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3.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0728-2020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155535

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a causative agent of tuberculosis (TB) that causes death worldwide. METHODS: MTB was subjected to phenotypic drug-susceptibility tests (DST), and drug-resistant genes were sequenced. RESULTS: Previously treated patients were more likely to have positive smear results and exhibit drug resistance. New patients were more likely to be mono SM-resistant and less likely to be INH- and RIF-resistant. The most common mutations were katG (S315T), rpoB (S450L), rpsL (K43R), and embB (M306V). CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of mono-SM-resistant TB among new patients was higher.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , China , Mutation , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology
4.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 45: e5, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252038

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. Identificar los factores asociados con el éxito del tratamiento de tuberculosis multidrogorresistente (TB-MDR) relacionados con los pacientes y el personal sanitario en seis municipios de Colombia con mayor número de casos. Métodos. Mediante regresiones logísticas bifactorial y multifactorial se analizó la asociación entre el tratamiento exitoso (curación o cumplimiento del tratamiento) y las características de los pacientes, y de los médicos, profesionales de enfermería y psicólogos vinculados al tratamiento. Se exploró la importancia del conocimiento en el manejo de los casos de TB-MDR mediante grupos focales con esos profesionales. Resultados. De los 128 casos con TB-MDR, 63 (49,2%) tuvieron un tratamiento exitoso. Solo 52,9% de los médicos y profesionales de enfermería tenía conocimientos satisfactorios sobre TB-MDR. La regresión logística mostró que ser negativo al VIH, estar afiliado al régimen de aseguramiento de salud contributivo, estar atendido por un médico del sexo masculino y por profesionales de enfermería con conocimientos suficientes se asociaron con un desenlace exitoso del tratamiento (p ≤ 0,05). El análisis cualitativo mostró la necesidad de profundizar y sistematizar la capacitación del personal sanitario que atiende los casos de TB-MDR. Conclusiones. En el éxito del tratamiento de los casos de TB-MDR influyen algunas características de los pacientes y el personal sanitario. Se requiere fortalecer los conocimientos sobre TB-MDR de médicos y enfermeros, y reforzar el seguimiento de los pacientes con TB-MDR positivos al VIH y de los que pertenecen al régimen subsidiado, dada su menor probabilidad de éxito al tratamiento.


ABSTRACT Objective. To identify patient- and provider-related factors associated with the success of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment in the six municipalities of Colombia with the highest number of MDR-TB cases. Methods. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyze the association between treatment success (cure or treatment completion) and characteristics of the patients and physicians, nursing professionals, and psychologists involved in their treatment. The importance of knowledge in the management of MDR-TB cases was explored through focus groups with these providers. Results. Of 128 cases of TB-MDR, 63 (49.2%) experienced treatment success. Only 52.9% of the physicians and nursing professionals had satisfactory knowledge about MDR-TB. Logistic regression showed that being HIV negative, being affiliated with the contributory health insurance scheme, being cared for by a male physician, and being cared for by nursing professionals with sufficient knowledge were associated with a successful treatment outcome (p ≤ 0.05). Qualitative analysis showed the need for in-depth, systematic training of health personnel who care for patients with MDR-TB. Conclusions. Some characteristics of patients and healthcare providers influence treatment success in MDR-TB cases. Physicians' and nurses' knowledge about MDR-TB must be improved, and follow-up of MDR-TB patients who are living with HIV and of those affiliated with the subsidized health insurance scheme in Colombia must be strengthened, as these patients have a lower likelihood of a successful treatment outcome.


RESUMO Objetivo. Identificar os fatores associados ao êxito do tratamento da tuberculose multirresistente (TBMR) relacionados ao paciente e à equipe de saúde nos seis municípios da Colômbia com o maior número de casos. Métodos. Mediante regressão logística bifatorial e multifatorial, analisou-se a associação entre o êxito do tratamento (cura ou completude do tratamento) e as características dos pacientes e dos médicos, profissionais de enfermagem e psicólogos envolvidos neste. Explorou-se a importância do conhecimento no manejo de casos de TBMR mediante grupos focais com os mesmos profissionais. Resultados. Dos 128 casos de TBMR, 63 (49.2%) lograram êxito no tratamento. Somente 52.9% dos médicos e profissionais de enfermagem tinham conhecimentos satisfatórios sobre TBMR. A regressão logística demonstrou que soronegatividade para o HIV, cobertura pelo sistema de saúde sob o regime de contribuinte, atendimento por um médico do sexo masculino e atendimento por profissionais de enfermagem com conhecimento suficiente foram fatores associados ao êxito do tratamento (p ≤ 0,05). A análise qualitativa demonstrou necessidade de aprofundar e sistematizar a capacitação do pessoal de saúde que atende casos de TBMR. Conclusões. Algumas características do paciente e da equipe de saúde influenciam no êxito do tratamento de casos de TBMR. É preciso fortalecer os conhecimentos dos médicos e profissionais de enfermagem sobre a TBMR e reforçar o seguimento dos pacientes com TBMR que vivem com HIV e os filiados ao sistema de saúde colombiano pelo regime subsidiado, os quais têm menor probabilidade de êxito do tratamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Health Personnel , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/therapy , Logistic Models , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Outcome , Clinical Competence , Focus Groups , Colombia , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(10): e00293920, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339528

