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1.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(6): 474-479, June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341139

ABSTRACT

Abstract Placental pathophysiology in SARS-CoV-2 infection can help researchers understand more about the infection and its impact on thematernal/neonatal outcomes. This brief review provides an overview about some aspects of the placental pathology in SARSCoV- 2 infection. In total, 11 papers were included. The current literature suggests that there are no specific histopathological characteristics in the placenta related to SARSCoV- 2 infection, but placentas frominfected women aremore likely to show findings of maternal and/or fetal malperfusion. The most common findings in placentas from infected women were fibrin deposition and intense recruitment of inflammatory infiltrates. The transplacental transmission of this virus is unlikely to occur, probably due to low expression of the receptor for SARS-CoV-2 in placental cell types. Further studies are needed to improve our knowledge about the interaction between the virus and the mother-fetus dyad and the impact on maternal and neonatal/fetal outcomes.


Resumo A fisiopatologia da placenta na infecção por SARS-CoV-2 pode ajudar os pesquisadores a entender mais sobre a infecção e seu impacto nos resultados maternos/neonatais. Esta revisão breve fornece uma visão geral sobre alguns aspectos da patologia placentária na infecção por SARS-CoV-2. Ao todo, 11 artigos foram incluídos. A literatura atual sugere que não há características histopatológicas específicas nas placentas relacionadas à infecção por SARS-CoV-2, mas as placentas de mulheres infectadas têm maior probabilidade de apresentar achados de má perfusão materna e/ou fetal. Os achados mais comuns em placentas de mulheres infectadas foram deposição de fibrina e intenso recrutamento de infiltrado inflamatório. A transmissão transplacentária deste vírus é improvável, devido à baixa expressão do receptor para SARS-CoV-2 em tipos de células da placenta. Mais estudos são necessários para melhorar nosso conhecimento sobre a interação entre o vírus e a díade mãe-feto e o impacto nos resultados maternos e neonatais/fetais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Placenta/physiopathology , Placenta/blood supply , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology
3.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(5): 377-383, May 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288557

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic viral disease, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The impact of the disease among the obstetric population remains unclear, and the study of the placenta can provide valuable information. Adequate sampling of the placental tissue can help characterize the pathways of viral infections. Methods A protocol of placental sampling is proposed, aiming at guaranteeing representativity of the placenta and describing the adequate conservation of samples and their integrity for future analysis. The protocol is presented in its complete and simplified versions, allowing its implementation in different complexity settings. Results Sampling with the minimum possible interval from childbirth is the key for adequate sampling and storage. This protocol has already been implemented during the Zika virus outbreak. Conclusion A protocol for adequate sampling and storage of placental tissue is fundamental for adequate evaluation of viral infections on the placenta. During the COVID-19 pandemic, implementation of this protocol may help to elucidate critical aspects of the SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Resumo Objetivo A doença do novo coronavírus (COVID-19) é uma doença viral pandêmica causada pelo coronavírus da síndrome respiratória aguda 2 (SARS-CoV-2). O impacto da doença entre a população obstétrica ainda é incerto, e o estudo da placenta pode fornecer informações valiosas. Assim, a coleta adequada do tecido placentário pode ajudar a caracterizar algumas propriedades das infecções virais. Métodos Um protocolo de coleta placentária é proposto, objetivando a garantia de representatividade da placenta, descrevendo a maneira de conservação adequada das amostras, e visando garantir sua integridade para análises futuras. O protocolo é apresentado em suas versões completa e simplificada, permitindo sua implementação em diferentes configurações de infraestrutura. Resultados A amostragem com o intervalo mínimo possível do parto é essencial para coleta e armazenamento adequados. Esse protocolo já foi implementado durante a epidemia de vírus Zika. Conclusão Um protocolo para coleta e armazenamento adequados de tecido placentário é fundamental para a avaliação adequada de infecções virais na placenta. Durante a pandemia de COVID-19, a implementação deste protocolo pode ajudar a elucidar aspectos críticos da infecção por SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Placenta/virology , Specimen Handling/methods , Specimen Handling/standards , COVID-19/virology , Virology/methods , Virology/standards , Virus Diseases/virology
4.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1337608

