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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1310-1316, oct. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521015

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Although COVID-19 is primarily considered a respiratory pathology, it has been observed to impact other bodily systems, including the nervous system. While several studies have investigated anatomical changes in brain structures, such as volume or thickness post-COVID-19, there are no comprehensive reviews of these changes using imaging techniques for a holistic understanding. The aim of this study was to systematically analyze the literature on brain changes observed through neuroimaging after COVID-19. We conducted a systematic review according to PRISMA guidelines using Web of Science, Scopus, Medline, Pubmed, Sciencedirect, and LitCOVID. We selected studies that included adult patients during or after COVID-19 development, a control group or pre-infection images, and morphometric measurements using neuroimaging. We used the MSQ scale to extract information on sample characteristics, measured anatomical structures, imaging technique, main results, and methodological quality for each study. Out of 1126 identified articles, we included 19 in the review, encompassing 1155 cases and 1284 controls. The results of these studies indicated a lower volume of the olfactory bulb and variable increases or decreases in cortical and limbic structures' volumes and thicknesses. Studies suggest that brain changes occur post-COVID-19, primarily characterized by a smaller olfactory bulb. Additionally, there may be variations in cortical and limbic volumes and thicknesses due to inflammation or neuroplasticity, but these findings are not definitive. These differences may be attributed to methodological, geographical, and temporal variations between studies. Thus, additional studies are required to provide a more comprehensive and quantitative view of the evidence.


Aunque el COVID-19 se considera principalmente una patología respiratoria, se ha observado que afecta otros sistemas corporales, incluido el sistema nervioso. Si bien varios estudios han investigado los cambios anatómicos en las estructuras cerebrales, como el volumen o el grosor posteriores a la COVID-19, no hay revisiones exhaustivas de estos cambios que utilicen técnicas de imágenes para una comprensión holística. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar sistemáticamente la literature sobre los cambios cerebrales observados a través de neuroimagen después de COVID-19. Realizamos una revisión sistemática de acuerdo con las pautas PRISMA utilizando Web of Science, Scopus, Medline, Pubmed, Sciencedirect y LitCOVID. Seleccionamos estudios que incluyeron pacientes adultos durante o después del desarrollo de COVID-19, un grupo de control o imágenes previas a la infección y mediciones morfométricas mediante neuroimagen. Utilizamos la escala MSQ para extraer información sobre las características de la muestra, las estructuras anatómicas medidas, la técnica de imagen, los principales resultados y la calidad metodológica de cada estudio. De 1126 artículos identificados, incluimos 19 en la revisión, que abarca 1155 casos y 1284 controles. Los resultados de estos estudios indicaron un menor volumen del bulbo olfatorio y aumentos o disminuciones variables en los volúmenes y espesores de las estructuras corticales y límbicas. Los estudios sugieren que los cambios cerebrales ocurren después del COVID-19, caracterizados principalmente por un bulbo olfatorio más pequeño. Además, pueden haber variaciones en los volúmenes y grosores corticales y límbicos debido a la inflamación o la neuroplasticidad, pero estos hallazgos no son definitivos. Estas diferencias pueden atribuirse a variaciones metodológicas, geográficas y temporales entre estudios. Por lo tanto, se requieren estudios adicionales para proporcionar una visión más completa y cuantitativa de la evidencia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain/pathology , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Neuroimaging , Neurologic Manifestations
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 807-814, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980820

