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1.
Med. infant ; 31(1): 16-25, Marzo 2024. Ilus, Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1552732

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor N-metil.D.aspartato (NMDA-R) es un trastorno inflamatorio del sistema nervioso central (SNC) en el cual autoanticuerpos dirigidos hacia la subunidad NR1 del receptor N-metil-D aspartato (NMDA) desarrollan un conjunto de síntomas neuropsiquiátricos, convulsiones y movimientos anormales. El tratamiento recomendado incluye metilprednisolona (MP) y gamaglobulina (IVIg), y/o recambio plasmático terapéutico (RPT); y en caso de no respuesta: rituximab (RTX) y/o ciclofosfamida (CFM). Objetivos: Analizar características clínicas, bioquímicas, electroencefalograma (EEG), resonancia magnética (RM) cerebral, tratamientos recibidos y resultados observados en una serie de pacientes con encefalitis autoinmune (EA) probable o confirmada. Materiales y métodos: Analizamos las historias clínicas de pacientes menores a 17 años que cumplían criterios diagnósticos de Graus (2016) para EA probable, con seguimiento mayor a 6 meses, internados en el Hospital Garrahan entre 2008 y 2023. El diagnóstico se definió por la identificación de anticuerpos anti-NMDAR (N-metil D-aspartato) en líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) por ensayo basado en células - cell bassed assay (CBA). Resultados: Reunieron criterios de EA probable 94 pacientes con una edad media de 89.5 meses, 51% mujeres. Se dividieron en dos grupos: seropositivos y seronegativos de acuerdo al resultado del biomarcador. Seropositivos 45/94. El síntoma inicial más frecuente fue: convulsiones. El 28% requirió ingreso a Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI). 4 pacientes seropositivos y 1 seronegativo tuvieron encefalitis por el virus del herpes simple (Om) previamente. En una paciente seronegativa se diagnosticó teratoma ovárico. Hallazgos de estudios complementarios: LCR patológico en el 29%, RM cerebral en el 52%, EEG en el 74%. El tratamiento de primera línea más empleado fue MP + IVIg. El 46% de los pacientes presentó recuperación completa. Entre los pacientes que recibieron RTX, el 65% tuvo una recuperación completa. Ningún paciente que recibió RTX presentó recaída. Conclusión: Ante la sospecha de EA se debe considerar el inicio temprano de inmunoterapia para favorecer la rápida recuperación funcional. Se recomienda el uso temprano de RTX en los casos con presentación grave o respuesta subóptima al tratamiento de primera línea para beneficiar la respuesta clínica y reducir el riesgo de recaída (AU)


Introduction: Encephalitis due to antibodies against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) is an inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) in which autoantibodies directed against the NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor develop a set of neuropsychiatric symptoms, seizures, and abnormal movements. The recommended treatment includes methylprednisolone (MP) and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), and/or therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE); and in case of non-response: rituximab (RTX) and/or cyclophosphamide (CFM). Objectives: To analyze clinical, biochemical, electroencephalogram (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, treatments received, and outcomes observed in a series of patients with probable or confirmed autoimmune encephalitis (AE). Materials and methods: We analyzed the medical records of patients under 17 years of age who met Graus' diagnostic criteria (2016) for probable AE, with follow-up of more than 6 months, hospitalized at Hospital Garrahan between 2008 and 2023. Diagnosis was defined by the identification of anti-NMDAR antibodies (N-methyl D-aspartate) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by cell-based assay (CBA). Results: Ninety-four patients met criteria for probable AE with a mean age of 89.5 months, 51% female. They were divided into two groups: seropositive and seronegative according to the biomarker result. Seropositive 45/94. The most frequent initial symptom was seizures. Twenty-eight percent required admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Four seropositive patients and one seronegative patient had previously had herpes simplex encephalitis (Om). Ovarian teratoma was diagnosed in one seronegative patient. Findings of complementary studies: Pathological CSF in 29%, brain MRI in 52%, EEG in 74%. The most commonly used first-line treatment was MP + IVIg. Forty-six percent of patients experienced complete recovery. Among patients who received RTX, 65% had complete recovery. No patient who received RTX experienced relapse. Conclusion: In the suspicion of AE, early initiation of immunotherapy should be considered to promote rapid functional recovery. Early use of RTX is recommended in cases with severe presentation or suboptimal response to first-line treatment to benefit clinical response and reduce the risk of relapse (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Autoantibodies , Encephalitis , Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis/diagnosis , Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis/drug therapy , Immunotherapy , Seizures , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009897

ABSTRACT

Neonatal lupus erythematosus (NLE) is caused by the transmission of maternal anti-Ro/SSA antibodies, anti-La/SSB antibodies, and other autoantibodies to the fetus through the placenta. Usually, with the disappearance of autoantibodies in the children's body, abnormal changes in the mucocutaneous, blood system, and digestive system can spontaneously subside, but the damage to various systems caused by autoantibodies may persist for a long time. This article provides a comprehensive review of the manifestations and prognosis of NLE in various systems, including mucocutaneous, blood system, circulatory system, nervous system, digestive system, respiratory system, aiming to provide reference for clinical work.