ABSTRACT

A finales de diciembre 2019, la Provincia de Hubei, China nos actualizaba sobre una enfermedad respiratoria que generaba insuficiencia en muy breve tiempo. Los primeros días de enero 2020, identifican al nuevo Coronavirus, y su transmisión se expande, sin respetar espacio, condición ni tradición. Una nueva pandemia se instaló desde el 11 de marzo 2020 y la búsqueda de una vacuna segura y eficaz que la detenga, congregó en una maratónica carrera a varios proyectos, de tres plataformas diferentes y esquemas de vacunación contra el COVID19


At the end of December 2019, the Hubei Province, China updated us on a respiratory disease that generated insufficiency in a very short time. The first days of January 2020, they identify the new Coronavirus, and its transmission expands, without respecting space, condition or tradition. A new pandemic was installed since March 11, 2020 and the search for a safe and effective vaccine to stop it brought together several projects from three different platforms and vaccination schemes against COVID19 in a marathon race


Subject(s)
Vaccines , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Public Health
5.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(2): 186-189, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1181004

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT CONTEXT: Various skin manifestations have been reported in coronavirus disease. It may be difficult to determine the etiology of these lesions in view of the increased frequency of handwashing during the pandemic, along with occurrences of irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis due to disinfectant use; usage of herbal medicine and supplements to strengthen the immune system; and urticarial or maculopapular drug eruptions due to COVID-19 treatment. The variety of associated skin manifestations seen with COVID-19 makes it challenging to identify virus-specific skin manifestations. Petechiae, purpura, acrocyanosis and necrotic and non-necrotic purpura, which can be considered as manifestations of vascular involvement on the skin, have been reported. CASE REPORT: Here, we report a case of eruptive cherry angiomas, which was thought to have developed due to COVID-19, with a papulovesicular rash on distal extremities that progressed over time to reticular purpura. CONCLUSION: The case presented had a papulovesicular rash at the onset, which evolved to retiform purpura, and eruptive cherry angiomas were observed. It should be kept in mind that dermatological signs may vary in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Purpura/virology , Skin/virology , Skin Diseases, Viral/virology , Exanthema/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Hemangioma/virology , Skin/drug effects , Skin/pathology , Treatment Outcome , Skin Diseases, Viral/diagnosis , Skin Diseases, Viral/therapy , COVID-19 Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy
6.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; Mar. 17, 2021. 89 p. tab.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253360

ABSTRACT

En este documento se presenta orientación provisional sobre las mejores prácticas para evaluar la efectividad de las vacunas contra la COVID-19 usando el diseño de estudio observacional. Se examinan las consideraciones esenciales del diseño, el análisis y la interpretación de las evaluaciones de la efectividad de las vacunas contra la COVID-19, dado que se pueden obtener resultados sesgados aun en entornos en los que la exhaustividad y la calidad de los datos son altas. Esta orientación se dirige principalmente a las evaluaciones realizadas en los países de ingresos bajos o medianos, pero la mayoría de los conceptos también son aplicables en entornos de ingresos altos.


Since its emergence in December 2019, SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has taken a tremendous toll globally; by 28 February 2021, there have been over 110 million cases and 2.5 million deaths worldwide from COVID-19 (1). Although most COVID-19 deaths occur among older adults and persons with chronic comorbid medical conditions, deaths have occurred in persons of all ages. Moreover, the pandemic has caused widespread morbidity and necessitated control measures that have devastated economies worldwide. In response to the pandemic, the global efforts to develop multiple vaccines to protect against COVID-19 disease have been unrivalled in the history of public health. By the end of 2020, three COVID-19 vaccines have received Emergency Use Approval/Listing (EUA/EUL) by maturity level 4 regulatory authorities, based on reaching predefined criteria for safety and efficacy, and at least several dozen more are in clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Data Collection , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology
7.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(1): 88-93, ene.-feb. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279079

