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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253696, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355862

ABSTRACT

Abstract Transplanting time and genotype contribute to improving crop yield and quality of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). A field experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of foliar applied of triacontanol (TRIA) and eggplant genotypes 25919, Nirala, 28389 and Pak-10927,transplanted on 1 March,15 March, and 1 April on exposure to high air temperature conditions. The experiment was performed according to Randomized Complete Block Design and the data was analyzed by using Tuckey,s test . The TRIA was applied at 10µM at flowering stage; distilled water was used as the control. Rate of photosynthesis and transpiration, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, and effects on antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase) were evaluated. The 10µM TRIA increased photosynthesis rate and water use efficiency and yield was improved in all genotypes transplanted at the different dates. Foliar application of 10µM TRIA increased antioxidative enzyme activities (SOD, POD & CAT) and improved physiological as well as biochemical attributes of eggplant genotypes exposed to high heat conditions. Highest activity of dismutase enzyme 5.41mg/1g FW was recorded in Nirala genotype in second transplantation. Whereas, lowest was noted in PAK-10927 (2.30mg/g FW). Maximum fruit yield was found in accession 25919 (1.725kg per plant) at 1st transplantation with Triacontanol, whereas accession PAK-10927 gave the lowest yield (0.285 kg per plant) at control treatment on 3rd transplantation. Genotype, transplanting date and application of TRIA improved growth, yield and quality attributes under of heat stress in eggplant.


Resumo O tempo de transplante e o genótipo contribuem para melhorar a produtividade e a qualidade da cultura da berinjela (Solanum melongena L.). Um experimento de campo foi conduzido para investigar o impacto da aplicação foliar de triacontanol (TRIA) e genótipos de berinjela 25919, Nirala, 28389 e Pak-10927, transplantados em 1 de março, 15 de março e 1 de abril de exposição a condições de alta temperatura do ar. O experimento foi realizado de acordo com o Randomized Complete Block Design e os dados foram analisados pelo teste de Tuckey. O TRIA foi aplicado a 10 µM na fase de floração; água destilada foi utilizada como controle. Taxa de fotossíntese e transpiração, condutância estomática, eficiência do uso da água e efeitos sobre as enzimas antioxidantes (superóxido dismutase, catalase e peroxidase) foram avaliados. O TRIA 10 µM aumentou a taxa de fotossíntese e a eficiência do uso da água e o rendimento foi melhorado em todos os genótipos transplantados nas diferentes datas. A aplicação foliar de TRIA 10µM aumentou as atividades das enzimas antioxidantes (SOD, POD e CAT) e melhorou os atributos fisiológicos e bioquímicos de genótipos de berinjela expostos a condições de alto calor. A atividade mais elevada da enzima dismutase 5,41mg / 1g FW foi registrada no genótipo Nirala no segundo transplante. Considerando que o mais baixo foi observado em PAK-10927 (2,30 mg / g FW). A produtividade máxima de frutos foi encontrada no acesso 25919 (1,725 ​​kg por planta) no 1º transplante com Triacontanol, enquanto o acesso PAK-10927 deu a menor produção (0,285 kg por planta) no tratamento de controle no 3º transplante. Genótipo, data de transplante e aplicação de TRIA, melhoramento do crescimento, rendimento e atributos de qualidade sob estresse térmico em berinjela.


Subject(s)
Solanum melongena/genetics , Solanum melongena/metabolism , Photosynthesis , Heat-Shock Response , Fatty Alcohols , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247190, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345532

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential and inhibitory effect ofCannabis sativa and Morus nigra against lipid peroxidation in goat brain and liver homogenates. The formation of free radicals, highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) is a normal metabolic process for cellular signaling and countering the antigens. However, they may cause serious damage if they produced at amplified tolls. In addition, metabolic disorders also serve as sources of these reactive species. Although the issue can be addressed through supplements and other phytochemicals. In this study, two plant species were evaluated for their biological potential by employing a spectrum of antioxidant assays. The antioxidant activity was performed by lipid peroxidation assay. The water extract prepared from leaves of Cannabis sativa and Morus nigra showed significant (P<0.05) inhibition as compared to control i.e., 522.6±0.06 and 659.97±0.03 µg/mL against iron-induced lipid peroxidation in goat brain homogenate while the inhibitions were 273.54±0.04 and 309.18±0.05 µg/mL against nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation of the brain. The iron and nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation was also significantly inhibited by leaf extracts of Cannabis sativa and Morus nigra in liver homogenates such as 230.63±0.52 and 326.91±0.01 µg/mL (iron-induced) while 300.47±0.07 and 300.47±0.07 µg/mL (nitroprusside induced), respectively. The extracts of Cannabis sativa extract showed promising activity (96.04±0.060%) against DPPH radicals while Morus nigra showed a moderate activity (34.11±0.120%). The results suggest that different accessions ofCannabis sativa and Morus nigra are a potential source of antioxidants and have a therapeutic effect against disease induced by oxidative stress and hence can be used for novel drug discovery and development.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial antioxidante e o efeito inibitório de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra contra a peroxidação lipídica em homogenatos de cérebro e fígado de cabras. A formação de radicais livres, espécies altamente reativas de oxigênio (ROS) e espécies reativas de nitrogênio (RNS), é um processo metabólico normal para sinalização celular e combate aos antígenos. No entanto, eles podem causar sérios danos se forem produzidos em portagens ampliadas. Além disso, distúrbios metabólicos também servem como fontes dessas espécies reativas, embora o problema possa ser resolvido por meio de suplementos e outros fitoquímicos. Neste estudo, duas espécies de plantas foram avaliadas quanto ao seu potencial biológico, empregando um espectro de ensaios antioxidantes. A atividade antioxidante foi realizada por ensaio de peroxidação lipídica. O extrato de água preparado a partir de folhas de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra mostrou inibição significativa (P < 0,05) em comparação com o controle, ou seja, 522,6 ± 0,06 e 659,97 ± 0,03 µg / mL contra peroxidação lipídica induzida por ferro em homogenato de cérebro de cabra, enquanto as inibições foram 273,54 ± 0,04 e 309,18 ± 0,05 µg / mL contra a peroxidação lipídica do cérebro induzida por nitroprussiato. A peroxidação lipídica induzida por ferro e nitroprussiato também foi significativamente inibida por extratos de folhas de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra em homogenatos de fígado, como 230,63 ± 0,52 e 326,91 ± 0,01 µg / mL (induzida por ferro), enquanto 300,47 ± 0,07 e 300,47 ± 0,07 µg / mL (induzida por nitroprussiato), respectivamente. Os extratos do extrato de Cannabis sativa apresentaram atividade promissora (96,04 ± 0,060%) contra os radicais DPPH enquanto Morus nigra apresentou atividade moderada (34,11 ± 0,120%). Os resultados sugerem que diferentes acessos de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra são uma fonte potencial de antioxidantes e têm efeito terapêutico contra doenças induzidas por estresse oxidativo e, portanto, podem ser usados ​​para a descoberta e desenvolvimento de novos medicamentos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cannabis , Morus , Brain , Goats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Lipid Peroxidation , Liver , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e236649, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339379

