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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245807, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285613

ABSTRACT

Abstract Linum usitatissimum L is a widely used traditionally for multiple ailments. The present research was carried out to explore the antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm activity of crude extract of Linum usitatissimum L (Lu. Cr). Phytochemical and proximate analyses were performed. The bandages of diabetic foot patients were collected from the various hospitals. The bandages were cultured to isolate the bacterial strains present on it. The disc diffusion method was used to identify the antimicrobial potential whereas the minimum inhibitory concentration of the Lu.Cr were also determined. Proximate analysis confirms moisture content 8.33%, ash content 4.33%, crude protein 21.20%, crude fat 49.2% and crude fiber 5.63%. It was revealed that Gram-positive bacteria are most prevalent among all study groups. Lu.Cr possess significant bactericidal potential against S. aureus among all other microbes. Owing to this potential, linseed coated bandages can be used alternatively for the treatment of diabetic foot.


Resumo Linum usitatissimum L é amplamente utilizado tradicionalmente para doenças múltiplas. O presente trabalho foi realizado para explorar a atividade antimicrobiana e antibiofilme do extrato bruto de Linum usitatissimum L (Lu.Cr). Foram realizadas análises fitoquímicas e aproximadas. As ataduras de pacientes diabéticos com pé foram recolhidas nos vários hospitais. As bandagens foram cultivadas para isolar as cepas bacterianas presentes nas mesmas. O método de difusão em disco foi utilizado para identificar o potencial antimicrobiano e a concentração inibitória mínima do Lu.Cr também foi determinada. A análise aproximada confirma o teor de umidade 8,33%, teor de cinzas 4,33%, proteína bruta 21,20%, gordura bruta 49,2% e fibra bruta 5,63%. Foi revelado que as bactérias Gram-positivas são mais prevalentes entre todos os grupos de estudo. Lu.Cr possui potencial bactericida significativo contra S. aureus entre todos os outros micróbios. Devido a esse potencial, as ligaduras revestidas com linhaça podem ser utilizadas alternativamente para o tratamento do pé diabético.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetic Foot/drug therapy , Flax , Diabetes Mellitus , Staphylococcus aureus , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Biofilms , Methanol
2.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 21(1): 11-17, maio 05,2022. tab, fig
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370480

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are pathogens that cause chronic infections due to antibiotic resistance mechanisms and their ability to adhere to surfaces and to form biofilms. The search for new agents from natural resources to counter microbial biofilms is an urgent priority in healthcare. Objetive: chemical composition, antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of Plectranthus amboinicus essential oil (PAEO) and carvacrol were investigated against E. coli and S. aureus. Methodology: PAEO was chemically analyzed using gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer. Antimicrobial activity was assessed by the disc diffusion method and broth microdilution method to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Antibiofilm activity was investigated using 96-well plates with a crystal violet assay. Results: carvacrol (85.25%) was the major component of PAEO. The disc diffusion test confirmed the ability of PAEO and carvacrol in inhibiting bacteria in their planktonic form. The MICs of PAEO against S. aureus and E. coli were 0.31 and 1.25%, respectively, with bactericidal effect. Carvacrol demonstrated a significant antibacterial property (MIC = 0.31%), exhibiting bacteriostatic effects against S. aureus and bactericidal effects against E. coli. Carvacrol considerably inhibited E. coli biofilm formations (58.9%). Moreover, carvacrol inactivated the mature biofilms. Conclusion: the data obtained are promising, and facilitates the development of new therapeutic alternatives. These results indicate the potential of carvacrol in treating diseases caused by E. coli and S. aureus


Introdução: Escherichia coli e Staphylococcus aureus são patógenos que podem causar infecções persistentes devido aos mecanismos de resistência e à sua capacidade de aderir e formar biofilme. A busca por novos agentes a partir de recursos naturais para combater o biofilme é uma prioridade na área da saúde. Objetivo: a composição química, a atividade antibacteriana e anti-biofilme do óleo essencial de Plectranthus amboinicus (PAEO) e do carvacrol foram investigadas frente a S. aureus e E. coli. Metodologia: a análise química do PAEO foi realizada por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrômetro de massa. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada por difusão em disco e microdiluição em caldo para determinar as concentrações inibitórias mínimas (CIMs). As atividades do anti-biofilme foram investigadas usando placas de 96 poços pelo ensaio de cristal violeta. Resultados: o carvacrol (85,25%) foi o principal componente do PAEO. A capacidade do PAEO e do carvacrol para inibir bactérias planctônica foi confirmada por difusão em disco. A CIM do PAEO para S. aureus e E. coli foi de 0,31 e 1,25%, respectivamente, com efeito bactericida. O carvacrol demonstrou uma propriedade antibacteriana significativa (CIM=0,31%), exibindo efeito bacteriostático frente a S. aureus e efeito bactericida para E. coli. O carvacrol inibiu significativamente a formação de biofilme de E. coli (58,9%) e promoveu a desestabilização do biofilme maduro. Conclusão: os dados obtidos são promissores, possibilitando o desenvolvimento de novas alternativas terapêuticas e revelam a potencialidade do carvacrol como fonte para o tratamento de doenças causadas por E. coli e S. aureus.


Subject(s)
Staphylococcus aureus , Biological Products , Oils, Volatile , Biofilms , Escherichia coli
3.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 29(2): 1-11, 2022-05-19. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1393021