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los primeros casos de COVID-19, causada por el virus denominado SARS-CoV-2, se registraron en Wuhan, China, en diciembre de 2019; sin embargo, su capacidad de transmisión ocasionó que seis meses después la infección prácticamente estuviera presente en todo el mundo. El origen del virus parece ser zoonótico; se propone que proviene del murciélago y podría haber tenido un hospedero intermediario que llevó a su introducción en la población humana. SARS-CoV-2 es un virus envuelto, con genoma de ARN de cadena sencilla en sentido positivo y se ancla a la enzima convertidora de angiotensina, presente en las células susceptibles para infectar el sistema respiratorio de los humanos. Aunque previamente se han conocido otros coronavirus, no han tenido el mismo impacto, por lo que la investigación en tratamientos farmacológicos no tiene el desarrollo suficiente para afrontar el reto actual. Casi desde el comienzo de la epidemia se han propuesto moléculas para el tratamiento de la infección, sin embargo, aún no se cuenta con un fármaco con suficiente efectividad terapéutica. En esta revisión se describen las características principales de SARS-CoV-2, su ciclo replicativo, su posible origen y algunos avances en el desarrollo de tratamientos antivirales.


Abstract The first cases of COVID-19, caused by the virus called SARS-CoV-2, were recorded in Wuhan, China, in December 2019; however, its transmission ability caused for the infection to be practically present throughout the world six months later. The origin of the virus appears to be zoonotic; it has been proposed that it comes from a bat and that it may have had an intermediate host that led to its introduction in the human population. SARS-CoV-2 is an enveloped virus, with a positive single-stranded RNA genome, and it binds to the angiotensin-converting enzyme, present in susceptible cells, to infect the human respiratory system. Although other coronaviruses have been previously known, they have not had the same impact, and, therefore, research on pharmacological treatments is not sufficiently developed to face the current challenge. Almost since the beginning of the epidemic, several molecules have been proposed for the treatment of infection; however, there is not yet a drug available with sufficient effectiveness for treatment. This review describes SARS-CoV-2 main characteristics, its replicative cycle, its possible origin and some advances in the development of antiviral treatments.


Subject(s)
Humans , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880732

ABSTRACT

With the number of cases of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) increasing rapidly, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended that patients with mild or moderate symptoms could be released from quarantine without nucleic acid retesting, and self-isolate in the community. This may pose a potential virus transmission risk. We aimed to develop a nomogram to predict the duration of viral shedding for individual COVID-19 patients. This retrospective multicentric study enrolled 135 patients as a training cohort and 102 patients as a validation cohort. Significant factors associated with the duration of viral shedding were identified by multivariate Cox modeling in the training cohort and combined to develop a nomogram to predict the probability of viral shedding at 9, 13, 17, and 21 d after admission. The nomogram was validated in the validation cohort and evaluated by concordance index (C-index), area under the curve (AUC), and calibration curve. A higher absolute lymphocyte count (


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Nomograms , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Viral Load , Virus Shedding
9.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 185-190, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881006

ABSTRACT

After one-month of oral treatment with traditional Chinese medicine decoction, without using other drugs, the lung inflammatory exudate, pulmonary fibrosis and quality of life of a 61-year-old female patient with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were significantly improved. No recurrence or deterioration of the patient's condition was found within seven weeks of treatment and follow-up, and no adverse events occurred, indicating that oral Chinese medicine decoction was able to improve the pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in a patient recovering from COVID-19, but further research is still needed.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , COVID-19/virology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Exudates and Transudates , Female , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Lung/pathology , Magnoliopsida , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Middle Aged , Phytotherapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1774-1779, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922728

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant has the characteristics of stronger infectivity, higher viral load, and shorter incubation period, posing new challenges to the prevention and control of COVID-19 pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant was first discovered in India, then quickly spread in many countries and has gradually become one of the main epidemic strains worldwide. Local epidemics caused by SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant also occurred in several provinces in China. This article summarizes the progress in research of etiological characteristics, transmission characteristics or possible mechanism and epidemiological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant, and the protective effects of vaccines and control measures against SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant in order to provide references for the effective prevention and control of COVID-19 epidemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 877-888, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922482

