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1.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(2): 126-131, abr. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388349

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: En neonatos y lactantes bajo 90 días de vida la fiebre constituye un signo clínico relevante ya que puede corresponder a una infección bacteriana grave, por lo que se toman hemocultivos de forma rutinaria y el paciente es hospitalizado. Aún no existe una recomendación respecto al tiempo de observación necesario una vez internado el paciente. OBJETIVO: Describir las bacterias aisladas en hemocultivos de lactantes bajo 90 días de vida hospitalizados por fiebre y el tiempo de detección de crecimiento microbiano en los mismos. ¨MÉTODO: Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo. Se revisaron hemocultivos positivos tomados entre 2014 y 2016 en neonatos y lactantes < 90 días de edad. Se obtuvieron las identificaciones, tiempo de positividad de las bacterias, así como datos clínicos, de laboratorio y demográficos. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 172 hemocultivos positivos, 51 cumplían los criterios de inclusión. De éstos, 21 microorganismos fueron patógenos (Escherichia coli: 10, Streptococcus agalactiae: 3, Streptococcus pyogenes: 3, otros: 5) y 30 se consideraron contaminación, principalmente Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa. En relación al total de la muestra, la mediana del tiempo de positividad fue de 10 h. A las 24 h de cultivo se detectó crecimiento bacteriano en 94% de la muestra. CONCLUSIÓN: Las bacterias patógenas aisladas en los hemocultivos de pacientes < 90 días de edad, que ingresaron con fiebre, corresponden principalmente a bacilos gramnegativos y estreptococos. Todos los patógenos aislados fueron detectados antes de 24 h de incubación.


BACKGROUND: Fever in infants younger than 90 days may reflect a serious bacterial infection, so blood cultures (BC) are taken routinely and the patient is hospitalized. The observation time to detect occult bacteremia is not well established. AIM: To describe type and positivity time of isolated bacteria in blood cultures in infants under 90 days admitted for fever. METHODS: Retrospective, descriptive study. Positive blood cultures taken between 2014-2016 in young infants admitted for fever were included. Identification and time of positivity of each bacteria, clinical, laboratory and demographic data were recorded. Demographic variables and the clinical outcome was obtained. RESULTS: There were 172 positive blood cultures, only 51 met inclusion criteria. Of these, 21 microorganisms were pathogenic (Escherichia coli: 10, Streptococcus agalactiae: 3, Streptococcus pyogenes: 3, others: 5) and 30 were considered contamination, mainly coagulase negative Staphylococcus. In relation to the total sample, the median time of positivity was 10 hrs. At 24 hours of culture, bacterial growth was detected in 94% of the sample. CONCLUSION: The pathogenic bacteria isolated in the blood cultures of patients younger than 90 days who were admitted with fever correspond mainly to Gram negative bacilli and streptococci. All isolated pathogens were detected before 24 h of incubation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Bacteremia/microbiology , Streptococcus agalactiae , Streptococcus pyogenes , Retrospective Studies , Escherichia coli , Fever , Hospitals
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928720

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical features, distribution of pathogenic bacteria, and drug resistance of bloodstream infection in children with acute leukemia.@*METHODS@#Clinical data of 93 blood culture-positive children with acute leukemia from January 2015 to December 2019 in Department of Pediatrics, The Second Hospital of Anhui Medical University were analyzed retrospectively.@*RESULTS@#In these 93 cases, 78 cases were in the period of neutrophil deficiency. There were 54 Gram-negative bacteria (G-) (58.1%) found through blood culture, and the top 4 strains were Escherichia coli (15.1%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (13.9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6.5%), and Enterobacter cloacae (6.5%). There were 39 Gram-positive bacteria (G+) (41.9%) detected, and the top 4 strains were Staphylococcus epidermidis (10.8%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (6.5%), Staphylococcus hemolyticus (5.4%), and Staphylococcus human (5.4%). Among 74 strains of pathogenic bacteria from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) children, there were 29 strains of G+ bacteria (39.2%) and 45 strains of G- bacteria (60.8%). While in 19 strains from acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) patients, G- bacteria accounted for 47.4% and G+ bacteria accounted for 52.6%. In 15 ALL children without neutropenia, G+ bacteria made up the majority of the strains (66.7%). In the 93 strains of pathogenic bacteria, 13 (13.9%) strains were multidrug-resistant. Among them, extended-spectrum β-lactamases accounted for 42.9%, carbapenemase-resistant enzyme Klebsiella pneumoniae 15.4%, and carbapenemase-resistant enzyme Enterobacter cloacae strains 33.3%, which were detected from G- bacteria. While, 13.3% of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci accounted for 13.3% detected from G+ bacteria, but linezolid, vancomycin, teicoplanin Staphylococcus and Enterococcus resistant were not found. The average procalcitonin (PCT) value of G- bacteria infection was (11.02±20.282) ng/ml, while in G+ infection it was (1.81±4.911) ng/ml, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The mean value of C-reactive protein (CRP) in G- infection was (76.33±69.946) mg/L, and that in G+ infection was (38.34±57.951) mg/L. The prognosis of active treatment was good, and only one case died of septic shock complicated with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and gastrointestinal bleeding caused by carbapenemase-resistant enzyme enterobacteriaceae.@*CONCLUSION@#G- is the major bacteria in acute leukemia children with bloodstream infection, but the distribution of ALL and AML strains is different. G- bacteria dominates in ALL, while G+ bacteria and G- bacteria are equally distributed in AML. Non-agranulocytosis accompanied by bloodstream infections is dominant by G+ bacteria. The mean value of PCT and CRP are significantly higher in G- bacteria infection than in G+ bacteria.


