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1.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 316-335, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929165

ABSTRACT

Recent advances in genome editing, especially CRISPR-Cas nucleases, have revolutionized both laboratory research and clinical therapeutics. CRISPR-Cas nucleases, together with the DNA damage repair pathway in cells, enable both genetic diversification by classical non-homologous end joining (c-NHEJ) and precise genome modification by homology-based repair (HBR). Genome editing in zygotes is a convenient way to edit the germline, paving the way for animal disease model generation, as well as human embryo genome editing therapy for some life-threatening and incurable diseases. HBR efficiency is highly dependent on the DNA donor that is utilized as a repair template. Here, we review recent progress in improving CRISPR-Cas nuclease-induced HBR in mammalian embryos by designing a suitable DNA donor. Moreover, we want to provide a guide for producing animal disease models and correcting genetic mutations through CRISPR-Cas nuclease-induced HBR in mammalian embryos. Finally, we discuss recent developments in precise genome-modification technology based on the CRISPR-Cas system.


Subject(s)
Animals , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , DNA/genetics , Embryo, Mammalian/metabolism , Endonucleases/metabolism , Gene Editing , Mammals/metabolism
2.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 266-272, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928525

ABSTRACT

Gene expression analyses suggest that more than 1000-2000 genes are expressed predominantly in mouse and human testes. Although functional analyses of hundreds of these genes have been performed, there are still many testis-enriched genes whose functions remain unexplored. Analyzing gene function using knockout (KO) mice is a powerful tool to discern if the gene of interest is essential for sperm formation, function, and male fertility in vivo. In this study, we generated KO mice for 12 testis-enriched genes, 1700057G04Rik, 4921539E11Rik, 4930558C23Rik, Cby2, Ldhal6b, Rasef, Slc25a2, Slc25a41, Smim8, Smim9, Tmem210, and Tomm20l, using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats /CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system. We designed two gRNAs for each gene to excise almost all the protein-coding regions to ensure that the deletions in these genes result in a null mutation. Mating tests of KO mice reveal that these 12 genes are not essential for male fertility, at least when individually ablated, and not together with other potentially compensatory paralogous genes. Our results could prevent other laboratories from expending duplicative effort generating KO mice, for which no apparent phenotype exists.


Subject(s)
Animals , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Fertility/genetics , Gene Editing , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Testis/metabolism
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1847-1858, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927822

ABSTRACT

Myostatin gene (MSTN) encodes a negative regulator for controlling skeletal muscle growth in animals. In this study, MSTN-/- homozygous mutants with "double muscle" phenotypic traits and stable inheritance were bred on the basis of MSTN gene editing rabbits, with the aim to establish a method for breeding homozygous progeny from primary MSTN biallelic mutant rabbits. MSTN-/- primary mutant rabbits were generated by CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology. The primary mutant rabbits were mated with wild type rabbits to produce F1 rabbits, whereas the F2 generation homozygous rabbits were bred by half-sibling mating or backcrossing with F1 generation rabbits of the same mutant strain. Sequence analysis of PCR products and its T vector cloning were used to screen homozygous rabbits. The MSTN mutant rabbits with 14-19 week-old were weighed and the difference of gluteus maximus tissue sections and muscle fiber cross-sectional area were calculated and analyzed. Five primary rabbits with MSTN gene mutation were obtained, among which three were used for homozygous breeding. A total of 15 homozygous rabbits (5 types of mutants) were obtained (M2-a: 3; M2-b: 2; M3-a: 2; M7-a: 6; M7-b: 2). The body weight of MSTN-/- homozygous mutant rabbits aged 14-19 weeks were significantly higher than that of MSTN+/+ wild-type rabbits of the same age ((2 718±120) g vs. (1 969±53) g, P < 0.01, a 38.0% increase). The mean cross sections of gluteus maximus muscle fiber in homozygous mutant rabbits were not only significantly higher than that of wild type rabbits ((3 512.2±439.2) μm2 vs. (1 274.8±327.3) μm2, P < 0.01), but also significantly higher than that of MSTN+/- hemizygous rabbits ((3 512.2±439.2) μm2 vs. (2 610.4±604.4) μm2, P < 0.05). In summary, five homozygous mutants rabbits of MSTN-/- gene were successfully bred, which showed a clear lean phenotype. The results showed that the primary breeds were non-chimeric mutant rabbits, and the mutant traits could be inherited from the offspring. MSTN-/- homozygous mutant rabbits of F2 generation could be obtained from F1 hemizygous rabbits by inbreeding or backcrossing. The progenies of the primary biallelic mutant rabbits were separated into two single-allelic mutants, both of which showed a "double-muscle" phenotype. Thus, this study has made progress in breeding high-quality livestock breeds with gene editing technology.