ABSTRACT

Background: Methicillin resistance and biofilm-producing Staphylococci are emerging as multidrug-resistant strains narrowing the efficacy of antimicrobial therapy. Although vancomycin is used as the drug of choice to treat such isolates, different studies worldwide have documented the emergence of strains that are intermediately susceptible or resistant to this antibiotic. Objective: The study aimed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of vancomycin to methicillin-resistant and biofilm-producing staphylococci isolated from different clinical specimens. Methods: 375 staphylococci isolated from different clinical specimens over one year were included in the study. Biofilm formation was determined by the Tissue culture plate method (TCP), and ica genes were identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Antibiotic susceptibility and methicillin resistance were done following Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of vancomycin in all isolates was determined by the agar dilution method. Results:Among 375 Staphylococci studied, 43% and 57% represented S. aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (CNS), respectively. The rate of Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and Methicillin-Resistant Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (MRCNS) were 81.4% and 66.8% respectively and determined by the disc diffusion method. The most potential antibiotics were tetracycline and chloramphenicol showing sensitivity to more than 90% isolates. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) value of oxacillin for staphylococci ranged from 0.125-32 µg/ml. Oxacillin agar diffusion method showed 51.6% and 79.9% isolates as MRSA and MRCNS, respectively, revealing a very high percentage of S. aureus and CNS isolates as methicillin-resistant. All isolates had susceptible vancomycin MICs that ranged from 0.125-2 µg/ml. Two S. aureus isolated from Central Venous Catheter (CVC) and catheter specimens were detected with intermediate susceptibility to vancomycin. Similarly, three CNS isolated from blood, CVC, and wound/pus (w/p) were intermediately susceptible to vancomycin. Strong biofilm formation was observed in 22.1% of clinical isolates, and the ica gene was detected among 22.9% of isolates. Only one S. aureus detected as a biofilm producer by the TCP method was found to have intermediate susceptibility to vancomycin. Conclusions: The increment in vancomycin MIC among methicillin-resistant and biofilm-producing staphylococci is alarming. Strict control measures to prevent methicillin-resistant isolates spread and routine surveillance for vancomycin-resistant isolates must be incorporated in hospitals to prevent antimicrobial treatment failure


Antecedentes: Los estafilococos resistentes a la meticilina y productores de biopelículas están surgiendo como cepas multirresistentes que reducen la eficacia del tratamiento antimicrobiano. Aunque la vancomicina se utiliza como fármaco de elección para tratar dichos aislados, diferentes estudios realizados en todo el mundo han documentado la aparición de cepas intermedias susceptibles o resistentes a este antibiótico. Objetivo: El estudio tenía como objetivo determinar la concentración mínima inhibitoria de la vancomicina para los estafilococos resistentes a la meticilina y productores de biofilm aislados de diferentes muestras clínicas. Métodos: Se incluyeron en el estudio 375 estafilococos aislados de diferentes muestras clínicas durante un año. La formación de biopelículas se determinó mediante el método de la placa de cultivo de tejidos (TCP), y los genes ica se identificaron mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR). La susceptibilidad a los antibióticos y la resistencia a la meticilina se realizaron siguiendo las directrices del Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). La concentración inhibitoria mínima (MIC) de vancomicina en todos los aislados se determinó por el método de dilución en agar. Resultados:Entre los 375 estafilococos estudiados, el 43% y el 57% representaban S. aureus y estafilococos coagulasa-negativos (ECN), respectivamente. La tasa de S. aureus resistente a la meticilina (SARM) y de estafilococos coagulasa negativos resistentes a la meticilina (ECNM) fue del 81,4% y el 66,8%, respectivamente, y se determinó por el método de difusión de discos. Los antibióticos más potenciales fueron la tetraciclina y el cloranfenicol, que mostraron una sensibilidad superior al 90% de los aislados. El valor de la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM) de la oxacilina para los estafilococos osciló entre 0,125-32 µg/ml. El método de difusión en agar de la oxacilina mostró que el 51,6% y el 79,9% de los aislados eran SARM y MRCNS, respectivamente, lo que revela que un porcentaje muy elevado de los aislados de S. aureus y CNS son resistentes a la meticilina. Todos los aislados tenían MIC de vancomicina susceptibles que oscilaban entre 0,125-2 µg/ml. Se detectaron dos S. aureus aislados de muestras de catéteres venosos centrales (CVC) y catéteres con una susceptibilidad intermedia a la vancomicina. Del mismo modo, tres S. aureus aislados de sangre, CVC y herida/pus (w/p) fueron intermedianamente susceptibles a la vancomicina. Se observó una fuerte formación de biopelículas en el 22,1% de los aislados clínicos, y se detectó el gen ica en el 22,9% de los aislados. Sólo un S. aureus detectado como productor de biopelículas por el método TCP resultó tener una susceptibilidad intermedia a la vancomicina. Conclusiones: El incremento de la MIC de vancomicina entre los estafilococos resistentes a la meticilina y productores de biofilm es alarmante. Para evitar el fracaso del tratamiento antimicrobiano, deben incorporarse en los hospitales medidas de control estrictas para prevenir la propagación de los aislados resistentes a la meticilina y una vigilancia rutinaria de los aislados resistentes a la vancomicina


Subject(s)
Humans , Vancomycin/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Vancomycin Resistance
4.
ABCS health sci ; 47: e022203, 06 abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363538

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Contamination of cell phones can contribute to the dissemination of pathogens in the community and/or hospital environment. OBJECTIVE: To characterize Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from cell phones of university students. METHODS: Samples were collected from 100 cell phones. Detection of genes associated with virulence factors such as biofilm formation (icaA and icaD), enterotoxins production (SEA, SEB, SEC, and SED), and resistance to methicillin (mecA and mecC) was performed in S. aureus isolates by PCR. Typing mecA gene performed by multiplex PCR. Susceptibility to antimicrobials and biofilm formation rate also evaluated by using disk diffusion test and crystal violet staining. RESULTS: S. aureus was present in 40% of the total samples and about 70% of them belonged to Nursing students. Of the isolates, 85% presented resistance to penicillin and 50% were classified as moderate biofilm producers. In addition, 92.5% of isolates contained the gene icaA and 60% of the gene icaD. Approximately 25% of the isolates presented the mecA gene. Typing of the mecA gene showed the presence of staphylococcal chromosome cassette SCCmec I and c III respectively in 20% and 10% of the isolates. 70% of the samples could not be typed by the technique. Regarding the enterotoxins, the most prevalent gene was SEA (30%) followed by the SEC gene (2.5%). The presence of SED and SEB genes not observed in any of the isolates. CONCLUSION: The cleaning and periodic disinfection of cell phones can contribute to the reduction of the risk of nosocomial infection.


