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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970470

ABSTRACT

As a biocatalyst, enzyme has the advantages of high catalytic efficiency, strong reaction selectivity, specific target products, mild reaction conditions, and environmental friendliness, and serves as an important tool for the synthesis of complex organic molecules. With the continuous development of gene sequencing technology, molecular biology, genetic manipulation, and other technologies, the diversity of enzymes increases steadily and the reactions that can be catalyzed are also gradually diversified. In the process of enzyme-catalyzed synthesis, the majority of common enzymatic reactions can be achieved by single enzyme catalysis, while many complex reactions often require the participation of two or more enzymes. Therefore, the combination of multiple enzymes together to construct the multi-enzyme cascade reactions has become a research hotspot in the field of biochemistry. Nowadays, the biosynthetic pathways of more natural products with complex structures have been clarified, and secondary metabolic enzymes with novel catalytic activities have been identified, discovered, and combined in enzymatic synthesis of natural/unnatural molecules with diverse structures. This study summarized a series of examples of multi-enzyme-catalyzed cascades and highlighted the application of cascade catalysis methods in the synthesis of carbohydrates, nucleosides, flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids, and chiral molecules. Furthermore, the existing problems and solutions of multi-enzyme-catalyzed cascade method were discussed, and the future development direction was prospected.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/chemistry , Catalysis , Alkaloids , Biocatalysis
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 930-941, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970414

ABSTRACT

As an excellent hosting matrices for enzyme immobilization, metal-organic framework (MOFs) provides superior physical and chemical protection for biocatalytic reactions. In recent years, the hierarchical porous metal-organic frameworks (HP-MOFs) have shown great potential in enzyme immobilization due to their flexible structural advantages. To date, a variety of HP-MOFs with intrinsic or defective porous have been developed for the immobilization of enzymes. The catalytic activity, stability and reusability of enzyme@HP-MOFs composites are significantly enhanced. This review systematically summarized the strategies for developing enzyme@HP-MOFs composites. In addition, the latest applications of enzyme@HP-MOFs composites in catalytic synthesis, biosensing and biomedicine were described. Moreover, the challenges and opportunities in this field were discussed and envisioned.


Subject(s)
Metal-Organic Frameworks/chemistry , Porosity , Enzymes, Immobilized/chemistry , Biocatalysis , Catalysis
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2158-2189, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981196

ABSTRACT

The synthesis of fine chemicals using multi-enzyme cascade reactions is a recent hot research topic in the field of biocatalysis. The traditional chemical synthesis methods were replaced by constructing in vitro multi-enzyme cascades, then the green synthesis of a variety of bifunctional chemicals can be achieved. This article summarizes the construction strategies of different types of multi-enzyme cascade reactions and their characteristics. In addition, the general methods for recruiting enzymes used in cascade reactions, as well as the regeneration of coenzyme such as NAD(P)H or ATP and their application in multi-enzyme cascade reactions are summarized. Finally, we illustrate the application of multi-enzyme cascades in the synthesis of six bifunctional chemicals, including ω-amino fatty acids, alkyl lactams, α, ω-dicarboxylic acids, α, ω-diamines, α, ω-diols, and ω-amino alcohols.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Biocatalysis , Amino Alcohols , Coenzymes/metabolism , Diamines
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4608-4620, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008045

ABSTRACT

17α hydroxylase is a key enzyme for the conversion of progesterone to prepare various progestational drug intermediates. To improve the specific hydroxylation capability of this enzyme in steroid biocatalysis, the CYP260A1 derived from cellulose-mucilaginous bacteria Sorangium cellulosum Soce56 and the Fpr and bovine adrenal-derived Adx4-108 derived from Escherichia coli str. K-12 were used to construct a new electron transfer system for the conversion of progesterone. Selective mutation of CYP260A1 resulted in a mutant S276I with significantly enhanced 17α hydroxylase activity, and the yield of 17α-OH progesterone reached 58% after optimization of the catalytic system in vitro. In addition, the effect of phosphorylation of the ferredoxin Adx4-108 on 17α hydroxyl activity was evaluated using a targeted mutation technique, and the results showed that the mutation Adx4-108T69E transferred electrons to S276I more efficiently, which further enhanced the catalytic specificity in the C17 position of progesterone, and the yield of 17α-OH progesterone was eventually increased to 74%. This study provides a new option for the production of 17α-OH progesterone by specific transformation of bacterial-derived 17α hydroxylase, and lays a theoretical foundation for the industrial production of progesterone analogs using biotransformation method.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Progesterone/metabolism , Hydroxylation , Biocatalysis , Electron Transport , Mixed Function Oxygenases/metabolism
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1602-1611, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927804