Subject(s)
Animals , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Gene Editing , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Mutation , Myostatin/metabolism , Phenotype , Rabbits
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1475-1489, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927794

ABSTRACT

The diverse thermophilic strains of Thermoanaerobacter, serving as unique platforms with a broad range of application in biofuels and chemicals, have received wide attention from scholars and practitioners. Although biochemical experiments and genome sequences have been reported for a variety of Thermoanaerobacter strains, an efficient genetic manipulation system remains to be established for revealing the biosynthetic pathways of Thermoanaerobacter. In line with this demand, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems for editing, regulating and targeting genomes have been well developed in thermophiles. Here, we reviewed and discussed the current status, associated challenges, and future perspectives of the construction of thermostable CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing systems for some representative Thermoanaerobacter species. The establishment, optimization, and application of thermostable CRISPR/Cas genome editing systems would potentially provide a foundation for further genetic modification of thermophilic bacteria.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/genetics , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Gene Editing , Genome
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1446-1461, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927792

ABSTRACT

Gene editing technology can be used to modify the genome of Escherichia coli for the investigation of gene functions, or to change the metabolic pathways for the efficient production of high-value products in engineered strains with genetic stability. A variety of gene editing technologies have been applied in prokaryotes, such as λ-Red homologous recombination and CRISPR/Cas9. As a traditional gene editing technique, λ-Red recombination is widely used. However, it has a few shortcomings, such as the limited integration efficiency by the integrated fragment size, the cumbersome gene editing process, and the FRT scar in the genome after recombination. CRISPR/Cas9 is widely used for genome editing at specific sites, which requires specific DNA segments according to the editing site. As the understanding of the two technologies deepens, a variety of composite gene editing techniques have been developed, such as the application of λ-Red homologous recombination in combination with homing endonucleaseⅠ-SceⅠ or CRISPR/Cas9. In this review, we summarized the basic principles of common gene editing techniques and composite gene editing techniques, as well as their applications in Escherichia coli, which can provide a basis for the selection of gene editing methods in prokaryotes.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Escherichia coli/genetics , Gene Editing , Homologous Recombination , Technology
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1074-1085, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927764

ABSTRACT

To investigate the cellular target selectivity of small molecules targeting thioredoxin reductase 1, we reported the construction and functional research of a stable TrxR1 gene (encode thioredoxin reductase 1) knockout HCT-116 cell line. We designed and selected TrxR1 knockout sites according to the TrxR1 gene sequence and CRISPR/Cas9 target designing principles. SgRNA oligos based on the selected TrxR1 knockout sites were obtained. Next, we constructed knockout plasmid by cloning the sgRNA into the pCasCMV-Puro-U6 vector. After transfection of the plasmid into HCT-116 cells, TrxR1 knockout HCT-116 cells were selected using puromycin resistance. The TrxR1 knockout efficiency was identified and verified by DNA sequencing, immunoblotting, TRFS-green fluorescent probe, and cellular TrxR1 enzyme activity detection. Finally, the correlation between TrxR1 expression and cellular effects of drugs specifically targeting TrxR1 was investigated by CCK-8 assay. The results demonstrated that the knockout plasmid expressing the sgRNA effectively knocked-out TrxR1 gene within HCT-116 cells, and no expression of TrxR1 protein could be observed in stable TrxR1 knockout HCT-116 (HCT116-TrxR1-KO) cells. The TrxR1-targeting inhibitor auranofin did not show any inhibitory activity against either cellular TrxR1 enzyme activity or cell proliferation. Based on these results, we conclude that a stable TrxR1 gene knockout HCT-116 cell line was obtained through CRISPR/Cas9 techniques, which may facilitate investigating the role of TrxR1 in various diseases.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Gene Editing , Gene Knockout Techniques , HCT116 Cells , Humans , RNA, Guide/metabolism
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 780-795, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927744