Subject(s)
Child , Infant, Newborn , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Prognosis , Autoantibodies , Family
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009474

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the correlation between alterations in DNase1 and DNase1L3 enzyme activities and impairment of NET degradation in patients with sporadic SLE, and to investigate the underlying mechanism. Methods 46 sporadic SLE patients and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals were recruited. Serum levels of DNase1, DNase1L3 and corresponding autoantibodies were detected by ELISA. DNase1 and DNase1L3 were isolated by immunoprecipitation; NETs and enzyme degradation activities were detected using a modified immunofluorescence. DNase1L3 secretion by PBMCs was analyzed by ELISPOT, Western blotting and reverse transcription PCR. Results Levels of H3-dsDNA and Ela-dsDNA complexes were significantly elevated in SLE patients. LDGs in SLE population was significantly higher than in the control group, and LDGs was positively correlated with H3-dsDNA and Ela-dsDNA NETs complexes. The ability of SLE patients to degrade NET in vitro was significantly lower than that of the control group. Degradation experiments of DNase1 and DNase1L3 in different proportions showed that the decrease in DNase1L3 activity was the primary contributor to the elevated NET residue level. The concentration of DNase1L3 autoantibodies in SLE patients was significantly elevated compared to the control group. In addition, the capacity of PBMCs to secrete DNase1L3 was significantly lower in the SLE patients compared to the control group. Conclusion Decreased secretion of DNase1L3 and the presence of relevant autoantibodies notably impede NET degradation in patients with SLE, offering new directions for the monitoring and treatment of SLE patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autoantibodies , Blotting, Western , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Extracellular Traps , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic
4.
Med. infant ; 30(2): 90-95, Junio 2023. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1443391

ABSTRACT

En la Diabetes tipo 1 (DM1) la pérdida de células ß pancreáticas es consecuencia de un proceso de autoinmunidad que cursa con la presencia de autoanticuerpos anti-islotes pancreáticos (AAPs). Estos AAPs son marcadores útiles para la clasificación de la enfermedad. En un centro pediátrico de tercer nivel se analizó la frecuencia de presentación de GADA, IA-2A, ZnT8A e IAA en un grupo con reciente debut entre enero 2018 y agosto 2021 (n= 90). Además, se investigó la frecuencia de presentación y relación de los AAPs con la edad, sexo y tiempo de evolución en pacientes en seguimiento (n= 240). En el grupo de debut se obtuvo positividad de GADA, IA-2A, ZnT8A y IAA en 77,8; 60; 62 y 47,8% de los pacientes respectivamente, un 4% no presentó AAPs. El 95,6% de los pacientes presentaron al menos un AAPs positivo. La frecuencia de IAA en el grupo en debut fue mayor en menores de 5 años. En el grupo en seguimiento el 75,2% resultaron GADA positivo (85,7% en mujeres y 62,8% en varones) p<0,05. IA-2A y ZnT8A fueron positivos en 45 y 51.7% respectivamente. El 91% presentaron al menos un AAP positivo. En este grupo se evidenció una menor positividad en función del tiempo de evolución. Se pudo determinar la frecuencia de presentación de los AAPs en un grupo en debut y la relación con la edad, sexo y tiempo de evolución en pacientes en seguimiento. La determinación de APPs facilita la correcta clasificación y elección de la terapia adecuada (AU)


In type 1 diabetes (DM1) the loss of pancreatic ß-cells is a consequence of an autoimmune process that results in the presence of pancreatic anti-islet autoantibodies (PAAs). PAAs are useful markers for the classification of the disease. The frequency of presentation of GADA, IA-2A, ZnT8A, and IAA in a group with recent debut seen between January 2018 and August 2021 (n= 90) was analyzed in a tertiary pediatric center. In addition, we investigated the frequency of presentation and association of PAAs with age, sex, and time of evolution in patients in follow-up (n= 240). In the debut group, GADA, IA2A, ZnT8A, and IAA positivity was found in 77.8, 60, 62, and 47.8% of patients, respectively; no PAAs were observed in 4% of the patients. Overall, 95.6% presented at least one positive PAA. The frequency of IAA in the debut group was higher in children younger than 5 years. In the follow-up group, 75.2% were GADA positive (85.7% of females and 62.8% of males) p<0.05. IA-2A and ZnT8A were positive in 45 and 51.7% respectively. Ninety-one percent presented with at least one positive PAA. In this group, a lower positivity was evidenced as a function of the time of evolution. The frequency of presentation of PAAs in a debut group and the relationship with age, sex, and time of evolution in patients in follow-up was demonstrated. The assessment of PAAs facilitates the correct classification and choice of adequate therapy (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Autoantibodies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/classification , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Insulin-Secreting Cells , Autoimmune Diseases , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Glutamate Decarboxylase
5.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 39(2): 138-143, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515113