ABSTRACT

Neste estudo, estimou-se a proporção e os fatores associados à subnotificação da tuberculose multirresistente (TB-MDR) no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, assim como a proporção de óbitos nesse grupo. Realizou-se um estudo de coorte retrospectiva, utilizando a técnica de relacionamento probabilístico entre sistemas de informação. Os casos com resultado do teste de sensibilidade às drogas (TSA) com padrão TB-MDR registrados no Sistema Gerenciador de Ambiente Laboratorial (GAL), no período 2010 a 2017, foram relacionados com casos notificados no Sistema de Tratamentos Especiais de Tuberculose (SITETB). Regressões logísticas simples e múltipla foram realizadas para estimar os fatores associados à subnotificação. Para verificar o óbito, foi realizada a busca dos casos no Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM) e no portal do Tribunal de Justiça do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Dos 651 casos TB-MDR no GAL, 165 não haviam sido notificados no SITETB, perfazendo uma subnotificação de 25,4% na amostra. Entre os casos subnotificados, 61 (37%) foram encontrados nos registros de óbito. Na análise múltipla, ter o exame solicitado por um hospital (OR = 2,86; IC95%: 1,72-4,73) esteve associado à subnotificação. No geral, o tempo médio entre a solicitação do exame e a liberação do resultado foi de 113 dias. Entre os casos notificados, o tempo médio entre a solicitação do exame e o início do tratamento foi de 169 dias. Diante disso, é urgente fortalecer as ações de vigilância epidemiológica na TB-MDR, estabelecer e monitorar núcleos de vigilância hospitalar e as rotinas de notificação de TB nos hospitais, rever etapas operacionais, além de unificar os diversos sistemas de informação tornando-os mais ágeis e integrados.


This study estimated the proportion of underreporting of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and associated factors in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, as well as the proportion of deaths in this group. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using probabilistic database linkage. Cases with the results of the drug sensitivity test (DST) with MDR-TB pattern recorded in the Laboratory Environment Management System (GAL) from 2010 to 2017 were linked to cases reported to the Special TB Treatments System (SITETB). Simple and multiple logistic regressions were performed to estimate factors associated with underreporting. Death was verified by search for cases in the Mortality Information System (SIM) and in the portal of the Rio de Janeiro State Court of Justice. Of the 651 cases of MDR-TB in the GAL, 165 had not been reported to the SITETB, meaning an underreporting rate of 25.4% in the sample. Among the unreported cases, 61 (37%) were identified in the death records. In the multiple analysis, the fact that the test was ordered by a hospital (OR = 2.86; 95%CI: 1.72-4.73) was associated with underreporting. Overall, the mean turnaround time between ordering the test and releasing the result was 113 days. Among reported cases, the mean time between ordering the test and initiating treatment was 169 days. The results underline the urgent need to strengthen epidemiological surveillance activities for MDR-TB, establish and monitor hospital surveillance centers and routine TB reporting in hospitals, review operational stages, and integrate various information systems to make them more agile and integrated.


