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1.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1358031

ABSTRACT

El mesotelioma es considerado en el mundo industrializado a consecuencia de la exposición ocupacional a fibras de asbesto. A nivel país se considera una enfermedad profesional. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue conocer y describir casos de mesotelioma notificados en Uruguay entre los años 2002 y 2014, con énfasis en los aspectos de la exposición ocupacional. El presente trabajo corresponde a un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo, a partir de los casos notificados se recrearon historias médicas enlazando con datos de servicios asistenciales. Se identificaron fuentes de exposición al asbesto en diferentes ocupaciones e industrias en el país. Resultados: fueron notificados 122 casos. Se accedió a la historia clínica en un tercio (47/122). El dato ocupación estaba consignado solo en 27/47, en 3/47 se explicitaba la exposición al asbesto/amianto. Los sectores productivos identificados mayoritariamente correspondieron a transporte, metalúrgico, construcción y limpieza. Se evidenció un registro insuficiente del dato ocupación y de los antecedentes laborales. Ésta información laboral es fundamental para establecer el nexo causal de la exposición en estudio y la condición de enfermedad profesional. La gravedad de la enfermedad y el conocimiento del riesgo derivado de la exposición, laboral, justifica el desarrollo de políticas en salud ocupacional. Es necesario fortalecer la formación de los profesionales de la salud sobre la importancia del trabajo como determinante del proceso salud - enfermedad.


Mesothelioma is considered in the industrialized world as a consequence of occupational exposure to asbestos fibers - asbestos. At the country level it is considered an occupational disease. The objective was to know and describe cases of mesothelioma notified in Uruguay between the years 2002 and 2014, with emphasis on aspects of occupational exposure. The present work corresponds to a retrospective descriptive study, from the reported cases medical records were recreated linking with data from healthcare services. Sources of asbestos exposure were identified in different occupations and industries in the country. Results: 122 cases were notified. The medical history was accessed in one third (47/122). The occupation data was only in 27/47, in 3/47 the exposure to asbestos / asbestos was specified. The productive sectors identified mainly corresponded to transportation, metallurgy, construction and cleaning. Insufficient registration of occupation and employment history was evidenced. This work information is essential to establish the causal link between the exposure under study and the occupational disease condition. The severity of the disease and knowledge of the risk derived from exposure occupational, justify the development of occupation health policies. It is necessary to strengthen the training of health professionals on the importance of work as a determinant of the health - disease process.


O mesotelioma é considerado no mundo industrializado como consequência da exposição ocupacional às fibras de amianto - o asbesto. Em nível nacional, é considerada uma doença ocupacional. O objetivo foi conhecer e descrever os casos de mesotelioma notificados no Uruguai entre os anos de 2002 a 2014, com ênfase nos aspectos de exposição ocupacional. O presente trabalho corresponde a um estudo descritivo retrospectivo, a partir dos casos relatados, prontuários médicos foram recriados vinculando-os a dados de serviços de saúde. Fontes de exposição ao amianto foram identificadas em diferentes ocupações e indústrias no país. Resultados: foram notificados 122 casos. O histórico médico foi acessado em um terço (47/122). Os dados de ocupação foram apenas em 27/47, em 3/47 foi especificada a exposição ao amianto / amianto. Os setores produtivos identificados corresponderam principalmente a transportes, metalurgia, construção e limpeza. Foi evidenciado registro insuficiente de ocupação e histórico de empregos. Essas informações de trabalho são essenciais para estabelecer o nexo causal entre a exposição em estudo e a condição de doença ocupacional. A gravidade da doença e o conhecimento do risco decorrente da exposição ocupacional, justificam o desenvolvimento de políticas de saúde ocupacional. É preciso fortalecer a formação dos profissionais de saúde sobre a importância do trabalho como determinante do processo saúde - doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Asbestos/adverse effects , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Mesothelioma/mortality , Mesothelioma/epidemiology , Uruguay/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Sex Distribution , Mesothelioma/chemically induced
2.
Rev. Assoc. Méd. Rio Gd. do Sul ; 65(3): 01022105, Jul-Set 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1373498

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Mesotelioma pleural é uma doença que acomete a pleura e é definida pela exposição ocupacional ao amianto que constitui seu único fator de risco. Realizar o diagnóstico é um grande desafio para médicos, pelo fato de ser uma doença silenciosa e que se manifesta mesmo anos após a exposição ao mineral. Atualmente, não há definição do melhor tratamento para a doença, há grandes divergências na literatura; deve, portanto, individualizar cada caso. Sabe-se que a terapia multimodal é superior estatisticamente a terapia monomodal de tratamento da doença. Dessa forma, o objetivo do trabalho é revisar artigos que descrevam a doença, a qual relaciona a exposição ocupacional ao asbesto e alternativas globais para diminuir sua incidência; e, por conseguinte, aprimorar o seu tratamento. PALAVRA-CHAVE: Asbestos, mesotelioma, pleura


