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2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879610

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the correlation between DSG2, TTN and GATA4 genes and Brugada syndrome in Henan Province of China.@*METHODS@#From February 2017 to February 2019, 100 patients with Brugada syndrome and 100 healthy individuals were selected as the study and the control groups, respectively. Electrocardiogram and echocardiography were carried out, and peripheral blood samples was collected. Coding regions of DSG2, TTN and GATA4 genes were amplified by PCR and sequenced. The results were compared with standard sequences from GenBank.@*RESULTS@#Electrocardiogram showed that all patients from the study group had ventricular arrhythmia, 87 cases (87%) presented ventricular tachycardia (VT), 84 cases (84%) presented T wave inversion, and 51 cases (51%) presented Epsilon wave. Echocardiography showed that the right ventricle in the study group was enlarged with the inner diameter of the right ventricle being (40.0±13.3) mm, and the right ventricle showed various degree of abnormal systolic function. The enlargement of right atrium accounted for 64%, and the involvement of the left ventricle accounted for 27%. The right ventricular diameter and left ventricular diastolic diameter of the study group were significantly greater than those of the control group (P< 0.05). DNA sequencing showed that 60 patients carried DSG2 gene variants, among which 18 had missense variant of exon 8. Fifty patients carried TTN gene variants, including 8 in the A-band domain and 3 in the I-band domain. Twenty patients carried 3 variants of the GATA4 gene.@*CONCLUSION@#Variants of the DSG2, TTN and GATA4 genes in Henan region are correlated with the onset of Brugada syndrome.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia , Brugada Syndrome/genetics , China , Connectin , Desmoglein 2/genetics , GATA4 Transcription Factor , Humans , Pedigree , Sequence Analysis, DNA
3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1771-1779, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887635

ABSTRACT

Desmoplakin (DSP), encoded by the DSP gene, is the main desmosome component and is abundant in the myocardial tissue. There are three DSP isoforms that assume the role of supporting structural stability through intercellular adhesion. It has been found that DSP regulates the transcription of adipogenic and fibrogenic genes, and maintains appropriate electrical conductivity by regulating gap junctions and ion channels. DSP is essential for normal myocardial development and the maintenance of its structural functions. Studies have suggested that DSP gene mutations are associated with a variety of hereditary cardiomyopathy, such as arrhythmia cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), left ventricular noncompaction, and is also closely associated with the Carvajal syndrome, Naxos disease, and erythro-keratodermia-cardiomyopathy syndrome with skin and heart damage. The structure and function of DSP, as well as the clinical manifestations of DSP-related cardiomyopathy were reviewed in this article.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia , Cardiomyopathies/genetics , Desmoplakins/genetics , Hair Diseases , Humans , Keratoderma, Palmoplantar
4.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 34(3)2021. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292264

ABSTRACT

A cardiomiopatia arritmogênica do ventrículo direito é uma desordem hereditária caracterizada pela substituição fibrogordurosa do músculo cardíaco. O manejo clínico busca reduzir os riscos de morte súbita e melhorar a qualidade de vida, aliviando os sintomas arrítmicos e de insuficiência cardíaca. O ecocardiograma é o exame inicial para a investigação da cardiomiopatia arritmogênica do ventrículo direito, podendo apresentar dilatação das câmaras direitas e disfunção sistólica do ventrículo direito. Este relato chama atenção por envolver o diagnóstico de cardiomiopatia arritmogênica do ventrículo direito em paciente atleta. Mulher, 47 anos, maratonista, sem história familiar de morte súbita cardíaca, deu entrada na emergência com palpitação associada à pré-síncope. O eletrocardiograma da admissão mostrava taquicardia ventricular. O ecocardiograma revelou aumento de câmaras cardíacas direitas e disfunção sistólica do ventrículo direito. O cateterismo cardíaco não evidenciou doença coronária obstrutiva. A paciente foi orientada acerca da necessidade de suspensão de atividades físicas, porém, 3 meses depois, foi readmitida com instabilidade hemodinâmica por nova taquicardia ventricular, tendo sido cardiovertida. Realizou ressonância cardíaca, que evidenciou áreas de discinesia e formação de microaneurismas em ventrículo direito. Foi diagnosticada com cardiomiopatia arritmogênica do ventrículo direito, tendo sido com cardioversor desfibrilador implantável, amiodarona e betabloqueador. A diferenciação entre a cardiomiopatia arritmogênica do ventrículo direito e o coração do atleta representa um desafio, devido à sobreposição de alterações estruturais que coexistem nessas entidades, daí a importância da análise integrada de fatores clínicos, eletrocardiográficos e morfofuncionais.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Tachycardia, Ventricular/diagnosis , Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/genetics , Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/mortality , Heart Failure , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Electric Countershock/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory/methods , Heart Transplantation/methods , Defibrillators, Implantable , Catheter Ablation/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Amiodarone/administration & dosage , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(3): 302-305, May-June 2020. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137181