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteria , Child , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Procalcitonin , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/drug therapy
3.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(4): 553-560, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138670

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las infecciones graves son la principal causa de ingreso a cuidados intensivos pediátricos. El panel FilmArray BCID permite identificar rápidamente a microorganismos causantes de bacteriemias. OBJETIVO: evaluar la eficacia de la identificación rápida de microorganismos asociado a un Programa de Uso Racional de Antibióticos (URA) en reducir los tiempos de terapias antibióticas, en un hospital pediátrico. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Estudio retrospectivo, que incluyó 100 pacientes, en su primer episo dio de bacteriemia, divididos en 2 grupos de 50 cada uno: Intervención (FilmArray BCID y programa URA) y Controles históricos pareados para la misma especie del microrganismo identificado (microbiología convencional). Las variables evaluadas fueron los tiempos de identificación microbiana, latencia de la terapia dirigida y de desescalar antibióticos. RESULTADOS: Los grupos fueron comparables en características demográficas, foco de infección y etiología de bacteriemia. El tiempo promedio de identificación de microorganismos fue de 23 h (IC 95% 12,4-26,7) en el grupo intervención, y 70,5 h (IC 95% 65,2-78,6) en el control (p < 0,05), mientras que la latencia de inicio de terapia dirigida fue de 27,9 h (IC 95% 22,3-32,8) y 71,9 h (IC 95% 63,2-77,8) respectivamente (p < 0,05). El tiempo de desescalar o suspender antibióticos fue de 6,4 h (IC 95% 2,76-9,49) y 22 h (IC 95% 6,74-35,6) en los grupos mencionados (p > 0,05). CONCLUSIÓN: El panel FilmArray BCID articulado a un programa URA, contribuye a la identificación de los microorganismos causantes de bacteriemias en menor tiempo que los métodos convencionales, siendo una herramienta que optimiza las terapias antibióti cas en niños críticamente enfermos.


INTRODUCTION: Severe infections are the leading cause of admission to pediatric intensive care. The FilmArray BCID panel quickly identifies microorganisms that cause bacteremia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if the rapid identification of the microorganisms that cause bacteremia, along with a Rational Use of Antibio tics (RUA) Program, allows optimizing the time of antibiotic therapy in a pediatric hospital. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Retrospective study which included 100 patients presenting their first episode of bacteremia, divided into 2 groups of 50 each. The first one was Intervention (FilmArray BCID and RUA program) and the second one was Historical Controls (conventional automated ID/AST). The variables evaluated were the time required for microbial identification, duration of appropriate therapy, and antibiotic de-escalation. RESULTS: The groups were comparable in terms of demographic characteristics, focus of infection, and etiology of bacteremia. The average time of microorganisms' identification of the control group was 70.5 hours (IC 95% 65.2-78.6) and 23.0 hours (IC 95% 12.4 -26.7) in the intervention one (p < 0.05). The average time of targeted therapy onset was shorter in the intervention group (27.9 h [IC 95% 22.3-32.8]) than that of the control one (71.9 h [IC 95% 63.2-77.8]) (p < 0.05). Finally, the time to de-escalate or discontinue antibiotics in the intervention group and the control one was 6.4 hours (IC 95% 2.76-9.49) hours and 22.0 hours (IC 95% 6.74-35.6 h) respectively (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The FilmArray panel along with the RUA Program allows the identification of the microorganisms causing bacteremia faster than conventional methods, which positions it as a tool that optimizes antibiotic therapy of critical patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Molecular Typing/methods , Blood Culture/methods , Antimicrobial Stewardship/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Drug Administration Schedule , Retrospective Studies , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacteremia/microbiology , Hospitals, Pediatric , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
4.
Med. infant ; 27(1): 3-9, Marzo de 2020. Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1118423