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las Enfermedades Pulmonares Intersticiales (EPI) afectan principalmente al intersticio pulmonar, con importante morbimortalidad asociada. Tienen un espectro de posibles etiologías que es cada vez más amplio. Hay una importante causalidad a partir de Enfermedades del Tejido Conectivo (ETC), describiéndose cada vez más casos asociados a Síndrome Antisintetasa, y con diversos patrones radiológicos según serología obtenida, agrupada en "Panel de Miositis" (PaM). El presente estudio de cohorte retrospectiva reúne PaMs realizados en el Hospital Santiago Oriente, correlacionando resultados con manifestaciones clínicas e imagenológicas. Material y Métodos: Se recuperaron 33 PaMs realizados entre 2017 y 2022, y a través de revisión de fichas de los pacientes de quienes provenían las PaMs se consignaron las principales manifestaciones clínicas, imagenológicas y de la serología reumatológica complementaria, estableciendo correlaciones entre múltiples variables. Resultados: Hubo 15 pacientes PaM positivos (45,4%), 8 de ellos (53%) ya contaban con alguna miopatía inflamatoria diagnosticada. Los principales hallazgos clínicos consignados fueron pápulas de Gottron, artritis, eritema heliotropo, Fenómeno de Raynaud y fiebre. El anticuerpo positivo más frecuente fue Ro-52. Se pudo objetivar ANA positivo en 10 casos (66,7%). Se identificó EPI en 66,7% de aquellos con PaM positivo, siendo la Neumonía Intersticial no específica fibrótica con Neumonía en Organización la manifestación más frecuente. No hubo asociación significativa entre manifestaciones imagenológicas y anticuerpos específicos. Se encontró ANA 1/80 en 66,7% de los casos, lo cual no se asoció a mayor riesgo de EPI. Conclusiones: Existe asociación entre varias ETC y las EPI. Destaca la importancia de los hallazgos clínicos para establecer un adecuado índice de sospecha, para dirigir oportunamente el estudio complementario (ej: PaM), y la eventual terapia específica.


Introduction: Interstitial Lung Diseases (ILD) mainly affect the pulmonary interstitium, with significant associated morbidity and mortality. They have a spectrum of possible etiologies that is increasingly broad. There is an important causality from Connective Tissue Diseases (CTD), describing more and more cases associated with Antisynthetase Syndrome, and with different radiological patterns according to the serology obtained, enclosed into "Panel of Myositis" (PaM). This retrospective cohort study gathers PaMs performed at Hospital Santiago Oriente, PaM results are correlated with clinical and imaging manifestations. Material and Methods: 33 PaMs performed between 2017 and 2022 were saved up and by reviewing the clinical records of the patients from whom the PaMs came, their clinical and radiological manifestations and the results of their complementary rheumatological serology were recorded to establish correlations between multiple variables. Results: There were 15 positive PaMs (45.4%), 8 (53%) of them already had some diagnosed inflammatory myopathy. The main clinical findings reported were Gottron's papules, arthritis, heliotrope erythema, Raynaud's phenomenon, and fever. The most frequent positive antibody detected was Ro-52. Positive ANA could be found in 10 cases (66.7%). PID was identified in 66.7% of those with a positive PaM, being non-specific fibrotic Interstitial Pneumonia with Organizing Pneumonia being the most frequent manifestation. There was no significant association between imaging manifestations and specific antibodies. ANA 1/80 was found in 6.7% of the cases, which was not associated with an increased risk of PID. Conclusions: There is association between several CTEs and EPIs. It is necessary to highlight the importance of the clinical findings to establish an adequate index of suspicion, in order to timely direct the complementary study (eg: PaM), and the eventual specific therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Myositis/diagnosis , Autoantibodies , Retrospective Studies , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/immunology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnostic imaging , Connective Tissue Diseases , Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases , Myositis/immunology , Myositis/diagnostic imaging
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008118

ABSTRACT

Cold agglutinins(CA),autoantibodies against the antigen I or i on the surface of red blood cells,are mainly of IgM class,and the majority have κ light chains.They can lead to red blood cell agglutination at decreased body temperature and are usually associated with infections,drug reactions,autoimmune diseases,and hematological malignancies.However,solid tumors with CA are rare.We reported two cases of CA in the peripheral blood of patients with solid tumors.Peripheral complete blood cell count of the patients at admission showed reduced erythrocyte count and hematocrit,mismatching between erythrocyte count and hemoglobin,abnormally elevated levels of mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean cell hemoglobin concentration.Peripheral blood smear showed erythrocyte aggregation.After the sample was preheated at 37 ℃ for 30 min,the reversibility of red blood cell aggregation was observed,and the erythrocyte parameters were corrected.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Autoantibodies/isolation & purification , Breast Neoplasms/immunology , Ovarian Neoplasms/immunology
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007840

ABSTRACT

Autoantibodies are important biomarkers of autoimmune diseases and crucial for disease diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and the evaluation of disease activity and prognosis. Specifying the requirement of quality control for detecting autoantibodies is essential for accurately reporting relevant results. In 2023, National Clinical Research Center for Dermatologic and Immunologic Diseases (Peking Union Medical College Hospital), Experimental Diagnosis Research Committee, Rheumatology and Immunology Physicians Committee of Chinese Medical Doctor Association, Autoantibodies Detection Committee, Chinese Rheumatism Data Center invited relevant clinical and laboratory experts to develop the current consensus based on the national standards, the industry guidelines, the national situation, and the experience of quality control regarding autoantibody detection. This consensus aims to standardize the quality control of autoantibody detection in relevant laboratories in China.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autoantibodies , Consensus , Autoimmune Diseases/diagnosis , Quality Control , Reference Standards
8.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 1098-1102, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013231