INTRODUÇÃO: A contaminação de celulares pode contribuir para a disseminação de patógenos na comunidade e/ou ambiente hospitalar. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar cepas de Staphylococcus aureus de telefones celulares de estudantes universitários. MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas amostras de 100 telefones celulares. Detecção de genes associados a fatores de virulência quanto a: formação de biofilme (icaA e icaD), produção de enterotoxinas (SEA, SEB, SEC e SED) e resistência à meticilina (mecA e mecC) foi realizada em isolados de S. aureus por PCR. A Tipagem do gene mecA foi realizada por PCR multiplex. A susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos e a taxa de formação de biofilme pelo teste de difusão em disco e coloração com cristal violeta. RESULTADOS: S. aureus esteve presente em 40% do total de amostras, destas, 70% pertenciam a estudantes do curso de enfermagem. Dos isolados, 85% apresentaram resistência à penicilina e 50% foram classificados com moderada formação de biofilme. Além disso, 92,5% dos isolados continham o gene icaA e 60% o gene icaD. Aproximadamente 25% dos isolados apresentaram o gene mecA. A tipagem do gene mecA mostrou a presença do cassete cromossômico estafilocócico SSCmec I e III em respectivamente 20% e 10% dos isolados. 70% das amostras não puderam ser identificadas pela técnica. Das enterotoxinas, o gene mais prevalente foi o SEA (30%), seguido pelo gene SEC (2.5%). A presença dos genes SED e SEB não foi observada nos isolados. CONCLUSÃO: A limpeza e desinfecção periódica dos telefones celulares podem contribuir para a redução do risco de infecção nosocomiais.


Subject(s)
Students, Health Occupations , Universities , Cell Phone , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Virulence , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Biofilms , Enterotoxins
5.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 27(3): 947-950, mar. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364708

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the present perspective, some parallels are drawn between a career as a scientist in Brazil and the ability of microorganisms to form a biofilm. Do these connections really exist? Definitely the answer is YES. Over billions of years, microbial biofilms have evolved in order to form a cohesive, well-structured, organized and dynamic community, which is characterized by its resistant/resilient profile to several environmental stressors. Adapting to constant change is a necessary attribute for survival and perpetuation of all live organisms, which are key signatures present in the hereditary molecule. Brazilian scientists are faced with many stressful situations along their journey in academia, which requires constant adaptability, reorganization and, above all, resilience. Can we take some lessons from what we know about the biofilm lifestyle developed by microorganisms? The answer is yes!


Resumo Na perspectiva atual, alguns paralelos são traçados entre a carreira de cientista no Brasil e a capacidade dos microrganismos de formarem biofilme. Essas conexões realmente existem? Definitivamente a resposta é SIM. Ao longo de bilhões de anos, os biofilmes microbianos evoluíram para formar uma comunidade coesa, bem estruturada, organizada e dinâmica, que se caracteriza por seu perfil de resistência/resiliência a diversos estressores ambientais. Adaptar-se a mudanças constantes é um atributo necessário para a sobrevivência e perpetuação de todos os organismos vivos, que são assinaturas-chave presentes na molécula de hereditariedade. Nesse sentido, os cientistas brasileiros se deparam com diversas situações estressantes ao longo de suas trajetórias na academia, exigindo constante adaptabilidade, reorganização e, acima de tudo, resiliência. Podemos tirar algumas lições do que sabemos sobre o estilo de vida do biofilme desenvolvido por microrganismos? A resposta é sim!


Subject(s)
Humans , Biofilms , Life Style , Brazil
6.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(1): 81-93, ene. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372383

ABSTRACT

Escherichia coli is a pathogen associated with infections in piglets in the post-weaning phase, its pathogenicity is related to the animal's susceptibility to bacterial enterotoxins. The objective of the present study was to determine the EOs activity against E. colistrain, in the form planktonic and sessile. Although the Disc-Diffusion tests to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, do not fully corroborate with the other analyzes of this study, it was noticed bacteria inhibition. The EOs were prepared at 0.4%, 0.8% and 1.0% for tests. The tested EOs were effective against E. coliplanktonic cells (p<0.05). As for the sessile cells, the most significant result was inhibition and 100% sessile cells at the concentration of 1.0% of Cymbopogon citratusEO. Although there was resistance in some treatments, the tested EOs demonstrated inhibition capacity, constituting promising alternatives for the control of E. coli, especially of planktonic cells.


Escherichia coli es un patógeno asociado con infecciones en lechones en la fase posterior al destete, su patogenicidad está relacionada con la susceptibilidad del animal a las enterotoxinas bacterianas. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la actividad de contra E. coli, en la forma planctónico y sésil. Aunque las pruebas de difusión de disco para determinar la concentración inhibitoria mínima, no corroboran completamente con los otros análisis de este estudio, se observó inhibición de la bacteria. Las soluciones basadas en AE se prepararon al 0.4%, 0.8% y 1.0% para pruebas. Los AEs probados fueron efectivos contra las células planctónicas (p<0.05). En cuanto a las células sésiles, el resultado más significativo fue la inhibición y el 100% de las células sésiles a la concentración de 1,0% de Cymbopogon citratus. Aunque hubo resistencia en algunos tratamientos, los AEs probados demostraron capacidad de inhibición, constituyendo alternativas prometedoras para el control de E. coli, especialmente de células planctónicas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Swine , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Biofilms/drug effects , Ocimum basilicum , Cymbopogon , Diarrhea/microbiology , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/cytology , Flame Ionization , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e239991, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278503

ABSTRACT

Abstract High resistance to antimicrobials is associated with biofilm formation responsible for infectious microbes to withstand severe conditions. Therefore, new alternatives are necessary as biofilm inhibitors to control infections. In this study, the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of Fagonia indica extracts were evaluated against MDR clinical isolates. The extract exhibited its antibiofilm effect by altering adherence and disintegration of bacterial cell wall. Fagonia indica has antibacterial effect as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 125 to 500 µg mL-1 and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value was 500-3000 µg mL-1 against multidrug resistant (MDR) clinical isolates. The extract exhibited its antibiofilm effect by altering adherence and disintegration of bacterial cell wall. Fagonia indica had antibacterial effect as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 125 to 500 µg mL-1 and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value was 500-3000 µg mL-1 against MDR isolates. The maximum inhibitory effects of Fagonia indica chloroform extract on biofilm formation was observed on Staphylococcus aureus (71.84%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (70.83%) after 48 hrs showing that inhibition is also time dependent. Our results about bacterial cell protein leakage indicated that MDR isolates treated with chloroform extract of Fagonia indica showed maximum protein leakage of K. pneumoniae (59.14 µg mL-1) followed by S. aureus (56.7 µg mL-1). Cell attachment assays indicated that chloroform extract resulted in a 43.5-53.5% inhibition of cell adherence to a polystyrene surface. Our results revealed that extracts of Fagonia indica significantly inhibited biofilm formation among MDR clinical isolates, therefore, could be applied as antimicrobial agents and cost effective biofilm inhibitor against these MDR isolates.