ABSTRACT Pleural mesothelioma is a disease that affects the pleura and is defined by occupational exposure to asbestos, which is its only risk factor. Diagnosis is a major challenge for physicians, as it is a silent disease that manifests itself years after exposure to the mineral. Currently, there is no definition of the best treatment for the disease, there are great divergences in the literature; it must, therefore, be individualized for each case. It is known that multimodal therapy is statistically superior to monomodal therapy for treating the disease. Thus, the objective of the work is to review articles that describe the disease, which relates occupational exposure to asbestos and global alternatives to reduce its incidence; and, therefore, improve its treatment. KEYWORDS: Asbestos, mesothelioma, pleura


Subject(s)
Humans , Pleura , Asbestos , Mesothelioma
3.
Ciênc. cuid. saúde ; 20: e55219, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1339623

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Mensurar a sensibilidade e especificidade das notificações de mesotelioma maligno do Registro de Câncer Base Populacional de Curitiba/Paraná. Método: Estudo retrospectivo, transversal, realizado no registro de câncer de base populacional de Curitiba e em 11 fontes notificadoras, de janeiro a dezembro de 2017. A amostra final foi composta por 92 prontuários de pacientes adultos, com diagnóstico e notificação de registrados com câncer de topografia C38 (pleura, coração e mediastino) e C48 (peritônio e retroperitônio). Para análise da sensibilidade e especificidade utilizou-se o software Stata 14, com análise da consistência interna; para cada caso notificado pelo registro foi examinado o prontuário da fonte notificadora correspondente, considerando-o como padrão ouro. Resultados: A sensibilidade do registro em notificar mesotelioma (CID-10: C45) e câncer de pleura (CID-10: C38.4) foi de 100% (8/8) e 50% (1/2), respectivamente. A especificidade foi 90,2% (74/82), tendo oito casos de outros cânceres classificados como câncer de pleura. Conclusões: O registro apresentou alta sensibilidade para notificar mesotelioma maligno, não havendo subnotificação para esses casos, e uma sobre-estimativa para as notificações de câncer de pleura (nove ao invés de um) devido à notificação errônea e equívoca.


resumen Objetivo: determinar la sensibilidad y especificidad de las notificaciones de mesotelioma maligno del Registro de Cáncer Base Poblacional de Curitiba/Paraná/Brasil. Método: estudio retrospectivo, transversal, realizado en el registro de cáncer de base poblacional de Curitiba y en 11 fuentes notificantes, de enero a diciembre de 2017. La muestra final fue compuesta por 92 registros médicos de pacientes adultos, con el diagnóstico y la notificación de registrados con cáncer de topografía C38 (pleura, corazón y mediastino) y C48 (peritoneo y retroperitoneo). Para el análisis de la sensibilidad y especificidad se utilizó el software Stata 14, con análisis de la consistencia interna. Para cada caso notificado por el registro, fue examinado el registro médico de la fuente que ha notificado, considerándolo como estándar de oro. Resultados: la sensibilidad del registro para notificar mesotelioma (CID-10: C45) y cáncer de pleura (CID-10: C38.4) fue de 100% (8/8) y 50% (1/2), respectivamente. La especificidad fueel90,2% (74/82), con ocho casos de otros cánceres clasificados como cáncer de pleura. Conclusiones: el registro presentó alta sensibilidad para notificar mesotelioma maligno, no existiendo subnotificación para estos casos, y un incremento para las notificaciones de cáncer de pleura (nueve al revés de uno) debido a la notificación incorrecta y equivocada.


ABSTRACT Objective: To measure the sensitivity and specificity of the reporting of malignant mesothelioma in the Population-Based Cancer Registry in Curitiba, PA, Brazil. Method: Retrospective, cross-sectional study conducted in the Population-Based Cancer Registry in Curitiba and 11 reporting institutions, from January to December 2017. The final sample was composed of 92 medical records of adult patients, with diagnoses and reporting of cancer, with topographical codes C38 (pleura, heart, and mediastinum) and C48 (peritoneum and retroperitoneum). Stata 14 was used to analyze sensitivity and specificity, and internal consistency. Each medical record (considered the gold standard) provided by the reporting institutions was compared to those in the registry. Results: The registry sensitivity in reporting mesothelioma (ICD-10: C45) and pleural cancer (ICD-10: C38.4) was 100% (8/8) and 50% (1/2), respectively. Specificity was 90.2% (74/82), as eight cases were wrongly classified as pleural cancer. Conclusions: the registry presented high sensitivity in the reporting of malignant mesothelioma, with no underreporting, and overestimated pleural cancer reporting (nine instead of one) due to erroneous and misleading reporting.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Records , Mesothelioma, Malignant , Neoplasms , Patients , Pleura , Prognosis , Asbestos , Information Systems , Public Health , Epidemiology , Diagnosis , Mesothelioma
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880368

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Asbestos fibers possess tumorigenicity and are thought to cause mesothelioma. We have previously reported that exposure to asbestos fibers causes a reduction in antitumor immunity. Asbestos exposure in the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) showed suppressed induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), accompanied by a decrease in proliferation of CD8@*METHODS@#For MLR, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured with irradiated allogenic PBMCs upon exposure to chrysotile B asbestos at 5 μg/ml for 7 days. After 2 days of culture, IL-15 was added at 1 ng/ml. After 7 days of MLR, PBMCs were collected and analyzed for phenotypic and functional markers of CD8@*RESULTS@#IL-15 addition partially reversed the decrease in CD3@*CONCLUSION@#These findings indicate that CTLs induced upon exposure to asbestos possess dysfunctional machinery that can be partly compensated by IL-15 supplementation, and that IL-15 is more effective in the recovery of proliferation and granzyme B levels from asbestos-induced suppression of CTL induction compared with IL-2.