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize the clinical characteristics of tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) in children. Methods: The clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, genetic testing and follow-up of 10 children with TRAPS from May 2011 to May 2021 in 6 hospitals in China were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Among the 10 patients with TRAPS, including 8 boys and 2 girls. The age of onset was 2 (1, 5) years, the age of diagnosis was (8±4) years, and the time from onset to diagnosis was 3 (1, 7) years. A total of 7 types of TNFRSF1A gene variants were detected, including 5 paternal variations, 1 maternal variation and 4 de novo variations. Six children had a family history of related diseases. Clinical manifestations included recurrent fever in 10 cases, rash in 4 cases, abdominal pain in 6 cases, joint involvement in 6 cases, periorbital edema in 1 case, and myalgia in 4 cases. Two patients had hematological system involvement. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein were significantly increased in 10 cases. All patients were negative for autoantibodies. In the course of treatment, 5 cases were treated with glucocorticoids, 7 cases with immunosuppressants, and 7 cases with biological agents. Conclusions: TRAPS is clinically characterized by recurrent fever accompanied by joint, gastrointestinal, skin, and muscle involvement. Inflammatory markers are elevated, and autoantibodies are mostly negative. Treatment mainly involves glucocorticoids, immunosuppressants, and biological agents.


Subject(s)
Male , Child , Female , Humans , Child, Preschool , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Biological Factors/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Autoantibodies , Familial Mediterranean Fever/diagnosis , Mutation
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012292

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the relationship between subchorionic hematoma (SCH) and coagulation status, autoantibodies, and conception method. Methods: A total of 100 pregnant women diagnosed with SCH from June 2020 to December 2021 in the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University were included in the SCH group, while 100 healthy pregnant women during the same period were selected as the control group. The coagulation status (including platelet, prothrombin time, thrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, antithrombin Ⅲ, fibrin degradation products, D-dimer, homocysteine, protein S activity, protein C activity), the positive rate of autoantibodies [including antiphospholipid antibodies (anticardiolipin antibody and anti-β2 glycoprotein Ⅰ antibody), antinuclear antibody] and the mode of conception of the two groups were analyzed. Results: Compared to the control group, the SCH group had higher levels of platelet [(240±45)×109/L vs (227±37)×109/L], fibrinogen [(4.0±0.8) vs (3.6±0.7) g/L], D-dimer [(0.42±0.18) vs (0.31±0.15) mg/L], blood homocysteine [(8.9±4.2) vs (6.9±2.3) μmol/L], and lower level of protein S activity [(55±14)% vs (68±20)%], and there were significant differences between the two groups (all P<0.05). The SCH group had higher positive rates of autoantibodies [24.0% (24/100) vs 8.0% (8/100)], antiphospholipid antibodies [15.0% (15/100) vs 6.0% (6/100)], anti-β2 glycoprotein Ⅰ antibody [10.0% (10/100) vs 3.0% (3/100)], antinuclear antibody [11.0% (11/100) vs 2.0% (2/100)] and assisted reproduction rate [10.0% (10/100) vs 2.0% (2/100)] than those of the control group (all P<0.05). Conclusion: The occurrence of SCH is related to blood hypercoagulability, positive autoantibodies, and assisted reproduction.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Autoantibodies , Antibodies, Antinuclear , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid , Fibrinogen , Homocysteine , Glycoproteins
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985978

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the misdiagnosis of area postrema syndrome (APS) manifesting as intractable nausea, vomiting and hiccups in neuromyelitis optic spectrum disease (NMOSD) and reduce the risk of misdiagnosis. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from NMOSD patients attending the Department of Neurology at the First Medical Center of PLA General Hospital between January 2019 and July 2021. SPSS25.0 was then used to analyze the manifestations, misdiagnosis, and mistreatment of APS. Results: A total of 207 patients with NMOSD were included, including 21 males and 186 females. The mean age of onset was 39±15 years (range: 5-72 years). The proportion of patients who were positive for serum aquaporin 4 antibody was 82.6% (171/207). In total, 35.7% (74/207) of the NMOSD patients experienced APS during the disease course; of these patients, 70.3% (52/74) had APS as the first symptom and 29.7% (22/74) had APS as a secondary symptom. The misdiagnosis rates for these conditions were 90.4% (47/52) and 50.0% (11/22), respectively. As the first symptom, 19.2% (10/52) of patients during APS presented only with intractable nausea, vomiting and hiccups; 80.8% (42/52) of patients experienced other neurological symptoms. The Departments of Gastroenterology and General Medicine were the departments that most frequently made the first diagnosis of APS, accounting for 54.1% and 17.6% of patients, respectively. The most common misdiagnoses related to diseases of the digestive system and the median duration of misdiagnosis was 37 days. Conclusions: APS is a common symptom of NMOSD and is associated with a high rate of misdiagnosis. Other concomitant symptoms often occur with APS. Gaining an increased awareness of this disease/syndrome, obtaining a detailed patient history, and performing physical examinations are essential if we are to reduce and avoid misdiagnosis.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Neuromyelitis Optica/diagnosis , Area Postrema , Retrospective Studies , Hiccup/complications , Vomiting/etiology , Nausea/etiology , Inflammation , Syndrome , Autoantibodies , Diagnostic Errors , Aquaporin 4
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985933