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones bacterianas son una de las principales causas de morbimortalidad en los niños con cáncer. Nuestro objetivo fue describir y comparar las características clínicas y los microorganismos causantes de bacteriemias con su sensibilidad antimicrobiana en niños con diagnóstico de LLA y LMA. Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo entre julio-2016 y junio-2018. Se incluyeron todos los episodios de bacteriemia (EpB) en pacientes de 0 a 18 años con diagnóstico de LLA y LMA. Se documentaron datos epidemiológicos y demográficos de los pacientes y datos microbiológicos de los aislamientos de hemocultivos positivos. Se utilizó stata13. Se incluyeron 258 EpB en 167 pacientes; el 55% eran varones. La mediana de edad fue 81 meses (RIC 39-130). En 215 EpB (83%) se registró la presencia de algún tipo de catéter; neutropenia en 193 EpB (75%), neutropenia severa en 98/258 EpB (38%). Se pudo determinar el foco clínico en 152 EpB (59%). Ciento diez pacientes tenían LLA y 57 LMA. En LLA predominaron las enterobacterias, en LMA los cocos gram positivos. Se observó asociación entre LMA y estreptococos del grupo Viridans (p<0,01) y entre LLA y P.aeruginosa (p 0,01). Con respecto a la sensibilidad hubo 11% y 17% de bacilos negativos multirresistentes en LLA y LMA respectivamente. Todos los estafilococos coagulasa negativos fueron meticilino resistentes. La mayoría de los pacientes tenía algún tipo de catéter y neutropenia. Se observó un predominio de enterobacterias con bajos niveles de resistencia antibiótica. Estos resultados son importantes para conocer la epidemiología local y establecer tratamientos empíricos adecuados (AU)


Bacterial infections are one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in children with cancer. Our aim was to describe and compare the clinical features and bacteremia-causing microorganisms together with their antimicrobial sensitivity in acute lymphocytic (ALL) and acute myelocytic leukemia (AML). A descriptive observational study was conducted between July 2016 and June 2018. All episodes of bacteremia (EpB) in patients between 0 and 18 years of age with ALL and AML were included. All epidemiological and demographic data of the patients and microbiological information of the isolates of the positive blood cultures were recorded. For statistical analysis stata13 was used. Overall 258 EpB in 167 patients were included; 55% were boys. Median age was 81 months (IQR 39-130). In 215 EpB (83%) some type of catheter was involved; neutropenia was observed in 193 EpB (75%) and severe neutropenia in 98/258 EpB (38%). A clinical focus could be determined in 152 EpB (59%). Of all patients, 110 had ALL and 57 AML. The predominant micro-organisms were enterobacteria in ALL and gram-positive cocci in AML. An association was observed between AML and the viridans group of streptococci (p<0.01) and between ALL and P. aeruginosa (p 0.01). Regarding sensitivity, there were 11% and 17% of multiresistant negative bacilli in ALL and AML, respectively. All coagulase-negative staphylococci weer methicillin resistant. The majority of patients had some type of catheter and neutropenia. Predominance of enterobacteria with low levels of resistance to antibiotics was observed. These results are important to understand the local epidemiology and establish adequate empirical therapies (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/complications , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/complications , Blood Culture , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Argentina/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190106, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136811

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to determine the incidence of health care-associated infections (HCAIs) and identify the main resistant microorganisms in intensive care unit (ICU) patients in a Brazilian university hospital. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a Brazilian teaching hospital between 2012 and 2014. RESULTS: Overall, 81.2% of the infections were acquired in the ICU. The most common resistant pathogenic phenotypes in all-site and bloodstream infections were oxacillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci and carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. (89.9% and 87.4%; 80.6% and 70.0%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There is an urgent need to focus on HCAIs in ICUs in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Bacteremia/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Time Factors , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Hospital Mortality , Bacteremia/mortality , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged
6.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(6): 451-461, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089312

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Papiliotrema laurentii is one of several non-neoformans cryptococci that have rarely been associated with human infection, since it was previously considered saprophyte and thought to be non-pathogenic to humans. Nevertheless, increasing number of reports of human infection have emerged in recent years, mostly in oncologic patients. Aim: To report a case of a female patient with pyloric obstructive cancer with a catheter-related Papiliotrema laurentii blood stream infection and systematically review the available evidence on P. laurentii infection in humans. Methods: Retrieval of studies was based on Medical Subject Headings and Health Sciences Descriptors, which were combined using Boolean operators. Searches were run on the electronic databases Scopus, Web of Science, MEDLINE (PubMed), BIREME (Biblioteca Regional de Medicina), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature), Cochrane Library for Systematic Reviews and Opengray.eu. There was no language or date of publication restrictions. The reference lists of the studies retrieved were searched manually. Results: The search strategy retrieved 1703 references. In the final analysis, 31 references were included, with the description of 35 cases. Every patient but one had a previous co-morbidity - 48.4 % of patients had a neoplasm. Amphotericin B was the most used treatment and only a single case of resistance to it was reported. Most patients were cured of the infection. Conclusion: P. laurentii infection in humans is usually associated to neoplasia and multiple co-morbidities, and amphotericin B seems to be a reliable agent for treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Stomach Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Catheter-Related Infections/diagnostic imaging , Stomach Neoplasms/microbiology , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy , Biopsy , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/microbiology , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
7.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(5): 663-666, oct. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058093

ABSTRACT

Resumen La bacteriemia es una presentación atípica de la infección por Campylobacter jejuni, y es más frecuente en pacientes con inmunodepresión avanzada debido al VIH u otras enfermedades sistémicas. Debido a la terapia anti-retroviral, en las últimas décadas el número de casos ha disminuido. Presentamos el caso de una mujer en situación de calle, con VIH en etapa C3, que cursó con una bacteriemia por C. jejuni durante su hospitalización por una tuberculosis pulmonar. Realizamos una breve revisión de bacteriemia por C. jejuni en pacientes con VIH.