ABSTRACT

Enzyme separation, purification, immobilization, and catalytic performance improvement have been the research hotspots and frontiers as well as the challenges in the field of biocatalysis. Thus, the development of novel methods for enzyme purification, immobilization, and improvement of their catalytic performance and storage are of great significance. Herein, ferritin was fused with the lichenase gene to achieve the purpose. The results showed that the fused gene was highly expressed in the cells of host strains, and that the resulted fusion proteins could self-aggregate into carrier-free active immobilized enzymes in vivo. Through low-speed centrifugation, the purity of the enzymes was up to > 90%, and the activity recovery was 61.1%. The activity of the enzymes after storage for 608 h was higher than the initial activity. After being used for 10 cycles, it still maintained 50.0% of the original activity. The insoluble active lichenase aggregates could spontaneously dissolve back into the buffer and formed the soluble polymeric lichenases with the diameter of about 12 nm. The specific activity of them was 12.09 times that of the free lichenase, while the catalytic efficiency was 7.11 times and the half-life at 50 ℃ was improved 11.09 folds. The results prove that the ferritin can be a versatile tag to trigger target enzyme self-aggregation and oligomerization in vivo, which can simplify the preparation of the target enzymes, improve their catalysis performance, and facilitate their storage.


Subject(s)
Biocatalysis , Enzymes, Immobilized/metabolism , Ferritins/metabolism , Glycoside Hydrolases/metabolism
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2256-2271, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887794

ABSTRACT

The development of biotechnology and the in-depth research on disease mechanisms have led to increased application of enzymes in the treatment of diseases. In addition, enzymes have shown great potential in drug manufacturing, particularly in production of non-natural organic compounds, due to the advantages of mild reaction conditions, high catalytic efficiency, high specificity, high selectivity and few side reactions. Moreover, the application of genetic engineering, chemical modification of enzymes and immobilization technologies have further improved the function of enzymes. This review summarized the advances of using enzymes as drugs for disease treatment or as catalysts for drug manufacturing, followed by discussing challenges, potential solutions and future perspectives on the application of enzymes in the medical and pharmaceutical field.


Subject(s)
Biocatalysis , Biotechnology , Catalysis , Drug Compounding , Enzymes/metabolism
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 942-948, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826882

ABSTRACT

It is of great significance to use biosynthesis to transform the inorganic substance formaldehyde into organic sugars. Most important in this process was to find a suitable catalyst combination to achieve the dimerization of formaldehyde. In a recent report, an engineered glycolaldehyde synthase was reported to catalyze this reaction. It could be combined with engineered D-fructose-6-phosphate aldolase, a "one-pot enzyme" method, to synthesize L-xylose using formaldehyde and the conversion rate could reach up to 64%. This process also provides a reference for the synthesis of other sugars. With the increasing consumption of non-renewable resources, it was of great significance to convert formaldehyde into sugar by biosynthesis.


Subject(s)
Biocatalysis , Formaldehyde , Chemistry , Fructose-Bisphosphate Aldolase , Metabolism , Xylose
8.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 39: 91-97, may. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1052260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lipases are extensively exploited in lots of industrial fields; cold-adapted lipases with alkali-resistance are especially desired in detergent industry. Penicillium cyclopium lipase I (PCL) might be suitable for applications of detergent industry due to its high catalytic efficiency at low temperature and relatively good alkali stability. In this study, to better meet the requirements, the alkali stability of PCL was further improved via directed evolution with error-prone PCR. RESULTS: The mutant PCL (N157F) with an improved alkali stability was selected based on a high-throughput activity assay. After incubating at pH 11.0 for 120 min, N157F retained 70% of its initial activity, which was 23% higher than that of wild type PCL. Combined with the three-dimensional structure analysis, N157F exhibited an improved alkali stability under the high pH condition due to the interactions of hydrophilicity and ß-strand propensity. Conclusions: This work provided the theoretical foundation and preliminary data for improving alkali stability of PCL to meet the industrial requirements, which is also beneficial to improving alkali-tolerance ability of other industrial enzymes via molecular modification.