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a genetic cardiomyopathy characterized by potentially lethal ventricular tachycardia. Here we describe a patient with ARVC and an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) in whom maxillary sinus surgery was performed under general anesthesia. Case report: The patient was a 59 year-old man who was scheduled to undergo maxillary sinus surgery under general anesthesia. He had been diagnosed as having ARVC 15 years earlier and had undergone implantation of an ICD in the same year. Electrocardiography showed an epsilon wave in leads II, aVR, and V1-V3. Cardiac function was within normal range on transthoracic echocardiography. The ICD was temporarily deactivated after the patient arrived in the operating room and an intravenous line was secured. An external defibrillator was kept on hand for immediate defibrillation if any electrocardiographic abnormality was detected. Remifentanil 0.3 µg/kg/min, fentanyl 0.1 mg, propofol 154 mg, and rocuronium 46 mg were administered for induction of anesthesia. Tracheal intubation was performed orally. Anesthesia was maintained oxygen 1.0 L.min−1, air 2.0 L.min−1, propofol 5.0-7.0 mg.kg−1.h−1, and remifentanil 0.1-0.25 µg.kg−1.min−1. The surgery was completed as scheduled and the ICD was reactivated. The patient was then extubated after administration of sugammadex 200 mg. Conclusion: We report the successful management of anesthesia without lethal arrhythmia in a patient with ARVC and an ICD. An adequate amount of analgesia should be administered during general anesthesia to maintain adequate anesthetic depth and to avoid stress and pain.


Resumo Introdução e objetivo: A Cardiomiopatia Arritmogênica do Ventrículo Direito (CAVD) é uma cardiomiopatia genética caracterizada por taquicardia ventricular potencialmente letal. Descrevemos um paciente com CAVD com Cardioversor Desfibrilador Implantável (CDI) submetido a anestesia geral para cirurgia de seio maxilar. Relato do caso: Paciente masculino, 59 anos, a ser submetido a anestesia geral para cirurgia de seio maxilar. O paciente foi diagnosticado com CAVD há 15 anos, momento em que foi submetido a implante de CDI. A eletrocardiografia mostrou onda épsilon nas derivações II, aVR e V1-V3. O ecocardiograma transtorácico revelou função cardíaca normal. Após a entrada do paciente na sala de cirurgia, o CDI foi temporariamente desativado e uma via intravenosa foi instalada. Um desfibrilador externo foi mantido próximo ao paciente caso fosse detectada alguma anormalidade eletrocardiográfica que indicasse desfibrilação do paciente. Foram administrados 0,3 mg/kg/min de remifentanil, 0,1 mg de fentanil, 154 mg de propofol e 46 mg de rocurônio para indução da anestesia. A intubação traqueal foi realizada por via oral. A anestesia foi mantida com 1 L/min de oxigênio, 2 L/min de ar, 5-7 mg/kg/h de propofol e 0,1-0,25 µg/kg/min de remifentanil. O procedimento cirúrgico proposto foi concluído e o CDI foi reativado. O tubo traqueal foi retirado após administração de 200 mg de sugamadex. Conclusão: Descrevemos técnica de anestesia bem sucedida sem arritmia letal em paciente com CAVD e CDI. Analgesia adequada deve ser administrada durante a anestesia geral para manter profundidade anestésica correta e evitar estresse e dor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Defibrillators, Implantable , Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/complications , Anesthesia , Maxillary Sinus/surgery , Middle Aged
7.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(8): 635-642, Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040724