ABSTRACT

Abstract Croton argyrophylloides Muell. Arg., from the Euphorbiaceae family, popularly known as marmeleiro prateado or sacatinga, is a plant from the Caatinga biome commonly found in Brazil's northeastern region. The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the species. The phytochemical study was performed through qualitative analysis of chemical constituents and quantitative determination of the total phenol content through the Folin-Ciocalteu test. The qualitative and quantitative antioxidant tests were performed using the DPPH method (2.2 diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazil) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by microdilution in 96-well plates. The ethanolic extract of the leaves of C. argyrophylloides manifested antioxidant action in the quantitative DPPH test with a significant bioactivity of 84.70 AAO% in 500 µg/mL, with an EC50 of 236.79. The content of total phenolic compounds was 946.06 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of sample, and total flavonoids was 58.11 mg of quercetin equivalents/g of sample, the result obtained for FRAP was 15294.44 µM Trolox/g of sample and ABTS was 718 μM Trolox of sample. The prospecting of the chemical constituents of the leaves of C. argyrophylloides revealed the presence of the main compounds that manifests the antioxidant activity and it was proven by the DPPH method that there is antioxidant activity in the analyzed sample, in addition to demonstrating a significant content of phenolic compounds and total flavonoid content in the species, which corroborates the antioxidant activity of the plant sample. The leaf extracts presented growth inhibition halos of 10 and 12 mm upon Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923.


Resumo Croton argyrophylloides Muell. Arg., pertencente à família Euphorbiaceae, conhecida popularmente como marmeleiro prateado e sacatinga, é um vegetal do bioma caatinga comumente encontrado no Nordeste do Brasil. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade antioxidante da espécie. O estudo fitoquímico foi realizado por meio de análise qualitativa dos constituintes químicos e determinação quantitativa do teor de fenóis totais pelo teste de Folin-Ciocalteu. Os testes antioxidantes qualitativos e quantitativos foram realizados pelo método do DPPH (2,2 difenil-1- picril-hidrazila) e redução do ferro (FRAP). A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) foi determinada por microdiluição em placas de 96 poços. O extrato etanólico das folhas de C. argyrophylloides apresentou ação antioxidante no teste DPPH quantitativo com uma significativa bioatividade de 84.70 AAO% em 500 µg/mL, apresentando um CE50 de 236.79. O teor de compostos fenólicos totais, foi de 946,06 mg equivalentes de ácido gálico/g de amostra, e de flavonoides totais de 58,11 mg equivalentes de quercetina/g da amostra, o valor encontrado para FRAP foi de 15294,44 µM Trolox/g da amostra e de ABTS foi 718 μM Trolox da amostra. A prospecção dos constituintes químicos das folhas de C. argyrophylloides revelou a presença dos principais compostos que caracterizam a atividade antioxidante e foi possível comprovar pelo método de DPPH que há atividade antioxidante na amostra analisada, além de demonstrar um resultado significativo de teor de compostos fenólicos e teor de flavonoides totais na espécie e o que corrobora com a atividade antioxidante da amostra vegetal. Os extratos das folhas apresentaram halos de inibição de crescimento de 10 e 12mm frente a Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923.


Subject(s)
Euphorbiaceae , Croton , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Phytochemicals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246312, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339357

ABSTRACT

Abstract The antioxidant, photoprotective and antinociceptive Marcetia macrophylla active extract was investigated as an active ingredient in a sunscreen cream formulation. Thus, the M. macrophylla extract showed IC50 of 3.43 mg/ml of the antioxidant (DPPH∙ scavenging test) and Sun Protection Factor of 20.25 (SPF/UV-B, at 250 µg/ml) and UV-A of 78.09% (photobleaching trans-resveratrol test). The antinociceptive activity was superior to all standards tested using the in vivo acetic acid-induced writhing test (99.14% at the dose of 200 mg/kg) and the high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector and mass spectroscopy multi-stage (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS) enabled the structural characterization of the quercetin-3-O-hexoside, quercetin-3-O-pentoside and quercetin-3-O-desoxihexoside. The pharmaceutical formulation containing the Marcetia macrophylla crude active extract was prepared and the physicochemical tests (organoleptic characteristics, pH analysis and centrifugation), the in vitro UVB (sun protection factor, SPF) and UVA (β-carotene) using the spectroscopic method were investigated. The formulation showed satisfactory results concerning the physicochemical parameters evaluated and active against the UV test. Thus, M. macrophylla showed biological activities with potential use in pharmaceutical preparations.


Resumo O extrato bruto de Marcetia macrophylla mostrou atividade antioxidante, fotoprotetora e antinociceptiva, sendo em seguida investigado como ingrediente ativo em uma formulação fotoprotetora. Assim, o extrato de M. macrophylla apresentou atividade antioxidante com IC50 de 3,43 mg/mL (teste de sequestro do DPPH∙) e Fator de Proteção Solar de 20,25 (FPS/UV-B, 250 µg/mL) e UV-A de 78,09% (teste de fotobranqueamento do trans-resveratrol). A atividade antinociceptiva usando o teste in vivo de contorções abdominais induzidas por ácido acético foi superior a todos os padrões testados (99,14% na dose de 200 mg/Kg). A análise por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência acoplada a detector de fotodiodos e espectroscopia de massas multi-estágio (CLAE-DAD-EM/EM) possibilitou a caracterização dos flavonoides quercetina-3-O-hexosídeo, quercetina-3-O-pentosídeo e quercetina-3-O-desoxihexosídeo. A formulação farmacêutica contendo o extrato ativo bruto de Marcetia macrophylla foi preparada e os testes físico-químicos (características organolépticas, análise de pH e centrifugação), o UVB in vitro (fator de proteção solar, FPS) e UVA (β-caroteno) foram investigados. A formulação apresentou resultados satisfatórios frente aos parâmetros físico-químicos avaliados e ativos contra UV. Assim, M. macrophylla apresentou atividades biológicas com potencial uso em preparações fitofarmacêuticas.


