de 6 mm con un taladro motorizado y se mantuvo inmóvil durante 28 días. En el grupo Defecto + injerto, se aplicó tratamiento de defecto óseo tibial con aloinjerto y se mantuvo inmóvil durante 28 días. En el grupo Defecto + injerto + Melatonina, se administró melatonina al grupo defecto + aloinjerto. Todas las ratas fueron sacrificadas por decapitación, se extrajo la piel y el hueso de la tibia y luego se fijaron con formalina tamponada neutra al 10 % y se incluyeron en parafina, las secciones se examinaron bajo microscopía óptica. En el grupo Defecto+Injerto, fueron notables el agrandamiento y la oclusión de los vasos con degeneración de la vaina epineural, engrosamiento de la vaina endoneural e hiperplasia leve de los schwannocitos (neurolemnocitos). En el grupo Defecto+Injerto+Melatonina, la vaina epineural era estrecha y regular, las estructuras axonales eran prominentes en el área endoneural. Se observó expresión leve de S100 en el grupo Defecto+Injerto en fibras de la región endoneural con una expresión prominente en los schwannocitos. En el grupo Defecto+Injerto+Melatonina, la expresión de S100 fue moderada en áreas donde proliferaron los schwannocitos y se reconstruyeron las vainas de tejido conectivo nervioso. La expresión de VEGF fue moderada en vainas de tejido conectivo endoneural, perineural y epineural en el grupo Defecto+Injerto+Melatonina, con expresión negativa en células endoteliales de vasos sanguíneos, pero con expresión positiva en schwannocitos. Concluimos que con la aplicación de melatonina; disminuye el estrés oxidativo, aumenta la proliferación de schwannocitos, influyendo positivamente en la reparación nerviosa con la regulación de la señalización S100 y la estructuración angiogenética.

Animals , Rats , Tibia/pathology , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , Melatonin/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Peripheral Nerves/drug effects , Tibia/innervation , S100 Proteins , Rats, Wistar , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Disease Models, Animal , Fibroblasts
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19562, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394045


Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the Coffea arabica Lineu (L.) leaf extract and its effects on platelet aggregation of dyslipidemic rats. The extract was obtained by the percolation of C. arabica L. leaves in hydroethanolic solution 70% (v/v). The mass spectrometry FIA-ESI-MS² suggested the presence of chlorogenic acid, rutin acid, and quinic acid. The DPPH• radicals scavenging capacity was demonstrated (IC50 = 0.06 mg/mL). The extract was administered to rats by gavage (300 mg/kg/day) for 56 days. Dyslipidemia was induced by administering Triton WR-1339 (300 mg/kg body weight) on the 54th day. On day 56, blood was collected by puncturing the abdominal aorta artery and the aortic artery was removed. Lipid profile, markers of renal and hepatic injury, lipid peroxidation, and platelet aggregation tests were carried out. The ingestion of extract reduced the lipid peroxidation (aorta and plasma) and platelet aggregation in dyslipidemic rats. The extract did not affect markers of renal and hepatic function as analyzed in this study, suggesting neither impaired liver nor kidney function in these animals. Therefore, our results demonstrate that the extract of leaves of C. arabica L. show antioxidant potential in vitro and in vivo as well as anti-platelet aggregation in dyslipidemic animals

Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Plant Extracts/analysis , Plant Leaves/classification , Coffea/adverse effects , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Blood Platelets/classification , Platelet Aggregation , Antioxidants/administration & dosage
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19516, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383980


Abstract The present study aims to evaluate the effects of Ginkgo biloba (GKB) extract as "add- on" therapy with metformin on the lipid profile, inflammatory markers, leptin and the total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It is a multi- center, randomized, placebo-controlled double-blinded clinical study. Sixty patients were allocated into two groups: control and treatment groups; they received orally either 120 mg starch/capsule or 120mg GKB/capsule, respectively as an adjuvant with metformin for 90 days. Blood samples were obtained at zero time and after 90 days. The blood was utilized for analysis of the lipid profile, inflammatory markers, leptin, and TAOC. The GKB extract produced a significant decrease in the levels of TG, LDL-c, and CRP, with a significant increase in HDL-c compared to baseline values. There were no significant changes reported in the placebo-treated group. It also produced a significant decrease in the concentrations of IL-6, TNF-α, and leptin compared to baseline values and placebo-treated groups with a significant increase in TAOC compared to baseline values. In conclusion, GKB extract, as an adjuvant with metformin, decreases inflammatory mediators, leptin level and improves the antioxidant status and lipid profile of T2DM patients improperly managed with metformin

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Patients , Placebos/analysis , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Double-Blind Method , Ginkgo biloba/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Metformin/pharmacology , Antioxidants/administration & dosage
Rev. medica electron ; 43(6): 1649-1659, dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1409680


RESUMEN El café y su impacto en la salud es un tema en el que resulta válido profundizar. Históricamente, el consumo de café se ha asociado con efectos adversos, como problemas cardiovasculares y varios tipos de cáncer. Pero en gran cantidad de fuentes bibliográficas contemporáneas se enfatiza en los efectos beneficiosos de su consumo, sin mencionar los daños que puede ocasionar a la salud. Se hace esta revisión bibliográfica con el objetivo de profundizar en lo más actualizado sobre los beneficios y perjuicios del consumo del café y su relación con la aparición del cáncer. En la revisión se consultaron artículos de las bases de datos PubMed, SciELO, ClinicalKey y LILACS. Se constató que el consumo de café no se asocia con la aparición de diferentes tipos de cánceres, y que el consumo moderado aporta propiedades protectoras para la salud. Teniendo en cuenta el carácter multifactorial del cáncer, los autores consideran que suponer que el consumo de esta bebida puede impedir carcinogénesis, es una tesis que debe ser interpretada con cautela (AU).