ABSTRACT

Standardisation and harmonisation of the detection of autoantibodies is important for the clinical application of autoantibodies. However, achieving complete standardisation is difficult and involves several challenges due to the complexity and particularity of autoantibody detection. Harmonisation is feasible and valued, but it involves all aspects and processes of autoantibody detection. Based on the consensus and practice of the clinical application of autoantibody detection in recent years, we discuss harmonisation in this review.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autoantibodies , Reference Standards
12.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 261-272, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971551

ABSTRACT

The extracellular domain (p75ECD) of p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) antagonizes Aβ neurotoxicity and promotes Aβ clearance in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The impaired shedding of p75ECD is a key pathological process in AD, but its regulatory mechanism is largely unknown. This study was designed to investigate the presence and alterations of naturally-occurring autoantibodies against p75ECD (p75ECD-NAbs) in AD patients and their effects on AD pathology. We found that the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) level of p75ECD-NAbs was increased in AD, and negatively associated with the CSF levels of p75ECD. Transgenic AD mice actively immunized with p75ECD showed a lower level of p75ECD and more severe AD pathology in the brain, as well as worse cognitive functions than the control groups, which were immunized with Re-p75ECD (the reverse sequence of p75ECD) and phosphate-buffered saline, respectively. These findings demonstrate the impact of p75ECD-NAbs on p75NTR/p75ECD imbalance, providing a novel insight into the role of autoimmunity and p75NTR in AD.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Autoantibodies , Mice, Transgenic
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971370

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Programmed death 1 (PD-1) associated fulminant type 1 diabetes (PFD) is a rare acute and critical in internal medicine, and its clinical characteristics are still unclear. This study aims to analyze the clinical characteristics of PFD patients to improve clinical diagnosis and treatment.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 10 patients with PFD admitted to the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, combined with the data of 66 patients reported in the relevant literature, analyzed and summarized their clinical and immunological characteristics, and compared the patients with PFD with different islet autoantibody status.@*RESULTS@#Combined with our hospital and literature data, a total of 76 patients with PFD were reported, with the age of (60.9±12.1) years old, 60.0% male and body mass index of (22.1±5.2) kg/m2. In 76 patients, the most common tumors were lung cancer (43.4%) and melanoma (22.4%). Among PD-1 inhibitors, the most common drugs are nivolumab (37.5%) and pembrolizumab (38.9%). 82.2% of PFD patients developed diabetes ketoacidosis. The median onset time from PD-1 related inhibitor treatment to hyperglycemia was 95 (36.0, 164.5) d, and the median treatment cycle before the onset of diabetes was 6 (2.3, 8.0) cycles. 26% (19/73) of PFD patients had positive islet autoantibodies, and the proportion of ketoacidosis in the positive group was significantly higher than that in the negative group (100.0% vs 75.0%, P<0.05). The onset time and infusion times of diabetes after PD-1 inhibitor treatment in the autoantibody positive group were significantly lower than those in the autoantibody negative group (28.5 d vs 120.0 d; 2 cycles vs 7 cycles, both P<0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#After initiation of tumor immunotherapy, it is necessary to be alert to the occurrence of adverse reactions of PFD, and the onset of PFD with islet autoantibody positive is faster and more serious than that of patients with autoantibodies negative. Detection of islet autoantibodies and blood glucose before and after treatment with PD-1 inhibitors is of great value for early warning and prediction of PFD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Female , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Ketosis , Autoantibodies
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987021

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the value of pharmacogenetic testing for improving the efficacy and safety of treatment with cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and cyclophosphamide (CTX) for PLA2R-related membranous nephropathy and for determing individualized and precise treatment plans for the patients.@*METHODS@#A total of 63 patients with PLA2R-related membranous nephropathy hospitalized in the Department of Nephrology at our hospital from January, 2019 to October, 2021 were enrolled in this study. Thirty-three of the patients underwent pharmacogenetic testing before taking the immunosuppressive drugs selected based on the results of genetic screening for sensitive targets, and the other 30 patients were empirically given immunosuppressive drugs according to the guidelines (control group). The clinical efficacy and adverse effects of the immunosuppressive drugs were analyzed for all the patients. The two groups of patients were compared for demographic and biochemical parameters including 24-h urine protein, serum albumin, renal function, and serum anti-phospholipase A2 receptor antibody both before and at 3 months after the beginning of the treatment.@*RESULTS@#Among the 33 patients undergoing pharmacogenetic testing, 51.5% showed a GG genotype for cyclosporine, and 61.6% had an AG genotype for tacrolimus; for CTX, 51.5% of the patients showed a homozygous deletion and 63.6% had an AA genotype. After treatment for 3 months, serum anti-phospholipase A2 receptor antibody, 24-h urine protein, and serum albumin levels were significantly improved in pharmacogenetic testing group as compared with the control group (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Individualized and precise administration of immunosuppressive drugs based on pharmacogenetic testing better controls proteinuria and serum antiphospholipase A2 receptor antibodies and increases serum albumin level in patients with PLA2R-related membranous nephropathy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autoantibodies , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Glomerulonephritis, Membranous/diagnosis , Homozygote , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Pharmacogenomic Testing , Receptors, Phospholipase A2 , Sequence Deletion , Serum Albumin , Tacrolimus/therapeutic use
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986890