Subject(s)
Sunscreening Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Analgesics/pharmacology
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244675, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339348

ABSTRACT

Abstract Several species of thymus have therapeutic properties, so they are used in traditional medicine. In this work was carried out to synthesize Thymus vulgalis silver nanoparticles (TSNPS) and evaluate antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of TSNPS and T. vulgalis essential oil extract (TEOE). The essential oils analyzed by GC-MS and were characterized. Major compounds of phenol, 2 methyl 5 (1 methylethyle) (CAS), thymol and 1,2 Benzene dicarboxylic acid, 3 nitro (CAS) (48.75%, 32.42% and 8.12%, respectively) were detected. Results demonstrated that the TSNPS gave a highest DPPH radical scavenging activity, it was obtained 97.2 at 1000 ug/ml. TSNPS, Thymus + Hexane (T+H), Thymus + Ethanol (T+E) gave the greatest antimicrobial activity than amoxicillin (AM) and ciprofloxacin (CIP). In conclusion: The essential oil of thymus (Vulgaris) and thymus (Vulgaris) silver nanoparticles can be a good source of natural preservatives as an antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for increasing the shelf life of foodstuffs.


Resumo Diversas espécies de timo possuem propriedades terapêuticas, por isso são utilizadas na medicina tradicional. Neste trabalho foi realizado para sintetizar nanopartículas de prata Thymus vulgalis (TSNPS) e avaliar as atividades antioxidante e antimicrobiana de TSNPS e extrato de óleo essencial de T. vulgalis (TEOE). Os óleos essenciais analisados por GC-MS e foram caracterizados. Os principais compostos de fenol, 2 metil 5 (1 metiletilo) (CAS), timol e ácido 1,2 Benzenodicarboxílico, 3 nitro (CAS) (48,75%, 32,42% e 8,12%, respectivamente) foram detectados. Os resultados demonstraram que o TSNPS deu uma maior atividade de eliminação do radical DPPH , foi obtido 97,2 a 1000 ug / ml. TSNPS, Timo + Hexano (T + H), Timo + Etanol (T + E) deu a maior atividade antimicrobiana do que amoxicilina (AM) e ciprofloxacina (CIP). Em conclusão: O óleo essencial de nanopartículas de prata do timo (Vulgaris) e do timo (Vulgaris) pode ser uma boa fonte de conservantes naturais como agentes antioxidantes e antimicrobianos para aumentar a vida útil de alimentos.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Thymus Plant , Metal Nanoparticles , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Silver , Antioxidants/pharmacology
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248083, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278546

ABSTRACT

Abstract Species of the genus Cordia have shown biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, antiviral, and antifungal activities. The species Cordia glabrata (MART) A.DC. Has no information concerning its phytochemical profile and possible biological activities. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate this profile in ethanolic extracts of young, adult and senescent leaves, as well as their antioxidant, photoprotective, antimicrobial, and virucidal potentials. Phytochemical analysis was performed by TLC (thin-layer chromatography) and showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, and terpenes. The evaluation by UPLC-MS/MS (Ultra performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometer) evidenced the presence of caffeic (3.89 mgL-1), p-cumaric (6.13 mgL-1), and ferulic (0.58 mgL-1) acids, whilst, in GC/MS (Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) analysis there was a greater amount of palmitic (51.17%), stearic (20.34%), linoleic (9.62%), and miristic (8.16%) fatty acids. The DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS+ (2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radicals were used to verify the potential antioxidant activity, observing a better activity for the leaf extract in the adult phenological stage: 54.63 ± 1.06 µgmL-1 (DPPH) and 44.21 ± 1.69 mM (ABTS). The potential photoprotective activity of the extracts was determined by spectrophotometry and the in vitro values of SPF (Sun Protection Factor) in young and adult leaves (5.47 and 5.41, respectively) showed values close to the minimum SPF of 6.0 required by ANVISA (Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency). It was not observed an antimicrobial activity for Staphylococcus aureus with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 2000 μgmL-1, however the anti-herpetic assay against the Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) showed a potent virucidal activity at the tested concentrations with CV50 value <0.195 μgmL-1 and a Selectivity Index (SI = CC50 / CV50) greater than 448. The results obtained in this study suggest that extracts of leaves of C. glabrata in their adult phenological stage have potential antioxidant, photoprotective and virucidal activity, considering in vitro test results.


Resumo Espécies do gênero Cordia apresentam atividades biológicas, como anti-inflamatória, analgésica, antioxidante, antiviral e antifúngica. Para a espécie Cordia glabrata (MART) A.DC., ainda não existem informações sobre seu perfil fitoquímico e possíveis atividades biológicas, deste modo, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar este perfil em extratos etanólicos de folhas jovens, adultas e senescentes, bem como o potencial antioxidante, fotoprotetor, antimicrobiano e virucida. A análise fitoquímica foi realizada por CCD (Cromatografia em Camada Delgada), mostrando a presença de flavonóides, taninos e terpenos. Na avaliação por CLAE EM/EM (Cromatografia Líquida de Ultra Eficiência acoplada a Espectrometria de Massas) foi evidenciado a presença dos ácidos caféico (3,89 mgL-1), p-cumárico (6,13 mgL-1) e ferúlico (0,58 mgL-1), paralelamente, na CG/EM (Cromatografia Gasosa acoplada a Espectrometria de Massas) verificou-se maior quantidade dos ácidos graxos palmítico (51,17%), esteárico (20,34%), linoléico (9,62%) e mirístico (8,16%). Os radicais DPPH (2,2-Difenil-1-picrilhidrazil) e ABTS+ (2′-Azino-bis (ácido 3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfônico)) foram utilizados para verificar o potencial antioxidante, observando-se uma atividade superior para o extrato da folha em sua fase fenológica adulta: 54,63 ± 1,06 µgmL-1 (DPPH) e 44,21 ± 1,69 mM (ABTS+). A potencial atividade fotoprotetora dos extratos foi determinada espectrofotometricamente e os valores in vitro de FPS (Fator de Proteção Solar) em folhas jovens e adultas (5,47 e 5,41 respectivamente) apresentaram valores próximos ao FPS mínimo de 6,0 exigido pela ANVISA (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária). Não foi observada atividade antimicrobiana para Staphylococcus aureus sendo a concentração inibitória mínima de 2000 μgmL-1, no entanto o ensaio anti-herpético contra o vírus Herpes simplex tipo 2 (HSV-2) mostrou uma potente atividade virucida nas concentrações testadas com um valor de CV50 <0,195 μgmL-1 e um Índice de Seletividade (IS = CC50 / CV50) maior que 448. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo sugerem que extratos de folhas de C. glabrata em seu estágio fenológico adulto apresentam potencial antioxidante, fotoprotetora e virucida, considerando os resultados de testes in vitro.