Resumo A alta resistência aos antimicrobianos está associada à formação de biofilme responsável por micróbios infecciosos para suportar condições severas. Portanto, novas alternativas são necessárias como inibidores de biofilme para controlar infecções. Neste estudo, as atividades antimicrobiana e antibiofilme dos extratos de Fagonia indica foram avaliadas contra isolados clínicos MDR. O extrato exibiu seu efeito antibiofilme ao alterar a aderência e a desintegração da parede celular bacteriana. Fagonia indica tem efeito antibacteriano com valores de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) variando de 125 a 500 µg mL-1, e valor de concentração bactericida mínima (MBC) de 500-3000 µg mL-1 contra isolados clínicos multirresistentes (MDR). O extrato exibiu seu efeito antibiofilme ao alterar a aderência e a desintegração da parede celular bacteriana. Fagonia indica teve efeito antibacteriano com valores de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) variando de 125 a 500 µg mL-1, e concentração bactericida mínima (MBC) de 500-3000 µg mL-1 contra isolados MDR. Os efeitos inibitórios máximos do extrato de clorofórmio Fagonia indica na formação de biofilme foi observada em Staphylococcus aureus (71,84%), seguido por Klebsiella pneumoniae (70,83%) após 48 horas, mostrando que a inibição também é dependente do tempo. Nossos resultados sobre extravasamento de proteínas de células bacterianas indicaram que isolados MDR tratados com extrato clorofórmico de Fagonia indica apresentaram vazamento máximo de proteínas de K. pneumoniae (59,14 µg mL-1), seguido por S. aureus (56,7 µg mL-1). Ensaios de fixação de células indicaram que o extrato de clorofórmio resultou em uma inibição de 43,5-53,5% da aderência das células a uma superfície de poliestireno. Nossos resultados revelaram que extratos de Fagonia indica inibiram significativamente a formação de biofilme entre isolados clínicos MDR, portanto, poderiam ser aplicados como agentes antimicrobianos e inibidores de biofilme de baixo custo contra esses isolados MDR.


Subject(s)
Staphylococcus aureus , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Bacteria , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Biofilms , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
8.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 242-250, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936001

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of hypochloric acid on Escherichia coli biofilm and the clinical efficacy of hypochloric acid for wounds with Escherichia coli infection. Methods: One strain of Escherichia coli with the strongest bacterial biofilm forming ability among the strains isolated from specimens in 25 patients (16 males and 9 females, aged 32-67 years) from five clinical departments of the 940th Hospital of the Joint Logistic Support Force was collected for the experimental study from September to December 2019. The Escherichia coli was cultured with hypochloric acid at 162.96, 81.48, 40.74, 20.37, 10.18, 5.09, 2.55, 1.27, 0.64, and 0.32 μg/mL respectively to screen the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of hypochloric acid. The Escherichia coli was cultured with hypochloric acid at the screened MBC for 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 60 min respectively to screen the shortest bactericidal time of hypochloric acid. The biofilm formation of Escherichia coli was observed by scanning electron microscopy at 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of incubation, respectively. After 72 h of culture, hypochloric acid at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 times of MBC was respectively added to Escherichia coli to screen the minimum biofilm eradicate concentration (MBEC) of hypochloric acid against Escherichia coli. After hypochloric acid at 1, 2, 4, and 8 times of MBEC and sterile saline were respectively added to Escherichia coli for 10 min, the live/dead bacterial staining kit was used to detect the number of live and dead cells, with the rate of dead bacteria calculated (the number of samples was 5). From January to December 2020, 41 patients with infectious wounds meeting the inclusion criteria and admitted to the Department of Burns and Plastic Surgery of the 940th Hospital of Joint Logistic Support Force of PLA were included into the prospective randomized controlled trial. The patients were divided into hypochloric acid group with 21 patients (13 males and 8 females, aged (46±14) years) and povidone iodine group with 20 patients (14 males and 6 females, aged (45±19) years) according to the random number table. Patients in the 2 groups were respectively dressed with sterile gauze soaked with hypochloric acid of 100 μg/mL and povidone iodine solution of 50 mg/mL with the dressings changed daily. Before the first dressing change and on the 10th day of dressing change, tissue was taken from the wound and margin of the wound for culturing bacteria by agar culture method and quantifying the number of bacteria. The amount of wound exudate and granulation tissue growth were observed visually and scored before the first dressing change and on the 3rd, 7th, and 10th days of dressing change. Data were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance, Dunnett-t test, independent sample t test, Mann-Whitney U test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, chi-square test, or Fisher's exact probability test. Results: The MBC of hypochloric acid against Escherichia coli was 10.18 μg/mL, and the shortest bactericidal time of hypochloric acid with MBC against Escherichia coli was 2 min. Escherichia coli was in a completely free state after 6 and 12 h of culture and gradually aggregated and adhered with the extension of culture time, forming a mature biofilm at 72 h of culture. The MBEC of hypochloric acid against Escherichia coli was 20.36 μg/mL. The Escherichia coli mortality rates after incubation with hypochloric acid at 1, 2, 4, and 8 times of MBEC for 10 min were significantly higher than that after incubation with sterile saline (with t values of 6.11, 25.04, 28.90, and 40.74, respectively, P<0.01). The amount of bacteria in the wound tissue of patients in hypochloric acid group on the 10th day of dressing change was 2.61 (2.20, 3.30)×104 colony forming unit (CFU)/g, significantly less than 4.77 (2.18, 12.48)×104 CFU/g in povidone iodine group (Z=2.06, P<0.05). The amounts of bacteria in the wound tissue of patients in hypochloric acid group and povidone iodine group on the 10th day of dressing change were significantly less than 2.97 (2.90, 3.04)×106 and 2.97 (1.90, 7.95)×106 CFU/g before the first dressing change (with Z values of 4.02 and 3.92, respectively, P<0.01). The score of wound exudate amount of patients in hypochloric acid group on the 10th day of dressing change was significantly lower than that in povidone iodine group (Z=2.07, P<0.05). Compared with those before the first dressing change, the scores of wound exudate amount of patients in hypochloric acid group on the 7th and 10th days of dressing change were significantly decreased (with Z values of -3.99 and -4.12, respectively, P<0.01), and the scores of wound exudate amount of patients in povidone iodine group on the 7th and 10th days of dressing change were significantly decreased (with Z values of -3.54 and -3.93, respectively, P<0.01). The score of wound granulation tissue growth of patients in hypochloric acid group on the 10th day of dressing change was significantly higher than that in povidone iodine group (Z=2.02, P<0.05). Compared with those before the first dressing change, the scores of wound granulation tissue growth of patients in hypochloric acid group on the 7th and 10th days of dressing change were significantly increased (with Z values of -3.13 and -3.67, respectively, P<0.01), and the scores of wound granulation tissue growth of patients in povidone iodine group on the 7th and 10th days of dressing change were significantly increased (with Z values of -3.12 and -3.50, respectively, P<0.01). Conclusions: Hypochloric acid can kill Escherichia coli both in free and biofilm status. Hypochloric acid at a low concentration shows a rapid bactericidal effect on mature Escherichia coli biofilm, and the higher the concentration of hypochloric acid, the better the bactericidal effect. The hypochloric acid of 100 μg/mL is effective in reducing the bacterial load on wounds with Escherichia coli infection in patients, as evidenced by a reduction in wound exudate and indirect promotion of granulation tissue growth, which is more effective than povidone iodine, the traditional topical antimicrobial agent.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Biofilms , Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli Infections/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Surgical Wound Infection , Treatment Outcome
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935831