ABSTRACT Coffee and its impact on health is a topic on which it is valid to deepen. Historically, coffee consumption has been associated with side effects, such as cardiovascular problems and several types of cancer. But many contemporary bibliographic sources emphasize the beneficial effects of its consumption, without mentioning the damage it can cause to health. This bibliographic review is done with the aim of deepening into the most updated knowledge about the benefits and harms of coffee consumption and its relationship with the appearance of cancer. Articles from PubMed, SciELO, ClinicalKey and LILACS databases were reviewed. It was found that coffee consumption is not associated with the appearance of different types of cancers, and that moderate consumption provides protective properties for health. In view of the multifactorial character of cancer, the authors consider that assuming that the consumption of this drink can prevent carcinogenesis is a thesis that should be taken with caution (AU).

Humans , Male , Female , Coffee/toxicity , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Caffeine , Risk Factors , Coffee/adverse effects , Polyphenols , Antioxidants/administration & dosage
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(4): 339-350, jul. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349507


This study was aimed to explore the comparative efficacy of cinnamon bark extract, cinnamaldehyde and kaempferol against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced oxidative stress. Cinnamon bark extract, cinnamaldehyde and kaempferol were utilized or in-vivo analysis. From the results of in-vitro screening tests, cinnamon ethanolic extract was selected for in-vivo study in mouse model. For this, Balb/c albino mice were treated with cinnamon ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg), cinnamaldehyde (10 mg/kg) and kaempferol (10 mg/kg) orally for 14 days followed by single intraperitoneal administration of APAP during 8 hours. Blood and organ samples were collected for biochemical and histopathological analysis. The results showed that cinnamon bark ethanolic extract, cinnamaldehyde and kaempferol ameliorated APAP-induced oxidative stress and organ toxicity in mice. In conclusion, cinnamaldehyde and kaempferol possess comparable antioxidant potential even at 20-times less dose as compared to cinnamon bark ethanolic extract suggesting therapeutic potential in oxidative stress-related disorders.

Este estudio tuvo como objetivo explorar la eficacia comparativa del extracto de corteza de canela, cinamaldehído y kaempferol contra el estrés oxidativo inducido por acetaminofén (APAP). Se utilizaron extracto de corteza de canela, cinamaldehído y kaempferol para el análisis in vivo. De los resultados de las pruebas de detección in vitro, se seleccionó el extracto etanólico de canela para estudio in vivo en modelo de ratón. Para ello, los ratones albinos Balb/c fueron tratados con extracto etanólico de canela (200 mg/kg), cinamaldehído (10 mg/kg) y kaempferol (10 mg/kg) por vía oral durante 14 días, seguido de la administración intraperitoneal única de APAP durante 8 horas. Se recogieron muestras de sangre y órganos para análisis bioquímicos e histopatológicos. Los resultados mostraron que el extracto etanólico de la corteza de canela, el cinamaldehído y el kaempferol mejoraron el estrés oxidativo inducido por APAP y la toxicidad orgánica en ratones. En conclusión, el cinamaldehído y el kaempferol poseen un potencial antioxidante comparable, incluso a una dosis 20 veces menor en comparación con el extracto etanólico de la corteza de canela, lo que sugiere un potencial terapéutico en los trastornos relacionados con el estrés oxidativo.

Animals , Mice , Acrolein/analogs & derivatives , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/chemistry , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Kaempferols/chemistry , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Acrolein/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Disease Models, Animal , Phytochemicals , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/pathology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Mice, Inbred BALB C
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(4): 394-405, jul. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352427


In this study, it was aimed to determine the antioxidant and anticancer activities of Sideritis perfoliata methanolic extract (SPE) on cervical cancer cells (HeLa). Different doses (25, 50,100 and 200 µg/mL) of SPE were used to determine proliferation of HeLa cells by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) staining method. Induction of apoptosis was determined by Annexine-V and propidium iodide staining method. Interleukin (IL) 6-8 levels were measured by ELISA method. Antioxidant activities of SPE were determined by DPPH, DNA (plasmid pBR322) protecting and cellular antioxidant activity tests. Some phytochemicals of SPE were also screened by LC-MS-MS. It was determined that SPE reduced the proliferation of HeLa cells and also induced apoptosis. IL6-8 levels importantly decreased at 200 µg/mL. SPE exhibited moderately antioxidant activities in tests used. Among the phenolics identified, vanillic acid had the highest amount. As a result, it was determined to have the anticancer activity of SPE by decreasing cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis and decreasing IL6-8 in HeLa cells.