Subject(s)
Asbestos/adverse effects , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-15/pharmacology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/metabolism
5.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 24: e210044, 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288484

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Objetivo: Estimar o grau de concordância e validade dos diagnósticos de neoplasias malignas relacionadas à exposição ao asbesto registrados no Sistema de Informação Hospitalar do Sistema Único de Saúde (SIH/SUS), em comparação aos Registros Hospitalares de Câncer do Estado de São Paulo (RHC/SP). Métodos: Óbitos com registros de neoplasias malignas associadas ao asbesto foram identificados e extraídos do SIH/SUS entre 2007 e 2014. Óbitos nos casos de câncer registrados na base do RHC/SP foram extraídos para o mesmo período. Essas bases foram unidas pelos mesmos indivíduos empregando-se o software Link Plus. Um único diagnóstico codificado pela CID-O3 ou CID-10 selecionado de cada sistema foi analisado. A proporção de concordância e a sensibilidade, especificidade e valores preditivos foram estimados. Resultados: Encontraram-se 19.458 pares com registros nas duas bases. A proporção de concordância foi elevada, variando de 92,4% para a localização primária desconhecida a 99,7% para o câncer de pleura. O índice Kappa variou de 0,05 (IC95% 0,04 - 0,07) para o câncer de pleura a 0,85 (IC95% 0,84 - 0,87) para o câncer de pulmão. A menor sensibilidade foi de 0,08 (IC95% 0,01 - 0,25), para o câncer de pleura, e a maior de 0,90 (IC95% 0,90 - 0,91), para o câncer de pulmão. Conclusão: Diagnósticos de neoplasias malignas associadas ao asbesto alcançaram maiores níveis de concordância e validade quando comuns. Os diagnósticos mais raros apresentaram baixa acurácia no SIH/SUS.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To estimate the degree of agreement and validity of diagnoses of asbestos-related malignant neoplasms registered in the Hospital Information System of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SIH/SUS), in comparison to the Hospital Cancer Registries of the State of São Paulo (HCR/SP). Methods: Deaths with records of malignant neoplasms associated with asbestos were identified and extracted from SIH/SUS between 2007 and 2014. Deaths in cases registered in the HCR/SP were extracted for the same period. The databases were linked using software Link Plus. A single ICD-10-coded diagnosis selected from each system was analyzed. The proportion of agreement, and the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were estimated. Results: 19,458 pairs were found with records in both bases. The proportion of agreement was high, ranging from 92.4% for the unknown primary site, to 99.7% for cancer of the pleura. The Kappa Index ranged from 0.05 (95%CI 0.04 - 0.07) for cancer of the pleura to 0.85 (95%CI 0.84 - 0.87) for lung cancer. Sensitivity varied from 0.08 (95%CI 0.01 - 0.25) for cancer of the pleura, to 0.90 (95%CI 0.90 - 0.91) for lung cancer. Conclusion: Diagnosis of asbestos-related malignancies reached higher levels of agreement and validity when common. Rare diagnoses showed low accuracy in SIH/SUS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asbestos , Hospital Information Systems , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/etiology , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Databases, Factual
6.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 36(3): 204-210, set. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138553

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las placas pleurales por fibras de asbesto se caracterizan por lesiones compuestas por tejido fibroso que se ubican en la pleura parietal. Suelen aparecer hasta en un 3% a 58% de los trabajadores que estuvieron expuestos a fibras de asbesto, y en un 0,5% a 8% en población general. El OBJETIVO de este artículo es presentar dos casos clínicos de pacientes a los que se les detectó en la radiografía de tórax alteraciones pleurales posiblemente asociadas a la exposición a fibras de asbesto. CASOS CLÍNICOS: Caso 1. Paciente de sexo masculino de 49 años, trabajador de la construcción con antecedentes de exposición a fibras de asbesto. Se le realizó una radiografía de tórax con técnica OIT (Organización Internacional del Trabajo), la que evidenció alteraciones pleurales focales. Una tomografía axial computarizada de tórax, confirmó la presencia de placas pleurales. Caso 2. Paciente de sexo femenino de 79 años, jefa de hogar, sin exposición laboral conocida a fibras de asbesto. En una radiografía de tórax anteroposterior, se observó la presencia de una placa pleural focal. Se solicitó una tomografía axial computarizada de tórax, la que confirmó la presencia de placas pleurales. CONCLUSIÓN: La radiografía de tórax con técnica OIT es el instrumento básico para la identificación de enfermedades relacionadas con la exposición a fibra de asbesto. El estudio debe ser completado con una tomografía axial computarizada de tórax cuya sensibilidad es mayor permitiendo detectar tempranamente las anomalías pleurales. Es fundamental la historia ocupacional detallada ya que constituye el método más fiable y práctico para medir la exposición a fibra de asbesto.