En este estudio se estimó la proporción y los factores asociados a la subnotificación de la tuberculosis resistente a múltiples fármacos (TB-MDR) en el Estado de Río de Janeiro, Brasil, así como la proporción de óbitos en ese grupo. Se realizó un estudio de cohorte retrospectiva, utilizando la técnica de relación probabilística entre sistemas de información. Los casos con resultado del test de sensibilidad a las drogas (TSA) con patrón TB-MDR, registrados en el Sistema Gerenciador de Ambiente Laboratorial (GAL), en el período 2010 a 2017, se relacionaron con casos notificados en el Sistema de Tratamientos Especiales de Tuberculosis (SITETB). Se realizaron regresiones logísticas simples y múltiples para estimar los factores asociados a la subnotificación. Para verificar el óbito, se realizó la búsqueda de los casos en el Sistema de Información sobre Mortalidad (SIM) y en el portal del Tribunal de Justicia del Estado de Río de Janeiro. De los 651 casos TB-MDR en el GAL, 165 no habían sido notificados en el SITETB, lo que equivale a una subnotificación de un 25,4% en la muestra. Entre los casos subnotificados, 61 (37%) se encontraron en los registros de óbito. En el análisis múltiple, que el examen haya sido solicitado por un hospital (OR = 2,86; IC95%: 1,72-4,73) estuvo asociado a la subnotificación. En general, el tiempo medio entre la solicitud del examen y la llegada del resultado fue de 113 días. Entre los casos notificados, el tiempo medio entre la solicitud del examen y el inicio del tratamiento fue de 169 días. Ante esto, es urgente fortalecer las acciones de vigilancia epidemiológica en la TB-MDR, establecer y supervisar núcleos de vigilancia hospitalaria y las rutinas de notificación de TB en los hospitales, revisar etapas operacionales, además de unificar los diversos sistemas de información haciéndolos más ágiles e integrados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
6.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 40(4): 587-593, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142423

ABSTRACT

Resumen: La tuberculosis es una de las enfermedades infecciosas más comunes en el mundo. Aunque la mortalidad en niños es prácticamente nula cuando el diagnóstico y el tratamiento son oportunos, puede asociarse con complicaciones como la trombosis venosa profunda y la superficial a partir de la respuesta inflamatoria sistémica frente a la infección, lo que propicia la coagulación y ocasiona una significativa morbimortalidad. Se reporta el caso de una adolescente de 14 años con tuberculosis pulmonar en tratamiento combinado quien, de forma atípica, presentó dos episodios de tromboembolia venosa: el primero en el riñón y el segundo en los pulmones. Tras descartar el síndrome nefrótico y el antifosfolipídico, los estudios de tomografía de tórax y abdomen fueron una herramienta fundamental para su diagnóstico. Se inició tratamiento con heparina de bajo peso molecular con mejoría de los síntomas. Teniendo en cuenta las necesidades de anticoagulación no fue posible realizar estudios adicionales de ampliación. Las complicaciones tromboembólicas en pacientes con tuberculosis y sin otros factores de riesgo obligan a considerar el efecto coagulante que resulta de la reacción inflamatoria sistémica, la cual podría, por sí sola, ser la causa de una complicación significativa pero prevenible, aunque frecuentemente escapa al diagnóstico. En este sentido, se recomienda considerar la posibilidad de la tromboembolia venosa en estos pacientes y hacer un seguimiento estricto que permita aplicar el tratamiento anticoagulante tempranamente y prevenir, así, resultados adversos.


Abstract: Tuberculosis is one of the most common infectious diseases around the world. With timely diagnosis and treatment, mortality in children is practically zero. It is usually associated with a diverse number of complications that can cause significant morbidity and mortality, such as deep and superficial vein thrombosis. This event has been associated with a procoagulant state caused by the systemic inflammatory response to infection. We report the case of a 14-year-old adolescent with pulmonary tuberculosis under the initial four-drug regimen. She presented two episodes of venous thromboembolism, the first in the kidneys and the second in the lungs. After ruling out diseases such as nephrotic and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, chest and abdomen tomographies were performed as a fundamental tool for the diagnosis. Thereafter, treatment with low molecular weight heparin was initiated and the symptoms improved. Given the requirement for anticoagulation, further image studies could not be done. Thromboembolic complications in patients with no other risk factors, associated only with a previous pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis, offer evidence to consider the procoagulant effect resulting from the systemic inflammatory response that, by itself, could be the cause of a serious complication, often underdiagnosed but also preventable. Therefore, it is recommended to consider the predisposition for venous thromboembolism in these patients and to establish strict surveillance so early anticoagulant therapy can be provided to prevent adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis , Pulmonary Embolism , Adolescent , Venous Thrombosis , Anticoagulants , Antitubercular Agents
7.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 36(3): 215-222, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138555