En este estudio, se tuvo como objetivo determinar las actividades antioxidantes y anticancerígenas del extracto metanólico de Sideritis perfoliata (SPE) en las células de cáncer de cuello uterino (HeLa). Se utilizaron diferentes dosis (25, 50, 100 y 200 µg/mL) de SPE para determinar la proliferación de células HeLa mediante el método de tinción con bromuro de 3-[4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il] -2,5-difenil-tetrazolio (MTT). La inducción de apoptosis se determinó mediante el método de tinción con anexina-V y yoduro de propidio. Los niveles de interleucina (IL) 6-8 se midieron mediante el método ELISA. Las actividades antioxidantes de SPE se determinaron mediante pruebas de DPPH, protección de ADN (plásmido pBR322) y actividad antioxidante celular. Algunos fitoquímicos de SPE también se analizaron mediante LC-MS-MS. Se determinó que SPE redujo la proliferación de células HeLa y también indujo apoptosis. Los niveles de IL6-8 disminuyeron de manera importante a 200 µg/mL. SPE mostró actividades moderadamente antioxidantes en las pruebas utilizadas. Entre los fenólicos identificados, el ácido vainílico tuvo la mayor cantidad. Como resultado, se determinó que tenía la actividad anticancerígena de SPE al disminuir la proliferación celular, inducir apoptosis y disminuir la IL6-8 en las células HeLa.

Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Sideritis/chemistry , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Phenols/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cell Survival , Interleukin-8/analysis , Interleukin-6/analysis , Apoptosis/drug effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antineoplastic Agents , Antioxidants/chemistry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(2): 132-146, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342208


We investigated the effects of dichloromethane extract (DME) from Myrcia splendenson alterations caused by type 2 diabetes in the blood and kidney of rats, in order to reduce side effects caused by synthetic drugs. Rats received streptozotocin (60 mg/kg),15 minutes after nicotinamide (120 mg/kg) or water. After 72 hours, the glycemic levels were evaluated to confirm diabetes and the animals received (15 days) DME (25, 50, 100 or 150 mg/Kg) or water. DME partially reversed hyperglycemia and (100 and 150 mg/kg) reversed hypertriglyceridemia. Histopathological findings elucidated that DME reduced damage to pancreatic islets. DME 150 mg/kgreversed the increases in TBA-RS, the reduction in the sulfhydryl content, 100 and 150 mg/kg increased CAT, reversed the decrease in GSH-Px and increased it activity in the blood. DME 150 mg/kg reversed CAT and GSH-Px reductions in the kidney. We believe that DME effects might be dependent on the presence of phenolic compounds.

Investigamos los efectos del extracto de diclorometano (DME)de Myrcia splendens sobre las alteraciones causadas por la diabetes tipo 2 en la sangre y los riñones de las ratas, para reducir los efectos secundarios causados por las drogas sintéticas. Las ratas recibieron estreptozotocina (60 mg/kg), 15 minutos después de la nicotinamida (120 mg/kg) o agua. Después de 72 horas, se confirmo la diabetes y los animales recibieron (15 días) DME (25, 50, 100 o 150 mg/Kg) o agua. DME revierte parcialmente la hiperglucemia y revierte la hipertrigliceridemia. DME redujo el daño a los islotes pancreáticos. DME revirtió los aumentos en TBA-RS, la reducción en el contenido de sulfhidrilo, aumentó la CAT, revirtió la disminución en GSH-Px y aumentó su actividad en la sangre. Además, DME revirtió las reducciones de CAT y GSH-Px en el riñón. Creemos que los efectos provocados por DME pueden depender de la presencia de compuestos fenólicos.

Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Methylene Chloride/administration & dosage , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Rats, Wistar , Streptozocin , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Hypolipidemic Agents/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/administration & dosage
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e18882, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339308


Antioxidants are commonly used for maturation, fertilization and early development of embryos. Melatonin as an antioxidant have been recently proven to be useful for the assisted reproductive technology. In the present study, we evaluated the roles of melatonin in the in vitro maturation, fertilization, development and also the gene expression of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) in the blastocysts. The immature oocytes of BDF1 mice were transferred to the media containing different doses of melatonin (10-6, 10-9, 10-12 M). The blastocysts that developed under in vitro fertilization from each group were stained to determine the cell number of embryos and analyzed to determine the expression level of HMGB1 by real-time PCR. The most effective doses of melatonin for maturation of oocytes were 10-6 and 10-12M (P<0.05). Fertilization rate, early development and the cell number of blastocysts were significantly higher in the group that treated with 10-12 M of melatonin comparing to the other groups. The HMGB1 expression decreased in groups that treated with 10-6M and 10-9M of melatonin and increased in the group that treated with 10-12 M of melatonin, but did not show a significant difference (p˃0.05). From the results, it may be concluded that the melatonin could be effective when the embryos undergo maturation, fertilization and early developmental processes. The HMGB1 expression, as a marker of early development in mice embryos, increased in the groups that treated with low doses of melatonin