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Significant brain volume deviation is an essential phenotype in children with neurodevelopmental delay (NDD), but its genetic basis has not been fully characterized. This study attempted to analyze the genetic factors associated with significant whole-brain deviation volume (WBDV).@*METHODS@#We established a reference curve based on 4222 subjects ranging in age from the first postnatal day to 18 years. We recruited only NDD patients without acquired etiologies or positive genetic results. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical exome sequencing (2742 genes) data were acquired. A genetic burden test was performed, and the results were compared between patients with and without significant WBDV. Literature review analyses and BrainSpan analysis based on the human brain developmental transcriptome were performed to detect the potential role of genetic risk factors in human brain development.@*RESULTS@#We recruited a total of 253 NDD patients. Among them, 26 had significantly decreased WBDV (<-2 standard deviations [SDs]), and 14 had significantly increased WBDV (>+2 SDs). NDD patients with significant WBDV had higher rates of motor development delay (49.8% [106/213] vs . 75.0% [30/40], P  = 0.003) than patients without significant WBDV. Genetic burden analyses found 30 genes with an increased allele frequency of rare variants in patients with significant WBDV. Analyses of the literature further demonstrated that these genes were not randomly identified: burden genes were more related to the brain development than background genes ( P  = 1.656e -9 ). In seven human brain regions related to motor development, we observed burden genes had higher expression before 37-week gestational age than postnatal stages. Functional analyses found that burden genes were enriched in embryonic brain development, with positive regulation of synaptic growth at the neuromuscular junction, positive regulation of deoxyribonucleic acid templated transcription, and response to hormone, and these genes were shown to be expressed in neural progenitors. Based on single cell sequencing analyses, we found TUBB2B gene had elevated expression levels in neural progenitor cells, interneuron, and excitatory neuron and SOX15 had high expression in interneuron and excitatory neuron.@*CONCLUSION@#Idiopathic NDD patients with significant brain volume changes detected by MRI had an increased prevalence of motor development delay, which could be explained by the genetic differences characterized herein.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/epidemiology , Genetic Testing , Phenotype , Brain/pathology , Genetic Background , SOX Transcription Factors/genetics
3.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 466-478, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971586

ABSTRACT

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is regarded as a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to demyelination and eventually to neurodegeneration. Activation of innate immune cells and other inflammatory cells in the brain and spinal cord of people with MS has been well described. However, with the innovation of technology in glial cell research, we have a deep understanding of the mechanisms of glial cells connecting inflammation and neurodegeneration in MS. In this review, we focus on the role of glial cells, including microglia, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, in the pathogenesis of MS. We mainly focus on the connection between glial cells and immune cells in the process of axonal damage and demyelinating neuron loss.


Subject(s)
Humans , Multiple Sclerosis , Neuroglia , Inflammation/pathology , Brain/pathology , Spinal Cord/pathology
4.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 99-112, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971538

ABSTRACT

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) have become a significant threat to an aging human society. Numerous studies have been conducted in the past decades to clarify their pathologic mechanisms and search for reliable biomarkers. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful tool for investigating structural and functional brain alterations in NDs. With the advantages of being non-invasive and non-radioactive, it has been frequently used in both animal research and large-scale clinical investigations. MRI may serve as a bridge connecting micro- and macro-level analysis and promoting bench-to-bed translational research. Nevertheless, due to the abundance and complexity of MRI techniques, exploiting their potential is not always straightforward. This review aims to briefly introduce research progress in clinical imaging studies and discuss possible strategies for applying MRI in translational ND research.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases/pathology , Translational Research, Biomedical , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Brain/pathology , Head/pathology
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971341

ABSTRACT

Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is a senile brain lesion caused by the abnormal structure and function of arterioles, venules and capillaries in the aging brain. The etiology of CSVD is complex, and disease is often asymptomatic in its early stages. However, as CSVD develops, brain disorders may occur, such as stroke, cognitive dysfunction, dyskinesia and mood disorders, and heart, kidney, eye and systemic disorders. As the population continues to age, the burden of CSVD is increasing. Moreover, there is an urgent need for better screening methods and diagnostic markers for CSVD, in addition to preventive and asymptomatic- and mild-stage treatments. Integrative medicine (IM), which combines the holistic concepts and syndrome differentiations of Chinese medicine with modern medical perspectives, has unique advantages for the prevention and treatment of CSVD. In this review, we summarize the biological markers, ultrasound and imaging features, disease-related genes and risk factors relevant to CSVD diagnosis and screening. Furthermore, we discuss IM-based CSVD prevention and treatment strategies to stimulate further research in this field.