ABSTRACT

The patient was a 55-year-old man who was admitted to hospital with "progressive myalgia and weakness for 4 months, and exacerbated for 1 month". Four months ago, he presented with persistent shoulder girdle myalgia and elevated creatine kinase (CK) at routine physical examination, which fluctuated from 1 271 to 2 963 U/L after discontinuation of statin treatment. Progressive myalgia and weakness worsened seriously to breath-holding and profuse sweating 1 month ago. The patient was post-operative for renal cancer, had previous diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease medical history, had a stent implanted by percutaneous coronary intervention and was on long-term medication with aspirin, atorvastatin and metoprolol. Neurological examination showed pressure pain in the scapularis and pelvic girdle muscles, and V- grade muscle strength in the proximal extremities. Strongly positive of anti-HMGCR antibody was detected. Muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2-weighted image and short time inversion recovery sequences (STIR) showed high signals in the right vastus lateralis and semimembranosus muscles. There was a small amount of myofibrillar degeneration and necrosis, CD4 positive inflammatory cells around the vessels and among myofibrils, MHC-Ⅰ infiltration, and multifocal lamellar deposition of C5b9 in non-necrotic myofibrils of the right quadriceps muscle pathological manifestation. According to the clinical manifestation, imageological change, increased CK, blood specific anti-HMGCR antibody and biopsy pathological immune-mediated evidence, the diagnosis of anti-HMGCR immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy was unequivocal. Methylprednisolone was administrated as 48 mg daily orally, and was reduced to medication discontinuation gradually. The patient's complaint of myalgia and breathlessness completely disappeared after 2 weeks, the weakness relief with no residual clinical symptoms 2 months later. Follow-up to date, there was no myalgia or weakness with slightly increasing CK rechecked. The case was a classical anti-HMGCR-IMNM without swallowing difficulties, joint symptoms, rash, lung symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms, heart failure and Raynaud's phenomenon. The other clinical characters of the disease included CK as mean levels >10 times of upper limit of normal, active myogenic damage in electromyography, predominant edema and steatosis of gluteus and external rotator groups in T2WI and/or STIR at advanced disease phase except axial muscles. The symptoms may occasionally improve with discontinuation of statins, but glucocorticoids are usually required, and other treatments include a variety of immunosuppressive therapies such as methotrexate, rituximab and intravenous gammaglobulin.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Autoantibodies , Myositis/diagnosis , Autoimmune Diseases , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Necrosis/pathology , Muscular Diseases/drug therapy
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010179

ABSTRACT

Sjögren's syndrome(SS)is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects exocrine glands, especially salivary and lacrimal glands. The main clinical manifestations are dry mouth and dry eyes, but also multi-organ and multi-system can be involved. Cold agglutinin disease(CAD)is an autoimmune disease characterized by red blood cell agglutination in the blood vessels of extremities caused by cold agglutinin at low temperature, resulting in skin microcirculation disturbance, or hemolytic anemia. Cold agglutinin disease is divided into two categories, primary cold agglutinin disease and secondary cold agglutinin disease. Primary cold agglutinin disease is characterized with cold agglutinin titer of 1 ∶4 000 or more and positive Coomb's test. However, the Coomb's test is not necessarily positive and the cold agglutinin titer is between 1 ∶32 and 1 ∶4 000 in secondary cold agglutinin disease. Here, we reported an elderly patient admitted to hospital due to fever. He was diagnosed with respiratory infection, but he showed incompletely response to the anti-infection treatment. Further laboratory tests showed the patient with positive ANA and anti-SSA antibodies. Additionally, the patient complained that he had dry mouth and dry eyes for 1 year. Schirmer test and salivate gland imaging finally confirmed the diagnosis Sjogren's syndrome. During the hospital stay, the blood clots were found in the anticoagulant tubes. Hemolytic anemia was considered as the patient had anemia with elevated reticulocytes and indirect bilirubin. In addition, further examination showed positive cold agglutination test with a titer of 1 ∶1 024, and cold agglutinin disease was an important type of cold-resistant autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Furthermore, the patient developed cyanosis after ice incubating at the tip of the nose. Hence, the patient was diagnosed as CAD and he was successfully treated with glucocorticoids instead of anti-infection treatments. Hence, the patient was diagnosed with SS combined with secondary CAD. SS combined CAD are rarely reported, and they are both autoimmune diseases. The abnormal function of B lymphocytes and the production of autoantibodies might be the common pathogenesis of them. Cold agglutinin disease can lead to severe hemolytic anemia, even life-threatening. In clinical practice, timely recognizing and dealing with CAD might promote the prognosis of the patient.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Aged , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune/diagnosis , Sjogren's Syndrome/diagnosis , Anemia, Hemolytic/complications , Dry Eye Syndromes/complications , Autoantibodies
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010173