Bacteremia is an atypical presentation of Campylobacter jejuni infection and it is more frequent in patients with advanced inmunodepression due to HIV or other sistemic diseases. Because of the highly active antiretroviral therapy, in the last decades the number of cases had declined. We report a case of a homeless woman with HIV in C3 stage who was diagnosed with the bacteremia during her hospitalization for pulmonary tuberculosis, and a brief review of C. jejuni bacteremia in HIV patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Campylobacter Infections/microbiology , Campylobacter jejuni/isolation & purification , Bacteremia/microbiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Campylobacter Infections/immunology , Campylobacter Infections/drug therapy , Bacteremia/immunology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/immunology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(5): 667-669, oct. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058094

ABSTRACT

Resumen Pasteurella multocida es reconocida por ser una de las especies más frecuentemente aisladas en la microbiota oral de animales domésticos y salvajes; asociadas a infecciones de piel y tejidos blandos secundarias a mordeduras y rasguños. Las infecciones sistémicas son poco frecuentes, asociadas a la diseminación desde infecciones localizadas y a factores de riesgo asociados a inmunosupresión. Presentamos un caso de bacteriemia por Pasteurella multocida en un paciente de 88 años, relacionada con alimentos compartidos con su mascota; un mecanismo de producción de bacteriemia nunca antes descrito en la literatura médica.


Pasteurella species are known to be one of the most frequently isolated in oral microbiota of domestic and wild animals, because of that, they are associated with skin and soft tissues infections secondary to bites and scratches. Systemic infections are uncommon, but are associated with dissemination from localized infections and some risks factors related to immunosuppression. We report a case of Pasteurella multocida bacteremia in an 88 years old patient, associated with food sharing with his dog; a bacteremia mechanism never described before in the medical literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Pasteurella Infections/microbiology , Pasteurella multocida/isolation & purification , Bacteremia/microbiology , Dogs/microbiology , Pasteurella Infections/immunology , Pasteurella Infections/drug therapy , Pasteurella multocida/pathogenicity , Immunocompromised Host , Bacteremia/immunology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
9.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(3): 164-172, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019558

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are serious infections associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Every hour delay in initiation of an effective antibiotic increases mortality due to sepsis by 7%. Turnaround time (TAT) for conventional blood cultures takes 48 h, forcing physicians to streamline therapy by exposing patients to broad-spectrum antimicrobials. Our objective was (1) to evaluate the accuracy and TAT of an optimized workflow combining direct matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bacterial identification and antimicrobial resistance profiling directly from positive blood bottles for diagnosing bloodstream infections and (2) to verify the effect of reporting results to medical staff. A total of 103 BSI episodes from 91 patients admitted to three hospitals in São Paulo, Brazil were included. TAT from molecular versus conventional methods was measured and compared. Our protocol showed an overall agreement of 93.5% for genus and 78.5% for species identification; 74.2% for methicillin resistance detection, 89.2% for extended-spectrum β-lactamase profiling, 77.8% for metallo-β-lactamase profiling, and 100% for carbapenemase profile and vancomycin-resistance detection when compared with conventional testing. TAT of molecular sample processing according to our protocol was 38 h shorter than conventional methods. Antimicrobial interventions were possible in 27 BSI episodes. Antimicrobial discontinuation was achieved in 12 BSI episodes while escalation of therapy occurred in 15 episodes. Antimicrobial therapy was inadequate in three (12%) BSI episodes diagnosed using results of molecular testing. Our in-house rapid protocol for identifying both bacteria and antimicrobial resistance provided rapid and accurate results, having good agreement with conventional testing results. These results could contribute to faster antimicrobial therapy interventions in BSI episodes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , Time Factors , Prospective Studies , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Gram-Negative Bacteria/genetics , Gram-Positive Bacteria/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage
11.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(3): 371-375, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013795