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the effect of csn2 gene deficiency on starvation tolerance and extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) synthesis in an oligotrophic environment of Streptococcus mutans (Sm). Methods: The csn2 gene deletion strains and complementary strains of Sm were cultivated and then an oligotrophic growth environment for Sm growth by setting different concentration gradient media were created. Cell growth in oligotrophic environment was detected by growth curve. Biofilm volume was measured by crystalline violet staining. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser confocal microscope were performed to observe the biofilm structure of Sm. The synthesis of EPS was measured by the anthrone-sulfuric acid method. The expression of genes related to EPS synthesis was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results: The growth curve results showed that the deletion of csn2 gene inhibited the growth of Sm under starvation stress. Furthermore, the results of laser confocal microscope showed that the biofilm EPS/bacteria ratios produced by the wild-type strain, csn2 gene-deficient strain and complement strains under nutrient sufficient culture conditions were 0.44±0.07, 1.05±0.13 and 0.57±0.08 respectively, while the ratios of EPS/bacteria in an oligotrophic environment were 0.93±0.24, 3.05±0.21 and 1.32±0.46 respectively, indicating that the deletion of csn2 gene enhanced the ability of extracellular polysaccharide synthesis of Sm in the oligotrophic environment. The expression levels of EPS synthesis-related genes gtfB and gtfC were up-regulated by 2.5 fold and 1.8 fold respectively and the expression level of gtfD was down-regulated by two-thirds. Conclusions: The csn2 gene deficiency showed multiple effects on the physiological functions and virulence characteristics of Sm, including starvation tolerance and EPS synthesis. These changes might be related to the shift of the complex regulative network caused by csn2 gene deletion.


Subject(s)
Biofilms , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Polysaccharides , Streptococcus mutans/genetics
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935269

ABSTRACT

To explore the biofilm inhibitory efficacy of perifosine against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginos) and its mechanisms. Twenty-fourwell plate was used to form biofilms at the bottom and crystal violet staining was used to determine the biofilm inhibitory effects of perifosine against P. aeruginosa, the wells without perifosine was set as control group. Glass tubes combined with crystal violet staining was used to detect the gas-liqud interface related bioiflm inhibitory effects of perifosine, the wells without perifosine was set as control group. Time-growth curved was used to detect the effects of perifosine on the bacteial planktonic cells growth of P. aeruginosa, the wells without perifosine was set as control group. The interaction model between perifosine and PqsE was assessed by molecular docking assay. The inhibitory effects of perifosine on the catalytic activity of PqsE was determined by detection the production of thiols, the wells without perifosine was set as control group. Binding affinity between perifosine and PqsE was detected by plasma surface resonance. The biofims at the bottom of the microplates and air-liquid interface were effectively inhibited by perifosine at the concentration of 4-8 μg/ml. There was no influence of perifosine on the cells growth of P. aeruginosa. The resuts of molecular docking assay indicates that perifosine could interacted with PqsE with the docking score of -10.67 kcal/mol. Perifosine could inhibit the catalytic activity of PqsE in a dose-dependent manner. The binding affinity between perifosine and PqsE was comfirmed by plasma surface resonance with KD of 6.65×10-5mol/L. Perifosine could inhibited the biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa by interacting with PqsE.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Biofilms , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phosphorylcholine/analogs & derivatives , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolism , Quorum Sensing
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1753-1767, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927816

ABSTRACT

Numerous studies have reported that the resistance of biofilm bacteria to antibiotics can be up to 10-1 000 fold higher than that of planktonic bacteria. Bacterial biofilms are reported to be responsible for more than 80% of human microbial infection, posing great challenges to the healthcare sector. Many studies have reported that plant extracts and their active ingredients can inhibit the formation and development of bacterial biofilms, including reducing biofilm biomass and the number of viable bacteria in biofilms, as well as eradicating mature biofilms. This review summarized the plant extracts and their active ingredients that are inhibitory to bacterial biofilms, and analyzed the underpinning mechanisms. This review may serve as a reference for the development of plant drugs to prevent and treat biofilm infections.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria , Biofilms , Humans , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Quorum Sensing
12.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 22: e210080, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1386816

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To assess the antibacterial activity of Psidium guajava fractions and their effects on adhesion of a multispecies biofilm consisting of Streptococcus gordonii, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Porphyromonas gingivalis in vitro. Material and Methods: Guava leaves were obtained from the mountains of northern Peru, where they grow wild and free of pesticides. The antimicrobial activity of 25 mg/mL petroleum ether, 25 mg/mL dichloromethane and 25 mg/mL methanol fractions of P. guajava was evaluated by measuring inhibition halos, as well as the effect on the adhesion of multispecies biofilms at 4, 7 and 10 days of growth by measuring the optical density. In addition, antimicrobial susceptibility was compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test and its multiple comparison tests, and differences in mean biofilm adhesion between each fraction were assessed by repeated measures analysis and the Tukey multiple comparison test. Results: The rank-based Kruskal-Wallis test highlighted differences in the effects of the fractions on the zone of inhibition for each oral bacterium, including S. gordonii (p=0.000), F. nucleatum (p=0.000), and P. gingivalis (p=0.000), the Tukey test showed that the group treated with 0.12% chlorhexidine exhibited the least amount of adhesion, followed by the group treated with the 1.56 mg/mL methanol fraction. Conclusion: The methanol fraction of P. guajava had an antibacterial effect on S. gordonii and P. gingivalis, and the 1.56 mg/mL methanol fraction decreased biofilm adhesion.


