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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010720

ABSTRACT

Wnt signaling are critical pathway involved in organ development, tumorigenesis, and cancer progression. WNT7A, a member of the Wnt family, remains poorly understood in terms of its role and the underlying molecular mechanisms it entails in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). According to the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), transcriptome sequencing data of HNSCC, the expression level of WNT7A in tumors was found to be higher than in adjacent normal tissues, which was validated using Real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Unexpectedly, overexpression of WNT7A did not activate the canonical Wnt-β-catenin pathway in HNSCC. Instead, our findings suggested that WNT7A potentially activated the FZD7/JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway, leading to enhanced cell proliferation, self-renewal, and resistance to apoptosis. Furthermore, in a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumor model, high expression of WNT7A and phosphorylated STAT3 was observed, which positively correlated with tumor progression. These findings underscore the significance of WNT7A in HNSCC progression and propose the targeting of key molecules within the FZD7/JAK1/STAT3 pathway as a promising strategy for precise treatment of HNSCC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck , Carcinogenesis/genetics , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , Wnt Signaling Pathway , Disease Models, Animal , Head and Neck Neoplasms/genetics , Wnt Proteins , Frizzled Receptors/genetics , Janus Kinase 1 , STAT3 Transcription Factor
2.
Biol. Res ; 57: 1-1, 2024. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550056

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tumor-derived small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) can promote tumorigenic and metastatic capacities in less aggressive recipient cells mainly through the biomolecules in their cargo. However, despite recent advances, the specific molecules orchestrating these changes are not completely defined. Lactadherin is a secreted 0protein typically found in the milk fat globule membrane. Its overexpression has been associated with increased tumorigenesis and metastasis in breast cancer (BC) and other tumors. However, neither its presence in sEVs secreted by BC cells, nor its role in sEV-mediated intercellular communication have been described. The present study focused on the role of lactadherin-containing sEVs from metastatic MDA-MB-231 triple-negative BC (TNBC) cells (sEV-MDA231) in the promotion of pro-metastatic capacities in non-tumorigenic and non-metastatic recipient cells in vitro, as well as their pro-metastatic role in a murine model of peritoneal carcinomatosis. RESULTS: We show that lactadherin is present in sEVs secreted by BC cells and it is higher in sEV-MDA231 compared with the other BC cell-secreted sEVs measured through ELISA. Incubation of non-metastatic recipient cells with sEV- MDA231 increases their migration and, to some extent, their tumoroid formation capacity but not their anchorage-independent growth. Remarkably, lactadherin blockade in sEV-MDA231 results in a significant decrease of those sEV-mediated changes in vitro. Similarly, intraperitoneally treatment of mice with MDA-MB-231 BC cells and sEV-MDA231 greatly increase the formation of malignant ascites and tumor micronodules, effects that were significantly inhibited when lactadherin was previously blocked in those sEV-MDA231. CONCLUSIONS: As to our knowledge, our study provides the first evidence on the role of lactadherin in metastatic BC cell-secreted sEVs as promoter of: (i) metastatic capacities in less aggressive recipient cells, and ii) the formation of malignant ascites and metastatic tumor nodules. These results increase our understanding on the role of lactadherin in sEVs as promoter of metastatic capacities which can be used as a therapeutic option for BC and other malignancies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Ascites , Extracellular Vesicles , Biological Transport , Cell Communication , Cell Line, Tumor , Carcinogenesis
3.
RFO UPF ; 27(1): 73-83, 08 ago. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1509385

ABSTRACT

Diversos autores desenvolveram estudos acerca da potencial associação entre a etiocarcinogênese do carcinoma espinocelular não melanocítico (CECNM) labial e o uso crônico da hidroclorotiazida (HCTZ). Objetivo: A atual revisão objetivou investigar a relação do diurético HCTZ e o risco de CECNM labial. Métodos: Realizou-se uma revisão de literatura nas bases de dados LILACS, PUBMED/MEDLINE e Periódico CAPES, em que foram incluídos artigos em inglês, português e francês, publicados no período de 2017 a 2022. Foram propostos 60 documentos e, dentre esses, 30 foram selecionados para compor a amostra no estudo. Resultados: Foi evidenciada uma relação entre o uso da HCTZ e a ocorrência de CENM com relação dose cumulativa devido às alterações provocadas pelo fármaco, no entanto, em virtude da heterogeneidade de desenhos metodológicos e concentração dos estudos em populações semelhantes, existem limitações quanto à confiabilidade dessas informações. Conclusão: Identificou-se uma desproporção entre a ocorrência e relevância do CENM e a produção científica vigente, demonstrando a necessidade de estudos com metodologias padronizadas que abranjam diferentes especificidades socioeconômicas e demográficas.(AU)