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La piomiositis es la infección del músculo esquelético, entidad poco frecuente en pediatría. Objetivo: Describir las características de 21 niños con piomiositis. Métodos: Estudio prospectivo-analítico de niños ingresados con diagnóstico de piomiositis entre mayo de 2016 y abril de 2017 en el Hospital de Niños Ricardo Gutiérrez, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Resultados: Tasa de hospitalización de 21,5/10.000 admisiones (IC 95% 4,65- 71,43). La mediana de edad fue de 5,4 años (rango 1,25-11,6). El 90,4% presentaba algún factor predisponente. La localización más frecuente fue en miembros inferiores. La proteína C reactiva (PCR) estuvo elevada en todos los pacientes, con una media de 124 mg/L (DS 96), siendo significativamente más elevada en los pacientes que tuvieron hemocultivos positivos 206 (DS 101) vs 98 (DS 81), (p = 0,02). Se obtuvo rescate microbiológico en 17 pacientes (80,9%): Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (SARM) (n: 15) y Streptococcus pyogenes (n: 2). Se presentó con bacteriemia 23,8% de los pacientes. El 81% requirió drenaje quirúrgico. Conclusión: Staphylococcus aureus RM adquirido en la comunidad (SARMAC) es el patógeno predominante. En la selección del tratamiento empírico adecuado debería tenerse en cuenta: el patrón de resistencia local y el valor de PCR.


Background: Pyomyositis is the infection of skeletal muscle, a rare pathology in children. Aim To describe the characteristics of pyomyositis in pediatric patients. Methods: Prospective analytical study of hospitalized children diagnosed with pyomyositis from May 2016 to April 2017 at the Ricardo Gutiérrez Children's Hospital, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Results: Twenty-one patients with pyomyositis were identified. Annual rate: 21.5/10,000 admissions (95% CI 4.65-71.43). The median age was 5.4 years (range 1.25-11.6). The lower limbs were the most affected site. C-reactive protein (CRP) was elevated in all patients, with a mean of 124 mg/L (SD 96), being significantly higher in patients with bacteremia: 206 (DS 101) vs 98 (DS 81), p = 0.02. Bacterial cultures were positive in 17/21 (80.9%): 15 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and 2 Streptococcus pyogenes. Blood cultures were positive in 5 (23.8%). Conclusion: MRSA-community acquired is the predominant pathogen in our setting. In the selection of the appropriate empirical treatment, the local resistance pattern and the CRP value should be taken into account.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Pyomyositis/diagnosis , Argentina , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Clindamycin/therapeutic use , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Drainage , Prospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Lower Extremity , Pyomyositis/microbiology , Pyomyositis/drug therapy , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Hospitals, Pediatric , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
12.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(supl.1): 86-95, mayo 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011457

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. En las Fuerzas Militares de Colombia, cerca de 500.000 de sus miembros asisten a consulta en los establecimientos sanitarios militares. En esta población, Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina (SAMR) se ha convertido en un agente patógeno de gran incidencia. Objetivo. Caracterizar los pacientes con diagnóstico de bacteriemia por SAMR en el Hospital Militar Central entre el 2012 y el 2015. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio observacional descriptivo de revisión retrospectiva de historias clínicas de pacientes mayores de 18 años, hospitalizados y con hemocultivos positivos para S. aureus resistente a la meticilina. Para la identificación de los pacientes se empleó el sistema Whonet, version 5.6. Resultados. De los 177 cultivos positivos para S. aureus, el 24,8 % (n=44) correspondió a SAMR, con mayor prevalencia en pacientes militares activos(n=20m 45,4 %). Se observó una frecuencia similar para la bacteriemia por SAMR adquirida en la comunidad y la adquirida en el hospital, siendo más frecuente (n=37, 84 %) el fenotipo de la comunidad en ambos grupos. El principal foco infeccioso fueron los tejidos blandos, seguidos por el tejido pulmonar. Se presentaron mayores tasas de complicaciones (61%, n=13) en la bacteriemia adquirida en el hospital; 34,9 % (n=15),de los pacientes tuvieron una estancia hospitalaria prolongada atribuible a las complicaciones desencadenadas por la bacteriemia. Conclusiones. La población más afectada por SAMR fueron los pacientes militares activos (n=20, 45,4 %), con una frecuencia similar de la bacteriemia adquirida en la comunidad (n=18, 43,2 %) y la adquirida en el hospital (n=25, 56,8 %), y el principal foco infeccioso fueron los tejidos blandos. Dados estos resultados, es necesario adelantar estudios para establecer la prevalencia de infecciones por SAMR en la piel.


Abstract Introduction: In Colombia, there are about 500,000 members in the national armed forces who consult military health institutions. In this population, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a high-incidence pathogen. Objective: The aim of this study was to characterize patients with MRSA bacteremia in the Hospital Militar Central between 2012 and 2015. Materials and methods: This was an observational descriptive study with a retrospective review of clinical histories of hospitalized patients older than 18 years of age with positive blood cultures for methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The identification of the patients was made using the Whonet system, version 5.6. Results: From cultures positive for S. aureus, 24.8% were methicillin-resistant strains, with a higher prevalence in active military personnel. A similar frequency was observed for community-acquired MRSA bacteremias and those acquired at the hospital, with the community phenotype being the most frequent in both groups. The main infectious focus related to the development of bacteremia was soft tissue, followed by pulmonary tissue. There were higher complication rates in nosocomial bacteremias; 34.9% of the patients had prolonged stays attributable to complications triggered by the bacteremia. Conclusions: Active military personnel was the most affected population by MRSA, with a similar frequency in community-acquired and nosocomial bacteremias. The main infectious focus was soft tissue. Taking into account these data, studies that establish the prevalence of skin infections by MRSA should be carried out.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Staphylococcal Skin Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Skin Infections/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Military/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data
13.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(2): 156-160, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013279