ABSTRACT

A new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has been identified as the etiologic agent for the COVID-19 outbreak. Currently, effective treatment options remain very limited for this disease; therefore, there is an urgent need to identify new anti-COVID-19 agents. In this study, we screened over 6,000 compounds that included approved drugs, drug candidates in clinical trials, and pharmacologically active compounds to identify leads that target the SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease (PLpro). Together with main protease (M


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Binding Sites , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Crystallography, X-Ray , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drug Repositioning , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Humans , Imidazoles/therapeutic use , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , Naphthoquinones/therapeutic use , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921342

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Previous studies have shown that meteorological factors may increase COVID-19 mortality, likely due to the increased transmission of the virus. However, this could also be related to an increased infection fatality rate (IFR). We investigated the association between meteorological factors (temperature, humidity, solar irradiance, pressure, wind, precipitation, cloud coverage) and IFR across Spanish provinces ( @*Methods@#We estimated IFR as excess deaths (the gap between observed and expected deaths, considering COVID-19-unrelated deaths prevented by lockdown measures) divided by the number of infections (SARS-CoV-2 seropositive individuals plus excess deaths) and conducted Spearman correlations between meteorological factors and IFR across the provinces.@*Results@#We estimated 2,418,250 infections and 43,237 deaths. The IFR was 0.03% in < 50-year-old, 0.22% in 50-59-year-old, 0.9% in 60-69-year-old, 3.3% in 70-79-year-old, 12.6% in 80-89-year-old, and 26.5% in ≥ 90-year-old. We did not find statistically significant relationships between meteorological factors and adjusted IFR. However, we found strong relationships between low temperature and unadjusted IFR, likely due to Spain's colder provinces' aging population.@*Conclusion@#The association between meteorological factors and adjusted COVID-19 IFR is unclear. Neglecting age differences or ignoring COVID-19-unrelated deaths may severely bias COVID-19 epidemiological analyses.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Meteorological Concepts , Middle Aged , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spain/epidemiology , Weather , Young Adult
13.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 317-326, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888761

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The therapeutic evidence collected from well-designed studies is needed to help manage the global pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Evaluating the quality of therapeutic data collected during this most recent pandemic is important for improving future clinical research under similar circumstances.@*OBJECTIVE@#To assess the methodological quality and variability in implementation of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for treating COVID-19, and to analyze the support that should be provided to improve data collected during an urgent pandemic situation.@*SEARCH STRATEGY@#PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and Chongqing VIP, and the preprint repositories including Social Science Research Network and MedRxiv were systematically searched, up to September 30, 2020, using the keywords "coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)," "2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)," "severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)," "novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP)," "randomized controlled trial (RCT)" and "random."@*INCLUSION CRITERIA@#RCTs studying the treatment of COVID-19 were eligible for inclusion.@*DATA EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS@#Screening of published RCTs for inclusion and data extraction were each conducted by two researchers. Analysis of general information on COVID-19 RCTs was done using descriptive statistics. Methodological quality was assessed using the risk-of-bias tools in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions (Version 5.1.0). Variability in implementation was assessed by comparing consistency between RCT reports and registration information.@*RESULTS@#A total of 5886 COVID-19 RCTs were identified. Eighty-one RCTs were finally included, of which, 45 had registration information. Methodological quality of the RTCs was not optimal due to deficiencies in five main domains: allocation concealment, blinding of participants and personnel, blinding of outcome assessment, incomplete outcome data, and selective reporting. Comparisons of consistency between published protocols and registration information showed that the 45 RCTs with registration information had common deviations in seven items: inclusion and exclusion criteria, sample size, outcomes, research sites of recruitment, interventions, and blinding.@*CONCLUSION@#The methodological quality of COVID-19 RCTs conducted in early to mid 2020 was consistently low and variability in implementation was common. More support for implementing high-quality methodology is needed to obtain the quality of therapeutic evidence needed to provide positive guidance for clinical care. We make an urgent appeal for accelerating the construction of a collaborative sharing platform and preparing multidisciplinary talent and professional teams to conduct excellent clinical research when faced with epidemic diseases of the future. Further, variability in RCT implementation should be clearly reported and interpreted to improve the utility of data resulting from those trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/standards , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
14.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 717-733, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888715