Subject(s)
Humans , Integrative Medicine , Brain/pathology , Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases/pathology , Stroke/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
6.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1309-1326, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982471

ABSTRACT

Machine learning approaches are increasingly being applied to neuroimaging data from patients with psychiatric disorders to extract brain-based features for diagnosis and prognosis. The goal of this review is to discuss recent practices for evaluating machine learning applications to obsessive-compulsive and related disorders and to advance a novel strategy of building machine learning models based on a set of core brain regions for better performance, interpretability, and generalizability. Specifically, we argue that a core set of co-altered brain regions (namely 'core regions') comprising areas central to the underlying psychopathology enables the efficient construction of a predictive model to identify distinct symptom dimensions/clusters in individual patients. Hypothesis-driven and data-driven approaches are further introduced showing how core regions are identified from the entire brain. We demonstrate a broadly applicable roadmap for leveraging this core set-based strategy to accelerate the pursuit of neuroimaging-based markers for diagnosis and prognosis in a variety of psychiatric disorders.


Subject(s)
Humans , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Brain/pathology , Neuroimaging/methods , Machine Learning , Comorbidity , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
7.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 659-674, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982427

ABSTRACT

Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder mainly characterized by progressive calcium deposition bilaterally in the brain, accompanied by various symptoms, such as dystonia, ataxia, parkinsonism, dementia, depression, headaches, and epilepsy. Currently, the etiology of PFBC is largely unknown, and no specific prevention or treatment is available. During the past 10 years, six causative genes (SLC20A2, PDGFRB, PDGFB, XPR1, MYORG, and JAM2) have been identified in PFBC. In this review, considering mechanistic studies of these genes at the cellular level and in animals, we summarize the pathogenesis and potential preventive and therapeutic strategies for PFBC patients. Our systematic analysis suggests a classification for PFBC genetic etiology based on several characteristics, provides a summary of the known composition of brain calcification, and identifies some potential therapeutic targets for PFBC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Diseases/therapy , Xenotropic and Polytropic Retrovirus Receptor , Brain/pathology
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982407

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze recurrence and progression patterns of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) in patients without whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and assess the value of WBRT in PCNSL treatment.@*METHODS@#This retrospective single-center study included 27 patients with PCNSL, who experienced recurrence/progression after achieving complete remission (CR), partial remission, or stable disease following initial treatments with chemotherapy but without WBRT. The patients were followed up regularly after the treatment for treatment efficacy assessment. By comparing the anatomical location of the lesions on magnetic resonance images (MRI) at the initial diagnosis and at recurrence/progression, we analyzed the patterns of relapse/progression in patients with different treatment responses and different initial status of the lesions.@*RESULTS@#MRI data showed that in 16 (59.26%) of the 27 patients, recurrence/progression occurred in out-field area (outside the simulated clinical target volume [CTV]) but within the simulated WBRT target area in 16 (59.26%) patients, and within the CTV (in-field) in 11 (40.74%) patients. None of the patients had extracranial recurrence of the tumor. Of the 11 patients who achieved CR after the initial treatments, 9 (81.82%) had PCNSL recurrences in the out-field area but within WBRT target area; of the 13 patients with a single lesion at the initial treatment, 11 (84.62%) experienced PCNSL recurrence in the out-field area but within WBRT target area.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Systemic therapy combined with WBRT still remains the standard treatment for PCNSL patients, especially those who achieve CR after treatment or have a single initial lesion. Future prospective studies with larger sample sizes are needed to further explore the role of low-dose WBRT in PCNSL treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lymphoma/radiotherapy , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Prospective Studies , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/drug therapy , Combined Modality Therapy , Brain/pathology , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Methotrexate
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008141

ABSTRACT

Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease(sCJD)is a prion-caused degenerative disease of the central nervous system,with the typical clinical manifestation of rapidly progressive dementia.The course of disease is less than 1 year in most patients and more than 2 years in only 2% to 3% patients.We reported a case of sCJD with expressive language disorder and slow progression in this paper.By summarizing the clinical manifestations and the electroencephalograhpy,MRI,and pathological features,we aimed to enrich the knowledge about the sCJD with slow progression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome/pathology , Brain/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Central Nervous System/pathology
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2912-2922, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007728