ABSTRACT

ASTRACT Objective: To describe eight cases of invasive non-type b Haemophilus influenzae disease in children admitted to Hospital de Clínicas of Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Cases description: In 2015, there were eight cases of invasive non-type b H. influenzae disease. We tested the ampicillin sensitivity and beta-lactamase production of the strains identified and performed the genotyping. Molecular typing was determined by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis. Four patients were diagnosed with bacteremia; in two cases, H. influenzae was detected in the pleural fluid, and two patients had meningitis. Patients with comorbidities represented 37.5% of cases. Except for the strain of one patient - not sent to the reference laboratory -, all were ampicillin-sensitive and non-beta-lactamase-producing. Genotyping identified four non-capsular, one type c, and two type a strains. Molecular typing ruled out nosocomial transmission since all serotypes were distinct regarding genotype. Comments: The rise in cases of invasive non-type b H. influenzae infection was real. There was no nosocomial transmission, and we found no justification for the increase. These data indicate the need for surveillance to correctly diagnose, monitor, and understand the spectrum of non-type b H. influenzae disease.


ABSTRACT Objetivo: Descrever oito casos de doença invasiva por Haemophilus influenzae não tipo b em crianças internadas no Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Descrição dos casos: Em 2015, ocorreram oito casos de doença invasiva por H. influenzae não tipo b. Nas cepas identificadas, testou-se a sensibilidade à ampicilina e a produção de betalactamase, e realizou-se a genotipagem. A tipagem molecular foi feita por Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis. Em quatro pacientes, o diagnóstico foi de bacteremia; em dois casos, H. influenzae foi identificado em líquido pleural, e dois pacientes tiveram meningite. Comorbidades foram encontradas em 37,5% dos pacientes. Com exceção da cepa de um dos pacientes (que não foi enviada ao laboratório de referência), todas eram sensíveis à ampicilina e não produtoras de betalactamase. A genotipagem identificou quatro cepas não capsulares, uma cepa tipo c e duas cepas tipo a. A tipagem molecular descartou a transmissão intra-hospitalar, já que todos os sorotipos eram distintos quanto ao genótipo. Comentários: O aumento dos casos de infecção invasiva por H. influenzae não tipo b foi real. Não houve transmissão intra-hospitalar e não foi encontrada justificativa para o aumento. Esses dados indicam a necessidade de vigilância para diagnosticar corretamente, monitorar e entender o espectro da doença causada por H. influenzae não tipo b.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pleural Effusion/diagnosis , Pleural Effusion/microbiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Haemophilus influenzae/isolation & purification , Haemophilus influenzae/classification , Haemophilus influenzae/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Bacteremia/microbiology , Haemophilus Infections/complications , Haemophilus Infections/microbiology , Haemophilus Infections/drug therapy , Haemophilus Infections/epidemiology , Meningitis, Haemophilus/diagnosis , Meningitis, Haemophilus/etiology
14.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(2): 139-142, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039225

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: This study aimed to characterize Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bloodstream infections in patients attending a teaching hospital, between 2011 and 2015. Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentration for daptomycin, linezolid, oxacillin, teicoplanin, vancomycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was accessed by broth microdilution. SCCmec type and clonal profile were determined by molecular tests. Vancomycin heteroresistance was evaluated using screening tests and by population analysis profile/area under the curve. Results: Among 200 S. aureus isolates, 55 (27.5%) were MRSA, carrying SCCmec II (45.5%) or IV (54.5%). The most frequent MRSA lineages were USA100 (ST5-II) (45.5%) and USA800 (ST5-IV) (30.9%). Six isolates were confirmed as vancomycin heteroresistant, showing area under the curve ratio 1.1, 1.2 or 1.3 (four USA100, one USA800 and one USA1100 isolates). Conclusions: Daptomycin and vancomycin non-susceptible MRSA clonal lineages were found in bloodstream infections over five years, highlighting the importance of continuous surveillance of multiresistant bacteria in hospitals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vancomycin/pharmacology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Daptomycin/pharmacology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cross Infection/microbiology , Hospitals, Teaching
15.
Med. infant ; 26(1): 19-26, Marzo 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-994720