Several authors have developed studies about a potential association between the etiocarcinogenesis of non-melanocytic lip squamous cell carcinoma (NMSCC) and the chronic use of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ). Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the relation between the diuretic HCTZ and the risk of lip NMSCC. Methods: A literature review was carried out in the LILACS, PUBMED/MEDLINE and CAPES Periodical databases, which included articles in English, Portuguese and French, published between 2017 and 2022. Sixty documents were collected and, among these, 30 were selected to compose the sample in the study. Results: There was evidence of a relationship between the use of HCTZ and the occurrence of MSCC with a cumulative dose relationship due to changes caused by the drug, however, because of the heterogeneity of methodological designs and concentration of studies in similar populations, there are limitations regarding the reliability of this information. Conclusion: A disproportion between the occurrence and relevance of the NMSCC and the current scientific production was identified, demonstrating the need for studies with standardized methodologies that cover different demographic socioeconomic specificities.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Lip Neoplasms/chemically induced , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/chemically induced , Diuretics/adverse effects , Hydrochlorothiazide/adverse effects , Photosensitivity Disorders/chemically induced , Risk Factors , Carcinogenesis/chemically induced
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 308-318, feb. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430503

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Gastrin plays a vital role in the development and progression of gastric cancer (GC). Its expression is up-regulated in GC tissues and several GC cell lines. Yet, the underlying mechanism remains to be investigated. Here, we aim to investigate the role and mechanism of gastrin in GC proliferation. Gastrin-overexpressing GC cell model was constructed using SGC7901 cells. Then the differentially expressed proteins were identified by iTRAQ analysis. Next, we use flow cytometry and immunofluorescence to study the effect of gastrin on the mitochondrial potential and mitochondria-derived ROS production. Finally, we studied the underlying mechanism of gastrin regulating mitochondrial function using Co-IP, mass spectrometry and immunofluorescence. Overexpression of gastrin promoted GC cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. A total of 173 proteins were expressed differently between the controls and gastrin- overexpression cells and most of these proteins were involved in tumorigenesis and cell proliferation. Among them, Cox17, Cox5B and ATP5J that were all localized to the mitochondrial respiratory chain were down-regulated in gastrin-overexpression cells. Furthermore, gastrin overexpression led to mitochondrial potential decrease and mitochondria-derived ROS increase. Additionally, gastrin-induced ROS generation resulted in the inhibition of cell apoptosis via activating NF-kB, inhibiting Bax expression and promoting Bcl-2 expression. Finally, we found gastrin interacted with mitochondrial membrane protein Annexin A2 using Co-IP and mass spectrometry. Overexpr ession of gastrin inhibits GC cell apoptosis by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction through interacting with mitochondrial protein Annexin A2, then up-regulating ROS production to activate NF-kB and further leading to Bax/Bcl-2 ratio decrease.


La gastrina juega un papel vital en el desarrollo y progresión del cáncer gástrico (CG). Su expresión está regulada al alza en tejidos de CG y en varias líneas celulares de CG. Sin embargo, el mecanismo subyacente aun no se ha investigado. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar el papel y el mecanismo de la gastrina en la proliferación de CG. El modelo de células CG que sobre expresan gastrina se construyó usando células SGC7901. Luego, las proteínas expresadas diferencialmente se identificaron mediante análisis iTRAQ. A continuación, utilizamos la citometría de flujo y la inmunofluorescencia para estudiar el efecto de la gastrina en el potencial mitocondrial y la producción de ROS derivada de las mitocondrias. Finalmente, estudiamos el mecanismo subyacente de la gastrina que regula la función mitocondrial utilizando Co-IP, espectrometría de masas e inmunofluorescencia. La sobreexpresión de gastrina promovió la proliferación de células CG in vitro e in vivo. Un total de 173 proteínas se expresaron de manera diferente entre los controles y las células con sobreexpresión de gastrina y la mayoría de estas proteínas estaban implicadas en la tumorigenesis y la proliferación celular. Entre estas, Cox17, Cox5B y ATP5J, todas localizadas en la cadena respiratoria mitocondrial, estaban reguladas a la baja en las células con sobreexpresión de gastrina. Además, la sobreexpresión de gastrina provocó una disminución del potencial mitocondrial y un aumento de las ROS derivadas de las mitocondrias. Por otra parte, la generación de ROS inducida por gastrina resultó en la inhibición de la apoptosis celular mediante la activación de NF-kB, inhibiendo la expresión de Bax y promoviendo la expresión de Bcl-2. Finalmente, encontramos que la gastrina interactuaba con la proteína de membrana mitocondrial Anexina A2 usando Co-IP y espectrometría de masas. La sobreexpresión de gastrina inhibe la apoptosis de las células CG al inducir la disfunción mitocondrial a través de la interacción con la proteína mitocondrial Anexina A2, luego regula el aumento de la producción de ROS para activar NF-kB y conduce aún más a la disminución de la relación Bax/Bcl-2.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Stomach Neoplasms/metabolism , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Gastrins/metabolism , Annexin A2/metabolism , Mitochondria/pathology , Mass Spectrometry , NF-kappa B , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Reactive Oxygen Species , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Immunoprecipitation , Cell Proliferation , Carcinogenesis , Flow Cytometry
5.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2722-2731, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007642