Subject(s)
Penicillium/enzymology , Enzyme Stability , Detergent Industry , Lipase/metabolism , Penicillium/isolation & purification , Penicillium/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Cold Temperature , Alkalies , Biocatalysis , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Lipase/isolation & purification , Lipase/genetics , Mutation
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1348-1358, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771794

ABSTRACT

The trehalose synthase (ScTreS) gene from Streptomyces coelicolor was successfully cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The protein purified by Ni-NTA affinity column showed an apparent molecular weight (MW) of 62.3 kDa analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The optimum temperature of the enzyme was 35 °C and the optimum pH was 7.0; the enzyme was sensitive to acidic conditions. By homologous modeling and sequence alignment, the enzyme was modified by site-directed mutagenesis. The relative activities of the mutant enzymes K246A and A165T were 1.43 and 1.39 times that of the wild type, an increased conversion rate of 14% and 10% respectively. To optimize the synthesis conditions of trehalose, the mutant strain K246A was cultivated in a 5-L fermentor and used for whole-cell transformation. The results showed that with the substrate maltose concentration of 300 g/L at 35 °C and pH 7.0, the highest conversion rate reached 71.3%, and the yield of trehalose was 213.93 g/L. However, when maltose concentration was increased to 700 g/L, the yield of trehalose can reach 465.98 g/L with a conversion rate of 66%.


Subject(s)
Biocatalysis , Cloning, Molecular , Escherichia coli , Glucosyltransferases , Streptomyces coelicolor , Trehalose
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1590-1606, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771770

ABSTRACT

Panax ginseng is a traditional Chinese medicine with significant pharmaceutical effects and wide application. Through orientational modification and transformation of ginsenoside glycosyl, rare ginsenosides with high antitumor activities can be generated. Traditional chemical methods cannot be applied in clinic. because of extremely complex preparation technologies and very high cost Transformations using microorganisms and their enzymatic systems provide the most feasible methods for solving the main problems. At present, the key problems in enzymatic synthesis of ginsenosides include low specific enzyme activities, identity of enzymes involved in the enzymatic synthesis, and their catalytic mechanisms, as well as nonsystematic studies on structural bioinformatics; specificity of enzymatic hydrolysis for saponin glycosyl has been rarely studied. Many reviews have been reported on glycosidase molecular recognition, immobilization, and biotransformation in ionic liquids (ILs), whereas ginsenoside transformation and application have not been systematically studied. To evaluate theoretical and applied studies on ginsenoside-oriented biotransformation, by reviewing the latest developments in related fields and evaluating the widely applied biocatalytic strategy, this review aims to evaluate the ginsenoside-oriented transformation method with improved product specificity, increased biocatalytic efficiency, and industrial application prospect based on the designed transformations of enzyme and solvent engineering of ILs. Therefore, useful theoretical and experimental evidence can be obtained for the development of ginsenoside anticancer drugs, large-scale preparation, and clinical applications in cancer therapy.


Subject(s)
Biocatalysis , Ginsenosides , Glycoside Hydrolases , Panax , Saponins
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1787-1796, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771753

ABSTRACT

Chitinase has a wide industrial application prospect. For example, it can degrade shrimp shells, crab shells and other crustacean waste into high value-added chitooligosaccharides. However, the low catalytic efficiency of chitinase greatly limits the production of chitooligosaccharides. In previous study, the we expressed a chitinase Chisb with high catalytic efficiency and studied its enzymatic properties. In order to further improve the catalytic efficiency of Chisb, with R13NprB-C-SP-H as the parent, here error-prone PCR was used to construct random mutant library to conduct directed evolution of chitinase Chisb. Two mutants C43D and E336R were obtained with 96-well plate primary screening and shaker-screening, and their enzymatic properties were also studied. The optimum temperature of C43D and E336R was 55 °C, and the optimum pH of C43D was 5.0, while that of E336R was 9.0. The catalytic efficiency of C43D and E336R was 1.35 times and 1.57 times higher than that of control. The chitooligosaccharide concentration of E336R and C43D was 2.53 g/L and 2.06 g/L, improved by 2.84 times and 2.31 times compared with the control (0.89 g/L), respectively. In addition, the substrate conversion rate of mutants E336R and C43D was 84.3% and 68.7%, improved by 54.6% and 39% compared with the control (29.7%), respectively. In summary, the study indicates that random mutation introduced by error-prone PCR can effectively improve the catalytic efficiency of chitinase Chisb. The positive mutants with higher catalytic efficiency obtained in the above study and their enzymatic property analysis have important research significance and application value for the biosynthesis of chitooligosaccharides.


Subject(s)
Biocatalysis , Chitin , Chitinases , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Polymerase Chain Reaction
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1806-1818, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771751

ABSTRACT

Industrial enzymes are the "chip" of modern bio-industries, supporting tens- and hundreds-fold of downstream industries development. Elucidating the relationships between enzyme structures and functions is fundamental for industrial applications. Recently, with the advanced developments of protein crystallization and computational simulation technologies, the structure-function relationships have been extensively studied, making the rational design and de novo design become possible. This paper reviews the progress of structure-function relationships of industrial enzymes and applications, and address future developments.