Subject(s)
Cordia , Anti-Infective Agents , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Chromatography, Liquid , Plant Leaves , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Antioxidants/pharmacology
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245753, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278536

ABSTRACT

Abstract The species Eugenia involucrata DC. is a plant native to Brazil and is traditionally used for intestinal problems, however, little research has documented about its biological potential and phytochemical profile. Thus, the objective of this study was to carry out preliminary phytochemical prospecting, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of E. involucrata extracts. Using the E. involucrata leaves, aqueous and organic extracts were obtained using the following solvents (ethanol, methanol, hexane, acetone, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate). The phytochemical prospecting detected the presence of saponins, steroids, flavonoids and tannins in the extracts. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts presented antimicrobial activity for most of the bacterial strains tested, as well as for yeast Candida albicans, with concentrations between 3.12 and 50 mg/mL. The ethanolic and metanolic extract presented high free radical sequestration potential (>90%). The methanol extract showed an IC50 value statistically equal to that found for the commercial antioxidant BHT (p <0.05). The crude extracts obtained with ethanol and methanol were the most promising. These results suggest that methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts are a promising source of natural bioactive.


Resumo A espécie Eugenia involucrata DC. é uma planta nativa do Brasil e tradicionalmente utilizada para problemas intestinais, porém, poucas pesquisas documentam sobre seu potencial biológico e perfil fitoquímico. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma prospecção fitoquímica preliminar, o potencial antimicrobiano e antioxidante dos extratos de E. involucrata. A partir das folhas de E. involucrata, foram obtidos extratos aquosos e orgânicos com os seguintes solventes (etanol, metanol, hexano, acetona, diclorometano e acetato de etila). A prospecção fitoquímica detectou a presença de saponinas, esteroides, flavonóides e taninos nos extratos. Os extratos etanólico e metanólico apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana para a maioria das cepas bacterianas testadas, assim como para a levedura Candida albicans, com concentrações entre 3,12 e 50 mg/mL. Os extratos etanólico e metanólico apresentaram alto potencial de sequestro de radicais livres (> 90%). O extrato metanólico apresentou IC50 estatisticamente igual ao encontrado para o antioxidante comercial BHT (p <0,05). Os extratos brutos obtidos com etanol e metanol foram os mais promissores. Esses resultados sugerem que os extratos metanólico, etanólico e aquoso são uma fonte promissora de bioativos naturais.


Subject(s)
Eugenia , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Phytochemicals , Antioxidants/pharmacology
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 781-788, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385681

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: High-intensity physical exercises can cause oxidative stress and muscle damage. Several medicinal plants have been used as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents. The present study evaluated high-intensity resistance exercise (HIRE) associated with Schinus Terebentifholius ethanolic extract (EE) on oxidative parameters and muscle damage in Wistar rats. Animals were divided into 04 groups (n=10/group): 1. Control (CG) - animals that did not undergo HIRE and were treated with vehicle (distilled water, orally); 2. Acute exercise (AE) - animals submitted to acute exercise session; 3. Exercise + vehicle (EV) - animals that underwent HIRE and were treated with vehicle and 4. Exercise + extract (EX) animals administered with Schinus terebenthifolius EE (100mg/Kg, orally) and submitted to the exercise session. Schinus terebenthifolius EE showed high in vitro antioxidant activity (13.88 ± 0.36 mg/mL). Before the experimental period, lactate was measured at pre and post moments of AE (p<0.0001) and EX (p<0.0001) groups. After the acute session, the following were evaluated: oxidative stress {malondialdehyde (MDA), sulfhydryl groups (SH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)}, muscle damage (creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In the in vivo analyses of the EX group compared to AE and EV groups, respectively: hepatic (MDA: p<0.0001 and SH: p=0.0033, in both; FRAP: p=0.0011 and p=0.0047), muscle (MDA, SH and FRAP: p<0.0001, in both; CK: p=0.0001 and p<0.0001; LDH: p<0.0001, in both), serum levels (MDA: p=0.0003, p=0.0012, SH: p=0.0056, p=0.0200, FRAP: p=0.0017 and p=0.0165) were significant. There was no significant difference in ALT and AST markers. It could be concluded that Schinus terebenthifolius EE associated with HIRE attenuated oxidative stress and muscle damage in rats.