INTRODUCTION: Asbestos fiber pleural plaque is characterized by lesions composed of fibrous tissue that are located in the parietal pleura. They usually appear in up to 3 to 58% of workers who were exposed to asbestos fiber, and 0.5 to 8% in the general population. The OBJECTIVE of this article is to present two clinical cases of patients who were detected in the chest radiograph pleural alterations associated with exposure to asbestos fibers. CLINICAL CASES: First case: 49-year-old male patient, building worker with a history of exposure to asbestos fibers. Focal pleural alterations were detected by a chest x-ray performed according ILO (International Labour Organization) technique. The presence of pleural plaques was confirmed in a computed tomography of the chest. Second case: Holder, without occupational exposure to asbestos fibers. An anteroposterior chest radiography showed the presence of focal pleural plaque in a CT scan of the chest. CONCLUSION: Chest x-ray with ILO technique is the basic instrument for the identification of diseases related to asbestos fiber exposure. The study should be completed with a CT scan of the chest whose sensitivity is greater, allowing early detection of pleural abnormalities. Detailed occupational history is essential, as it is the most reliable and practical method to measure asbestos fiber exposure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Pleural Diseases/etiology , Pleural Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Asbestos/adverse effects , Pleura/pathology , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Inhalation Exposure , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects
7.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 59(1): e831, ene.-mar. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126407

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El mesotelioma pleural maligno es un tumor maligno primario de la pleura, comúnmente asociado con la exposición al asbesto. Se considera una patología rara y muy agresiva. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión sobre los criterios de diagnóstico y tratamiento actualizados en torno al mesotelioma pleural maligno. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica en fuentes de información disponibles en la Biblioteca Virtual de Salud, de la red telemática Infomed, entre ellas, las bases de datos SciELO, Pubmed/Medline, Cumed, Lilacs, así como el Google Académico. Se seleccionaron un total de 39 referencias. Conclusiones: Existen pocas referencias en la literatura nacional relacionadas con el diagnóstico, tratamiento y seguimiento de los pacientes con mesotelioma pleural maligno. El diagnóstico combina el uso del método clínico, los estudio imagenológicos e histoquímicos. No existe un tratamiento estándar, siendo recomendable un enfoque individualizado que combine según cada caso, cirugía, quimio y radioterapia. Los desafíos futuros incluyen el desarrollo de nuevas alternativas terapéuticas(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma is a primary malignant tumor of the pleura, commonly associated with exposure to asbestos. It is considered a rare and very aggressive pathology. Objective: Conduct a review of updated diagnostic and treatment criteria for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Material and Methods: A bibliographic review was made through the search of information in sources available from the Cuban National Health Care Network and Portal (INFOMED), among them, databases such as SciELO, Pubmed / Medline, Cumed, Lilacs, as well as Google Scholar. Finally, a total of 39 references were selected for our study. Conclusions: There are few references in the national literature related to the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. The diagnosis combines the use of the clinical method, the imaging and histochemical studies. There is no standard treatment, being recommended an individualized approach that combines according to each case, surgery, chemo and radiotherapy. Future challenges include the development of new therapeutic alternatives(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Asbestos/adverse effects , Review Literature as Topic , Mesothelioma/diagnosis , Mesothelioma/therapy , Databases, Bibliographic , Mineral Fibers
8.
Autops. Case Rep ; 10(3): e2020159, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131829

ABSTRACT

Benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma (BMPM) is a rare peritoneal tumor diagnosed predominantly in pre-menopausal women. Associated risk factors include endometriosis and pelvic inflammatory disease in women, and prior abdominal surgery in both genders. To date, the pathogenesis of this disease remains controversial with possible etiologies, including a neoplastic versus a reactive process. Given the risk factors, some authors believe that this disease is secondary to a reactive process. However, because some studies describe cases where there is no prior surgical history or inflammatory milieu present, and because of this entity's predilection for recurrence, some authors believe the origin to be neoplastic. Some genetic and familial associations have also been reported. Malignant transformation is extremely rare, with only two cases reported in the literature, despite the recurrence potential. Like the etiology, the name of this entity is also controversial. Some authors prefer the term "peritoneal inclusion cyst (PCM)" instead of "benign cystic mesothelioma" and argue that the term mesothelioma should only be used when there is evidence of atypia. Most cases of BMPM are discovered incidentally. Others reflect sequela of tumor mass effect. It appears intra-operatively as large, multi-focal, cystic lesions in the peritoneal and pelvic cavity. Diagnosis is achieved through surgical sampling with histopathological examination. Immunobiologically, BMPM exhibits multiple small cystic spaces with flattened lining containing calretinin positive cells without atypical features, mitotic figures, or tissue invasion. Treatment includes cytoreductive surgery. Here we present a case of BMPM in a 60-year-old male - a rare disease in an uncommon patient population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Urogenital Neoplasms/pathology , Mesothelioma, Cystic/pathology , Lymphangioma, Cystic/pathology , Asbestos , Risk Factors
9.
São Paulo; s.n; 2020. 127 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1120367