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical and immunological features of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) patients with positive anti-centromere protein B (CENP-B) antibody.@*METHODS@#In this cross-sectional study, the general clinical data, radiographic examination and labial salivary gland biopsy data, and serum immunological and biochemical data of patients diagnosed with pSS from January 2016 to August 2022 were evaluated. The included patients were divided into the anti-CENP-B antibody positive and negative groups. Intergroup differences were analyzed with SPSS 23.0 software. Subgroup analysis was further performed by dividing the anti-CENP-B antibody positive group into the single anti-CENP-B antibody positive and with other auto-antibodies positive groups to determine the characters related to anti-CENP-B antibody.@*RESULTS@#In this study, 288 patients with pSS were evaluated, including 75 patients with anti-CENP-B antibody positive and 213 with anti-CENP-B antibody negative. Univariate analysis showed that compared with the anti-CENP-B antibody negative group, the patients of the anti-CENP-B antibody positive group were older, had lower proportion of the patients with salivary gland enlargement and higher proportion of autoimmune liver disease. As for immunological indicators, the positive proportions of anti-SSA/Ro60, anti-Ro52, and anti-SSB antibodies were significantly lower. Moreover, the immunoglobulin (Ig) G and rheumatoid factor levels were significantly lower, while the IgM level was significantly higher in the patients of the anti-CENP-B antibody positive group. As for serum biochemical indicators, for the patients of the anti-CENP-B antibody positive group, the level of total protein (TP) was lower, the albumin/globulin ratio was higher, and the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were higher. Subgroup analysis showed that the levels of TP and IgA in the patients of the single anti-CENP-B antibody positive group were significantly lower than those of the patients with other autoantibodies positive group.@*CONCLUSION@#The pSS patients with anti-CENP-B antibody positive have unique clinical and immunological features of lower disease activity, less likely to involve salivary gland, higher risk for autoimmune liver disease, and higher levels of liver function indicators. Anti-CENP-B antibody may be a marker for a distinct subset of polyautoimmunity in Sjögren's syndrome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sjogren's Syndrome , Cross-Sectional Studies , Antibodies, Antinuclear , Autoantibodies , Liver Diseases
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010167

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical manifestations and laboratory indicators of anti-Sjögren's-syndrome-related antigen A (SSA) antibody associated fetal cardiac disease.@*METHODS@#Pregnant women hospitalized at Peking University People's Hospital from January 2013 to July 2023 were included. Eleven patients with anti-SSA antibody positive were eventually diagnosed with fetal cardiac di-sease. And patients with anti-SSA antibody positive without fetal cardiac disease were selected as controls. Clinical manifestations, laboratory indications and drug usage were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#Among these 11 patients, congenital heart block was confirmed in seven, which was the most common manifestations of fetal cardiac malformation. The proportion of the patients diagnosed with autoimmune disease before pregnancy in fetal cardiac malformation group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P=0.032), while most of the patients in the fetal cardiac malformation group received immune-related examinations for the first time because of this time's fetal cardiac diagnosis. While most of the patients in the control group received routine examinations because of autoimmune diseases diagnosed before pregnancy. During pregnancy, the white blood cell level [(9.29±2.58)×109/L vs. (7.10±1.90×109/L, t=3.052, P=0.004], erythrocyte sedimentation rate [(49.50 (48.00, 51.00) mm/h vs. 23.00 (15.00, 30.25) mm/h, Z=-2.251, P=0.024], IgA level [3.46 (2.30, 5.06) g/L vs. 2.13 (1.77, 2.77) g/L, Z=-2.181, P=0.029], and antinuclear antibody (ANA) titers [1∶320 (1∶160, 1∶320) vs. 1∶80 (1∶40, 1∶160), Z=-3.022, P=0.003] were significantly higher in fetal cardiac malformation group than in the control group. The proportion of positive anti-SSB antibody during pregnancy did not show a statistically significant difference between the two groups (37.5% vs. 7.7%, P=0.053). There was no significant difference in hydroxychloroquine dosage and initiation time between the two groups. The dosage of prednisone in the second and third trimesters was significantly higher in the cardiac malformation group than that in the control group, but there was no significant difference in the first trimester.@*CONCLUSION@#Fetal cardiac disease is rare in pregnant women with anti-SSA antibody. White blood cell, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, IgA, the titer of ANA positivity were higher in the fetal heart disease group during pregnancy. Since congenital heart block is difficult to reverse, its prevention and monitoring are more important than remedial treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Sjogren's Syndrome/complications , Autoimmune Diseases , Heart Block/diagnosis , Autoantibodies , Antibodies, Antinuclear , Immunoglobulin A
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010165