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La prevención de la tuberculosis activa en los grupos de riesgo es clave para el control y eliminación de la tuberculosis. El tratamiento de la infección tuberculosa latente (TITL) con rifapentina e isoniazida en dosis semanales por 12 semanas es más corto que con otros esquemas, tiene menor hepatotoxicidad, mejor adherencia y es costo-efectivo. El OBJETIVO del estudio es evaluar la factibilidad de implementar este esquema a nivel programático en Chile. MÉTODOS: Se hizo una intervención piloto en territorios seleccionados entre mayo de 2018 y marzo de 2019. En esos territorios se reemplazó el esquema normado de TITL con isoniazida 6 meses por el esquema rifapentina-isoniazida 12 semanas. Además, se amplió la población objetivo, incluyendo a contactos mayores de 14 años. El tratamiento consistió en la administración conjunta de isoniazida y rifapentina por vía oral con frecuencia semanal, por 12 semanas, de forma supervisada por personal de salud. RESULTADOS: Ingresaron 238 pacientes al piloto, de los cuales 53% fueron mujeres y 54,2% fueron mayores de 14 años. Del total de pacientes, 203 (85,3%) completaron el tratamiento, 22 (9,2%) lo abandonaron, 8 (3,4%) presentaron reacciones adversas y 5 tuvieron otros motivos de egreso. CONCLUSIÓN: Tanto el TITL con rifapentinaisoniazida por 3 meses en dosis semanales supervisadas, como la incorporación de contactos adultos a TITL, son factibles de implementar a nivel programático en Chile.


INTRODUCTION: Prevention of active tuberculosis in risk groups is crucial in tuberculosis control and elimination. Treatment of latent tuberculosis (TITL) with rifapentine and isoniazid in weekly doses for 12 weeks is shorter than other pharmacological treatments, with less liver toxicity, better patient compliance and it is cost-effective. The OBJECTIVE of this study is to evaluate the feasibility to implement this treatment at a programmatic level in Chile. METHODS: A pilot intervention was conducted in selected territories between May 2018 and March 2019. Within these territories, the regulated treatment with isoniazid 6 months was replaced by the 12 weeks treatment with weekly rifapentine-isoniazide. Additionally, the target population was expanded to include contacts over 14 years old, currently not included in the national guidelines. Treatment consisted in oral administration of rifapentine and isoniazide together once a week for 12 weeks, under supervision of trained health workers. RESULTS: From 238 patients entered to the protocol, 53% of them were women and 54.2% were older than 14 years-old. Out of the total number of patients, 203 (85.3%) completed treatment, 22 (9.2%) abandoned, 8 (3.4%) had adverse drug reactions, and 5 ended treatment for different causes. CONCLUSION: Both TITL with rifapentine-isoniazide in 12 supervised weekly doses, and the inclusion of adult contacts in TITL, are feasible to implement at a programmatic level in Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Rifampin/analogs & derivatives , Latent Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Isoniazid/therapeutic use , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Drug Administration Schedule , Chile , Pilot Projects , Administration, Oral , Patient Compliance , Directly Observed Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , National Health Programs
8.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 85(4): 366-370, ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138633

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La tuberculosis (TBC) genital es una infección relativamente poco frecuente en la mujer. Afecta principalmente a mujeres menores de 40 años, y el motivo de consulta más usual es la esterilidad, de ahí la importancia de su diagnóstico precoz. CASO CLÍNICO clínico: Se presenta el caso de una paciente con dolor pélvico crónico que acude a nuestras consultas para valoración. Durante el estudio se toma biopsia dirigida de la cavidad endometrial diagnosticándose la presencia de granulomas no necrotizantes. Posteriormente se realiza un cultivo microbiológico que resulta positivo para micobacterias y se determina el DNA, mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa, de mycobacterium tuberculosis, como causante del cuadro. DISCUSIÓN: El diagnóstico definitivo de TBC requiere el aislamiento en cultivo del bacilo de Koch, aunque en los casos de TBC genital, al ser una entidad paucibacilar, puede no resultar positivo. En éste caso, sería suficiente el diagnóstico de presunción basado en la sospecha clínica y el hallazgo histológico de granulomas. CONCLUSIÓN: La tuberculosis genital es una entidad poco frecuente en nuestro medio, aunque es una causa importante de infertilidad femenina y su predominio generalmente se subestima debido a la naturaleza paucisintomática de la misma. El diagnóstico temprano y el tratamiento multidisciplinar son fundamentales.