Animals , Female , Mice , Blastocyst , Fertilization in Vitro , Embryonic Development , In Vitro Oocyte Maturation Techniques/instrumentation , Melatonin/adverse effects , Gene Expression , Cell Count/instrumentation , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , Embryonic Structures , Antioxidants/administration & dosage
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49: Pub. 1839, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363603


Canine sperm is a very delicate cell that is quite susceptible to oxidative stress since the cytoplasm is restricted and features little antioxidant reserves. Furthermore, the sperm membrane has some polyunsaturated fatty acids sensitive to lipid peroxidation, which makes it important to addition antioxidant substances to the diluter aiming at decreasing such stress to the sperm cell, particularly during seminal cryopreservation. Several antioxidants have been used in this process in some domestic animal's species, however, the use of palmitic acid has been little reported in works on cryopreservation of semen of the canine species. Hence, this study aimed to assess the effect of addition antioxidants palmitic acid and vitamin E to the Tris-egg yolk diluter on the semen quality of dogs after thawing. Samples were collected from the ejaculates of 4 adult dogs, apparently healthy, of the American Pit Bull Terrier breed of kennels in the city of Teresina, PI, places where the pre-freezing procedures of the dog's semen were performed. The samples were diluted in Tris citric acid fructose (3.28 g Tris-hydroxymethyl-aminomethane, 1.78 g citric acid monohydrate and 1.25 g D-fructose), dissolved in 100 mL distilled water, and added 20% egg yolk and 6% glycerol, at the concentration of 100x106 sptz/mL. The semen samples were divided into 3 mL aliquots to form 3 experimental groups: G1 - Only Tris-egg yolk (Control group); G2 - Tris-egg yolk + 100 µM palmitic acid; and G3 - Tris-egg yolk + 116 µM vitamin E. Semen was collected weekly over a period of little over 2 months. After thawing, thermorresistance test (TTR) was carried out at 0, 30, 60, and 90 min to assess spermatics motility and vigor, in addition to analysis of integrity of plasma membrane, acrosomal membrane and mitochondrial activity of the sperm, using fluorescent probes. These assessments were performed out at the Animal Reproduction Biotechnology Laboratory (LBRA/UFPI). In the TTR, G2 and G3 didn't exhibit significant results for spermatics motility or vigor when compared with the control group. The palmitic acid and vitamin E also had no significant effects on the parameters of acrosomal membrane integrity or mitochondrial activity. However, sperm cryopreserved with the addition of palmitic acid exhibited significant differences for plasma membrane integrity, providing greater protection to the sperm cells in G2. The palmitic acid is one of the most saturated fatty acids in human semen, with reports of great proportions also in the seminal plasma of dogs. Its main role is to protect the plasma membrane from external damage, improving viability and fertility of the sperm after cryopreservation. Data is scarce in the literature on the composition of fatty acids in canine semen and regarding the use of palmitic acid as a seminal antioxidant in that species, which grants further studies aiming to investigate such valuable information for canine reproduction. It is concluded that addition palmitic acid at 100µM concentration to the Tris-egg yolk diluter was able to preserve the integrity of the plasma membrane during the process of cryopreservation of canine semen.(AU)

Animals , Male , Dogs , Semen/drug effects , Vitamin E , Cryopreservation/veterinary , Oxidative Stress , Palmitic Acid/adverse effects , Semen Analysis/veterinary , Antioxidants/administration & dosage
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 39: e2019295, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143846


ABSTRACT Objective: To assess vitamin E intake and its relationship with sociodemographic variables, and to identify the main dietary sources of the nutrient in the diet of adolescents. Methods: This is a population-based cross-sectional study that used data from 891 adolescents living in Campinas, SP, participating in ISACamp 2014/15 (Health Survey) and ISACamp-Nutri 2015/16 (Food Consumption and Nutritional Status Survey). The nutrient intake averages were estimated using the Generalized Linear Model, adjusted for the total energy of the diet. Dietary sources of vitamin E were identified from the calculation of the relative contribution. Results: The average vitamin E intake was 3.2 mg for adolescents aged 10 to 13 years and 3.5 mg for those aged 14 to 19 years, results far below the recommended values of 9 and 12 mg, respectively. The prevalence of inadequacy was 92.5%. ­Ten ­foods/­food groups represented 85.7% of vitamin E present in the adolescents' diet; the vegetable oils group accounted for more than a quarter of the contribution (25.5%), followed by cookies (9.1%) and beans (8.9%). Conclusions: There were a low intake and a high prevalence of inadequate vitamin E intake among adolescents in Campinas, with vegetable oil as the main source. For the total number of adolescents, almost 33% of the nutrient content was derived from foods of poor nutritional quality such as cookies, packaged snacks, and margarine. The results of this study can guide public health actions that aim to improve the quality of adolescents' diets.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a ingestão de vitamina E e sua relação com variáveis sociodemográficas, e identificar as principais fontes alimentares do nutriente na dieta de adolescentes. Métodos: Trata-se de estudo transversal de base populacional que utilizou dados de 891 adolescentes residentes em Campinas, SP, participantes do ISACamp 2014/15 (Inquérito de Saúde) e ISACamp-Nutri 2015/16 (Inquérito de Consumo Alimentar e Estado Nutricional). As médias de ingestão do nutriente foram estimadas por meio de modelo linear generalizado, ajustado pela energia total da dieta. As fontes alimentares de vitamina E foram identificadas pelo cálculo de contribuição relativa. Resultados: A ingestão média de vitamina E foi de 3,2 mg para os adolescentes de 10 a 13 anos e de 3,5 mg para os de 14 a 19 anos, resultados bem inferiores aos valores recomendados de 9 e 12 mg, respectivamente. A prevalência de inadequação foi de 92,5%. Dez alimentos/grupos alimentares representaram 85,7% da vitamina E presente na dieta dos adolescentes; o grupo dos óleos vegetais totalizou mais de um quarto da contribuição (25,5%), seguido dos biscoitos (9,1%) e dos feijões (8,9%). Conclusões: Observou-se baixa ingestão e elevada prevalência de inadequação do consumo de vitamina E nos adolescentes de Campinas, apontando o óleo vegetal como principal fonte. Para o total de adolescentes, quase 33% do teor do nutriente derivava de alimentos de má qualidade nutricional como biscoitos, salgadinhos de pacote e margarina. Os resultados deste estudo podem direcionar ações de saúde pública que objetivem melhorar a qualidade da dieta dos adolescentes.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Vitamin E/analysis , Nutritional Status , Feeding Behavior , Vitamin E/administration & dosage , Brazil , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Nutrition Surveys , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet, Western/adverse effects , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/analysis , Nutritional Requirements
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1455-1462, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134462