Subject(s)
Periodontitis/microbiology , Biofilms , Psidium/chemistry , Streptococcus gordonii/pathogenicity , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Streptococcal Infections , In Vitro Techniques , Intervention Studies , Analysis of Variance
13.
Rev. ADM ; 79(2)2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, BNUY-Odon | ID: biblio-1370287

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los principales factores de riesgo con los que se asocia el carcinoma oral de células escamosas son el hábito de tabaco y alcohol. La inflamación también es un factor de riesgo importante en el desarrollo del cáncer, ésta posiblemente inducida por el acúmulo de bacterias que se refleja en la placa bacteriana (biofilm microbiano) y posterior cálculo dental debido a una higiene oral deficiente. Objetivo: Asociar la higiene oral deficiente como factor de riesgo del carcinoma oral de células escamosas. Material y métodos: Estudio de casos y controles en el que se utilizó el índice de higiene oral simplificado para biofilm y cálculo como instrumento de medida. Se registraron los hábitos de tabaco y alcohol. El riesgo fue estimado obteniendo Odds Ratio y la significancia estadística fue tomada con base a χ2. Resultados: La higiene oral deficiente con altos niveles de placa bacteriana fue identificada como factor de riesgo de carcinoma oral de células escamosas, los factores de riesgo conocidos (tabaco y alcohol) fueron también identificados en nuestra población; sin embargo, el riesgo fue menor en contraste con la higiene oral deficiente. Conclusión: La higiene oral deficiente es un factor de riesgo significativo que contribuye a la presencia de cáncer oral y puede ser mayor en comparación con el consumo de tabaco y alcohol.


Subject(s)
Oral Hygiene , Mouth Neoplasms , Dental Plaque , Biofilms
14.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 22: e210112, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1386810

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) in arresting dentin caries lesions when applied under different concentrations and times. Material and Methods: Forty-two bovine blocks were selected and fixed in 24-well plates. Each well received a mixed bacterial inoculum added to the culture medium with 5% sucrose. The plates were incubated in microaerophilia (7 days) for caries formation, confirmed by micro-CT (M1). SDF was applied over the carious lesions for different times and concentrations (n=6): SDF 30% - immediate removal, 1 minute and 3 minutes; SDF 38%, - immediate removal, 1 minute and 3 minutes. The group without treatment was the control. Then, the samples were again scanned by micro-CT (M2) and submitted to a second cariogenic challenge for 21 days. Then, a final scan was performed (M3). Results: Mean pH at the culture medium and lesion depth were compared using Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests. 38% SDF showed the lowest metabolic activity of the biofilm. All 38% groups and 30% 1 and 3 minutes did not show an increase in mean lesion depth comparing M3 with M1. However, only 30% 3 minutes and 38% 1 and 3 minutes showed a significant reduction of lesion depth. Conclusion: The minimum application time of 30% SDF to arrest dentin caries lesion was 1 minute, while 38% SDF arrested with application and immediate removal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Tooth Remineralization , Cariostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Dentin , Diamines/chemistry , Fluorides/chemistry , Silver/therapeutic use , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Longitudinal Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Biofilms , X-Ray Microtomography/instrumentation
15.
Rev Rene (Online) ; 23: e78112, 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1376108

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo identificar na literatura a formação do biofilme e o seu comportamento diante das intervenções em feridas cutâneas. Métodos revisão integrativa, realizada nas bases de dados Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature , Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, EMBASE, Scopus, The Cochrane Library Collaboration , MEDLINE/PubMed e Science Direct, sem delimitação temporal. Foram selecionados 19 estudos. Avaliação das informações ocorreu de forma descritiva, confrontando com os achados pertinentes. Resultados os estudos da amostra foram publicados no idioma inglês e contemplaram três tipos de pesquisa de biofilme: dois clínicos, seis in vitro e 11 in vivo (animal). Incluíram-se três temas: criação de modelo biofilme (n=4), avaliação do biofilme (n=3), comportamento do biofilme diante de intervenções para o seu manejo (n=12). Conclusão efeitos prejudiciais do biofilme na cicatrização de feridas foram confirmados. Diversas intervenções foram capazes de reduzir e eliminar o biofilme nos modelos in vitro e in vivo . Contribuições para a prática constatou-se que avaliação clínica da lesão não permite identificar o biofilme, inclusive quando presente encontra-se abaixo da superfície da lesão. Este achado suscita reflexão por parte dos enfermeiros a respeito das intervenções adotadas para a remoção do biofilme.


ABSTRACT Objective to identify in the literature the biofilm formation and its behavior when faced with interventions in cutaneous wounds. Methods an integrative review, carried out in the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, EMBASE, Scopus, The Cochrane Library Collaboration, MEDLINE/PubMed and Science Direct databases, without temporal delimitation. Nineteen studies were selected. The information was evaluated descriptively, comparing it with the pertinent findings. Results the sample studies were published in English and included three types of biofilm research: two clinical, six in vitro and 11 in vivo (animal). Three themes were included: biofilm model creation (n=4), biofilm assessment (n=3), biofilm behavior before interventions for its management (n=12). Conclusion the detrimental effects of biofilm on wound healing have been confirmed. Several interventions were able to reduce and eliminate biofilm in in vitro and in vivo models. Contributions to practice it was found that clinical evaluation of the lesion does not allow the identification of biofilm, even when present; it is below the surface of the lesion. This finding raises reflection on the part of nurses regarding the interventions adopted for the removal of biofilm.