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is spread primary via respiratory droplets and infects the lungs. Currently widely used cell lines and animals are unable to accurately mimic human physiological conditions because of the abnormal status of cell lines (transformed or cancer cells) and species differences between animals and humans. Organoids are stem cell-derived self-organized three-dimensional culture in vitro and model the physiological conditions of natural organs. Here we showed that SARS-CoV-2 infected and extensively replicated in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)-derived lung organoids, including airway and alveolar organoids which covered the complete infection and spread route for SARS-CoV-2 within lungs. The infected cells were ciliated, club, and alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells, which were sequentially located from the proximal to the distal airway and terminal alveoli, respectively. Additionally, RNA-seq revealed early cell response to virus infection including an unexpected downregulation of the metabolic processes, especially lipid metabolism, in addition to the well-known upregulation of immune response. Further, Remdesivir and a human neutralizing antibody potently inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in lung organoids. Therefore, human lung organoids can serve as a pathophysiological model to investigate the underlying mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 infection and to discover and test therapeutic drugs for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/therapeutic use , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Down-Regulation , Drug Discovery , Human Embryonic Stem Cells/metabolism , Humans , Immunity , Lipid Metabolism , Lung/virology , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/drug effects
15.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 37(supl.1): e1473, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1351992

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La idea de exclusión competitiva es indiscutible cuando se trata de animales y bacterias que intentan ocupar el mismo nicho ecológico, pero su aplicación a la coinfección viral no es tan sencilla de interpretar. La interferencia viral es un fenómeno en el que un virus suprime competitivamente la replicación de otros virus coinfectantes y es el resultado más común de las coinfecciones virales. Objetivo: Comprender mejor el comportamiento de las infecciones respiratorias concomitantes en escenarios de brotes comunitarios y de forma individual en entornos hospitalarios e individuos con comorbilidades. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda de información en las bases de datos MEDLINE / PubMed, SciELO y LILACS. También se consideraron artículos publicados en el repositorio de preimpresión medRxiv y los informes de los Centros para el Control y Prevención de enfermedades de los Estados Unidos de América. Mediante el gestor de referencias Mendeley, se eliminaron los duplicados y aquellos que no se ajustaban al objetivo del estudio, seleccionando 48 artículos para la revisión. Análisis y síntesis de la in formación: En la literatura científica se encontró evidencia que sustenta la exclusión competitiva viral entre virus relacionados que comparten células susceptibles y permisivas. Conclusión: La exclusión competitiva impide que dos virus que comparten rutas de transmisión similares y el mismo órgano diana, infecten no sólo al mismo tiempo, sino que también se propaguen con éxito. Por lo tanto, la sindemia producida por virus que comparten estas características podría ser un evento improbable(AU)


Introduction: The idea of competitive exclusion is undisputed when it comes to animals and bacteria trying to occupy the same ecological niche, but its application to viral coinfection is not so simple to interpret. Viral interference is a phenomenon in which one virus competitively suppresses the replication of other co-infecting viruses and is the most common outcome of viral co-infections. Objective: To better understand the behavior of concomitant respiratory infections in community outbreak settings and individually in hospital settings and individuals with comorbidities. Methods: A search for information was performed in the MEDLINE / PubMed, SciELO and LILACS databases. Articles published in the preprint repository medRxiv and reports from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were also considered. Using the Mendeley reference manager, duplicates and those that did not fit the study objective were eliminated, selecting 48 articles for the review. Analysis and synthesis of information: Evidence supporting viral competitive exclusion between related viruses sharing susceptible and permissive cells was found in the scientific literature. Conclusion: Competitive exclusion prevents two viruses that share similar transmission routes and the same target organ from infecting not only at the same time, but also from spreading successfully. Therefore, syndemia produced by viruses sharing these characteristics could be an unlikely event(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Viral Interference , Disease Outbreaks , Coinfection , COVID-19/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections , Concurrent Symptoms , Competitive Behavior/drug effects
16.
Rev. Hosp. Clin. Univ. Chile ; 32(2): 139-148, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283427