ABSTRACT

Severe ischemic stroke carries a high rate of disability and death. The severity of stroke is often assessed by the degree of neurological deficits or the extent of brain infarct, defined as severe stroke and large infarction, respectively. Critically severe stroke is a life-threatening condition that requires neurocritical care or neurosurgical intervention, which includes stroke with malignant brain edema, a leading cause of death during the acute phase, and stroke with severe complications of other vital systems. Early prediction of high-risk patients with critically severe stroke would inform early prevention and treatment to interrupt the malignant course to fatal status. Selected patients with severe stroke could benefit from intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular treatment in improving functional outcome. There is insufficient evidence to inform dual antiplatelet therapy and the timing of anticoagulation initiation after severe stroke. Decompressive hemicraniectomy (DHC) <48 h improves survival in patients aged <60 years with large hemispheric infarction. Studies are ongoing to provide evidence to inform more precise prediction of malignant brain edema, optimal indications for acute reperfusion therapies and neurosurgery, and the individualized management of complications and secondary prevention. We present an evidence-based review for severe ischemic stroke, with the aims of proposing operational definitions, emphasizing the importance of early prediction and prevention of the evolution to critically severe status, summarizing specialized treatment for severe stroke, and proposing directions for future research.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ischemic Stroke/pathology , Brain Edema/surgery , Stroke/prevention & control , Brain/pathology , Brain Infarction/pathology , Treatment Outcome
11.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2824-2833, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007679

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) and major depressive disorder (MDD) share significant clinical overlap, although it remains unknown to what extent this overlap reflects shared neural profiles. To identify the shared and specific abnormalities in SCZ and MDD, we performed a whole-brain voxel-based meta-analysis using magnetization transfer imaging, a technique that characterizes the macromolecular structural integrity of brain tissue in terms of the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR).@*METHODS@#A systematic search based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, International Scientific Index (ISI) Web of Science, and MEDLINE for relevant studies up to March 2022. Two researchers independently screened the articles. Rigorous scrutiny and data extraction were performed for the studies that met the inclusion criteria. Voxel-wise meta-analyses were conducted using anisotropic effect size-signed differential mapping with a unified template. Meta-regression was used to explore the potential effects of demographic and clinical characteristics.@*RESULTS@#A total of 15 studies with 17 datasets describing 365 SCZ patients, 224 MDD patients, and 550 healthy controls (HCs) were identified. The conjunction analysis showed that both disorders shared higher MTR than HC in the left cerebellum ( P =0.0006) and left fusiform gyrus ( P =0.0004). Additionally, SCZ patients showed disorder-specific lower MTR in the anterior cingulate/paracingulate gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, and right superior frontal gyrus, and higher MTR in the left thalamus, precuneus/cuneus, posterior cingulate gyrus, and paracentral lobule; and MDD patients showed higher MTR in the left middle occipital region. Meta-regression showed no statistical significance in either group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The results revealed a structural neural basis shared between SCZ and MDD patients, emphasizing the importance of shared neural substrates across psychopathology. Meanwhile, distinct disease-specific characteristics could have implications for future differential diagnosis and targeted treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Schizophrenia/pathology , Brain/pathology , Prefrontal Cortex , Frontal Lobe , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
12.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1859-1872, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010675

ABSTRACT

Audiovisual integration is a vital information process involved in cognition and is closely correlated with aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this review, we evaluated the altered audiovisual integrative behavioral symptoms in AD. We further analyzed the relationships between AD pathologies and audiovisual integration alterations bidirectionally and suggested the possible mechanisms of audiovisual integration alterations underlying AD, including the imbalance between energy demand and supply, activity-dependent degeneration, disrupted brain networks, and cognitive resource overloading. Then, based on the clinical characteristics including electrophysiological and imaging data related to audiovisual integration, we emphasized the value of audiovisual integration alterations as potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis and progression of AD. We also highlighted that treatments targeted audiovisual integration contributed to widespread pathological improvements in AD animal models and cognitive improvements in AD patients. Moreover, investigation into audiovisual integration alterations in AD also provided new insights and comprehension about sensory information processes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Brain/pathology , Aging/physiology , Cognition
13.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1683-1702, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010651