Subject(s)
Humans , Wound Infection/microbiology , Wounds and Injuries/microbiology , Biofilms/growth & development , Wound Infection/therapy , Wounds and Injuries/therapy
16.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e212098, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1281101

ABSTRACT

Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the pH, Ca2+ release, solubility, and antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) pastes in association with different substances. Methods: Sixty acrylic teeth (n=10) were filled with pastes that associated Ca(OH)2 with the following substances: benzalkonium chloride 5% (G1) and 50% (G2) both in propylene glycol, arnica glycolic extract (G3), green tea glycolic extract (G4), Calen/PMCC™ (G5), and Calen™ (G6). In the group G1 to G4 were used 1g of Ca(OH)2 powder with 0,8g of vehicle. pH and Ca2+ release was measured after 7, 15, and 30 days. For solubility, micro-CT was used immediately and at the periods of 7, 15, and 30 days. For the antimicrobial analysis, a biofilm of E. faecalis was induced in vitro on bovine dentin discs. Live/dead viability dye and confocal scanning microscopy were used. Results: The highest pH values occurred on the first 7 days, and the G6, G1, G3, and G5 presented the highest pH values at this period (P <0.05). Ca2+ release was higher in all groups at 7 days, with the highest values observed in G1, G5, and G6. The volume of all pastes showed no significant difference in the intragroup analysis at 7 and 15 days (P <0.05). G1 and G2 showed the highest antimicrobial action (P <0.05). For the biovolume, there was difference between the G6 and the other groups (P >0.05) with G1 presenting the lowest values. Conclusion: Benzalkonium chloride 5% increases the antimicrobial action of the Ca(OH2), without impairs physicochemical properties


Subject(s)
Root Canal Filling Materials , Calcium Hydroxide , Biofilms , Chemical Phenomena , Anti-Infective Agents
17.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e211060, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1254621

ABSTRACT

Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of ultrasonic bath and traditional brushing in the hygiene of complete dentures of dependent residents in long-term care institutions (LTCIs). Methods: A randomized cross-over clinical study was conducted in 17 maxillary complete denture wearers living in LTCIs. Cleaning protocols were brushing or ultrasonic bath, both applied with neutral liquid soap. Biofilm biomass were estimated by MTT reduction assay and specific microbial load (CFU) of Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Candida spp. were quantified by selective and differential culture media. Results: Ultrasound method showed higher percentage reduction of biofilm biomass and specific microbial loads of Streptococcus spp. compared to brushing (p<0.01). Reduction of microbial loads of the other microorganisms were not different between cleaning methods (p>0.05). Conclusions: The ultrasonic bath proved to be a feasible alternative method for the mechanical cleaning of complete dentures in LTCIs


Subject(s)
Aged , Hygiene , Dentures , Biofilms , Health Services for the Aged
18.
Rev. cir. traumatol. buco-maxilo-fac ; 21(3): 44-50, jul.-set.2021. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1391205

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O objetivo do presente trabalho é relatar uma série de casos com o uso do hidrogel protetor em cirurgias maxilofaciais. Relato de caso: Cinco pacientes foram submetidos a cirurgias maxilofaciais diversas e uma camada de hidrogel impregnado com antibiótico recobriu o material de síntese. Foi realizada uma revisão de literatura sem restrição de idiomas e tempo de publicação, embora a literatura seja escassa sobre o tema pois trata-se de um produto recente, mas já registrado e liberado para uso nos órgãos competentes brasileiros. Considerações finais: O hidrogel protetor mostrou-se efetivo no tratamento e prevenção de infecções por biofilme e apresentou o efeito secundário inesperado de acelerar a reparação local, inclusive diminuindo o tempo de parestesia. É um produto com resultados promissores e, apesar de alguns estudos confirmarem a sua eficácia como antimicrobiano, futuros estudos são necessários para se avaliar a sua eficácia como acelerador de reparação... (AU)


Introduction: The present paper's objective is to report a series of cases using the protective hydrogel in maxillofacial surgeries. Case report: Five patients underwent several maxillofacial surgeries, and a hydrogel layer covered the synthesis material. A literature review was carried out without restriction of languages and publication time, although the literature is scarce because it is a recent product but already registered and released for use in brazilian competent agencies. Final considerations: The protective hydrogel helps treat and prevent biofilm infections and has the unexpected side effect of speeding up a local repair, including decreasing paresthesia. It is a product with promising results and, although some studies confirm its effectiveness as an antimicrobial, future studies are needed to evaluate its effectiveness as a repair accelerator... (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Biofilms , Hydrogels , Focal Infection , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Paresthesia
19.
Rev. ADM ; 78(4): 189-194, jul.-ago. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292408

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La salud oral en pacientes con síndrome de Down (SD) es un reto, ya que las alteraciones en la motricidad ocasionadas por la discapacidad intelectual (DI) hacen que tareas como la remoción del biofilm oral o placa dentobacteriana (PDB) con el cepillado sea deficiente. La efectividad de los cepillos eléctricos (CE) comparada con los manuales (CM) en afectados con SD sigue siendo un tema debatible ya que no se ha encontrado una homogeneidad de resultados. Es conveniente mayor investigación sobre el tema, debido a que el SD es considerada la alteración cromosómica más frecuente y la causa principal de DI en el mundo. Objetivo: Conocer la efectividad del CE en comparación con el CM para la remoción de PDB en pacientes mexicanos con SD de entre seis y 14 años. Material y métodos: Estudio transversal experimental, con emparejamiento de sujetos con SD de ambos géneros según la edad (seis a 14 años), asignando el cepillo a utilizar (grupo 1 CM o grupo 2 CE). Se realizó educación dental y método de cepillado con la técnica de Fones, así como control de PDB antes y después el efectuado por medio del índice de O'Leary durante tres días. Se analizaron los resultados utilizando estadística descriptiva e inferencial (prueba de normalidad Lilliefors, prueba t para variables independientes y dependientes). Se aceptó un análisis de significancia p < 0.05. Resultados: La utilización de la t para muestras independientes presentó una mejoría en incremento de dicho marcador de O'Leary en el conjunto total en los tres días de seguimiento respectivamente (t = 6.9, p < 0.00002; t = 8.4, p < 0.00000; y t = 9.5, p < 0.00000). Al comparar por prueba t aplicada a muestras dependientes el índice de O'Leary basal versus cada una de las evaluaciones de seguimiento también se observaron diferencias significativas en los dos conjuntos (grupo 1: p = 0.003, p = 0.0006 y p = 0.0017; grupo 2: p = 0.007, p = 0.0006 y p = 0.0002). Conclusión: La instrucción dental y motivación del paciente fueron determinantes hacia el buen desempeño del cepillado de los dientes y remoción de placa en el par de colectivos, es decir, la reafirmación de la técnica de Fones incrementa gradualmente la mejoría de la forma de uso del cepillo en niños con SD. Ambos métodos con CM y con CE fueron efectivos a fin de remover significativamente la placa, observándose una mayor mejoría en el grupo con CE, sugiriendo que éste disminuye la dificultad de la higiene bucal en personas con SD. Esta línea de investigación es importante en el beneficio de la condición oral de esta población (AU)