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Para predecir una infección en estadios tempranos en niños con cáncer se han evaluado marcadores como ESD, PCR y PCT. Objetivo: evaluar la precisión diagnóstica para bacteriemia de estos marcadores al ingreso en niños con fiebre y leucemia aguda (LA) o linfoma (L) internados entre 2013-2016. Métodos: estudio analítico retrospectivo. Revisión de historias clínicas. Se calcularon sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo, valor predictivo negativo y área bajo la curva ROC para cada marcador en MedCalc® V16.8.4. Se obtuvo autorización del Comité de Ética. Resultados:en total se internaron 31 niños con diagnóstico de LA y L, 19 presentaron fiebre y 12 no. Hubo 40 episodios de fiebre clasificados en 4 grupos: bacteriemia 14 (35%), infección documentada microbiológicamente 5 (12.5%), infección documentada clínicamente 2 (5%) y fiebre de origen desconocido 19 (47.5%). Los niveles de PCT fueron mayores en el grupo de bacteriemia registrando un valor promedio de 1,17ng/ mL (p: 0.045). El área bajo la curva ROC entre el grupo con y sin bacteriemia fue de 0.50 para ESD, 0.65 para PCR y 0.83 para PCT con S de 77.78%, E de 66.67%, VPP de 50% y VPN de 92.86%. Discusión: la PCT mostró ser el más eficaz que ESD y PCR para predecir bacteriemia. se deben realizar investigaciones con biomarcadores con el objeto de disminuir el uso inadecuado de antibióticos en pacientes con fiebre secundaria a enfermedad y acortar los tiempos de tratamiento en pacientes con infecciones adecuadamente resueltas mejorando ampliamente la calidad de vida en niños con cáncer (AU)


Introduction: To predict infection in early stages in children with cancer, markers such as ESR, CRP, and PCT have been evaluated. Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic precision for bacteremia of these markers on admission of children with fever and acute leukemia (AL) or lymphoma (L) admitted between 2013- 2016. Methods: A retrospective analytical study. Review of the clinical records. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and area under the ROC curve were calculated for each marker in MedCalc® V16.8.4. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee. Results: Overall, 31 children with AL and L were admitted, 19 of whom presented with fever and 12 did not. There were 40 episodes of fever classified into 4 groups: bacteremia 14 (35%), microbiologically documented infection 5 (12.5%), clinically documented infection 2 (5%), and fever of unknown etiology 19 (47.5%). PCT levels were higher in the group with bacteremia with a mean value of 1.17ng/mL (p:0.045). The area under the ROC curve between the groups with and without bacteremia was 0.50 for ESR, 0.65 for CRP, and 0.83 for PCT with a sensitivity of 77.78%, specificity of 66.67%, PPV of 50%, and NPV of 92.86%. Discussion: PCT showed a greater efficacy than ESD and CRP to predict bacteremia. Research on biomarkers should be conducted to reduce the inadequate use of antibiotics in patients with fever secondary to disease and to shorten treatment times in patients with adequately resolved infections, thereby improving quality of life in children with cancer (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Blood Sedimentation , Leukemia/complications , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Fever/complications , Lymphoma/complications , Acute Disease , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Bacteremia/microbiology
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190081, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013301

ABSTRACT

Abstract Eggerthella lenta is a gram-positive anaerobic bacillus that has been associated with life-threatening infections. Bacteremia is always clinically significant and is mostly but not always associated with gastrointestinal disease. We present a unique case of abrupt deterioration and rapid development of septic shock secondary to periurethral abscess caused by E. lenta infection. This case highlights the atypical clinical presentation, risk factors, uncommon source of infection, challenges in therapy, and outcome of this infrequent infection. There is still a gap in the understanding of E. lenta pathogenicity, and more literature is needed to establish clear management recommendations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Urethral Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Bacteremia/microbiology , Actinobacteria/isolation & purification , Abscess/diagnostic imaging , Urethral Diseases/drug therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Risk Factors , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Actinobacteria/classification , Pelvic Infection/diagnosis , Pelvic Infection/microbiology , Abscess/microbiology , Abscess/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(6): 761-767, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977107

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are a frequent cause of bacteremia, especially in neonates. The major virulence determinant in CoNS is the ability to produce biofilms, which is conferred by the icaADBC genes. This study aimed to assess different methods for the detection of biofilm formation in 176 CoNS isolates from blood cultures of newborns. METHODS: The presence of the icaACD genes was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and biofilm formation was assessed on congo red agar (CRA), by the tube method (TM), and on tissue culture plates (TCP). RESULTS: Of the 176 CoNS isolates, 30.1% expressed icaACD and 11.4% expressed icaAD. The CRA assay and TM showed that 42% and 38.6% of the isolates were biofilm producing, respectively. On TCP, 40.9% of the isolates produced biofilms; 21% were weakly adherent and 19.9% were strongly adherent. When compared to the gold standard technique (PCR), the CRAassay showed 79% sensitivity and 84% specificity (kappa = 0.64), TM showed 78% sensitivity and 89% specificity (kappa = 0.68), and TCP showed 99% sensitivity and 100% specificity (kappa = 0.99). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, ~42% of CoNS isolates produced biofilms, and the presence of icaACD was associated with a greater capacity to form biofilms. Compared to the other phenotypic methodologies, TCP is an ideal procedure for routine laboratory use.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcus/isolation & purification , Bacteremia/microbiology , Biofilms/growth & development , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Congo Red , Culture Techniques , Genotype
18.
Med. infant ; 25(4): 299-302, diciembre 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-970392