ABSTRACT

Parvalbumin interneurons belong to the major types of GABAergic interneurons. Although the distribution and pathological alterations of parvalbumin interneuron somata have been widely studied, the distribution and vulnerability of the neurites and fibers extending from parvalbumin interneurons have not been detailly interrogated. Through the Cre recombinase-reporter system, we visualized parvalbumin-positive fibers and thoroughly investigated their spatial distribution in the mouse brain. We found that parvalbumin fibers are widely distributed in the brain with specific morphological characteristics in different regions, among which the cortex and thalamus exhibited the most intense parvalbumin signals. In regions such as the striatum and optic tract, even long-range thick parvalbumin projections were detected. Furthermore, in mouse models of temporal lobe epilepsy and Parkinson's disease, parvalbumin fibers suffered both massive and subtle morphological alterations. Our study provides an overview of parvalbumin fibers in the brain and emphasizes the potential pathological implications of parvalbumin fiber alterations.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/pathology , Parvalbumins/metabolism , Parkinson Disease/pathology , Neurons/metabolism , Interneurons/physiology , Disease Models, Animal , Brain/pathology
14.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1703-1716, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010631

ABSTRACT

Understanding the fundamental processes of human brain development and diseases is of great importance for our health. However, existing research models such as non-human primate and mouse models remain limited due to their developmental discrepancies compared with humans. Over the past years, an emerging model, the "brain organoid" integrated from human pluripotent stem cells, has been developed to mimic developmental processes of the human brain and disease-associated phenotypes to some extent, making it possible to better understand the complex structures and functions of the human brain. In this review, we summarize recent advances in brain organoid technologies and their applications in brain development and diseases, including neurodevelopmental, neurodegenerative, psychiatric diseases, and brain tumors. Finally, we also discuss current limitations and the potential of brain organoids.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Brain/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Neurodegenerative Diseases/pathology , Organoids/pathology
15.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1426-1438, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010619

ABSTRACT

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly heterogeneous mental disorder, and its complex etiology and unclear mechanism are great obstacles to the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Studies have shown that abnormal functions of the visual cortex have been reported in MDD patients, and the actions of several antidepressants coincide with improvements in the structure and synaptic functions of the visual cortex. In this review, we critically evaluate current evidence showing the involvement of the malfunctioning visual cortex in the pathophysiology and therapeutic process of depression. In addition, we discuss the molecular mechanisms of visual cortex dysfunction that may underlie the pathogenesis of MDD. Although the precise roles of visual cortex abnormalities in MDD remain uncertain, this undervalued brain region may become a novel area for the treatment of depressed patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Depressive Disorder, Major/pathology , Brain/pathology , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Visual Cortex/pathology
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(4): 1134-1146, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405239

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The postmortem diagnosis of death by drowning is one of the most difficult issues in forensic pathology. We investigated possible evidence differentiating saltwater drowning from freshwater drowning by histopathological changes in brain, heart, lungs, liver, and kidneys tissues. A cross section descriptive study was carried out on eighteen 12-week-old male Wistar rats; they were divided equally into 3 groups. Group 1: control group; Group 2: death by drowning in freshwater; Group 3: death by drowning in saltwater. Immediately after death, all tested organs were removed and fixed for histopathological examination. The brain of freshwater group depicted degenerated neurocytes with dystrophic changes in the form of shrunken cell, pyknotic nuclei and deeply eosinophilic cytoplasm. The heart showed clear evidence of myocyte injuries in saltwater drowning compared to the control and freshwater groups. The kidneys of rats drown in saltwater revealed more glomerular destruction with no differences in tubulo-interstitial changes in comparison with those drown in freshwater. In the lungs, the changes in freshwater were restricted to the alveoli, and the bronchial changes were more distinctive in saltwater. No disturbed liver architecture was seen in both test groups, however hydropic degeneration, congested vessels, and sinusoids were more distinct in saltwater group. In conclusion, diagnostic differentiation between fresh and saltwater drowning was reliable in rats' lungs and heart with minimal differentiation in liver, kidneys, and brain. Further studies of drowning with different staining techniques will help to clarify the potential role of histopathological changes in body organs as indicator of drowning.