Subject(s)
Biocatalysis , Biotechnology , Enzymes , Chemistry , Genetics , Metabolism , Metabolic Engineering , Protein Engineering , Structure-Activity Relationship
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1829-1842, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771749

ABSTRACT

Industrial enzymes have become the core "chip" for bio-manufacturing technology. Design and development of novel and efficient enzymes is the key to the development of industrial biotechnology. The scientific basis for the innovative design of industrial catalysts is an in-depth analysis of the structure-activity relationship between enzymes and substrates, as well as their regulatory mechanisms. With the development of bioinformatics and computational technology, the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme can be solved by various calculation methods. Subsequently, the specific regions of the structure can be rationally reconstructed to improve the catalytic performance, which will further promote the industrial application of the target enzyme. Computational simulation and rational design based on the analysis of the structure-activity relationship have become the crucial technology for the preparation of high-efficiency industrial enzymes. This review provides a brief introduction and discussion on various calculation methods and design strategies as well as future trends.


Subject(s)
Biocatalysis , Biotechnology , Enzymes , Chemistry , Metabolism , Metabolic Engineering , Protein Engineering , Structure-Activity Relationship
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1857-1869, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771747

ABSTRACT

Enzymes have a wide range of applications and great industrial potential. However, large-scale applications of enzymes are restricted by the harsh industrial environment, such as high temperature, strong acid/alkali, high salt, organic solvents, and high substrate concentration. Adaptive modification (such as rational or semi-rational design, directed evolution and immobilization) is the most common strategy to improve the catalysis of enzymes under industrial conditions. Here, we review the catalysis of enzymes in the industrial environment and various methods adopted for the adaptive modifications in recent years, to provide reference for the adaptive modifications of enzymes.


Subject(s)
Biocatalysis , Biotechnology , Enzymes , Chemistry , Metabolism , Hot Temperature , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Protein Engineering , Solvents , Chemistry , Pharmacology
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 351-362, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771371

ABSTRACT

Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases, a well-studied class of flavin-dependent enzymes, catalyze the conversion of ketones to lactones or esters and the oxygenation of heteroatoms, which possesses great practical prospect in synthetic chemistry and biocatalysis. In this review, we focus on Baeyer-Villiger oxidations involved in biosynthesis of microbial secondary metabolites and discuss the characteristics of these Baeyer-Villiger oxidations and Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases, to provide reference for the protein engineering of Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases.


Subject(s)
Biocatalysis , Catalysis , Mixed Function Oxygenases , Oxidation-Reduction , Protein Engineering
16.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 879-884, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039268

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The multi-enzyme complex (crude extract) of white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus eryngii, Trametes versicolor, Pycnosporus sanguineus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium were characterized, evaluated in the hydrolysis of pretreated pulps of sorghum straw and compared efficiency with commercial enzyme. Most fungi complexes had better hydrolysis rates compared with purified commercial enzyme.


Subject(s)
Fungal Proteins/chemistry , Sorghum/chemistry , Cellulases/chemistry , Fungi/enzymology , Lignin/chemistry , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Plant Stems/microbiology , Plant Stems/chemistry , Sorghum/microbiology , Cellulases/metabolism , Biocatalysis , Fungi/chemistry , Hydrolysis , Lignin/metabolism
17.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 31: 84-92, Jan. 2018. graf, tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022139

ABSTRACT

Background: Cellulolytic enzymes of microbial origin have great industrial importance because of their wide application in various industrial sectors. Fungi are considered the most efficient producers of these enzymes. Bioprospecting survey to identify fungal sources of biomass-hydrolyzing enzymes from a high-diversity environment is an important approach to discover interesting strains for bioprocess uses. In this study, we evaluated the production of endoglucanase (CMCase) and ß-glucosidase, enzymes from the lignocellulolytic complex, produced by a native fungus. Penicillium sp. LMI01 was isolated from decaying plant material in the Amazon region, and its performance was compared with that of the standard isolate Trichoderma reesei QM9414 under submerged fermentation conditions. Results: The effectiveness of LMI01 was similar to that of QM9414 in volumetric enzyme activity (U/mL); however, the specific enzyme activity (U/mg) of the former was higher, corresponding to 24.170 U/mg of CMCase and 1.345 U/mg of ß-glucosidase. The enzymes produced by LMI01 had the following physicochemical properties: CMCase activity was optimal at pH 4.2 and the ß-glucosidase activity was optimal at pH 6.0. Both CMCase and ß-glucosidase had an optimum temperature at 60°C and were thermostable between 50 and 60°C. The electrophoretic profile of the proteins secreted by LMI01 indicated that this isolate produced at least two enzymes with CMCase activity, with approximate molecular masses of 50 and 35 kDa, and ß-glucosidases with molecular masses between 70 and 100 kDa. Conclusions: The effectiveness and characteristics of these enzymes indicate that LMI01 can be an alternative for the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials and should be tested in commercial formulations.