SUMMARY: This study aimed to investigate the changes in testis tissue of thioacetamide-induced rats and the effect of melatonin on these changes. Thirty-five male Wistar Albino rats were divided into five groups. Group I; Control (n=7), Group II; Melatonin (Mel) (10 mg/kg) a single dose (i.p)(n=7), Group III; Thioacetamide (TAA) (300 mg/kg) (i.p) 2 times with 24 hour intervals (n=7), Group IV; TAA (300 mg/kg) was administered at 24-hour intervals, afterwards of 10 mg/kg single dose of Mel (n=7), Group V; Mel was administered 10 mg/kg a single dose 24 hours before the administration of TAA (n=7). Testis was evaluated histologically, immunohistochemically (Heat Shock Proteins (HSP) 70 and 90), blood serum testosterone, total antioxidant status(TAS) and total oxidant status(TOS) in tissue. The tissue sections of Group III decreased seminiferous tubule diameters, and germinal epithelium spills were observed. HSP70 and HSP90 expressions were increased. There wasn't a statistically significant change in testosterone levels among the groups. While TAS levels decreased in Group III compared to control, TOS levels didn't change. HSP70 and HSP90 decreased in groups with Mel-treated. Mel was found to have both protective and therapeutic effects. According to our results, the therapeutic effect of Mel in thioacetamide-induced acute testicular injury is greater than its protective effect.

RESUMEN: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar los cambios en el tejido testicular de ratas inducidas por tioacetamida y el efecto de la melatonina en estos cambios. Treinta y cinco ratas macho Wistar Albino se dividieron en cinco grupos. Grupo I; Control (n = 7), Grupo II; Melatonina (Mel) (10 mg / kg) una dosis única (i.p) (n = 7), Grupo III; Tioacetamida (TAA) (300 mg / kg) (i.p) 2 veces con intervalos de 24 horas (n = 7), Grupo IV; TAA (300 mg / kg) se administró a intervalos de 24 horas, luego de una dosis única de 10 mg / kg de Mel (n = 7), Grupo V; Mel recibió 10 mg / kg de una dosis única 24 horas antes de la administración de TAA (n = 7). Los testículos se evaluaron histológicamente, inmunohistoquímicamente (proteínas de choque térmico (PCT) 70 y 90), testosterona en suero sanguíneo, estado antioxidante total (EAT) y estado oxidante total (EOT) en el tejido. En secciones de tejido del Grupo III se observó disminución de los diámetros de los túbulos seminíferos y derrames en el epitelio germinal. Se aumentaron las expresiones HSP70 y HSP90. No hubo un cambio estadísticamente significativo en los niveles de testosterona entre los grupos. Mientras que los niveles de EAT disminuyeron en el Grupo III en comparación con el control, los niveles de EOT no cambiaron. HSP70 y HSP90 disminuyeron en los grupos tratados con Mel. Se descubrió que Mel tenía efectos protectores y terapéuticos. Según nuestros resultados, el efecto terapéutico de Mel en la lesión testicular aguda inducida por tioacetamida es mayor que su efecto protector.