INTRODUCTION: Genital tuberculosis (TB) is a relatively rare afection in women. It mainly affects women younger than 40 years, and the most frequent reason for consultation is sterility, therefore early diagnosis is important. CLINICAL CASE: We presented the case of a patient with chronic pelvic pain who comes to our consultations. During the study, we take an endometrial biopsy diagnosing the presence of non-necrotizing granulomas. Finally, we determined the mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA through the polymerase chain reaction and positive microbiological culture, as the cause of pathology. DISCUSSION: The definitive diagnosis of TB requires the isolation in culture of the Koch bacillus, although in genital TB cases, as it is a paucibacillary entity, it may not be positive. In this case, the presumptive diagnosis based on clinical suspicion and the histological granulomas would be enough. CONCLUSIONS: Genital tuberculosis is a rare entity in our environment, although it is an important cause of female infertility and its prevalence is generally underestimated due to its paucisymptomatic nature. Early diagnosis and multidisciplinary treatment are essential.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Tuberculosis, Female Genital/complications , Tuberculosis, Female Genital/diagnosis , Endometritis/etiology , Tuberculosis, Female Genital/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Female Genital/pathology , Tuberculosis, Female Genital/drug therapy , Postmenopause , Pelvic Pain/etiology , Granuloma/etiology , Infertility, Female , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
9.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 36(2): 100-108, jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138541

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La resistencia antibiótica y una inadecuada adherencia terapéutica son fenómenos que favorecen la proliferación de la tuberculosis. Los cambios sociodemográficos nos desafían a conocer la realidad actual de la enfermedad a través de antecedentes que nos permitan contextualizar un nuevo escenario. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar el perfil biopsicosocial del paciente con tuberculosis y su relación con la adherencia terapéutica. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Estudio descriptivo, transversal, correlacional. Muestra de 90 pacientes tratados en 35 Centros de Salud Familiar de los Servicios de Salud de Iquique, Metropolitano Norte, Concepción y Reloncaví. RESULTADOS: los componentes biopsicosociales como edad, antecedentes de enfermedad mental, autoestima, situación sentimental, pertenencia a grupos de riesgo, alcoholismo, drogadicción y situación de calle presentaron una relación estadísticamente significación con la adherencia terapéutica. CONCLUSIONES: La caracterización biopsicosocial del paciente con tuberculosis visibiliza nuevos factores relacionados con la adherencia que deben ser considerados para una atención interdisciplinaria.


BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance and inadequate therapeutic adherence are phenomena that promote the proliferation of tuberculosis. Sociodemographic changes challenge us to know the real situation of the disease and allows us to contextualize a new scenario. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the biopsychosocial profile of the patient with tuberculosis and its relationship to therapeutic adherence. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Descriptive, cross-sectional, correlational study. Sample of 90 patients treated at 35 Family Health Centers from the following Chilean Public Health Services: Iquique, Metropolitan northern (Santiago), Concepción and Reloncaví. RESULTS: Biopsychosocial components such as age, history of mental illness, self-esteem, sentimental status, belonging to risk groups, alcoholism, drug addiction and homeless situation presented a statistically significant relationship with therapeutic adherence. CONCLUSIONS: The biopsychosocial characterization of the TB patient evidence a new adherence-related factors that should be considered for interdisciplinary care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Tuberculosis/psychology , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Medication Adherence/psychology , Treatment Adherence and Compliance/psychology , Self Concept , Socioeconomic Factors , Risk Groups , Homeless Persons , Chile , Family Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Alcoholism/psychology , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Adherence and Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Correlation of Data , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190407, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101275

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Early diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and identification of strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to anti-TB drugs are considered the main factors for disease control. OBJECTIVES To standardise a real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay technique and apply it to identify mutations involved in M. tuberculosis resistance to Isoniazid (INH) directly in Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stained slides. METHODS Were analysed 55 independent DNA samples extracted from clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis by sequencing. For application in TB diagnosis resistance, 59 ZN-stained slides were used. The sensitivity, specificity and Kappa index, with a 95% confidence interval (CI95%), were determined. FINDINGS The agreement between the tests was, for the katG target, the Kappa index of 0.89 (CI95%: 0.7-1.0). The sensitivity and specificity were 97.6% (CI95%: 87.7-99.9) and 91.7% (CI95%: 61.5-99.5), respectively. For inhA, the Kappa index was 0.92 (CI95%: 0.8-1.0), the sensitivity and specificity were 94.4% (CI95%: 72.7-99.8) and 97.3% (CI95%: 85.8-99.9), respectively. The use of ZN-stained slides for drug-resistant TB detection showed significant results when compared to other standard tests for drug resistance. MAIN CONCLUSIONS qPCR genotyping proved to be an efficient method to detect genes that confer M. tuberculosis resistance to INH. Thus, qPCR genotyping may be an alternative instead of sequencing.