ABSTRACT

Boxer dogs with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) can experience sudden cardiac death regardless of presence/absence of clinical signs. The aims of this retrospective study were two-fold: 1) to investigate the coupling interval (CI) and prematurity index (PI) of ventricular arrhythmias (VA), and the heart rate variability (HRV) in Boxers, and 2) to evaluate their impact on overall survival time. The first 24-hour Holter 36 client-owned Boxer dogs meeting inclusion/exclusion criteria were evaluated for the number, morphology, site of origin, complexity, CI and PI, of ventricular premature complexes (VPCs), and time domain HRV. The effect on survival was assessed, considering the presence/absence of ventricular tachycardia (VT), and syncope. All-cause mortality was considered as the end-point, with median survival times being obtained by Kaplan-Meier analyses and compared by log-rank test. Polymorphic VPCs were more common in symptomatic dogs than asymptomatic. VPCs in dogs with VT were less premature, due to the influence of heart rate on PI despite comparable CI. The PI and mean heart rate (HRme) were significantly different between VT and non-VT dogs but did not discriminate adequately between groups as standalone tests. Median survival time was shorter in Boxer dogs with VT (463 vs 1645 days, HR: 4.31, P=0.03). The HRV parameters, SDNN and SDANN, were both associated with prognosis. The CI and PI were not demonstrated to be prognostic surrogates in Boxer dogs with VA. HRme≥112bpm is 100% sensitive but only 46% specific for detecting VT in Boxers on the 24-hour Holter. Presence of VT, SDNN≤245ms, or SDANN≤134ms at the time of the first 24-hour Holter was associated with a shorter survival.(AU)


Cães da raça Boxer com cardiomiopatia arritmogênica do ventrículo direito (CAVD) podem apresentar morte súbita independentemente da presença/ausência de sinais clínicos. Os objetivos desse estudo retrospectivo foram: 1) investigar o intervalo de acoplamento (IA) e o índice de prematuridade (IP) das arritmias ventriculares e a variabilidade da frequência cardíaca (VFC) em Boxers, e 2) avaliar o impacto de tais características sob o tempo de sobrevida global. O primeiro Holter de 24 horas de 36 Boxers selecionados para os critérios de inclusão/exclusão foram avaliados para o número, morfologia, local de origem, complexidade, IA e IP dos complexos ventriculares prematuros (CVPs) e da VFC no domínio do tempo. O efeito na sobrevida foi avaliado, considerado a presença/ausência de taquicardia ventricular (TV), e síncope. O desfecho final foi a mortalidade global, com o tempo de sobrevida mediano sendo obtido pela análise de Kaplan-Meier e comparado pelo teste de log-rank. CVPs polimórficos foram mais comuns em cães sintomáticos. Os CVPs em Boxers com TV foram menos prematuros, devido à influência da frequência cardíaca (FC) sobre o IP, apesar de IA comparáveis. O IP e a FC média diferiram entre os cães com TV e os sem, mas não discriminam adequadamente os grupos como variáveis isoladas. A sobrevida global foi menor nos cães com TV (463 dias vs 1645 dias, HR=4,31, P=0,03). Os parâmetros da VFC, SDNN e SDANN, foram associados ao prognóstico. O IA e o IP não possuem valor prognóstico em Boxers com arritmias ventriculares. A FC média ≥112bpm é 100% sensível, mas apenas 46% específica para detectar Boxers com TV no Holter de 24 horas. A presença de TV, SDNN≤245ms, ou SDANN≤134ms no momento do primeiro Holter de 24 horas estão associados a menor sobrevida global no Boxer.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/veterinary , Sympathetic Nervous System/physiopathology , Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/veterinary , Death, Sudden/etiology , Death, Sudden/veterinary , Heart Rate
8.
CorSalud ; 11(1): 70-74, ene.-mar. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089712

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La miocardiopatía o displasia arritmogénica del ventrículo derecho es una cardiopatía de origen genético cuyo diagnóstico supone, a menudo, un reto para el clínico. Es una de las causas más comunes de muerte súbita cardíaca en la adolescencia y en los adultos jóvenes. Se presenta el caso de un paciente con historia de arritmias ventriculares malignas y de muerte súbita cardíaca recuperada, por displasia arritmogénica del ventrículo derecho, con fragmentación del QRS en las derivaciones precordiales derechas, como marcador de la presencia de un sustrato propicio para el surgimiento de la fibrilación ventricular espontánea. Se comenta la patogenia, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de esta enfermedad.


ABSTRACT The arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia or cardiomyopathy is a genetic heart disease whose diagnosis is often a challenge for the clinician. It is one of the most common causes of sudden cardiac death in adolescence and in young adults. We present the case of a patient with a history of malignant ventricular arrhythmias and recovered sudden cardiac death due to arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, with QRS fragmentation in the right precordial leads, as a marker of the presence of a suitable substrate for the emergence of spontaneous ventricular fibrillation. The pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of this disease are discussed.