Subject(s)
Penicillium/enzymology , Cellulase/biosynthesis , beta-Glucosidase/biosynthesis , Oligosaccharides , Temperature , Trichoderma/enzymology , Enzyme Stability , Cellulase/metabolism , beta-Glucosidase/metabolism , Amazonian Ecosystem , Biocatalysis , Fermentation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydrolysis , Lignin/metabolism
18.
Biol. Res ; 51: 37, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983949

ABSTRACT

To date, many industrial processes are performed using chemical compounds, which are harmful to nature. An alternative to overcome this problem is biocatalysis, which uses whole cells or enzymes to carry out chemical reactions in an environmentally friendly manner. Enzymes can be used as biocatalyst in food and feed, pharmaceutical, textile, detergent and beverage industries, among others. Since industrial processes require harsh reaction conditions to be performed, these enzymes must possess several characteristics that make them suitable for this purpose. Currently the best option is to use enzymes from extremophilic microorganisms, particularly archaea because of their special characteristics, such as stability to elevated temperatures, extremes of pH, organic solvents, and high ionic strength. Extremozymes, are being used in biotechnological industry and improved through modern technologies, such as protein engineering for best performance. Despite the wide distribution of archaea, exist only few reports about these microorganisms isolated from Antarctica and very little is known about thermophilic or hyperthermophilic archaeal enzymes particularly from Antarctica. This review summarizes current knowledge of archaeal enzymes with biotechnological applications, including two extremozymes from Antarctic archaea with potential industrial use, which are being studied in our laboratory. Both enzymes have been discovered through conventional screening and genome sequencing, respectively.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology/methods , Archaea/enzymology , Enzymes/classification , Enzymes/chemistry , Extreme Environments , Biocatalysis
19.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1,supl.1): 943-992, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886937

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Several enzymatic reactions of heteroatom-containing compounds have been explored as unnatural substrates. Considerable advances related to the search for efficient enzymatic systems able to support a broader substrate scope with high catalytic performance are described in the literature. These reports include mainly native and mutated enzymes and whole cells biocatalysis. Herein, we describe the historical background along with the progress of biocatalyzed reactions involving the heteroatom(S, Se, B, P and Si) from hetero-organic substrates.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/metabolism , Biotransformation , Enzymes/metabolism , Biocatalysis , Fungi/metabolism , Substrate Specificity , Biosensing Techniques , Enzymes/chemistry
20.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 25: 39-42, ene. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008418

ABSTRACT

Background: Invert sugar is used greatly in food and pharmaceutical industries. This paper describes scaling-up batch conditions for sucrose inversion catalyzed by the recombinant Pichia pastoris BfrA4X whole cells expressing Thermotoga maritima invertase entrapped in calcium alginate beads. For the first time, we describe the application of a kinetic model to predict the fractional conversion expected during sucrose hydrolysis reaction in both, a model and a prototype bioreactor with 0.5- and 5-L working volume, respectively. Results: Different scaled-up criteria used to operate the 0.5-L bioreactor were analyzed to explore the invert sugar large scale production. After model inversion studies, a 5-L scaled-up reaction system was performed in a 7-L stirred reactor. Both scaled-up criteria, immobilized biocatalyst dosage and stirring speed, were analyzed in each type of bioreactors and the collected data were used to ensure an efficient scale-up of this biocatalyst. Conclusions: To date, there is not enough information to describe the large-scale production of invert sugar using different scaled-up criteria such as dose of immobilized biocatalyst and stirring speed effect on mass transfer. The present study results constitute a valuable tool to successfully carry out this type of high-scale operation for industrial purposes.


Subject(s)
Pichia/metabolism , Sucrose/metabolism , Biotechnology/methods , Pichia/cytology , Sucrose/chemistry , Kinetics , Bioreactors , Thermotoga maritima/enzymology , Alginates , Enzymes, Immobilized , Biocatalysis , Hydrolysis
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