ABSTRACT

As a new CRISPR/Cas-derived genome engineering technology, base editing combines the target specificity of CRISPR/Cas and the catalytic activity of nucleobase deaminase to install point mutations at target loci without generating DSBs, requiring exogenous template, or depending on homologous recombination. Recently, researchers have developed a variety of base editing tools in the important industrial strain Corynebacterium glutamicum, and achieved simultaneous editing of two and three genes. However, the multiplex base editing based on CRISPR/Cas9 is still limited by the complexity of multiple sgRNAs, interference of repeated sequence and difficulty of target loci replacement. In this study, multiplex base editing in C. glutamicum was optimized by the following strategies. Firstly, the multiple sgRNA expression cassettes based on individual promoters/terminators was optimized. The target loci can be introduced and replaced rapidly by using a template plasmid and Golden Gate method, which also avoids the interference of repeated sequence. Although the multiple sgRNAs structure is still complicated, the editing efficiency of this strategy is the highest. Then, the multiple gRNA expression cassettes based on Type Ⅱ CRISPR crRNA arrays and tRNA processing were developed. The two strategies only require one single promoter and terminator, and greatly simplify the structure of the expression cassette. Although the editing efficiency has decreased, both methods are still applicable. Taken together, this study provides a powerful addition to the genome editing toolbox of C. glutamicum and facilitates genetic modification of this strain.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Corynebacterium glutamicum/metabolism , Gene Editing , Plasmids , RNA, Guide/metabolism
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 719-736, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927739

ABSTRACT

Gluconobacter oxydans are widely used in industrial due to its ability of oxidizing carbohydrate rapidly. However, the limited gene manipulation methods and less of efficient gene editing tools impose restrictions on its application in industrial production. In recent years, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system has been widely used in genome editing and transcriptional regulation which improves the efficiency of genome editing greatly. Here we constructed a CRISPR/dCpf1-mediated gene transcriptional repression system, the expression of a nuclease inactivation Cpf1 protein (dCpf1) in Gluconobacter oxydans together with a 19 nt direct repeats showed effective repression in gene transcription. This system in single gene repression had strong effect and the relative repression level had been increased to 97.9%. While it could be applied in multiplex gene repression which showed strong repression ability at the same time. Furthermore, this system was used in the metabolic pathway of L-sorbose and the regulatory of respiratory chain. The development of CRISPR transcriptional repression system effectively covered the shortage of current gene regulation methods in G. oxydans and provided an efficient gene manipulation tool for metabolic engineering modification in G. oxydans.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/genetics , Gene Editing , Gene Expression , Gluconobacter oxydans/genetics , Metabolic Engineering
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927690

ABSTRACT

The CRISPR/Cas9 based prime editing (PE) technique enables all 12 types of base substitutions and precise small DNA deletions or insertions without generating DNA double-strand breaks. Prime editing has been successfully applied in plants and plays important roles in plant precision breeding. Although plant prime editing (PPE) can substantially expand the scope and capabilities of precise genome editing in plants, its editing efficiency still needs to be further improved. Here, we review the development of PPE technique, and introduce structural composition, advantages and limitations of PPE. Strategies to improve the PPE editing efficiency, including the Tm-directed PBS length design, the RT template length, the dual-pegRNA strategy, the PlantPegDesigner website, and the strategies for optimizing the target proteins of PPE, were highlighted. Finally, the prospects of future development and application of PPE were discussed.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , DNA , Gene Editing , Genome, Plant/genetics , Plant Breeding , Plants/genetics
10.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 41(1): 37-42, mar. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178964