RESUMEN: El diagnóstico post mortem de muerte por ahogamiento es uno de los temas más difíciles de la patología forense. Investigamos la posible evidencia que diferencia el ahogamiento en agua salada del ahogamiento en agua dulce por cambios histopatológicos en los tejidos del cerebro, el corazón, los pulmones, el hígado y los riñones. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en dieciocho ratas Wistar macho de 12 semanas de edad; se dividieron por igual en 3 grupos. Grupo 1: grupo control; Grupo 2: muerte por ahogamiento en agua dulce; Grupo 3: muerte por ahogamiento en agua salada. Inmediatamente después de la muerte, se extirparon todos los órganos analizados y se fijaron para el examen histopatológico. El cerebro del grupo de agua dulce mostró neurocitos degenerados con cambios distróficos en forma de células encogidas, núcleos picnóticos y citoplasma profundamente eosinofílico. El corazón mostró una clara evidencia de lesiones de miocitos en los ahogamientos en agua salada en comparación con los grupos de control y de agua dulce. Los riñones de ratas ahogadas en agua salada revelaron una mayor destrucción glomerular sin diferencias en los cambios túbulo-intersticiales en comparación con las ahogadas en agua dulce. En los pulmones, los cambios en agua dulce se restringieron a los alvéolos y los cambios bronquiales fueron más distintivos en agua salada. No se observó una arquitectura hepática alterada en ambos grupos de prueba, sin embargo, la degeneración hidrópica, los vasos congestionados y los sinusoides fueron más distintos en el grupo de agua salada. En conclusión, la diferenciación diagnóstica entre ahogamiento en agua dulce y salada fue confiable en los pulmones y el corazón de las ratas con una diferenciación mínima en el hígado, los riñones y el cerebro. Estudios adicionales de ahogamiento con diferentes técnicas de tinción ayudarán a aclarar el papel potencial de los cambios histopatológicos en los órganos del cuerpo como indicador de ahogamiento.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Saline Waters , Drowning/pathology , Fresh Water , Brain/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Rats, Wistar , Forensic Medicine , Kidney/pathology , Liver/pathology , Lung/pathology
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941035

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To propose a multi-modality-based super-resolution synthesis model for reconstruction of routine brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) with a low resolution and a high thickness into high-resolution images.@*METHODS@#Based on real paired low-high resolution MRI data (2D T1, 2D T2 FLAIR and 3D T1), a structure-constrained image mapping network was used to extract important features from the images with different modalities including the whole T1 and subcortical regions of T2 FLAIR to reconstruct T1 images with higher resolutions. The gray scale intensity and structural similarities between the super-resolution images and high-resolution images were used to enhance the reconstruction performance. We used the anatomical information acquired from segment maps of the super-resolution T1 image and the ground truth by a segmentation tool as a significant constraint for adaptive learning of the intrinsic tissue structure characteristics of the brain to improve the reconstruction performance of the model.@*RESULTS@#Our method showed the performance on the testing dataset than other methods with an average PSNR of 33.11 and SSIM of 0.996. The anatomical structure of the brain including the sulcus, gyrus, and subcortex were all reconstructed clearly using the proposed method, which also greatly enhanced the precision of MSCSR for brain volume measurement.@*CONCLUSION@#The proposed MSCSR model shows excellent performance for reconstructing super-resolution brain MR images based on the information of brain tissue structure and multimodality MR images.


Subject(s)
Brain/pathology , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939784

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To determine whether Schisandrin B (Sch B) attenuates early brain injury (EBI) in rats with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).@*METHODS@#Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into sham (sham operation), SAH, SAH+vehicle, and SAH+Sch B groups using a random number table. Rats underwent SAH by endovascular perforation and received Sch B (100 mg/kg) or normal saline after 2 and 12 h of SAH. SAH grading, neurological scores, brain water content, Evan's blue extravasation, and terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining were carried out 24 h after SAH. Immunofluorescent staining was performed to detect the expressions of ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the rat brain, while the expressions of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bax, Caspase-3, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated specklike protein containing the caspase-1 activator domain (ASC), Caspase-1, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-18 in the rat brains were detected by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the SAH group, Sch B significantly improved the neurological function, reduced brain water content, Evan's blue content, and apoptotic cells number in the brain of rats (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Moreover, Sch B decreased SAH-induced expressions of Iba-1 and MPO (P<0.01). SAH caused the elevated expressions of Bax, Caspase-3, NLRP3, ASC, Caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18 in the rat brain (P<0.01), all of which were inhibited by Sch B (P<0.01). In addition, Sch B increased the Bcl-2 expression (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Sch B attenuated SAH-induced EBI, which might be associated with the inhibition of neuroinflammation, neuronal apoptosis, and the NLRP3 inflammatory signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Apoptosis , Brain/pathology , Brain Injuries/pathology , Caspase 3/metabolism , Cyclooctanes , Evans Blue , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin-18/metabolism , Lignans , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Polycyclic Compounds , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Water , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928561