Animals , Male , Rats , Testis/drug effects , Thioacetamide/toxicity , Melatonin/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , Heat-Shock Proteins/drug effects , Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Melatonin/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/administration & dosage
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 876-881, Aug. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124869


Acetaminophen (also called paracetamol, or APAP) causes acute kidney injury after accidental or intentional ingestion of a toxic dose of the drug. We tested whether the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, quercetin (QUR) given alone can protect against acute nephrotoxicity induced by APAP overdose in a rat model of APAP-induced acute kidney injury. Rats were either given a single dose of APAP (2 g/kg) before being sacrificed after 24 hours or were pre-treated for 7 days with QUR (50 mg/kg) before being given a single dose of APAP and then sacrificed 24 hours post APAP ingestion. Kidneys were examined by light microscopy after staining with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and collected blood samples were assayed for biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and kidney injury. H&E stained sections of kidney from the model group of rats (APAP) showed substantial damage to the kidney architecture as demonstrated by widening of Bowman's space, tubular dilatation, vacuolization of tubular epithelium, and congested dilated blood vessels, which were partially protected by QUR. In addition, APAP significantly (p<0.05) increased blood levels of urea, creatinine, malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), which were significantly (p<0.05) reduced by QUR. These results indicate that quercetin partially protects against APAP-induced acute kidney injury in rats, which is associated with the inhibition of biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation and kidney injury.

El acetaminofeno (también llamado paracetamol o DCI) causa daño renal agudo después de la ingestión accidental o intencional de una dosis tóxica del medicamento. En el estudio analizamos si el agente antioxidante y antiinflamatorio, la quercetina (QUR) administrada sola, puede proteger contra la nefrotoxicidad aguda inducida por sobredosis de DCI en un modelo de rata. Las ratas recibieron una dosis única de DCI (2 g / kg) antes de ser sacrificadas después de 24 horas o fueron pretratadas durante 7 días con QUR (50 mg / kg) antes de recibir una dosis única de DCI y luego sacrificadas 24 horas post ingestión. Los riñones se examinaron mediante microscopía óptica después de la tinción con hematoxilina y eosina (H&E) y las muestras de sangre recolectadas se analizaron para detectar biomarcadores de estrés oxidativo, inflamación y daño renal. Las secciones de riñón teñidas con H&E del grupo modelo de ratas (DCI) mostraron un daño sustancial a la arquitectura del riñón, como lo demuestra la ampliación del espacio de Bowman, la dilatación tubular, la vacuolización del epitelio tubular y los vasos sanguíneos dilatados congestionados, que estaban parcialmente protegidos por QUR. Además, DCI aumentó significativamente (p <0,05) los niveles sanguíneos de la urea, creatinina, malondialdehído (MDA), factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-a) e interleucina-6 (IL-6), los que fueron reducidos significativamente (p < 0,05) por QUR. Estos resultados indican que la quercetina protege parcialmente contra la lesión renal aguda inducida por DCI en ratas, asociada con la inhibición de biomarcadores de estrés oxidativo, inflamación y lesión renal.

Animals , Rats , Quercetin/administration & dosage , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Quercetin/pharmacology , Biomarkers/analysis , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Protective Agents , Creatinine , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation , Kidney/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 1003-1009, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124889


This study was set to investigate the effect of gum Arabic (G.A.) on diabetic kidney disease. We divided sixty male Sprague rats randomly into six groups. Normal control, normal rats treated with G.A., untreated diabetic rats, diabetic rats treated with insulin, diabetic rats treated with G.A., and diabetic rats treated with both insulin and G.A. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ. Forty eight hr post injections. Insulin was injected subcutaneously (1.6/IU/100g/day). We provided G.A. in drinking water (10 %w/ v).). At the end of the twelve weeks, blood was drawn for measurement of blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), serum lipids, serum creatinine, and blood urea. Renal tissue oxidative stress (O.S.) was assessed by measuring the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and the concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). For histological assessments, sections from segments of kidneys were processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for assessment under the light microscope. STZinduced diabetes caused an elevation of blood glucose, HbA1c, urea and creatinine, triglycerides LDL and cholesterol, MDA with reduction of HDL, GSH level, and CAT and SOD activities. Histologically, kidneys from diabetic rats showed marked glomerular and tubular changes. Administration of G.A. alone to diabetic rats had a significant hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effect, although the levels achieved remained significantly abnormal compared with the untreated group with no effect on urea and creatinine levels. Co-administration of G.A. with insulin reversed the impact of D.M. on all parameters evaluated including the histological changes and led to normal urea and creatinine levels. We concluded that G.A., in combination with insulin, improves chemically-induced diabetes and its renal complications, possibly by modulation of oxidative stress.

En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de la goma arábiga (GA) en la enfermedad renal diabética. Dividimos sesenta ratas macho Sprague Dawley al azar en seis grupos. Control normal, ratas normales tratadas con GA, ratas diabéticas no tratadas, ratas diabéticas tratadas con insulina, ratas diabéticas tratadas con GA y ratas diabéticas tratadas con insulina y GA. La diabetes fue inducida por una sola inyección intraperitoneal de STZ. Cuarenta y ocho horas después se inyectó insulina por vía subcutánea (1,6 / UI / 100 g / día). A los animales se les dió GA en agua potable (10 % p / v)). Al final de las doce semanas, se extrajo sangre para medir la glucosa, la hemoglobina glicosilada (HbA1C), los lípidos en suero, la creatinina en suero y la urea en sangre. El estrés oxidativo del tejido renal (SO) se evaluó midiendo las actividades de la enzima superóxido dismutasa (SOD) y la catalasa (CAT), y las concentraciones de glutatión reducido (GSH) y malondialdehído (MDA). Para las evaluaciones histológicas, se procesaron secciones de segmentos de riñones y se tiñeron con hematoxilina y eosina (H & E) para análisis bajo microscopio óptico. La diabetes inducida por STZ causó una elevación de la glucosa en sangre, HbA1c, urea y creatinina, triglicéridos LDL y colesterol, MDA con reducción de las actividades de HDL, GSH y CAT y SOD. Histológicamente, los riñones de ratas diabéticas mostraron marcados cambios glomerulares y tubulares. La administración de GA solo en las ratas diabéticas tuvo un efecto hipoglucémico, hipolipidémico y antioxidante significativo, aunque los niveles alcanzados permanecieron significativamente anormales en comparación con el grupo no tratado, sin ningún efecto sobre los niveles de urea y creatinina. La dministración conjunta de GA con insulina revirtió el impacto de DM en todos los parámetros evaluados, incluidos los cambios histológicos y condujeron a niveles normales de urea y creatinina. Concluimos que GA en combinación con insulina, mejora la diabetes inducida químicamente y sus complicaciones renales, posiblemente mediante la modulación del estrés oxidativo.