RESUMEN: Los ejercicios físicos de alta intensidad pueden causar estrés oxidativo y daño muscular. Varias plantas medicinales se han utilizado como agentes antioxidantes y antiinflamatorios. El presente estudio evaluó el ejercicio de resistencia de alta intensidad (HIRE) asociado con el extracto etanólico (EE) de Schinus terebentifholius sobre los parámetros oxidativos y el daño muscular en ratas Wistar. Los animales se dividieron en 4 grupos (n=10/grupo): 1. Control (GC) - animales que no se sometieron a HIRE y fueron tratados con vehículo (agua destilada, por vía oral); 2. Ejercicio agudo (AE) - animales sometidos a sesión de ejercicio agudo; 3. Ejercicio + vehículo (EV) - animales que se sometieron a HIRE y fueron tratados con vehículo y 4. Ejercicio + extracto (EX) animales administrados con Schinus terebenthifolius EE (100 mg/kg, por vía oral) y sometidos a la sesión de ejercicio. Schinus terebenthifolius EE mostró una alta actividad antioxidante in vitro (13,88 ± 0,36 mg/mL). Antes del período experimental, se midió el lactato en los momentos pre y post de los grupos AE (p<0,0001) y EX (p<0,0001). Tras la sesión aguda, se evaluaron: el estrés oxidativo malondialdehído (MDA), grupos sulfhidrilo (SH) y poder antioxidante reductor férrico (FRAP), daño muscular (creatina quinasa (CK) y lactato deshidrogenasa (LDH)), alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) y aspartato aminotransferasa (AST). En los análisis in vivo del grupo EX frente a los grupos AE y EV, respectivamente: hepático (MDA: p<0,0001 y SH: p=0,0033, en ambos; FRAP: p=0,0011 y p=0,0047), muscular (MDA, SH y FRAP: p<0,0001, en ambos; CK: p=0,0001 y p<0,0001; LDH: p<0,0001, en ambos), niveles séricos (MDA: p=0,0003, p=0,0012, SH: p=0,0056, p=0,0200, FRAP: p=0,0017 y p=0,0165) fueron significativas. No hubo diferencia significativa en los marcadores ALT y AST. Se podría concluir que Schinus terebenthifolius EE asociado con HIRE atenuó el estrés oxidativo y el daño muscular en ratas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Exercise , Anacardiaceae , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Physical Endurance , Plants, Medicinal , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Biomarkers , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress , Dietary Supplements , Antioxidants/pharmacology
9.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(3): 352-364, mayo 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396915

ABSTRACT

The antioxidant activity and the inhibitory potential of α-amylase of lyophilized hydroethanolic extracts of Conocarpus erectus leaves obtained by ultrasonication were determined. The most potent extract was subjected to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography system equipped with mass spectrometer for metabolite identification. The identified metabolites were docked in α-glucosidase to assess their binding mode. The results revealed that 60% ethanolic extract exhibited highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (4.08 ± 0.187 mg TE/g DE) and α-amylase inhibition (IC50 58.20 ± 1.25 µg/mL. The metabolites like ellagic acid, 3-O-methyl ellagic acid, ferujol, 5, 2 ́-dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethyl flavone and kaempferol glucoside were identified in the extract and subjected to molecular docking studies regarding α-amylase inhibition. The comparison of binding affinities revealed 3-O-methyl ellagic acid as most effective inhibitor of α-amylase with binding energy of -14.5911 kcal/mol comparable to that of acarbose (-15.7815 kcal/mol). The secondary metabolites identified in the study may be extended further for functional food development with antidiabetic properties.


Se determinó la actividad antioxidante y el potencial inhibidor de la α-amilasa de extractos hidroetanólicos liofilizados de hojas de Conocarpus erectus obtenidos por ultrasónicación. El extracto más potente se sometió a un sistema de cromatografía líquida de ultra alto rendimiento equipado con un espectrómetro de masas para la identificación de metabolitos. Los metabolitos identificados se acoplaron en α-glucosidasa para evaluar su modo de unión. Los resultados revelaron que el extracto etanólico al 60% exhibió el mayor poder antioxidante reductor férrico (4.08 ± 0.187 mg TE/g DE) e inhibición de la α-amilasa (IC50 58.20 ± 1.25 µg/mL. Los metabolitos como el ácido elágico, 3-O-metil elágico ácido, ferujol, 5, 2 ́-dihidroxi-6,7,8-trimetil flavona y kaempferol glucósido se identificaron en el extracto y se sometieron a estudios de acoplamiento molecular con respecto a la inhibición de la α-amilasa. La comparación de las afinidades de unión reveló 3-O-metil El ácido elágico como inhibidor más eficaz de la α-amilasa con una energía de unión de -14,5911 kcal/mol comparable a la de la acarbosa (-15,7815 kcal/mol). Los metabolitos secundarios identificados en el estudio pueden ampliarse aún más para el desarrollo funcional de alimentos con propiedades antidiabéticas.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/chemistry , alpha-Amylases/antagonists & inhibitors , Myrtales/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Benzopyrans/analysis , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Antioxidants/pharmacology
10.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 29(2): 1-9, 2022-05-19. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1393060

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Propolis has been considered a highly valuable material due to its therapeutic properties. However, in Colombia, the commercialization of propolis is limited not only by low production but also by the little knowledge about its efficient extraction. Therefore, finding an optimal and economical extraction method to obtain propolis is a necessity for beekeepers that would open new possibilities for industrial use and, therefore, for the market. OBJECTIVES:The objective of this study was to evaluate a conventional and ultrasound-assisted extraction method, seeking to obtain the highest yield and a high amount of content of bioactive compounds in propolis extracts. METHODS: The extraction was carried out for three crude propolis from different types of bees: Tetragoniscaangustula or Angelita (ANG), Meliponaeburnea or Melipona(MEL), and Scaptotrigonaspp (SCT). The extracts were characterized by color, pH, visual appearance, solid content, antioxidant capacity, total polyphenol content, and bacterial inhibition capacity. RESULTS: The highest extraction performance was obtained when the ultrasound-assisted method was used, especially for the ANG extract, which in addition to presenting inhibition for gram-negative (E. coli) and gram-positive (S. Aureus) bacteria, had the best antioxidant activity with a value of 545 mg GAE / 100 g of sample and total polyphenol content of 1,884 mg GAE / 100 g of sample. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound-assisted extraction can be considered a low-cost alternative to increase the extraction performance of crude propolis, together with its total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity, without altering its physical properties