Subject(s)
Death, Sudden , Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(1): 91-103, Jan. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973829

ABSTRACT

Abstract Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D) was initially recognized as a clinical entity by Fontaine and Marcus, who evaluated a group of patients with ventricular tachyarrhythmia from a structurally impaired right ventricle (RV). Since then, there have been significant advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology, manifestation and clinical progression, and prognosis of the pathology. The identification of genetic mutations impairing cardiac desmosomes led to the inclusion of this entity in the classification of cardiomyopathies. Classically, ARVC/D is an inherited disease characterized by ventricular arrhythmias, right and / or left ventricular dysfunction; and fibro-fatty substitution of cardiomyocytes; its identification can often be challenging, due to heterogeneous clinical presentation, highly variable intra- and inter-family expressiveness, and incomplete penetrance. In the absence of a gold standard that allows the diagnosis of ARVC/D, several diagnostic categories were combined and recently reviewed for a higher diagnostic sensitivity, without compromising the specificity. The finding that electrical abnormalities, particularly ventricular arrhythmias, usually precede structural abnormalities is extremely important for risk stratification in positive genetic members. Among the complementary exams, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) allows the early diagnosis of left ventricular impairment, even before morpho-functional abnormalities. Risk stratification remains a major clinical challenge, and antiarrhythmic drugs, catheter ablation and implantable cardioverter defibrillator are the currently available therapeutic tools. The disqualification of the sport prevents cases of sudden death because the effort can trigger not only the electrical instability, but also the onset and progression of the disease.


Resumo A cardiomiopatia/displasia arritmogênica do ventrículo direito (C/DAVD) foi inicialmente reconhecida como uma entidade clínica por Fontaine e Marcus que avaliaram um grupo de pacientes com taquiarritmia ventricular proveniente de um ventrículo direito (VD) estruturalmente comprometido. Desde então, houve avanços significativos na compreensão da fisiopatologia, manifestação e evolução clínica e prognóstico da patologia. A identificação de mutações genéticas comprometendo os desmossomos cardíacos levou a inclusão desta entidade na classificação das cardiomiopatias. Classicamente, a C/DAVD é uma doença hereditária que se caracteriza por arritmias ventriculares, disfunção ventricular direita e/ou esquerda; e substituição fibro-gordurosa dos cardiomiócitos; cuja identificação pode ser muitas vezes desafiadora, devido à apresentação clínica heterogênea, expressividade intra- e inter-familiar altamente variável e penetrância incompleta. Na falta de um padrão-ouro que permita o diagnóstico da C/DAVD, várias categorias diagnósticas foram combinadas e, recentemente revisadas buscando uma maior sensibilidade diagnóstica, sem comprometer a especificidade. A descoberta de que as anormalidades elétricas, particularmente as arritmias ventriculares, geralmente precedem anormalidades estruturais é extremamente importante para a estratificação de risco em membros genéticos positivos. Entre os exames complementares, a ressonância magnética cardíaca (RMC) possibilita o diagnóstico precoce de comprometimento ventricular esquerdo, mesmo antes das anormalidades morfofuncionais. A estratificação de risco continua a ser um grande desafio clínico e medicamentos antiarrítmicos, ablação de cateter e desfibrilador cardioversor implantável são as ferramentas terapêuticas atualmente disponíveis. A desqualificação do esporte previne casos de morte súbita uma vez que o esforço pode desencadear não só a instabilidade elétrica, mas também deflagrar o início e a progressão da doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/diagnosis , Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Risk Factors , Defibrillators, Implantable , Risk Assessment , Body Surface Potential Mapping/methods , Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/physiopathology , Electrocardiography
10.
Repert. med. cir ; 28(1): 58-61, 2019. Il., fotos a color
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1009682

ABSTRACT

La displasia arritmogénica del ventrículo derecho (DAVD) es una cardiomiopatía caracterizada por el reemplazo de miocitos por tejido fibroadiposo con herencia autosómica dominante. Ocupa el segundo lugar como muerte súbita en adultos jóvenes y es causante de un gran porcentaje en atletas. Su clínica es variable, debido a que puede presentarse en reposo o luego de actividad física con síntomas inespecíficos como palpitaciones, síncope y dolor torácico. Se presentan tres casos autópsicos de diferentes instituciones cuya manifestación clínica fue muerte súbita.


Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) is a cardiomyopathy inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern characterized by replacement of myocytes with fibrofatty tissue. ARVD is the second cause of sudden death in young adults and accounts for a great proportion of deaths in athletes. Clinical presentation is variable, it may occur during rest or after physical activity involving unspecific symptoms such as palpitations, syncope and chest pain. We here report three autopsy cases, referred from various healthcare institutions, in which sudden death was the first manifestation


Subject(s)
Humans , Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Death, Sudden
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764173

ABSTRACT

Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease characterized by noncaseating granulomas. Cardiac involvement is known to have poor prognosis because it can manifest as a serious condition such as the conduction abnormality, heart failure, ventricular arrhythmia, or sudden cardiac death. Although early diagnosis and early treatment is critical to improve patient prognosis, the diagnosis of CS is challenging in most cases. Diagnosis usually relies on endomyocardial biopsy (EMB), but its diagnostic yield is low due to the incidence of patchy myocardial involvement. Guidelines for the diagnosis of CS recommend a combination of clinical, electrocardiographic, and imaging findings from various modalities, if EMB cannot confirm the diagnosis. Especially, the role of advanced imaging such as cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging and positron emission tomography (PET), has shown to be important not only for the diagnosis, but also for monitoring treatment response and prognostication. CMR can evaluate cardiac function and fibrotic scar with good specificity. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in CMR shows a distinctive enhancement pattern for each disease, which may be useful for differential diagnosis of CS from other similar diseases. Effectively, T1 or T2 mapping techniques can be also used for early recognition of CS. In the meantime, PET can detect and quantify metabolic activity and can be used to monitor treatment response. Recently, the use of a hybrid CMR-PET has introduced to allow identify patients with active CS with excellent co-localization and better diagnostic accuracy than CMR or PET alone. However, CS may show various findings with a wide spectrum, therefore, radiologists should consider the possible differential diagnosis of CS including myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, amyloidosis, and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Radiologists should recognize the differences in various diseases that show the characteristics of mimicking CS, and try to get an accurate diagnosis of CS.


Subject(s)
Amyloidosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia , Biopsy , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic , Cicatrix , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Early Diagnosis , Electrocardiography , Electrons , Gadolinium , Granuloma , Heart Defects, Congenital , Humans , Incidence , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myocarditis , Positron-Emission Tomography , Prognosis , Sarcoidosis , Sensitivity and Specificity
12.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1406-1413, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The long-term predicted value of microvolt T-wave alternans (MTWA) for ventricular tachyarrhythmia in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) remains unclear. Our study explored the characteristics of MTWA and its prognostic value when combined with an electrophysiologic study (EPS) in patients with ARVC.@*METHODS@#All patients underwent non-invasive MTWA examination with modified moving average (MMA) analysis and an EPS. A positive event was defined as the first occurrence of sudden cardiac death, documented sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation, or the administration of appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy including shock or anti-tachycardia pacing.@*RESULTS@#Thirty-five patients with ARVC (age 38.6 ± 11.0 years; 28 males) with preserved left ventricular (LV) function were recruited. The maximal TWA value (MaxValt) was 17.0 (11.0-27.0) μV. Sustained VT was induced in 22 patients by the EPS. During a median follow-up of 99.9 ± 7.7 months, 15 patients had positive clinical events. When inducible VT was combined with the MaxValt, the area under the curve improved from 0.739 to 0.797. The receiver operating characteristic curve showed that a MaxValt of 23.5 μV was the optimal cutoff value to identify positive events. The multivariate Cox regression model for survival showed that MTWA (MaxValt, hazard ratio [HR], 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.11; P = 0.01) and inducible VT (HR, 5.98; 95% CI, 1.33-26.8; P = 0.01) independently predicted positive events in patients with ARVC.@*CONCLUSIONS@#MTWA assessment with MMA analysis complemented by an EPS might provide improved prognostic ability in patients with ARVC with preserved LV function during long-term follow-up.