ABSTRACT

In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been widely used in evaluating neonatal brain development, diagnosing neonatal brain injury, and predicting neurodevelopmental prognosis. Based on current research evidence and clinical experience in China and overseas, the Neonatologist Society of Chinese Medical Doctor Association has developed a consensus on the indications and standardized clinical process of neonatal brain MRI. The consensus has the following main points. (1) Brain MRI should be performed for neonates suspected of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, intracranial infection, stroke and unexplained convulsions; brain MRI is not considered a routine in the management of preterm infants, but it should be performed for further evaluation when cranial ultrasound finds evidence of brain injury; as for extremely preterm or extremely low birth weight infants without abnormal ultrasound findings, it is recommended that they should undergo MRI examination at term equivalent age once. (2) Neonates should undergo MRI examination in a non-sedated state if possible. (3) During MRI examination, vital signs should be closely monitored to ensure safety; the necessity of MRI examination should be strictly evaluated for critically ill neonates, and magnetic resonance compatible incubator and ventilator can be used. (4) At present, 1.5 T or 3.0 T equipment can be used for neonatal brain MRI examination, and the special coil for the neonatal head should be used to improve signal-to-noise ratio; routine neonatal brain MRI sequences should at least include axial T1 weighted image (T1WI), axial T2 weighted imaging (T2WI), diffusion-weighted imaging, and sagittal T1WI or T2WI. (5) It is recommended to use a structured and graded reporting system, and reports by at least two reviewers and multi-center collaboration are recommended to increase the reliability of the report.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Brain/pathology , Consensus , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/pathology , Infant, Premature , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Reproducibility of Results
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971350

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) is a rare clinical imaging syndrome. The causes of RPLS are complex and diverse, the pathogenesis is not yet clear. The onset is urgent and the onset age span is large, ranging from children to the elderly. The clinical symptoms of RPLS have no significant specificity, which can be manifested as headache, blurred vision, disturbance of consciousness or seizures. Clinicians have little knowledge on the disease, which may lead to misdiagnosis or missed diagnosis. This study aims to analyze and summarize the MRI changes and clinical characteristics regarding RPLS patients, so as to provide basis for rapid diagnosis and timely intervention for this disease.@*METHODS@#The clinical data and complete imaging data of 77 patients with RPLS diagnosed in Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from January 2012 to March 2021 were retrospectively collected. The main image data include T1 weighted imaging (T1WI), T2 weighted imaging (T2WI), T2 liquid attenuation inversion recovery (T2-FLAIR), diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) (b value=1 000×10-6 mm2/s), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). The case group included 63 patients who underwent DWI examination, and 71 normal controls matched in age and sex. The characteristics of patients' magnetic resonance signals and the ADC value of 19 regions of interest (ROI) were analyzed. The differences in bilateral ADC value in the case group, the difference of ADC value between the case group and the normal control group, and the difference of ADC value in the case group before and after treatment were compared.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the normal control group, the ADC value of the right frontal lobe, bilateral parietal lobe, bilateral thalamus, bilateral head of caudate nucleus, left lenticular nucleus, right internal capsule, bilateral temporal lobe and pons in the case group were significantly higher (all P<0.01). There was no significant difference in ADC value of bilateral sides of the case group and before and after treatment in the case group (all P>0.01). The lesions of RPLS were widely distributed and multiple, usually high signal in the posterior parieto temporo occipital lobe or pons of the brain, and involved the cortex and subcortical white matter. Most of them were bilateral, but not completely symmetrical.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The imaging manifestations of RPLS and the occurrence and development of clinical symptoms are basically synchronous. The imaging manifestations are specific. Magnetic resonance imaging can show the range of involvement of RPLS. ADC value can provide information on the severity of the disease and predict the prognosis. There are few reversible diseases. It is very important to fully understand and timely diagnose the disease.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Aged , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Brain/pathology , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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