Subject(s)
Humans , Genetic Markers/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Isoniazid/pharmacology , Mutation/genetics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200520, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154871

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The evaluation of procedures for drug susceptibility prediction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis based on genomic data against the conventional reference method test based on culture is realistic considering the scenario of growing number of tools proposals based on whole-genome sequences (WGS). OBJECTIVES This study aimed to evaluate drug susceptibility testing (DST) outcome based on WGS tools and the phenotypic methods performed on isolates of M. tuberculosis Lineage 1 from the state of Pará, Brazil, generally associated with low levels of drug resistance. METHODOLOGY Culture based DST was performed using the Proportion Method in Löwenstein-Jensen medium on 71 isolates that had been submitted to WGS. We analysed the seven main genome sequence-based tools for resistance and lineage prediction applied to M. tuberculosis and for comparison evaluation we have used the Kappa concordance test. FINDINGS When comparing the WGS-based tools against the DST, we observed the highest level of agreement using TB-profiler. Among the tools, TB-profiler, KvarQ and Mykrobe were those which identified the largest number of TB-MDR cases. Comparing the four most sensitive tools regarding resistance prediction, agreement was observed for 43 genomes. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Drug resistance profiling using next-generation sequencing offers rapid assessment of resistance-associated mutations, therefore facilitating rapid access to effective treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/genetics , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , Whole Genome Sequencing , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200055, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the number of new cases of multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB), pre extensively drug-resistant TB (pre-XDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) has increased considerably worldwide. OBJECTIVES Herein, using 156 M. tuberculosis isolates from 106 patients previously classified as MDR or pre-XDR or XDR isolates, we investigated the genetic mutation profiles associated with phenotypic resistances in patients with MDR-TB, pre-XDR-TB and XDR-TB, treatment outcomes and resistance evolution. METHODS Molecular analyses were performed by partial sequencing of the rpoB, katG, gyrA, gyrB, rrs genes and analysis of the fabG-inhA promoter region. Clinical, epidemiologic and demographic data were obtained from the TB Notification database system of São Paulo (TB-WEB) and the Information System for Special Tuberculosis Treatments (SITE-TB). FINDINGS Drug resistance was attributed to previously known mutations and a novel Asp449Val mutation in gyrB was observed in four isolates from the same patient. Ten patients had more than one isolate evaluated and eight of these patients displayed resistance progression. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The present study is the first to report the frequency of mutations related to second-line drug resistance in MDR-TB, pre-XDR-TB and XDR-TB isolates. The results could lead to the improvement of available technologies for the rapid detection of drug resistant TB.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/microbiology , Middle Aged , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200215, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135232

ABSTRACT

The human-adapted strains of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) comprise seven phylogenetic lineages originally associated with their geographical distribution. Here, we report the genomes of three drug-resistant clinical isolates of the Latin American-Mediterranean (LAM) family collected in Kazakhstan. We utilised whole-genome sequencing to study the distribution and drug resistance of these isolates. Phylogenetic analysis grouped the genomes described in this study with the sequences from Russia, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan belonging to the LAM family. One isolate has acquired extensive drug resistance to seven antituberculosis drugs. Our results suggest at least two multi-drug resistant (MDR)/extensively drug-resistant (XDR)-associated genotypes of the LAM family circulate in Kazakhstan.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Phylogeny , Kazakhstan , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/genetics , Genomics , Genotype , Latin America
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200229, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135249

ABSTRACT

Malaria and tuberculosis are no longer considered to be neglected diseases by the World Health Organization. However, both are huge challenges and public health problems in the world, which affect poor people, today referred to as neglected populations. In addition, malaria and tuberculosis present the same difficulties regarding the treatment, such as toxicity and the microbial resistance. The increase of Plasmodium resistance to the available drugs along with the insurgence of multidrug- and particularly tuberculosis drug-resistant strains are enough to justify efforts towards the development of novel medicines for both diseases. This literature review provides an overview of the state of the art of antimalarial and antituberculosis chemotherapies, emphasising novel drugs introduced in the pharmaceutical market and the advances in research of new candidates for these diseases, and including some aspects of their mechanism/sites of action.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Malaria/drug therapy , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Neglected Diseases , Malaria/diagnosis
15.
Rev. salud bosque ; 10(1): 1-10, 2020. Tab, Ilus, Graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1104438