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: O conhecimento científico sobre causas de morte em trabalhadores potencialmente expostos ao asbesto em países de baixa ou média renda, como o Brasil, é escasso, mas importante para reforçar informações que levem à implementação de políticas públicas que protejam a população da exposição a esse cancerígeno. São várias as doenças reconhecidas como causalmente associadas ao asbesto pela IARC, entre elas o câncer de pulmão. OBJETIVOS: Explorar a desigualdade socioeconômica nas tendências de mortalidade por câncer de pulmão no Brasil. Estudar a mortalidade geral e específica por causa de morte, com ênfase em câncer de pulmão, em populações expostas ao asbesto no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Esta tese está dividida em três manuscritos. MANUSCRITO 1: Foram recuperados registros de óbito por câncer de pulmão de 2000 a 2015 em adultos com 30 anos ou mais. As análises utilizaram regressão linear generalizada de Prais-Winsten e correlação de Pearson. A correlação entre as taxas de mortalidade por câncer de pulmão e o IDH diminuiu quando comparada às taxas do primeiro e do último ano da série histórica em ambos os sexos. Entretanto, a correlação entre as tendências nas taxas de mortalidade por câncer de pulmão e o IDH foi negativa em homens (r = -0,76) e em mulheres (r = -0,58), indicando maiores reduções (ou menores acréscimos) entre as Unidades Federativas com o IDH mais alto. Os resultados apontam para uma relevante desigualdade na tendência de mortalidade por câncer de pulmão no Brasil. MANUSCRITO 2: Foram recuperados registros de óbito por câncer de pulmão de 1980 a 2016 em adultos com 60 anos ou mais e estimadas a mudança percentual anual média (AAPC) e o efeito idade-período-coorte. Entre os homens, houve uma tendência crescente na mortalidade por câncer de pulmão em Osasco de 0,7% (IC: 0,1; 1,3), em contraste com uma redução anual média para Sorocaba de -1,5% (IC: -2,4; -0,6) e uma tendência média estável para o estado de São Paulo de -0,1 (IC: -0,3; 0,1). O modelo idade-período-coorte mostrou um aumento no risco de morte a partir de 1996 em Osasco e uma redução para Sorocaba e São Paulo no mesmo período. Um monitoramento especial é necessário em relação à incidência e mortalidade por câncer de pulmão em áreas com maior exposição ao asbesto. MANUSCRITO 3: Foi realizado um estudo de coorte com 988 ex-trabalhadores homens, que contribuíram com um total de 12.217 pessoas-ano de observação. A razão de mortalidade padronizada (RMP) por idade, empregando o método indireto, foi calculada para homens com 30 anos e mais. Foram observadas RMP aumentados para mortalidade geral (RMP 1,1, IC 95% 0,98-1.23), câncer de pleura (RMP 69,4, IC 95% 22,55 a 162,1), câncer de peritônio (RMP 5,0, IC 95% 0,13 a 27,78), câncer de laringe (RMP 1,4, IC 95% 0,30 a 4,20), câncer de pulmão (RMP 1,5, IC 95% 0,82 a 2,64) e asbestose (RMP 975,7, IC 95% 396,4 a 2031). Os resultados do presente estudo são consistentes com estudos de mortalidade em trabalhadores expostos ao asbesto realizados em diferentes países.


INTRODUCTION: Scientific knowledge about causes of death in workers potentially exposed to asbestos in low-or middle-income countries, such as Brazil, is scarce but important to strengthen information leading to the implementation of public policies that protect the population from the exposure to this carcinogen. Several diseases are recognized by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as causally associated with asbestos, such as lung cancer. OBJECTIVE: To explore socioeconomic inequality in lung cancer mortality trends in Brazil. To study general and specific mortality, especially caused by lung cancer in populations exposed to asbestos in Brazil. METHODS: This study is divided into three manuscripts. MANUSCRIPT 1: The death records of lung cancer cases from 2000 to 2015 in adults aged 30 years and older were retrieved. The Prais-Winsten estimation and Pearson's correlation were applied. The correlation between lung cancer mortality rates and the Human Development Index (HDI) decreased when the rates for the first and last years of the historical series were compared, for both sexes. However, the correlation between the trends in lung cancer mortality rates and the HDI was negative in men (r = - 0.76) and women (r = - 0.58), indicating greater reductions of lung cancer mortality (or smaller additions) among the Brazilian Federative Units with the highest HDI. The results suggest a relevant inequality in lung cancer mortality trends in Brazil. MANUSCRIPT 2: The death records of lung cancer cases from 1980 to 2016 in adults aged 60 years and older were retrieved. Joinpoint regression and Age-Period-Cohort models were fitted to the data. Among men, there was an increasing trend in lung cancer mortality in Osasco of 0.7% (CI: 0.1; 1.3) in contrast to a mean annual decrease for Sorocaba of -1.5% (CI: -2.4; -0.6) and a stable average trend for São Paulo of -0.1 (CI: -0.3; 0.1). Similar increasing trends were found for women. The Age-Period-Cohort model showed an increase in the risk of death from 1996 in Osasco and a reduction for Sorocaba and the state of São Paulo during the same period. The results show a need for special monitoring regarding lung cancer incidence and mortality in areas with higher exposure to asbestos. MANUSCRIPT 3: A cohort study was conducted with 988 former male workers, who contributed a total of 12,217 person-years of observation. The Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR) by age was estimated for men aged 30 and over using the indirect method. Increased SMR was observed for overall mortality (SMR 1.1, 95%CI 0.98-1.23), pleural cancer (SMR 69.4, 95%CI 22.55 to 162.1), peritoneal cancer (SMR 5.0, 95%CI 0.13 to 27.78), laryngeal cancer (SMR 1.4, 95%CI 0.30 to 4.20), lung cancer (SMR 1.5, 95%CI 0.82 to 2.64), and asbestosis (SMR 975.7, 95%CI 396.4 to 2031). The results of this study corroborate the studies on mortality in workers exposed to asbestos performed in different countries.