ABSTRACT

El término CRISPR, por su acrónimo en inglés refiere a Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, es decir, repeticiones palindrómicas cortas, agrupadas y regularmente esparcidas, por sus características en el genoma, pertenece naturalmente al sistema de defensa de bacterias y arqueas. Este ha sido adaptado biotecnológicamente para la edición del ADN de células eucariotas, incluso de células humanas. El sistema CRISPR-Cas para editar genes consta, en forma generalizada, de dos componentes: una proteína nucleasa (Cas) y un ARN guía (sgRNA). La simplicidad del complejo lo hace una herramienta molecular reprogramable capaz de ser dirigida y de editar cualquier sitio en un genoma conocido. Su principal foco son las terapias para enfermedades hereditarias monogénicas y para el cáncer. Sin embargo, además de editor de genes, la tecnología CRISPR se utiliza para edición epigenética, regulación de la expresión génica y método de diagnóstico molecular. Este artículo tiene por objetivo presentar una revisión de las aplicaciones de la herramienta molecular CRISPR-Cas, particularmente en el campo biomédico, posibles tratamientos y diagnósticos, y los avances en investigación clínica, utilizando terapia génica con CRISPR/Cas más relevantes hasta la fecha. (AU)


CRISPR are Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, which naturally belong to the defense system of bacteria and archaea. It has been biotechnologically adapted for editing the DNA of eukaryotic cells, including human cells. The CRISPR-Cas system for editing genes generally consists of two components, a nuclease protein (Cas) and a guide RNA (sgRNA). The simplicity of the complex makes it a reprogrammable molecular tool capable of being targeted and editing any site in a known genome. Its main focus is therapies for monogenic inherited diseases and cancer. However, in addition to gene editor, CRISPR technology is used for epigenetic editing, regulation of gene expression, and molecular diagnostic methods. This article aims to present a review of the applications of the CRISPR-Cas molecular tool, particularly in the biomedical field, possible treatments and diagnoses, and the advances in clinical research, using the most relevant CRISPR-Cas gene therapy to date. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/genetics , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Biotechnology , Genetic Therapy/methods , Gene Expression , Genome, Human/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Epigenomics/trends , CRISPR-Associated Proteins/genetics , CRISPR-Associated Proteins/therapeutic use , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/therapy , Neoplasms/therapy
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4342-4350, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921510

ABSTRACT

The CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system has been widely used in basic research, gene therapy and genetic engineering due to its high efficiency, fast speed and convenience. Meanwhile, the discovery of novel CRISPR/Cas systems in the microbial community also accelerated the emergence of novel gene editing tools. CRISPR/Cpf1 is the second type (V type) CRISPR system that can edit mammalian genome. Compared with the CRISPR/Cas9, CRISPR/Cpf1 can use 5'T-PAM rich region to increase the genome coverage, and has many advantages, such as sticky end of cleavage site and less homologous recombination repair. Here we constructed three CRISPR/Cpf1 (AsCpf1, FnCpf1 and LbCpf1) expression vectors in silkworm cells. We selected a highly conserved BmHSP60 gene and an ATPase family BmATAD3A gene to design the target gRNA, and constructed gHSP60-266 and gATAD3A-346 knockout vectors. The efficiency for editing the target genes BmATAD3A and BmHSP60 by AsCpf1, FnCpf1 and LbCpf1 were analyzed by T7E1 analysis and T-clone sequencing. Moreover, the effects of target gene knockout by different gene editing systems on the protein translation of BmHSP60 and BmATAD3A were analyzed by Western blotting. We demonstrate the CRISPR/Cpf1 gene editing system developed in this study could effectively edit the silkworm genome, thus providing a novel method for silkworm gene function research, genetic engineering and genetic breeding.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bombyx/metabolism , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Endonucleases/genetics , Gene Editing , RNA, Guide/genetics
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3890-3904, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921474

ABSTRACT

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats -associated protein (CRISPR/Cas) has been developed as a precise, efficient, affordable and sensitive nucleic acid detection tool due to its efficient targeted binding ability and programmability. At present, biosensors based on CRISPR-Cas system have shown excellent performance in the detection of nucleic acid of pathogens, which has attracted widespread attention, and is expected to replace the conventional detection methods. This review summarizes the latest research progress of biosensors based on CRISPR/Cas system for detecting nucleic acid of pathogens.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Nucleic Acids/genetics
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3880-3889, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921473