ABSTRACT

La tuberculosis (TB) es la enfermedad bacteriana infecciosa que más muertes causa en el mundo, panorama que puede empeorar debido a la drogorresistencia. La tuberculosis multidrogoresistente (TB-MDR), es decir la que presenta resistencia simultánea a isoniazida y rifampicina (principales fármacos antituberculosos), tiene una relevancia particular: de los 10 millones de personas que desarrollan TB anualmente, 458.000 presentan TB-MDR con un pronóstico mucho peor que el de los infectados por cepas sensibles. En el presente artículo se exploran los principales aspectos de la TB-MDR, haciendo énfasis en su tratamiento


Tuberculosis (TB) is the worldwide leading infectious cause of death and, the emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis can only worsen the scenario. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (TB-MDR) has proven resistant to both isoniazid and rifampin, the main antituberculous drugs. Out of 10 million people developing TB annually, 458 000 exhibit TB-MDR, having worse prognosis than those infected by sensitive strains. Recently, new drug-resistant TB treatment guidelines were issued both by the World Health Organization and health authorities in Colombia. The present paper explores the main aspects of TB-MDR emphasizing s sanitary authorities also, new guidelines were published by Colombian minister of health and social protection. In this paper, the main aspects of TB-MDR are explored, especially those related to its treatment.


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Antitubercular Agents , Rifampin , Tuberculosis , Cause of Death , Colombia
16.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 67, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1127231

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES To calculate the rate of tuberculosis cases per prison unit in Espírito Santo; present the individual, clinical, and institutional characteristics of the cases in persons deprived of liberty (PPL); and analyze the association between these characteristics and treatment outcome in this population. METHODS The study included cases of tuberculosis in the PPL of Espírito Santo from 2014 to 2016. Rate calculation, descriptive analysis and hierarchical logistic regression were performed considering the individual, clinical and institutional levels. RESULTS The rate of diagnosed cases per prison unit in the state ranged from 0 to 17.3 cases per 1,000 inmates. Of all reported cases, 218 (72.6%) healed, 21 (7.0%) dropped out, 1 (0.3%) died of tuberculosis, 2 (0.7%) died from other causes, 56 (18.7%) transferred the treatment site and 2 (0.7%) developed drug-resistant tuberculosis. The adjusted analysis showed that supervised treatment ensures success (CR = 0.29; 95%CI 0.01-0.76). CONCLUSIONS The study highlighted the importance of knowing the TB treatment outcome in the PPL to implement measures to reduce failure, and the contribution of supervised treatment in this process.


RESUMO OBJETIVOS Calcular a taxa de casos diagnosticados com tuberculose por unidades prisionais do Espírito Santo, apresentar as características individuais, clínicas e institucionais dos casos na população privada de liberdade (PPL) do ES e analisar a associação entre essas características e o encerramento do tratamento da tuberculose nessa população. MÉTODOS A população de estudo foram os casos de tuberculose na PPL do ES de 2014 a 2016. Realizou-se o cálculo de taxa, a análise descritiva e a regressão logística hierarquizada considerando os níveis individual, clínico e institucional. RESULTADOS A taxa de casos diagnosticados por unidade prisional no estado variou de 0 a 17,3 casos por 1.000 presos. Do total de casos notificados, 218 (72,6%) se curaram, 21 (7,0%) abandonaram o tratamento, 1 (0,3%) morreu por tuberculose, 2 (0,7%) morreram por outras causas, 56 (18,7%) transferiram o local de tratamento e 2 (0,7%) desenvolveram tuberculose drogarresistente. A análise ajustada mostrou que o tratamento supervisionado é um fator protetor para o insucesso (RC = 0,29; IC95% 0,01-0,76). CONCLUSÕES O estudo apontou a importância do conhecimento do desfecho do tratamento da TB na PPL visando à implementação de ações para a redução do insucesso, bem como a contribuição do tratamento supervisionado nesse processo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Prisons , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Health Services Accessibility , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Brazil , Treatment Outcome , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Freedom
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190284, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057285