Introduction: Oral health in patients having Down syndrome (DS) is a challenge since the changes in motor skills caused by intellectual disability (ID) deteriorate tasks such as the removal of biofilm or dental plaque (DP) with brushing. The effectiveness of electric toothbrushes (ET) compared to manual toothbrushes (MT) in DS patients remains debatable since no homogeneity of results has been found. Further research on the subject is advisable as DS is considered the most frequent chromosomal alteration and the leading cause of ID in the world. Objective: To know the effectiveness of the ET in contrast to the MT for the removal of DP in Mexican DS patients between six and 14 years old. Material and methods: Experimental cross-sectional study, with the pairing of DS subjects of both genders according to age (six to 14 years), assigning the brush to be used (group 1 MT or group 2 ET). Dental education and brushing were performed employing the Fones technique and DP control before and after brushing employing the O'Leary index for three days. The results were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (Lilliefors normality test, t-test for independent and dependent variables). A significance test p < 0.05 was accepted. Results: The t-test for independent samples showed an improvement in the increase of the O'Leary index in the complete group in the three days of follow-up respectively (t = 6.9, p < 0.00002; t = 8.4, p < 0.00000; and t = 9.5, p < 0.00000). When comparing by t-test for dependent samples the baseline O'Leary index versus each of the follow-up evaluations, significant differences were also observed in both groups (group 1: p = 0.003, p = 0.0006 and p = 0.0017; group 2: p = 0.007, p = 0.0006 and p = 0.0002). Conclusion: The dental education and motivation of the patient were decisive for the good performance of tooth brushing and removal of the plaque in both groups. The reaffirmation of the Fones technique gradually increases the improvement of the brushing technique in DS children. Both brushings using MT and ET were effective in removing the biofilm significantly. However, a greater improvement was observed in the group with ET, suggesting that it reduces their difficulty with tooth brushing. This line of research is important to benefit the oral condition of this population (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Toothbrushing , Dental Plaque Index , Down Syndrome , Dental Care for Disabled , Oral Hygiene , Effectiveness , Health Education, Dental , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Biofilms , Motor Skills
20.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(4): 8-18, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1345521

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties, cytocompatibility and antibiofilm activity of a new calcium silicate-based endodontic sealer, Sealer Plus BC (MK Life, Brazil), in comparison with TotalFill BC Sealer (FKG Dentaire SA, Switzerland) and AH Plus (Dentsply, Germany). Setting time and flow were evaluated based on ISO 6876 standard. The pH was evaluated after different periods, and radiopacity by radiographic analysis (mmAl). Solubility (% mass loss) and volumetric change (by micro-CT) were assessed after 30 days of immersion in distilled water. Cytocompatibility was assessed by methyltetrazolium (MTT) and neutral red (NR) assays, after exposure of Saos-2 cells to the sealer extract for 24 h. An additional analysis was performed by using MTT assay after 1, 3 and 7 days of exposure of Saos-2 to the sealers 1:8 dilution extracts. Antibiofilm activity against Enterococcus faecalis and/or Candida albicans was evaluated by crystal violet assay and modified direct contact test. The physicochemical properties were analyzed using ANOVA/Tukey tests; MTT and NR data were analyzed by ANOVA and Bonferroni tests; the antimicrobial tests were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (α=0.05). Sealer Plus BC had proper setting time, radiopacity, flow and alkalization capacity. Sealer Plus BC was significantly more soluble than AH Plus (p<0.05) and presented volumetric change similar to AH Plus and TotalFill BC (p>0.05). Sealer Plus BC presented antibiofilm activity and no cytotoxic effect. In conclusion, although Sealer Plus BC had higher solubility, this sealer showed proper physicochemical properties, cytocompatibility, and antibiofilm activity.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as propriedades físico-químicas, a citocompatibilidade e a atividade antibiofilme de um novo cimento endodôntico à base de silicato de cálcio, Sealer Plus BC (MK Life, Brasil), em comparação com TotalFill BC Sealer (FKG Dentaire SA, Suíça) e AH Plus (Dentsply, Alemanha). O tempo de presa e o escoamento foram avaliados com base nas normas ISO 6876. O pH foi avaliado após diferentes períodos, e a radiopacidade por análise radiográfica (mmAl). A solubilidade (% de perda de massa) e alteração volumétrica (por micro-CT) foram avaliadas após 30 dias de imersão em água destilada. Citocompatibilidade foi avaliada pelos ensaios metiltetrazólio (MTT) e vermelho neutro (NR), após exposição das células Saos-2 ao extrato de cimento por 24 horas. Análise adicional foi realizada através do ensaio MTT após 1, 3 e 7 dias de exposição das células Saos-2 aos extratos dos cimentos na diluição de 1:8. Atividade antibiofilme contra Enterococcus faecalis e/ou Candida albicans foi avaliada pelos ensaios cristal violeta e contato direto modificado. As propriedades físico-químicas foram analisadas utilizando os testes ANOVA e Tukey; MTT e NR foram analisados pelos testes ANOVA e Bonferroni; os ensaios antimicrobianos foram analisados pelos testes Kruskal-Wallis e Dunn (α=0.05). Sealer Plus BC apresentou tempo de presa, radiopacidade e escoamento adequados, além de capacidade de alcalinização. Sealer Plus BC foi significantemente mais solúvel que AH Plus (p<0.05) e apresentou alteração volumétrica similar à de AH Plus e TotalFill BC (p>0.05). Sealer Plus BC apresentou atividade antibiofilme, sem efeito citotóxico. Como conclusão, embora Sealer Plus BC apresente maior solubilidade, este cimento apresentou propriedades físico-químicas adequadas, citocompatibilidade e atividade antibiofilme.


Subject(s)
Root Canal Filling Materials/pharmacology , Materials Testing , Silicates/pharmacology , Calcium Compounds/pharmacology , Biofilms , Epoxy Resins
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