ABSTRACT

In the application of CRISPR genome editing, direct cellular delivery of non-replicable Cas9/sgRNA may reduce unwanted gene targeting and integrational mutagenesis, thus offering greater specificity and safety. Cas9/sgRNA delivery system holds great potential for treating genetic diseases. This review summarizes the advances of Cas9/sgRNA delivery systems and its therapeutic applications, providing new understandings and inspirations for vector design and future clinical applications.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Gene Editing , RNA, Guide/genetics
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3071-3087, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921407

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the genome editing technologies based on the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR/Cas) have developed rapidly. The system can use homologous directed recombination (HDR) to achieve precise editing that it medicated, but the efficiency is extremely low, which limits its application in agriculture and biomedical fields. As an emerging genome editing technology, the CRISPR/Cas-mediated DNA base editing technologies can achieve targeted mutations of bases without generating double-strand breaks, and has higher editing efficiency and specificity compared with CRISPR/Cas-mediated HDR editing. At present, cytidine base editors (CBEs) that can mutate C to T, adenine base editors (ABEs) that can mutate A to G, and prime editors (PEs) that enable arbitrary base conversion and precise insertion and deletion of small fragments, have been developed. In addition, glycosylase base editors (GBEs) capable of transitioning from C to G and double base editors capable of editing both A and C simultaneously, have been developed. This review summarizes the development, advances, advantages and limitations of several DNA base editors. The successful applications of DNA base editing technology in biomedicine and agriculture, together with the prospects for further optimization and selection of DNA base editors, are discussed.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , DNA/genetics , Gene Editing , Technology
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3061-3070, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921406

ABSTRACT

The study of distinct genes, chromosomes and the spatio-temporal relationships between them is of great significance in genetics, developmental biology and biomedicine. CRISPR/Cas9 has become the most widely used gene editing tool due to its excellent targeting ability. Recently, researchers have developed a series of advanced live cell imaging techniques based on the nuclease-inactivated mutant of Cas9 (dCas9), providing rapid and convenient tools for high-resolution imaging of specific sites in the chromatin and genome. This review summarizes the advances of CRISPR/dCas9 system in live cell imaging from three aspects, including the strategies of cell delivery, optimization of the fluorescence signals, as well as orthogonal and multicolor imaging. Furthermore, we shed light on the development trends and prospects of this field.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Chromatin , Endonucleases , Gene Editing
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2414-2424, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887807

ABSTRACT

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and its associated protein gene system can limit the horizontal gene transfer, thereby effectively preventing the invasion of foreign gene elements such as bacteriophages. CRISPR arrays of different bacteria are diverse. Based on the differences in the CRISPR system, this review summarizes the application of CRISPR in food-borne pathogen evolution analysis, detection and typing, virulence and antibiotic resistance in recent years. We also address bacterial detection typing method developed based on the characteristics of CRISPR arrays and the association of CRISPR with virulence and drug resistance of food-borne pathogens. The shortcomings of CRISPR in evolution, detection and typing, virulence and resistance applications are analyzed. In addition, we suggest standardizing CRISPR typing methods, improving and expanding the CRISPR database of pathogenic bacteria, and further exploring the co-evolution relationship between phages and bacteria, to provide references for further exploration of CRISPR functions.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/genetics , Bacteriophages/genetics , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/genetics , Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics , Virulence/genetics
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2307-2321, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887798

ABSTRACT

The CRISPR system is able to accomplish precise base editing in genomic DNA, but relies on the cellular homology-directed recombination repair pathway and is therefore extremely inefficient. Base editing is a new genome editing technique developed based on the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Two base editors (cytosine base editor and adenine base editor) were developed by fusing catalytically disabled nucleases with different necleobase deaminases. These two base editors are able to perform C>T (G>A) or A>G (T>C) transition without generating DNA double-stranded breaks. The base editing technique has been widely used in gene therapy, animal models construction, precision animal breeding and gene function analysis, providing a powerful tool for basic and applied research. This review summarized the development process, technical advantages, current applications, challenges and perspectives for base editing technique, aiming to help the readers better understand and use the base editing technique.