Subject(s)
Adult , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Diagnosis , Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia , Diagnosis , Electrocardiography , Methods , Electrophysiology , Methods , Exercise Test , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Tachycardia, Ventricular , Diagnosis , Ventricular Function, Left , Physiology
13.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 31(6): 667-671, nov.- dez. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-980025

ABSTRACT

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia is a classic form of chronic myocardial disease with a broad phenotypical spectrum. We report an atypical case of a patient with biventricular arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy. Although the current diagnosis criteria are the most widely accepted ones, they focus solely on the right ventricular phenotype. The use of late gadolinium enhancement in cardiac magnetic resonance in this patient was essential for the diagnosis and assessment of the left ventricular involvement extent. This tool allows a broader use of current diagnosis criteria for this disease


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia , Cardiomyopathies , Phenotype , Stroke Volume , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory/methods , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Electrocardiography/methods , Heart Ventricles
14.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 88(1): 51-59, ene.-mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054987

ABSTRACT

Resumen: La miocardiopatía/displasia arritmogénica del ventrículo derecho es una enfermedad hereditaria autosómica dominante con una prevalencia estimada de 1:2,500-1:5,000, siendo mayor en el género masculino (3:1). Se caracteriza histológicamente por reemplazo de los cardiomiocitos por tejido fibroadiposo, lo cual predispone a arritmias ventriculares, insuficiencia ventricular derecha y muerte súbita cardiaca. El objetivo principal del tratamiento es reducir el riesgo de muerte súbita y mejorar la calidad de vida de los pacientes. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 23 años con clínica de palpitaciones, dolor torácico con actividad física, síncope y cefalea iniciada hace 6 años durante un primer embarazo. Por aumento de sintomatología se realizó prueba de esfuerzo, durante la cual presentó taquicardia ventricular monomórfica sostenida colapsante. Se realizó cardiorresonancia, evidenciando dilatación ventricular derecha, aumento en su trabeculación y disminución de su función. Se realizó ablación con mapeo tridimensional; durante la comprobación con infusión de isoproterenol se generó flutter ventricular polimórfico requiriendo cardioversión eléctrica. Se decidió implantar cardiodesfibrilador bicameral y realizar ablación de ganglio estrellado como prevención secundaria. Tras su egreso reconsultó múltiples veces por descargas del dispositivo asociadas a palpitaciones. Se realizó una revisión exhaustiva de la historia clínica encontrando que la paciente tiene características sugestivas de displasia arritmogénica del ventrículo derecho por lo cual se aplican los criterios de Task Force concluyendo que, al cumplir con más de 2 criterios mayores, la paciente presentaba un diagnóstico definitivo de esta enfermedad. © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. Este es un artículo Open Access bajo la licencia CC BY-NC-ND (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).


Abstract: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia is an inherited autosomal dominant disease, with an estimated prevalence of 1:2,500 to 1:5,000, being higher in males (3:1). It is characterised histologically by the substitution of cardiomyocytes for fibrous-adipose tissue, which predisposes to ventricular arrhythmias, right ventricular failure, and sudden cardiac death. The main aim of treatment is to reduce the risk of sudden death and improve the quality of life of patients. The case is presented of a 23 year old woman whose clinical symptoms started with palpitations, chest pain with physical activity, syncope, and headache, 6 years ago during her first pregnancy. Due to an increase in symptomatology, a stress test was performed, during which she collapsed with a sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia. A cardiac magnetic resonance scan showed dilation, an increase in trabeculae, and decreased function of the right ventricle. A 3-dimensional mapping and ablation was performed, and during the isoproterenol infusion test, a polymorphic ventricular flutter was generated that required electrical cardioversion. The decision was made to implant a dual chamber cardioverter defibrillator and perform stellate ganglion ablation as secondary prevention. After her discharge, the patient re-consulted many times due to discharges of the device associated with palpitations. A comprehensive review of the patient's medical records was performed, finding characteristics that may suggest arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. The Task Force criteria was applied, concluding that, as she met more than 2 major criteria, the patient had a definitive diagnosis of this disease. © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Young Adult , Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/diagnosis , Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/therapy
16.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 890-905, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738652