ANTECEDENTES: El propóleos ha sido considerado un material de alto valor por sus propiedades terapéuticas. Sin embargo, en Colombia la comercialización de propóleos está limitada no solo por la baja producción sino también por el incipiente conocimiento sobre la extracción eficiente de este. Por ello, encontrar un método de extracción óptimo y económico para la obtención de propóleos es una necesidad para los apicultores que abriría nuevas posibilidades para el uso industrial y por tanto para el mercado. OBJETIVOS: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar un método de extracción convencional y asistido por ultrasonido (US) buscando el mayor rendimiento y alto contenido de compuestos bioactivos en extractos de propóleos. MÉTODOS: La extracción se realizó para tres propóleos crudos de diferentes tipos de abejas Tetragonisca angustula o Angelita(ANG), Melipona eburnea o Melipona (MEL) y Scaptotrigona spp (SCT). Todos los extractos se caracterizaron por su color, pH, apariencia visual, contenido de sólidos, capacidad antioxidante, contenido total de polifenoles y capacidad de inhibición bacteriana. RESULTADOS: El mayor rendimiento de extracción se obtuvo cuando se usó el método asistido por ultrasonido y específicamente para el extracto ANG, que además de presentar inhibición para bacterias gram negativas (E. coli) y gram positivas (S. Aureus), tuvo la mejor actividad antioxidante con un valor de 545 mg GAE / 100 g de muestra y contenido total de polifenoles de 1884 mg GAE / 100 g de muestra. CONCLUSIONES: La extracción asistida por ultrasonido puede considerarse una alternativa de bajo costo para aumentar el rendimiento de extracción del propóleos crudo, así como su contenido total de polifenoles y capacidad antioxidante sin alterar sus propiedades físicas


Subject(s)
Humans , Propolis/chemistry , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Ultrasonics , Bees , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
11.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(2): 256-267, mar. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395304

ABSTRACT

Gentamicin induced acute nephrotoxicity (GIAN) is considered as one of the important causes of acute renal failure. In recent years' great effort has been focused on the introduction of herbal medicine as a novel therapeutic agent for prevention of GIAN. Hence, the current study was designed to investigate the effect of green coffee bean extract (GCBE) on GIAN in rats. Results of the present study showed that rat groups that received oral GCBE for 7 days after induction of GIAN(by a daily intraperitoneal injection of gentamicin for 7days), reported a significant improvement in renal functions tests when compared to the GIAN model groups. Moreover, there was significant amelioration in renal oxidative stress markers (renal malondialdehyde, renal superoxide dismutase) and renal histopathological changes in the GCBE-treated groups when compared to GIAN model group. These results indicate that GCBE has a potential role in ameliorating renal damage involved in GIAN.


La nefrotoxicidad aguda inducida por gentamicina (GIAN) se considera una de las causas importantes de insuficiencia renal aguda. En los últimos años, el gran esfuerzo se ha centrado en la introducción de la medicina herbal como un nuevo agente terapéutico para la prevención de GIAN. Por lo tanto, el estudio actual fue diseñado para investigar el efecto del extracto de grano de café verde (GCBE) sobre la GIAN en ratas. Los resultados del presente estudio mostraron que los grupos de ratas que recibieron GCBE oral durante 7 días después de la inducción de GIAN (mediante una inyección intraperitoneal diaria de gentamicina durante 7 días), informaron una mejora significativa en las pruebas de función renal en comparación con los grupos del modelo GIAN. Además, hubo una mejora significativa en los marcadores de estrés oxidativo renal (malondialdehído renal, superóxido dismutasa renal) y cambios histopatológicos renales en los grupos tratados con GCBE en comparación con el grupo del modelo GIAN. Estos resultados indican que GCBE tiene un papel potencial en la mejora del daño renal involucrado en GIAN.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Gentamicins/toxicity , Coffea/chemistry , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Coffee , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/pathology , Kidney Function Tests , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Antioxidants/pharmacology
12.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(1): 51-65, ene. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372343

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological evidence indicates that plant antioxidants activity can treat or help to prevent the development of various diseases. One species with great potential as an antioxidant is Curcuma longa. However, different extraction techniquescan influence isolated chemical compounds. This study investigated chemical composition and antioxidant activity of two rhizome extracts of C. longa: hydroethanolic, obtained by exhaustion (HECLex); and dried by a spray dryer (HECLsd). The phytochemical composition was evaluated by GC/MS. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH and FRAP assays. Total phenolic compounds and soil analyses were performed. The main components of HECLex were ar-turmerone, γ-curcumene, α-turmerone, and ß-sesquiphellandrene. The main components of HECLsd were 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, 2, 3-bis([trimethylsilyl]oxy) propyl ester, verrucarol, and 1-monolinoleoylglycerol trimethylsilyl ether. HECLsd had significantly higher levels of phenolic compounds and higher antioxidant capacity compared with HECLex. In conclusion, processes of the preparation of C. longarhizomes alter the chemical components and consequently their biological activity.


La evidencia epidemiológica indica que la actividad de los antioxidantes de las plantas pueden tratar o ayudar a prevenir el desarrollo de diversas enfermedades. Una especie con gran potencial como antioxidante es Curcuma longa. Sin embargo, diferentes técnicas de extracción pueden influir en los compuestos químicos aislados. Este estudio investigó la composición química y la actividad antioxidante de dos extractos de rizoma de C. longa: hidroetanólico, obtenido por agotamiento (HECLex); y se seca con un secador por pulverización (HECLsd). La composición fitoquímica se evaluó mediante GC/MS. La actividad antioxidante se evaluó mediante ensayos DPPH y FRAP. Se realizaron análisis de suelos y compuestos fenólicos totales. Los componentes principales de HECLex fueron ar-turmerona, γ-curcumene, α-turmerone y ß-sesquiphellandrene. Los componentes principales de HECLsd fueron ácido 9,12,15-octadecatrienoico, éster 2,3-bis ([trimetilsilil] oxi) propílico, verrucarol y éter 1-monolinoleoilglicerol trimetilsilil. HECLsd tenía niveles significativamente más altos de compuestos fenólicos y mayor capacidad antioxidante en comparación con HECLex. En conclusión, los procesos de preparación de los rizomas de C. longa alteran los componentes químicos y consecuentemente su actividad biológica.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Curcuma/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Dietary Supplements , Diarylheptanoids/chemistry , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Free Radicals , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Phytotherapy , Antioxidants/chemistry
13.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(1): 87-93, Jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360707