Animals , Male , Rats , Diabetic Nephropathies/prevention & control , Gum Arabic/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Diabetic Nephropathies/pathology , Gum Arabic/pharmacology , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Kidney/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 585-591, June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098291


Acetaminophen (also called paracetamol, or APAP) induced nephrotoxicity is reported after accidental or intentional ingestion of an overdose of the drug. Renal tubular ultrastructural alterations induced by APAP overdose associated with the induction of biomarkers of kidney injury have not been investigated before. Also, we investigated whether the combined polyphenolic anti-inflammatory and antioxidants agents, resveratrol (RES) and quercetin (QUR) can protect against APAP-induced acute kidney injury. The model group of rats received a single dose of APAP (2 g/kg), whereas the protective group of rats was pre-treated for 7 days with combined doses of RES (30 mg/kg) and QUR (50 mg/kg) before being given a single dose of APAP. All rats were then sacrificed one day post APAP ingestion. Harvested kidney tissues were prepared for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) staining and blood samples were assayed for urea, creatinine, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. TEM images and blood chemistry analysis showed that APAP overdose induced kidney damage as demonstrated by substantial alterations to the proximal convoluted tubule ultrastructure, and a significant (p<0.05) increase in urea, creatinine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a), and malondialdehyde (MDA) blood levels, which were protected by RES+QUR. These findings indicate that APAP induces alterations to the renal tubular ultrastructure, which is inhibited by resveratrol plus quercetin, which also decreases blood levels of kidney injury biomarkers.

El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la nefrotoxicidad inducida por acetaminofeno (también llamado paracetamol o APAP) después de la ingestión accidental o intencional de una sobredosis de la droga. Las alteraciones ultraestructurales tubulares renales inducidas por sobredosis de APAP asociadas con la inducción de biomarcadores de daño renal no se han investigado. Además, estudiamos si los agentes combinados antiinflamatorios y antioxidantes polifenólicos, el resveratrol (RES) y la quercetina (QUR) pueden proteger contra la lesión renal aguda inducida por APAP. El grupo modelo de ratas recibió una dosis única de APAP (2 g / kg), mientras que el grupo protector de ratas se trató previamente durante 7 días con dosis combinadas de RES (30 mg / kg) y QUR (50 mg / kg) antes de recibir una dosis única de APAP. Todas las ratas se sacrificaron un día después de la ingestión de APAP. Los tejidos renales fueron preparados para el análisis a través de la microscopía electrónica de transmisión (MET). En las muestras de sangre se determinaron la urea, creatinina y los biomarcadores de inflamación y estrés oxidativo. Las imágenes MET y el análisis químico de la sangre mostraron que la sobredosis de APAP inducía daño renal, como lo demuestran las alteraciones sustanciales en la ultraestructura del túbulo contorneado proximal, y además, de un aumento significativo (p <0,05) de la urea, creatinina, factor de necrosis tumoral alfa y niveles sanguíneos de malondialdehído, protegidos por RES + QUR. Estos hallazgos indican que APAP induce alteraciones en la ultraestructura tubular renal, inhibida por el resveratrol más quercetina, que también disminuye los niveles sanguíneos de biomarcadores de daño renal.

Animals , Rats , Quercetin/administration & dosage , Resveratrol/administration & dosage , Kidney Tubules/drug effects , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Quercetin/pharmacology , Urea/blood , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Creatinine/blood , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Overdose , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Kidney Tubules/pathology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/administration & dosage
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 627-633, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098298


Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a condition marked by hyperglycaemia that causes systemic complications, including urinary vesicle dysfunction due to oxidative stress. Further, antioxidants, as well as alpha lipoic acid (ALA), may be a response to this pathological condition. The present study verified the action of ALA as a supplement in ration on glycemia and urinary vesicle structures of rats induced by streptozotocin. The rats were divided into 4 groups: Control (CG), Alpha Lipoic (ALAG), Diabetic control (DCG), and the Diabetic alpha lipoic (DALAG) group. For induction, the diabetic groups were initially induced with streptozotocin (dose 60 mg/kg). Subsequently, group glycemia was evaluated weekly. After 8 weeks, the rats were euthanized and the bladder was collected. The bladders were histologically processed and the slides were stained with Masson's Trichrome for the histomorphometry of epithelial height, connective and muscular tissue and coloration of PicroSirius Red for further analysis of collagen fibers of the bladder. The data of the glycemia demonstrated an inferior median in DALAG compared to DGC (p<0.01). The epithelial height and percentage of the muscle tissue were greater in DALAG compared to the DGC, but not significant. However, GDAL showed improvement in the organization of collagen fibers. In conclusion, bladder the morphology alterations caused by DM were not alleviated by the administration of ALA in 8 weeks of the experiments.