ABSTRACT

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) is predominantly an inherited cardiomyopathy with typical histopathological characteristics of fibro-fatty infiltration mainly involving the right ventricular (RV) inflow tract, RV outflow tract, and RV apex in the majority of patients. The above pathologic evolution frequently brings patients with ARVD/C to medical attention owing to the manifestation of syncope, sudden cardiac death (SCD), ventricular arrhythmogenesis, or heart failure. To prevent future or recurrent SCD, an implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) is highly desirable in patients with ARVD/C who had experienced unexplained syncope, hemodynamically intolerable ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation, and/or aborted SCD. Notably, the management of frequent ventricular tachyarrhythmias in ARVD/C is challenging, and the use of antiarrhythmic drugs could be unsatisfactory or limited by the unfavorable side effects. Therefore, radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) has been implemented to treat the drug-refractory VT in ARVD/C for decades. However, the initial understanding of the link between fibro-fatty pathogenesis and ventricular arrhythmogenesis in ARVD/C is scarce, the efficacy and prognosis of endocardial RFCA alone were limited and disappointing. The electrophysiologists had broken through this frontier after better illustration of epicardial substrates and broadly application of epicardial approaches in ARVD/C. In recent works of literature, the application of epicardial ablation also successfully results in higher procedural success and decreases VT recurrences in patients with ARVD/C who are refractory to the endocardial approach during long-term follow-up. In this article, we review the important evolution on the delineation of arrhythmogenic substrates, ablation strategies, and ablation outcome of VT in patients with ARVD/C.


Subject(s)
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents , Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia , Cardiomyopathies , Catheter Ablation , Catheters , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Defibrillators , Epicardial Mapping , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Failure , Humans , Prognosis , Recurrence , Syncope , Tachycardia , Tachycardia, Ventricular , Ventricular Fibrillation
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787072

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a cardiomyopathy characterized by predominant right ventricular fibro-fatty replacement, right ventricular dysfunction and ventricular arrhythmias. It is a rare but important cause of sudden cardiac death in children and young adults. A meta-analysis on risk stratification of major ventricular tachyarrhythmic events indicating the need for implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy in ARVC was performed.METHODS: The pubmed database was searched from its inception to May 2015. Of the 433 citations identified, 12 were included in this meta-analysis. Data regarding major ventricular tachyarrhythmic events were retrieved in 817 subjects from the studies. For the variables, a combined odds ratio (OR) was calculated using a fixed-effects meta-analysis.RESULTS: Extensive right ventricular dysfunction (OR, 2.44), ventricular late potential (OR, 1.66), inducible ventricular tachyarrhythmia during electrophysiology study (OR, 3.67), non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (OR, 3.78), and history of fatal event/sustained VT (OR, 5.66) identified as significant risk factors (p < 0.0001).CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis shows that extensive right ventricular dysfunction, ventricular late potential, inducible ventricular tachyarrhythmia during electrophysiological study, non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, and history of sustained ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation are consistently reported risk factors of major ventricular tachyarrhythmic events indicating implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy in patients with ARVC.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia , Cardiomyopathies , Child , Death, Sudden , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Defibrillators , Electrophysiology , Humans , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors , Tachycardia , Tachycardia, Ventricular , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right , Young Adult
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-151266

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Coronary vasospasms are one of the important causes of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Provocation of coronary vasospasms can be useful, though some results may lead to false positives, with patients potentially experiencing recurrent SCD despite appropriate medical treatments. We hypothesized that it is not coronary vasospasms but inherited primary arrhythmia syndromes (IPAS) that underlie the development of SCD. METHODS: We analyzed 74 consecutive patients (3.8%) who survived out-of-hospital cardiac arrest among 1,986 patients who had angiographically proven coronary vasospasms. Electrical abnormalities were evaluated in serial follow-up electrocardiograms (ECGs) during and after the index event for a 3.9 years median follow-up. Major clinical events were defined as the composite of death and recurrent SCD events. RESULTS: Forty five patients (60.8%) displayed electrocardiographic abnormalities suggesting IPAS: Brugada type patterns in six (8.2%), arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia patterns in three (4.1%), long QT syndrome pattern in one (2.2%), and early repolarization in 38 (51.4%). Patients having major clinical events showed more frequent Brugada type patterns, early repolarization, and more diffuse multivessel coronary vasospasms. Brugada type pattern ECGs (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 4.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16 to 15.99; p = 0.034), and early repolarization (HR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.09 to 8.10; p = 0.034) were ultimately associated with an increased risk of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Even though a number of aborted SCD survivors have coronary vasospasms, some also have IPAS, which has the potential to cause SCD. Therefore, meticulous evaluations and follow-ups for IPAS are required in those patients.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia , Coronary Vasospasm , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Electrocardiography , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Arrest , Humans , Long QT Syndrome , Masks , Mortality , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Survivors
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