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La bacteriemia por Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAE) en niños es infrecuente. Objetivo.Describir las características epidemiológicas, clínicas, microbiológicas y evolutivas en niños con bacteriemia por PAE. Métodos. Estudio de cohorte retrospectivo. Resultados. Se incluyeron 100 pacientes (p). La mediana de edad fue de 27 meses (RIC 6-88).Tenían enfermedad de base: 93 p (93%) y 36 de ellos estaban neutropénicos. Ochenta y cinco p (85%) habían recibido antibióticos en el último mes, 60 (60%) tuvieron procedimientos invasivos previos y 81 (81%) tuvieron internaciones previas. Ingresaron con shock séptico 42 p (42%), 56 p (56%) fueron admitidos en unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI) y 49 (49%) requirieron ventilación mecánica (VM). La bacteriemia fue primaria en 17 p (17%); asociada a catéter en 15 p (15%) y secundaria en 68 p (68%). El foco más frecuente fue mucocutáneo, 21 p, seguido por el pulmonar, 20 p. El tratamiento empírico fue adecuado en 84 p (84%). La resistencia a uno o más grupos de antibióticos se dio en el 38% de los casos, 11% fueron multirresistentes y 15% fueron resistentes sólo a carbapenemes. Fallecieron 31 p (31%). Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistente a carbapenemes en forma exclusiva o combinada con otros antibióticos se relacionó en esta serie a exposición previa a antibióticos, (p≤0,03), tratamiento empírico inicial inadecuado (p≤0,006) y mayor mortalidad (p≤0,01), prolongación de la internación y del tiempo de tratamiento (p≤0,001)


Introduction. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAE) associated bacteremia is uncommon in children. Objective. To describe the epidemiological, clinical, and microbiological features and outcome in children with PAE-associated bacteremia. Methods. A retrospective cohort study. Results. 100 patients (p) were included. Median age was 27 months (IQR 6-88). Overall 93 p (93%) had an underlying disease, 36 of whom had neutropenia. Eighty-five p (85%) had received antibiotics over the previous month, 60 (60%) had undergone previous invasive procedures, and 81 (81%) had been previously admitted. Forty-two p (42%) were admitted because of septic shock, 56 p (56%) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), and 49 (49%) required mechanical ventilation (MV). Seventeen p (17%) had primary bacteremia, 15 p (15%) had catheter-related bacteremia, and 68 p (68%) had secondary bacteremia. The most common focus was mucocutaneous (21 p), followed by pulmonary (20 p). Emperical treatment was adequate in 84 p (84%). Resistance to one or more groups of antibiotics was observed in 38% of the cases; 11% were multiresistant and 15% were only resistant to carbapenems. Thirty-one p (31%) died. In our series, Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistant to carbapenems only or combined with other antibiotics was associated with previous exposition to antibiotics (p≤0.03), inadequate initial emperical treatment (p≤0.006), and higher mortality (p≤0.01), and longer hospital stay and treatment duration (p≤0.001)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Pseudomonas Infections/diagnosis , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , Pseudomonas Infections/epidemiology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/mortality , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
19.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(5): 387-391, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974236

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: To determine the factors associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex-positive blood culture. Methods: Case-control study. Sociodemographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected from 2000 to 2015. Results: We reviewed medical records of 533 patients with culture-proven tuberculosis, of whom 27.2% (145/533) had blood culture available. Patients with mycobacteremia presented more frequently with abdominal tuberculosis, body mass index <18 kg/m2, and had lower hemoglobin and albumin levels. No differences were observed regarding HIV status. Conclusions: Few studies have reported on the characteristics associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteremia, especially among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-negative patients. Out of 145 tuberculosis-infected patients with blood culture results available, 21 turned out positive. Anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and a body mass index < 18 kg/m2 were associated with mycobacteremia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Tuberculosis/microbiology , HIV Infections/microbiology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Reference Values , Tuberculosis/blood , HIV Infections/blood , Retrospective Studies , Bacteremia/blood , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tertiary Care Centers , Blood Culture , Mexico
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(5): 709-711, Sept.-Oct. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957463

ABSTRACT

Abstract Ralstonia mannitolilytica, a Gram-negative bacterium, is rarely isolated in clinical laboratories. It has been associated with outbreaks due to its ability to survive in liquid media and hospital devices. We describe three cases of bacteremia caused by R. mannitolilytica in a neonatal intensive care unit in Curitiba, Southern Brazil. All isolates presented the same PFGE profile. The common source of infection was undetected in surveillance cultures for the outbreak survey. All patients received antimicrobial treatment and were discharged from the maternity. Due to the characteristics of the microorganism, clinicians and microbiologists should pay attention to the emergence of Ralstonia spp. infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Cross Infection/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Ralstonia/isolation & purification , Brazil , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacteremia/diagnosis
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