Subject(s)
Asbestos , Asbestosis , Laryngeal Neoplasms , Occupational Health , Lung Neoplasms , Cohort Studies
11.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 132(4): 15-19, dic. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087168

ABSTRACT

El mesotelioma difuso es una neoplasia maligna poco frecuente que proviene de las células mesoteliales; la pleura es su localización más habitual y se estima que un 10% de los casos se localizan a nivel peritoneal. El mesotelioma es habitualmente diagnosticado en la quinta década de la vida, con un claro predominio en el sexo masculino, debido esto último a su relación con la exposición laboral al asbesto. Se expone un caso con factores de riesgo y diagnóstico asociado. (AU)


Diffuse mesothelioma is a rare malignant neoplasm that comes from mesothelial cells; the pleura are the most common location and is estimated that 10% of the cases are located at the peritoneal level. Mesothelioma is usually diagnosed in the fifth decade of life, with a clear predominance in the male sex, due to its relation to occupational exposureto asbestos. A case is presented with risk factors and associated diagnosis. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pleural Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Multidetector Computed Tomography , Mesothelioma/etiology , Mesothelioma/diagnostic imaging , Asbestos/adverse effects , Diagnosis, Differential , Mesothelioma/therapy , Neoplasm Staging
12.
Rev. am. med. respir ; 19(4): 253-254, sept. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1119719

ABSTRACT

El Asbesto ha sido conocido y utilizado desde la antigüedad por ser un excelente material aislante, ignífugo y por poseer resistencia a los ácidos. Los griegos lo utilizaban en las lámparas votivas para sus deidades y Alejandro el Grande, agasajaba a sus invitados con comidas servidas sobre un mantel confeccionado con dicho material. El toque de hechizo lo efectuaba al culminar el banquete, cuando lo arrojaba al fuego para que se consumiese lo orgánico, rescatando el mantel sin sufrir alteraciones, al ser incombustible. El Asbesto se clasifica en dos grandes grupos: las SERPENTINAS (entre las que más del 90% de la explotación industrial lo compone el crisotilo) y las ANFÍBOLAS (crocidolita o "amianto azul" y la amosita o "amianto marrón)


Subject(s)
Humans , Asbestosis , Asbestos , Asbestos, Serpentine
13.
Rev. am. med. respir ; 19(4): 284-290, sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1119782

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Pleural mesothelioma is a rare tumor with a high degree of malignancy. It is considered an occupational disease that has developed in parallel with the industrial use of asbestos. In Argentina, the asbestos was prohibited in 2003. The objective of this study is to know the clinical and diagnostic characteristics and treatment of pleural mesothelioma and to determine the characteristics of asbestos exposure in 40 cases of mesothelioma in different regions of the Argentine Republic. Materials and Methods: It is a descriptive, multicenter study. Hospitals from Buenos Aires, Tucumán, Córdoba and Rosario participated in this study from January 2013 until January 2015. Clinical data were recorded in a Medical Form, and history of environmental, domestic and occupational exposure was recorded in an Exposure Form. Each participant was classified as: exposed, not exposed or unknown. The patient was considered as "exposed" if he/she identified at least one of the three types of exposure: occupational, environmental or domestic. Results: 40 cases of pleural mesothelioma were analyzed, 55% of which were male. We found reference of at least one exposure to asbestos in 75% of the cases; 7.5% denied every possible type of exposure and in 17.5% exposure was unknown. The probability of exposure was: 57.5% environmental, 60% domestic and 37% occupational. There was a greater statistically significant proportion of men with occupational exposure. Conclusion: The contribution of this work relies on the information about the different types of asbestos exposure in cases of pleural mesothelioma in the Argentine Republic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asbestos , Occupational Exposure , Mesothelioma , Neoplasms , Occupational Diseases
14.
Rev. am. med. respir ; 19(4): 284-290, sept. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1119778