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical significance of anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) in predicting early miscarriage.@*METHODS@#A total of 122 pregnant women with no history of autoimmune diseases who underwent prenatal examination at Peking University People's Hospital from January 2020 to December 2022 were selected, and they were tested for AECA. Based on the history of early miscarriage (gestational age at miscarriage < 12 weeks), the participants were divided into an early miscarriage group and a control group. t-tests, non-parametric Wilcoxon tests, Chi-square tests, and Fisher's exact probability method were used to compare general information and laboratory indicators between the two groups. A multivariate Logistic regression model was used to analyze the factors associated with early miscarriage. The natural miscarriage rates were assessed through follow-up with pregnant women, and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was employed to compare the natural miscarriage rates between AECA-positive and AECA-negative pregnant women.@*RESULTS@#(1) A total of 122 pregnant women were enrolled, comprising 35 cases (28.7%) in the early miscarriage group, with an average age of (32.1±6.1) years, and 87 cases (71.3%) in the control group, with an average age of (30.7±5.1) years. The early miscarriage group had higher gravidity [3 (2, 4) vs. 1 (1, 2), Z=-6.402, P < 0.001] and a higher prevalence of hypertension (11.4% vs.1.1%, P=0.024). The positive rate of AECA in the early miscarriage group (34.3% vs. 8.0%, χ2=13.070, P < 0.001) and the proportion of elevated immunoglobulin G (17.1% vs. 4.6%, P=0.032) were significantly higher than that in the control group. (2) Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that higher gravidity (OR=4.149, 95%CI: 2.287-7.529, P < 0.001), AECA positivity (OR= 4.288, 95% CI: 1.157-15.893, P=0.029), and elevated immunoglobulin G levels (OR =6.177, 95%CI: 1.156-33.015, P=0.033) were risk factors for early miscarriage. (3) The 122 pregnant women were categorized into two groups: the AECA-positive group (19 cases) and the AECA-negative group (103 cases). Survival analysis demonstrated that at the end of 12 weeks of gestation, the fetal survival rate in the AECA-positive group was significantly lower than that in the AECA-negative group (84.2% vs. 96.1%, P= 0.035).@*CONCLUSION@#Higher gravidity, AECA positivity, and elevated immunoglobulin G levels are significant risk factors for early miscarriage. The results demonstrate that AECA is a novel predicting test in early miscarriage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Infant , Abortion, Spontaneous , Autoantibodies , Immunoglobulin G , Hypertension
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010154

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the significance of anti-histidyl tRNA synthetase (Jo-1) antibody in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) and its diseases spectrum.@*METHODS@#We enrolled all the patients who were tested positive for anti-Jo-1 antibody by immunoblotting in Peking University People's Hospital between 2016 and 2022. And the patients diagnosed with anti-synthetase antibody syndrome (ASS) with negative serum anti-Jo-1 antibody were enrolled as controls. We analyzed the basic information, clinical characteristics, and various inflammatory and immunological indicators of the patients at the onset of illness.@*RESULTS@#A total of 165 patients with positive anti-Jo-1 antibody were enrolled in this study. Among them, 80.5% were diagnosed with connective tissue disease. And 57.6% (95/165) were diagnosed with IIM, including ASS (84/165, 50.9%), immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (7/165, 4.2%) and dermatomyositis (4/165, 2.4%). There were 23.0% (38/165) diagnosed with other connective tissue disease, mainly including rheumatoid arthritis (11/165, 6.7%), undifferentiated connective tissue disease (5/165, 3.0%), interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (5/165, 3.0%), undifferentiated arthritis (4/165, 2.4%), Sjögren's syndrome (3/165, 1.8%), systemic lupus erythematosus (3/165, 1.8%), systemic vasculitis (3/165, 1.8%), and so on. Other cases included 3 (1.8%) malignant tumor patients, 4 (2.4%) infectious cases and so on. The diagnoses were not clear in 9.1% (15 /165) of the cohort. In the analysis of ASS subgroups, the group with positive serum anti-Jo-1 antibody had a younger age of onset than those with negative serum anti-Jo-1 antibody (49.9 years vs. 55.0 years, P=0.026). Clinical manifestations of arthritis (60.7% vs. 33.3%, P=0.002) and myalgia (47.1% vs. 22.2%, P=0.004) were more common in the ASS patients with positive anti-Jo-1 antibody. With the increase of anti-Jo-1 antibody titer, the incidence of the manifestations of arthritis, mechanic hands, Gottron sign and Raynaud phenomenon increased, and the proportion of abnormal creatine kinase and α-hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase index increased in the ASS patients. The incidence of myalgia and myasthenia were significantly more common in this cohort when anti-Jo-1 antibody-positive ASS patients were positive for one and more myositis specific antibodies/myositis associated autoantibodies (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The disease spectrum in patients with positive serum anti-Jo-1 antibody includes a variety of diseases, mainly ASS. And anti-Jo-1 antibody can also be found in many connective tissue diseases, malignant tumor, infection and so on.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Myalgia , Myositis/epidemiology , Autoantibodies , Connective Tissue Diseases , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Neoplasms
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