La diabetes mellitus (DM) es una afección marcada por hiperglucemia que causa complicaciones sistémicas, incluida la disfunción de la vejiga urinaria debido al estrés oxidativo. Además, los antioxidantes, así como el ácido alfa lipoico (ALA), pueden ser una respuesta a esta condición patológica. El presente estudio verificó la acción de ALA como suplemento en la ración sobre la glucemia y las estructuras de la vejiga urinaria de ratas inducidas por estreptozotocina. Las ratas se dividieron en 4 grupos: control (CG), alfa lipoico (ALAG), control diabético (DCG) y el grupo diabético alfa lipoico (DALAG). Para la inducción, los grupos diabéticos se aplicó estreptozotocina (dosis 60 mg/kg). Posteriormente, la glucemia grupal se evaluó semanalmente. Después de 8 semanas, las ratas se sacrificaron y se retiró la vejiga urinaria. Las vejigas se procesaron histológicamente y las muestras se tiñeron con tricromo de Masson para la histomorfometría y así evaluar la altura epitelial, el tejido conectivo y muscular. Además se tiñeron cond PicroSirius Red para un análisis posterior de las fibras colágenas de la vejiga urinaria. Los datos de la glucemia demostraron una mediana inferior en DALAG en comparación con DGC (p <0,01). La altura epitelial y el porcentaje de tejido muscular fueron mayores en DALAG en comparación con el DGC, pero no estadísticamente significativos. Sin embargo, GDAL mostró una mejora en la organización de las fibras de colágeno. En conclusión, la morfología de las alteraciones de la vejiga causada por DM no se alivió con la administración de ALA en 8 semanas de estudio.

Animals , Rats , Urinary Bladder/drug effects , Thioctic Acid/administration & dosage , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Blood Glucose/analysis , Dietary Supplements
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(3): 353-358, Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136204


SUMMARY Melatonin has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that can influence tissue growth and apoptosis. This aspect may influence the success of organ transplantation. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the relationship between melatonin and organ transplantation. METHODS A systematic review was performed in PubMed databases using the search terms: "melatonin physiology" or "melatonin therapy" and "transplant pharmacology" or "transplant physiology" or "transplant therapy" or "Transplant therapy". Experiments on the organs of the reproductive system were not included. After analysis, five articles were selected after reading the title and abstract of 50 manuscripts. The works were divided into two aspects: a) analysis of the influence of the organ transplantation procedure on melatonin production; b) action of melatonin on organ transplantation. RESULTS The cardiac transplantation surgical procedure, immunosuppression, and graft did not influence melatonin secretion in rodents, but there was a significant reduction of melatonin in the renal transplantation procedure in patients with renal insufficiency. Melatonin administration in experimental models decreased rejection and improved transplant success. CONCLUSION Studies show that melatonin can reduce organ and species dependence, and the use of melatonin decreases graft rejection.

RESUMO A melatonina tem propriedades anti-inflamatórias e antioxidantes que podem influenciar o crescimento e a apoptose dos tecidos. Esse aspecto pode influenciar o sucesso do transplante de órgãos. OBJETIVO Avaliar a relação entre a melatonina e o transplante de órgãos. MÉTODO A revisão sistemática foi realizada nas bases de dados do PubMed, usando os termos de pesquisa: "fisiologia da melatonina" ou "terapêutica da melatonina" e "farmacologia do transplante" ou "fisiologia do transplante" ou "terapêutica do transplante" ou "terapia do transplante". Não foram incluídos os experimentos sobre os órgãos do sistema reprodutivo. Após análise, cinco artigos foram selecionados após a leitura do título e do resumo de 50 manuscritos. Os trabalhos foram divididos em duas vertentes: a) análise da influência do procedimento de transplante de órgão na produção de melatonina; b) ação da melatonina sobre o transplante de órgãos. RESULTADOS O procedimento cirúrgico do transplante cardíaco, a imunossupressão e o enxerto não influenciaram a secreção de melatonina em roedores, mas houve redução significante da melatonina nos casos do procedimento de transplante renal em pacientes com insuficiência renal. A ministração de melatonina em modelos experimentais diminuiu a rejeição e melhorou o sucesso de transplante. CONCLUSÃO Os estudos mostram que a melatonina pode reduzir a dependência da espécie e do órgão e que o emprego da melatonina diminui a rejeição do órgão.

Humans , Animals , Rats , Organ Transplantation , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Melatonin/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Heart Transplantation , Immunosuppression Therapy , Kidney Transplantation , Graft Survival/drug effects , Melatonin/physiology