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El mesotelioma pleural es un tumor poco frecuente de alto grado de malignidad. Es considerada una enfermedad profesional cuyo desarrollo fue paralelo al uso industrial del asbesto. En Argentina, el asbesto fue prohibido en el año 2003. El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer las características clínicas, de diagnóstico y tratamiento del mesotelioma pleural y determinar las características de exposición al asbesto en 40 casos de mesotelioma en distintas regiones de la República Argentina. Materiales y métodos: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo y multicéntrico. Participaron hospitales de Buenos Aires, Tucumán, Córdoba y Rosario desde enero del 2013 a enero del 2015. Se recogieron los datos clínicos en un Formulario Médico y los antecedentes de exposición ambiental, doméstica y laboral en un Formulario de Exposición. Se clasificó a cada participante como expuesto, no expuesto o desconocido. Se consideró expuesto cuando tenían identificado al menos uno de los tres tipos de exposición laboral, ambiental o doméstica. Resultados: Se analizaron 40 casos de mesotelioma pleural, 55% masculinos; encontrando referencia de al menos una exposición al asbesto en el 75% de los casos, el 7,5% negó todas las posibles exposiciones y en el 17,5% la exposición resultó desconocida. La probabilidad de exposición ambiental fue del 57,5%, doméstica del 60% y laboral del 37%. Se encontró mayor proporción de varones con exposición laboral en forma estadísticamente significativa. Conclusión: El aporte del presente trabajo radica en la información sobre los distintos tipos de exposición al asbesto en casos de mesotelioma pleural en la República Argentina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asbestos , Occupational Exposure , Mesothelioma , Neoplasms , Occupational Diseases
15.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(4): 417-426, Jul.-Aug. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099317

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: Environmental and occupational agents are causes of cancer and disease worldwide while their control and the reduction of the associated disease burden remains complex. Materials and methods: This paper summarizes the current status of the burden of environmental and occupational causes of disease in the Americas based on presentations from a panel on environment, occupation and other environmental risk factors for cancer in the Americas, delivered in Panama, at the international conference Promoting Health Equity and Transnational Collaborations for the Prevention and Control of Cancer in the Americas. Results: Three case studies are presented to illustrate the impact of specific environmental and occupational agents and the challenge of control. Conclusions: There are still fully avoidable exposures to carcinogens, as well documented in the case of asbestos in Brazil. Thus, there are abundant targets for intervention to reduce cancer in the Americas.


Resumen: Objetivo: Los agentes ambientales y ocupacionales son causas de cáncer y enfermedades en todo el mundo, mientras que su control y reducción de la carga de enfermedad asociada siguen siendo puntos complejos. Material y métodos: Este documento resume el estado actual de la carga de las causas ambientales y ocupacionales de las enfermedades en las Américas a partir de las presentaciones de un panel sobre medio ambiente, ocupación y otros factores de riesgo ambientales para el cáncer en las Américas, realizado en Panamá, en la conferencia internacional Promoviendo la Equidad en Salud y las Colaboraciones Transnacionales para la Prevención y el Control del Cáncer en las Américas. Resultados: Se presentan tres estudios de caso para ilustrar el impacto de agentes ambientales y ocupacionales específicos y el desafío del control. Conclusiones: Todavía hay exposiciones totalmente evitables a los carcinógenos, como está bien documentado en el caso del asbesto en Brasil. Hay abundantes puntos estratégicos de intervención para reducir el cáncer en las Américas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Disease/etiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Panama , Asbestos/toxicity , Americas , Brazil , Carcinogens/toxicity , Petroleum Pollution/adverse effects , Epidemiology , Risk Factors , Air Pollution, Indoor/adverse effects , Sex Distribution
16.
Kosin Medical Journal ; : 146-151, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786387

ABSTRACT

Sarcomatoid mesothelioma is not very common, mesothelioma is directly attributable to occupational asbestos exposure, with 90% of cases showing a history of exposure. A 66-year-old male was admitted with an abdominal pain that persisted for 3 weeks. He had no abdominal mass. Computed tomography showed soft tissue thickening in perihepatic space and nodularities in omentum and peritoneum with ascites. There was no absolute diagnosis evidence in ascites analysis. Although the pathology of ascites was free for malignancy, the patient underwent omentum biopsy for definitive diagnosis. In laproscopic exploration, there was omental cake, peritoneal nodular seeding. It was suspected cancer carcinomatosis. Immunohistochemical findings suggested that it was sarcomatoid masothelioma. This is the rare case of a peritoneal sarcomatoid mesothelioma, without any exposure to asbestos.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Aged , Asbestos , Ascites , Biopsy , Carcinoma , Diagnosis , Humans , Male , Mesothelioma , Omentum , Pathology , Peritoneum , Sarcoma
17.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 360-364, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716715

ABSTRACT

Asbestos has been banned in many countries but many countries, including developing countries, are still using asbestos or materials containing asbestos. Substitute materials have been studied and developed over a long period of time because of the hazards of asbestos, and many people have recently shown interest in the hazards of substitute materials. However, comprehensive information about the types of asbestos substitutes, their use and health hazards, and references for the protection for the health of workers is limited. The purpose of this study is to provide people in the related industries with information on the types and health hazards of fibrous materials that can be used as asbestos substitutes. According to the patent resources from the United States and Europe, fibrous materials have been used to develop asbestos-free products since before 1980. Recently, the health hazards of asbestos substitutes have been assessed and many additional researches are required. However, only some of the substitute materials have been assessed for health hazards, and health hazard data has not been sufficient in many cases. Therefore, efforts should be made to minimize workers’ exposure to substitute materials that do not contain asbestos.