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect and mechanism of action of artichoke leaf extract in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury. METHODS: Rats were divided into three groups such as sham, control, and artichoke leaf extract groups. Antioxidant enzyme activities and biochemical parameters were examined from the tissue and serum obtained from the subjects. Histopathological findings were scored semiquantitatively. RESULTS: Statistically, the antioxidant activity was highest in the artichoke leaf extract group, the difference in biochemical parameters and C-reactive protein was significant compared with the control group, and the histopathological positive effects were found to be significantly higher. CONCLUSIONS: As a result, artichoke leaf extract had a hepatoprotective effect and that this effect was related to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of artichoke.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Cynara scolymus , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Liver , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/pharmacology
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936327

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To screen the effective antioxidant components in Trichosanthes extract based on the mean value of Deng's correlation degree and assess the antioxidant activity of the identified components.@*METHOD@#High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to obtain the fingerprints of Trichosanthes extract, and the clearance rates of DPPH · and O2-· by 3, 9 and 27 mg/mL Trichosanthes extract were determined. The antioxidant spectrum effect of Trichosanthes extract was analyzed by calculating the mean value of Deng's correlation degree to screen the effective antioxidant component group. According to the contents of each known components in the antioxidant effective component group, mixed solutions of the components were prepared and tested for their clearance rates of DPPH · and O2-·.@*RESULTS@#The 36 common peaks in HPLC fingerprints of Trichosanthes extract showed different degrees of correlation with DPPH · and O2-· clearance. The common peaks with a correlation degree greater than the median value included peaks 21, 36, 8, 31, 14, 5, 27, 2, 24, 15, 18, 33, 22, 34, 35, 19, 28 and 25. The 5 components, namely kaempferol (peak 36), isoquercitrin (peak 8), luteolin (peak 31), rutin (peak 5) and apigenin (peak 35), were tentatively identified to constitute the effective antioxidant component group with a mass ratio 3∶2∶2∶ 1∶1 in Trichosanthes extract. The prepared mixed solutions of antioxidant effective component group (6.12, 2.04, and 0.68 μg/mL) showed clearance rates of DPPH · of 65.4%, 64.0% and 61.0%, and clearance rates of O2-· of 12.9%, 9.5% and 8.3%, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#We identified the material basis for the antioxidant activity of Trichosanthes and screened the antioxidant effective component group in Trichosanthes extract.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Luteolin , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Trichosanthes/chemistry
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929155

ABSTRACT

Periodontitis is a widespread oral disease characterized by continuous inflammation of the periodontal tissue and an irreversible alveolar bone loss, which eventually leads to tooth loss. Four-octyl itaconate (4-OI) is a cell-permeable itaconate derivative and has been recognized as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Here, we explored, for the first time, the protective effect of 4-OI on inhibiting periodontal destruction, ameliorating local inflammation, and the underlying mechanism in periodontitis. Here we showed that 4-OI treatment ameliorates inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide in the periodontal microenvironment. 4-OI can also significantly alleviate inflammation and alveolar bone loss via Nrf2 activation as observed on samples from experimental periodontitis in the C57BL/6 mice. This was further confirmed as silencing Nrf2 blocked the antioxidant effect of 4-OI by downregulating the expression of downstream antioxidant enzymes. Additionally, molecular docking simulation indicated the possible mechanism under Nrf2 activation. Also, in Nrf2-/- mice, 4-OI treatment did not protect against alveolar bone dysfunction due to induced periodontitis, which underlined the importance of the Nrf2 in 4-OI mediated periodontitis treatment. Our results indicated that 4-OI attenuates inflammation and oxidative stress via disassociation of KEAP1-Nrf2 and activation of Nrf2 signaling cascade. Taken together, local administration of 4-OI offers clinical potential to inhibit periodontal destruction, ameliorate local inflammation for more predictable periodontitis.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Bone Loss/prevention & control , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Inflammation , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Molecular Docking Simulation , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Periodontitis/prevention & control , Succinates
16.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 373-385, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929118

ABSTRACT

Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) that are overproduced by mitochondrial dysfunction are linked to pathological conditions including sensory abnormalities. Here, we explored whether mROS overproduction induces itch through transient receptor potential canonical 3 (TRPC3), which is sensitive to ROS. Intradermal injection of antimycin A (AA), a selective inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III for mROS overproduction, produced robust scratching behavior in naïve mice, which was suppressed by MitoTEMPO, a mitochondria-selective ROS scavenger, and Pyr10, a TRPC3-specific blocker, but not by blockers of TRPA1 or TRPV1. AA activated subsets of trigeminal ganglion neurons and also induced inward currents, which were blocked by MitoTEMPO and Pyr10. Besides, dry skin-induced chronic scratching was relieved by MitoTEMPO and Pyr10, and also by resveratrol, an antioxidant. Taken together, our results suggest that mROS elicit itch through TRPC3, which may underlie chronic itch, representing a potential therapeutic target for chronic itch.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Mice , Mitochondria , Pruritus/chemically induced , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , TRPA1 Cation Channel
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929067

ABSTRACT

Ascosphaera apis spores containing a dark-colored pigment infect honeybee larvae, resulting in a large-scale collapse of the bee colony due to chalkbrood disease. However, little is known about the pigment or whether it plays a role in bee infection caused by A. apis. In this study, the pigment was isolated by alkali extraction, acid hydrolysis, and repeated precipitation. Ultraviolet (UV) analysis revealed that the pigment had a color value of 273, a maximum absorption peak at 195 nm, and a high alkaline solubility (7.67%) and acid precipitability. Further chemical structure analysis of the pigment, including elemental composition, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), proved that it was a eumelanin with a typical indole structure. The molecular formula of melanin is C10H6O4N2, and its molecular weight is 409 Da. Melanin has hydroxyl, carboxyl, amino, and phenolic groups that can potentially chelate to metal ions. Antioxidant function analyses showed that A. apis melanin had a high scavenging activity against superoxide, hydroxyl, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, and a high reducing ability to Fe3+. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses showed that A. apis melanin was located on the spore wall. The spore wall localization, antioxidant activity, and metal ion chelating properties of fungal melanin have been suggested to contribute to spore pathogenicity. However, further infection experiments showed that melanin-deficient spores did not reduce the mortality of bee larvae, indicating that melanin does not increase the virulence of A. apis spores. This study is the first report on melanin produced by A. apis, providing an important background reference for further study on its role in A. apis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Larva , Melanins , Molecular Structure , Onygenales
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928996