ABSTRACT

Atopic diseases, especially asthma may confer increased susceptibility to viral infections, however, such patients have been largely unaffected in the current Covid-19 pandemic. This favorable course could be explained by a protective role of cytokines and cells involved in an immune response with a T2 profile. In spite of the favorable course observed, it is a priority to maintain with its basic treatments to ensure a good control of the pathology. With respect the immunization process being carried out in patients with a history of allergic reactions in different degrees, the recommendation of the type of vaccine and the protocol for its administration should be individualized according to a risk stratification prior to its administration. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Allergy and Immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology
19.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1155013

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the types of dental emergencies that occurred during the lockdown period in Italy (12th March-4th May) and to investigate future therapeutic preferences related to the use of different types of appliances. Material and Methods: A questionnaire dedicated to assessing dental emergencies during the lockdown period and surveying the resumption of orthodontic practice was submitted to clinicians in digital form. The first part of the questionnaire, focused on the orthodontic emergencies that were encountered in relation to the different types of orthodontic appliances and how these were resolved. The second part of the questionnaire was devoted to the resumption of clinical practice; in particular, it was designed to assess whether and what percentage of clinicians are willing to change the duration of appointments in relation to the different types of appliance used, asking them whether their approach to orthodontic treatment would change in the coming months as compared to the pre-COVID-19 era. Results: Results show that in most cases (82%), the percentage of patients who experienced a dental emergency was less than 5% and that far fewer emergencies were attributable to removable (5.7%) than to fixed appliances (94.3%). Looking ahead, clinicians expressed a greater preference for using removable (60.8%) rather than fixed appliances (39.2%). Conclusion: During the lockdown, there relatively few orthodontic emergencies, many of which were handled by telephone consultation. However, a far lower percentage of emergencies were generated by removable (e.g., clear aligners) as opposed to fixed appliances (e.g., multibracket equipment), likely influencing the decision of the majority of clinicians to opt for removable appliances in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Orthodontic Appliances , Orthodontic Appliances, Removable/microbiology , Orthodontic Appliances, Fixed , COVID-19/virology , Italy/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Emergencies/epidemiology
20.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(6): 580-585, nov.-dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249970

ABSTRACT

Resumen El virus SARS-CoV-2 ha sido identificado como el agente patológico causante de la pandemia de COVID-19. Aun cuando no se cuenta con un tratamiento estándar, se han probado antivirales como remdesivir y otros fármacos como cloroquina e ivermectina, que interfieren con la replicación del virus. También se han intentado algunas estrategias encaminadas a disminuir los mecanismos inmunitarios, como el uso de tocilizumab y antioxidantes naturales. Los fármacos relacionados con el sistema renina-angiotensina han resultado controversiales. Aún se debe estudiar con detalle los mecanismos de patogenicidad, así como los tratamientos controlados para proponer alguna opción terapéutica viable que evite la entrada y replicación del virus o que aumente los sistemas inmunitarios del huésped.


Abstract SARS-CoV-2 virus has been identified as the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. Even when no standard treatment is available, antivirals such as remdesivir and other drugs such as chloroquine and ivermectin, which interfere with viral replication, have been assayed. Some strategies aimed to reduce immune mechanisms, such as the use of tocilizumab and natural antioxidants, have also been tested. The use of drugs related to the renin-angiotensin system has been controversial. Pathogenicity mechanisms, as well as controlled treatments, still have to be studied in detail in order to propose a viable therapeutic option that prevents the entry and replication of the virus or enhances the host immune system.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/virology
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