Subject(s)
Asbestos , Developing Countries , Europe , United States
18.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 290-295, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716672

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is little information on the dose–response relationship between exposure to occupational carcinogenic agents and mesothelioma. This study aimed to investigate this association as well as the existence of agents other than asbestos that might cause mesothelioma. METHODS: The Swedish component of the Nordic Occupational Cancer (NOCCA) study consists of 6.78 million individuals with detailed information on occupation. Mesothelioma diagnoses recorded in 1961–2009 were identified through linkage to the Swedish Cancer Registry. We determined cumulative exposure, time of first exposure, and maximum exposure intensity by linking data on occupation to the Swedish NOCCA job-exposure matrix, which includes 29 carcinogenic agents and corresponding exposure for 283 occupations. To assess the risk of mesothelioma, we used conditional logistic regression models to estimate hazard ratiosand 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: 2,757 mesothelioma cases were identified in males, including 1,416 who were exposed to asbestos. Univariate analyses showed not only a significant excess risk for maximum exposure intensity, with a hazard ratio of 4.81 at exposure levels 1.25–2.0fb/ml but also a clear dose–response effect for cumulative exposure with a 30-, 40-, and 50-year latency time. No convincing excess risk was revealed for any of the other carcinogenic agents included in the Swedish NOCCA job-exposure matrix. CONCLUSION: When considering asbestos exposure, past exposure, even for short periods, might be enough to cause mesothelioma of the pleura later in life.


Subject(s)
Asbestos , Diagnosis , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Mesothelioma , Occupations , Pleura , Sweden
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775164

ABSTRACT

The present review summarizes the results of several follow-up studies assessing an asbestos product manufacturing plant in Chongqing, China, and discusses three controversial issues related to the carcinogenicity of asbestos. The first issue is the amphibole hypothesis, which asserts that the carcinogenicity of asbestos is limited to amphiboles, such as crocidolite, but not serpentines, such as chrysotile. However, considering the possible multiple component of asbestos carcinogenicity in the presence of tobacco smoke or other carcinogens, chrysotile cannot be regarded as non-carcinogenic. Additionally, in a practical sense, it is not possible to assume "pure" chrysotile due to its ubiquitous contamination with tremolite, which is a type of amphibole. Thus, as the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) assessed, all forms of asbestos including chrysotile should be regarded carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). The second issue is the chrysotile/tremolite paradox, which is a phenomenon involving predominant levels of tremolite in the lung tissues of individuals who worked in locations with negligible levels of tremolite due to the exclusive use of chrysotile. Four possible mechanisms to explain this paradox have been proposed but this phenomenon does not support the claim that amphibole is inert. The final issue discussed is the textile mystery, i.e., the higher incidence of cancer in asbestos textile plants compared to asbestos mines where the same asbestos was produced and the exposure levels were comparable. This phenomenon was first reported in North America followed by UK and then in the present observations from China. Previously, levels of fiber exposure were calculated using a universal converting coefficient to estimate the mass concentration versus fiber concentration. However, parallel measurements of fiber and mass concentrations in the workplace and exposed air indicated that there are wide variations in the fiber/mass ratio, which unjustifies the universal conversion. It is possible that contamination by airborne non-fibrous particles in mines with mass fiber conversion led to the overestimation of fiber concentrations and resulted in the textile mystery. Although the use and manufacturing of asbestos has been banned in Japan, more than 10 million tons of asbestos had been imported and the majority remains in existing buildings. Thus, efforts to control asbestos exposure should be continued.


Subject(s)
Asbestos , Classification , Toxicity , Asbestos, Amphibole , Toxicity , Asbestos, Serpentine , Toxicity , Carcinogens , China , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Epidemiology , Manufacturing and Industrial Facilities , Mining , Occupational Diseases , Epidemiology , Occupational Exposure , Textiles , Tobacco Smoking , Epidemiology
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762537

ABSTRACT

Ionizing radiation is a well-known carcinogen, and is listed as one carcinogenic agent of occupational cancer. Given the increase in the number of workers exposed to radiation, as well as the increase in concern regarding occupational cancer, the number of radiation-related occupational cancer claims is expected to increase. Unlike exposure assessment of other carcinogenic agents in the workplace, such as asbestos and benzene, radiation exposure is usually assessed on an individual basis with personal dosimeters, which makes it feasible to assess whether a worker's cancer occurrence is associated with their individual exposure. However, given the absence of a threshold dose for cancer initiation, it remains difficult to identify radiation exposure as the root cause of occupational cancer. Moreover, the association between cancer and radiation exposure in the workplace has not been clearly established due to a lack of scientific evidence. Therefore, criteria for the recognition of radiation-related occupational cancer should be carefully reviewed and updated with new scientific evidence and social consensus. The current criteria in Korea are valid in terms of eligible radiogenic cancer sites, adequate latent period, assessment of radiation exposure, and probability of causation. However, reducing uncertainty with respect to the determination of causation between exposure and cancer and developing more specific criteria that considers mixed exposure to radiation and other carcinogenic agents remains an important open question.


Subject(s)
Asbestos , Benzene , Consensus , Humans , Korea , Radiation Exposure , Radiation, Ionizing , Uncertainty
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