ABSTRACT

Areca catechu L. medicinal materials and their preparations are widely used in clinical practice. Betelnut polyphenol is one of the main chemical components with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effects. With continuous increase of high altitude activities, tissue oxidative damage caused by high altitude hypoxia seriously affects the ability to work, and the studies on anti-hypoxia drugs are particularly important. Recent studies have shown that betelnut polyphenols have protective effects on oxidative stress injury caused by hypoxia via improving blood gas index of hypoxic organism, increasing superoxide dismutase glutathione catalase activity, and scavenging excessive free radicals. The effects of betelnut polyphenols against hypoxia and oxidative damage protection suggest that betelnut polyphenols can be used as potential anti-hypoxia drugs and posses clinical prospects.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/pharmacology , Areca/chemistry , Humans , Hypoxia , Oxidative Stress , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e233425, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249266

ABSTRACT

Abstract The secondary metabolism products of plants have influenced great economic interest, given their chemical diversity and biological activities. Because of this, this study evaluates the phytochemical composition, antimicrobial activity, insecticidal, and antioxidant activity of plant extracts and oil of Myrcia oblongata. Saponins, steroids, triterpenoids, tannins, and flavonoids were detected. The extracts showed antimicrobial capacity on the tested microorganisms, except for the methanolic extract, which showed no activity for P. mirabilis and S. enteritidis. Regarding the analysis of antioxidant compounds, the hexanic, ethyl acetate and acetone extracts showed higher antioxidant activities and also higher insecticidal performance on Alphitobius diaperinus larvae, resulting in 80% adult mortality. The results reported here show that there may be a relationship between antioxidant potential and the insecticidal effect of Myrcia oblongata DC. The components present in both the extract and the oil can be used as natural alternative to synthetic compounds in the biological control of parasites and pathogenic microorganisms.


Resumo Os produtos do metabolismo secundário das plantas têm despertado grande interesse econômico, dada sua diversidade química e atividades biológicas. Neste sentido, o estudo objetivou avaliar a composição fitoquímica, atividade antimicrobiana, inseticida e antioxidante dos extratos vegetais e óleo de Myrcia oblongata. Foram detectados a presença de saponinas, esteróides, triterpenóides, taninos e flavonóides. Os extratos apresentaram capacidade antimicrobiana sobre os microrganismos testados, exceto o extrato metanólico que não demonstrou atividade para P. mirabilis e S. Enteritidis. Quanto a análise de compostos antioxidantes observou-se que os extratos hexânico, acetato de etila e acetona apresentaram maiores atividades antioxidantes e também maior performance inseticida sobre a larva Alphitobius diaperinus e exibindo mortalidade de 80% na fase adulta. Os resultados aqui reportados mostram que pode haver uma relação entre potencial antioxidante e efeito inseticida do óleo de Myrcia oblongata; os componentes presentes tanto no extrato como o oléo podem ser utilizados como alternativa natural aos compostos sintéticos no controle biológico de parasitas e microrganismos patogênicos.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile , Insecticides , Anti-Infective Agents , Bacteria , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Antioxidants/pharmacology
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e234476, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153484

ABSTRACT

Abstract The Brazilian Cerrado biome consists of a great variety of endemic species with several bioactive compounds, and Anadenanthera peregrina (L.) Speg is a promising species. In this study, we aimed to perform phytochemical characterization and evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli of the hydroethanolic extract of A. peregrina stem bark. The barks were collected in the Botanical Garden of Goiânia, Brazil. The hydroethanolic extract was obtained by percolation and subjected to physicochemical screening, total phenolic content estimation, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting, and antioxidant (IC50 values were calculated for the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay - DPPH) and antibacterial activity determination. The pH of the extract was 5.21 and density was 0.956 g/cm3. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of cardiac glycosides, organic acids, reducing sugars, hemolytic saponins, phenols, coumarins, condensed tannins, flavonoids, catechins, depsides, and depsidones derived from benzoquinones. The extract showed intense hemolytic activity. The total phenolic content was 6.40 g GAE 100 g-1. The HPLC fingerprinting analysis revealed the presence of gallic acid, catechin, and epicatechin. We confirmed the antioxidant activity of the extract. Furthermore, the extract did not inhibit the growth of E. coli colonies at any volume tested, but there were halos around S. aureus colonies at all three volumes tested. These results contribute to a better understanding of the chemical composition of A. peregrina stem bark and further support the medicinal applications of this species.


Resumo O bioma Cerrado brasileiro apresenta em uma grande variedade de espécies endêmicas com diversos compostos bioativos, e Anadenanthera peregrina (L.) Speg é uma espécie promissora. Neste estudo, objetivamos realizar a caracterização fitoquímica e avaliar as atividades antioxidantes e antibacterianas contra Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli do extrato hidroetanólico de cascas do caule de A. peregrina. As cascas foram coletadas no Jardim Botânico de Goiânia, Brasil. O extrato hidroetanólico foi obtido por percolação e submetido a triagem físico-química, estimativa de conteúdo fenólico total, impressão digital por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC) e determinação da atividade antioxidante (valores de IC50 foram calculados para o ensaio 2,2-difenil-1-picril-hidrazil) e antibacteriana. O pH do extrato foi de 5,21 e a densidade foi de 0,956 g/cm3. A triagem fitoquímica indicou a presença de glicosídeos cardíacos, ácidos orgânicos, açúcares redutores, saponinas hemolíticas, fenóis, cumarinas, taninos condensados, flavonóides, catequinas, depsídios e depsidonas derivados de benzoquinonas. O extrato mostrou intensa atividade hemolítica. O conteúdo fenólico total foi de 6,40 g de GAE 100 g-1. A análise por impressão digital por HPLC revelou a presença de ácido gálico, catequina e epicatequina. Confirmamos a atividade antioxidante do extrato. Além disso, o extrato não inibiu o crescimento de colônias de E. coli em nenhum volume testado, mas houve halos em torno das colônias de S. aureus nos três volumes testados. Estes resultados contribuem para uma melhor compreensão da composição química da casca de A. peregrina e apoia ainda mais as aplicações medicinais desta espécie.


Subject(s)
Plant Bark , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Staphylococcus aureus , Brazil , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Escherichia coli , Phytochemicals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
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