Subject(s)
Adenine , Animals , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Cytosine , DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded , Gene Editing
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2116-2126, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887785

ABSTRACT

Carrimycin (CAM) is a new antibiotics with isovalerylspiramycins (ISP) as its major components. It is produced by Streptomyces spiramyceticus integrated with a heterogenous 4″-O-isovaleryltransferase gene (ist). However, the present CAM producing strain carries two resistant gene markers, which makes it difficult for further genetic manipulation. In addition, isovalerylation of spiramycin (SP) could be of low efficiency as the ist gene is located far from the SP biosynthesis gene cluster. In this study, ist and its positive regulatory gene acyB2 were inserted into the downstream of orf54 gene neighboring to SP biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces spiramyceticus 1941 by using the CRISPR-Cas9 technique. Two new markerless CAM producing strains, 54IA-1 and 54IA-2, were obtained from the homologous recombination and plasmid drop-out. Interestingly, the yield of ISP in strain 54IA-2 was much higher than that in strain 54IA-1. Quantitative real-time PCR assay showed that the ist, acyB2 and some genes associated with SP biosynthesis exhibited higher expression levels in strain 54IA-2. Subsequently, strain 54IA-2 was subjected to rifampicin (RFP) resistance selection for obtaining high-yield CAM mutants by ribosome engineering. The yield of ISP in mutants resistant to 40 μg/mL RFP increased significantly, with the highest up to 842.9 μg/mL, which was about 6 times higher than that of strain 54IA-2. Analysis of the sequences of the rpoB gene of these 7 mutants revealed that the serine at position 576 was mutated to alanine existed in each sequenced mutant. Among the mutants carrying other missense mutations, strain RFP40-6-8 which carries a mutation of glutamine (424) to leucine showed the highest yield of ISP. In conclusion, two markerless novel CAM producing strains, 54IA-1 and 54IA-2, were successfully developed by using CRISPR-Cas9 technique. Furthermore, a novel CAM high-yielding strain RFP40-6-8 was obtained through ribosome engineering. This study thus demonstrated a useful combinatory approach for improving the production of CAM.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Genetic Engineering , Ribosomes , Spiramycin , Streptomyces/genetics
19.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 482-490, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887683

ABSTRACT

S100 calcium binding protein A9 (S100A9) is involved in a variety of biological processes such as inflammation and tumor cell migration and invasion regulation. The purpose of this study was to construct S100A9 gene-edited mice by using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, thereby providing an animal model for exploring the biological functions of this gene. According to the S100A9 gene sequence, the single-stranded small guide RNA (sgRNA) targeting exons 2 and 3 was transcribed in vitro, and a mixture of Cas9 mRNA and candidate sgRNA was injected into mouse fertilized eggs by microinjection. Early embryos were obtained and transferred to surrogate mice, and F


Subject(s)
Animals , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Calgranulin B , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Knockout Techniques , Gene Targeting , Lung , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Ovalbumin , Phenotype
20.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1271-1288, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922636

ABSTRACT

Whether direct manipulation of Parkinson's disease (PD) risk genes in the adult monkey brain can elicit a Parkinsonian phenotype remains an unsolved issue. Here, we used an adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9)-delivered CRISPR/Cas9 system to directly co-edit PINK1 and DJ-1 genes in the substantia nigras (SNs) of two monkey groups: an old group and a middle-aged group. After the operation, the old group exhibited all the classic PD symptoms, including bradykinesia, tremor, and postural instability, accompanied by key pathological hallmarks of PD, such as severe nigral dopaminergic neuron loss (>64%) and evident α-synuclein pathology in the gene-edited SN. In contrast, the phenotype of their middle-aged counterparts, which also showed clear PD symptoms and pathological hallmarks, were less severe. In addition to the higher final total PD scores and more severe pathological changes, the old group were also more susceptible to gene editing by showing a faster process of PD progression. These results suggested that both genetic and aging factors played important roles in the development of PD in the monkeys. Taken together, this system can effectively develop a large number of genetically-edited PD monkeys in a short time (6-10 months), and thus provides a practical transgenic monkey model for future PD studies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Dependovirus/genetics , Haplorhini , Phenotype , Protein Kinases/genetics
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