ABSTRACT

Abstract Tuberculosis is one of the most common infections worldwide with particularly high incidence rates in countries with unfavorable socioeconomic conditions and among persons with impaired immune systems. While most patients with this disease will present with pulmonary tuberculosis, immunocompromised individuals also commonly present with extrapulmonary manifestations. We report the case of a 28-year-old male patient with end-stage renal disease who presented with long-standing systemic symptoms and genitourinary manifestations, who was diagnosed with urogenital tuberculosis both by clinical and microbiologic criteria. Clinicians should always suspect tuberculosis in patients with chronic symptoms, especially in those with immunosuppression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Tuberculosis, Urogenital/diagnosis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Tuberculosis, Urogenital/complications , Tuberculosis, Urogenital/drug therapy , Immunocompromised Host , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190207, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057305

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Adverse drug reactions can develop when using anti-tuberculosis medication, and the effects of the drugs can also significantly hinder the treatment of patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 73 patients using two standardized questionnaires and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref. RESULTS: All patients reported the presence of adverse drug reactions, 71.6% of which are minor and 28.3% both major and minor. The global quality of life analysis showed that patients with tuberculosis have a good average (67.3%). CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between quality of life and adverse drug reaction, educational level, and vulnerability.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Quality of Life/psychology , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Antitubercular Agents/adverse effects , Socioeconomic Factors , Tuberculosis/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/psychology , Tertiary Care Centers , Middle Aged , Antitubercular Agents/administration & dosage
19.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(6): 784-789, dic. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058112

ABSTRACT

Resumen La peritonitis tuberculosa es una entidad infrecuente en la población pediátrica. Es una forma poco común de tuberculosis extrapulmonar y representa un muy bajo porcentaje de todos los casos de tuberculosis. Sus síntomas son inespecíficos, manifestándose usualmente con ascitis, dolor abdominal, fiebre y baja de peso. El retraso en su diagnóstico y tratamiento, dada su forma de presentación, puede incrementar su morbimortalidad. Se comunica el caso de una adolescente de 14 años, previamente sana, quien se presentó con fiebre y ascitis. La laparoscopia demostró múltiples nódulos en la cavidad abdominal compatibles con una tuberculosis peritoneal, la cual fue posteriormente confirmada por cultivo y biología molecular. La paciente completó su tratamiento antituberculoso recuperándose en forma satisfactoria.


Tuberculous peritonitis is an uncommon entity in the infant population. It is an uncommon form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis and represents a very low percentage of all cases of tuberculosis. Its symptoms are nonspecific and usually manifesting with ascites, abdominal pain, fever and low weight. The delay in its diagnosis and treatment, originated by its form of presentation, can cause an increase in its morbidity and mortality. We report the case of a 14-year-old patient without concomitant disease or pulmonary tuberculosis, who presented with ascites and fever. Laparoscopy showed multiple nodules in the abdominal cavity compatible with peritoneal tuberculosis, which was subsequently confirmed by culture and molecular test. The patient completed her antituberculosis treatment recovering satisfactorily.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Peritonitis, Tuberculous/diagnosis , Peritonitis, Tuberculous/drug therapy , Laparoscopy , Ascites/etiology , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
20.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(6): 381-387, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089317

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Setting: Treatment of tuberculosis (TB) can result in Drug-Induced Liver Injury (DILI) since hepatotoxic metabolites are formed during the biotransformation of isoniazid (INH).DILI can be related to the genetic profile of the patient. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CYP2E1 gene and GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletion polymorphisms have been associated with adverse events caused by INH. Objective: To characterize the genetic polymorphisms of CYP2E1, GSTT1 and GSTM1 in TB carriers. Design: This is an observational prospective cohort study of 45 patients undergoing treatment of TB. PCR-RFLP and multiplex-PCR were used. Results: The distribution of genotypic frequency in the promoter region (CYP2E1 gene) was: 98% wild genotype and 2% heterozygous. Intronic region: 78% wild genotype; 20% heterozygous and 2% homozygous variant. GST enzyme genes: 24% Null GSTM1 and 22% Null GSTT1. Patients with any variant allele of the CYP2E1 gene were grouped in the statistical analyses. Conclusion: Patients with the CYP2E1 variant genotype or Null GSTT1 showed higher risk of presenting DILI (p = 0.09; OR: 4.57; 95% CI: 0.75-27.6). Individuals with both genotypes had no increased risk compared to individuals with one genotype.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/genetics , Antitubercular Agents/adverse effects , Polymorphism, Genetic , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/enzymology , Prospective Studies , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1 , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/genetics , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/enzymology , Cytochrome P450 Family 2 , Genotype , Liver/drug effects , Liver/enzymology , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
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