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Colorectal carcinogenesis and progression are related to the gut microbiota and the tumor immune microenvironment. Our previous clinical trial demonstrated that berberine (BBR) hydrochloride might reduce the recurrence and canceration of colorectal adenoma (CRA). The present study aimed to further explore the mechanism of BBR in preventing colorectal cancer (CRC).@*METHODS@#We performed metagenomics sequencing on fecal specimens obtained from the BBR intervention trial, and the differential bacteria before and after medication were validated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We further performed ApcMin/+ animal intervention tests, RNA sequencing, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.@*RESULTS@#The abundance of fecal Veillonella parvula ( V . parvula ) decreased significantly after BBR administration ( P = 0.0016) and increased through the development from CRA to CRC. Patients with CRC with a higher V. parvula abundance had worse tumor staging and a higher lymph node metastasis rate. The intestinal immune pathway of Immunoglobulin A production was activated, and the expression of TNFSF13B (Tumor necrosis factor superfamily 13b, encoding B lymphocyte stimulator [BLyS]), the representative gene of this pathway, and the genes encoding its receptors (interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor beta) were significantly upregulated. Animal experiments revealed that V. parvula promoted colorectal carcinogenesis and increased BLyS levels, while BBR reversed this effect.@*CONCLUSION@#BBR might inhibit V. parvula and further weaken the immunomodulatory effect of B cells induced by V. parvula , thereby blocking the development of colorectal tumors.@*TRIAL REGISTRAION@#ClinicalTrials.gov, No. NCT02226185.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Berberine/therapeutic use , Carcinogenesis , Veillonella , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Tumor Microenvironment
6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1783-1793, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007598

ABSTRACT

Organoids are three-dimensional cellular structures with self-organizing and self-differentiation capacities. They faithfully recapitulate structures and functions of in vivo organs as represented by functionality and microstructural definitions. Heterogeneity in in vitro disease modeling is one of the main reasons for anti-cancer therapy failures. Establishing a powerful model to represent tumor heterogeneity is crucial for elucidating tumor biology and developing effective therapeutic strategies. Tumor organoids can retain the original tumor heterogeneity and are commonly used to mimic the cancer microenvironment when co-cultured with fibroblasts and immune cells; therefore, considerable effort has been made recently to promote the use of this new technology from basic research to clinical studies in tumors. In combination with gene editing technology and microfluidic chip systems, engineered tumor organoids show promising abilities to recapitulate tumorigenesis and metastasis. In many studies, the responses of tumor organoids to various drugs have shown a positive correlation with patient responses. Owing to these consistent responses and personalized characteristics with patient data, tumor organoids show excellent potential for preclinical research. Here, we summarize the properties of different tumor models and review their current state and progress in tumor organoids. We further discuss the substantial challenges and prospects in the rapidly developing tumor organoid field.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neoplasms/genetics , Organoids/pathology , Carcinogenesis , Models, Biological , Precision Medicine/methods , Tumor Microenvironment
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1609-1620, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981157

ABSTRACT

Lamin B1 (LMNB1) is highly expressed in liver cancer tissues, and its influence and mechanism on the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells were explored by knocking down the expression of the protein. In liver cancer cells, siRNAs were used to knock down LMNB1. Knockdown effects were detected by Western blotting. Changes in telomerase activity were detected by telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay (TRAP) experiments. Telomere length changes were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). CCK8, cloning formation, transwell and wound healing were performed to detect changes in its growth, invasion and migration capabilities. The lentiviral system was used to construct HepG2 cells that steadily knocked down LMNB1. Then the changes of telomere length and telomerase activity were detected, and the cell aging status was detected by SA-β-gal senescence staining. The effects of tumorigenesis were detected by nude mouse subcutaneous tumorigenesis experiments, subsequent histification staining of tumors, SA-β-gal senescence staining, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for telomere analysis and other experiments. Finally, the method of biogenesis analysis was used to find the expression of LMNB1 in clinical liver cancer tissues, and its relationship with clinical stages and patient survival. Knockdown of LMNB1 in HepG2 and Hep3B cells significantly reduced telomerase activity, cell proliferation, migration and invasion abilities. Experiments in cells and tumor formation in nude mice had demonstrated that stable knockdown of LMNB1 reduced telomerase activity, shortened telomere length, senesced cells, reduced cell tumorigenicity and KI-67 expression. Bioinformatics analysis showed that LMNB1 was highly expressed in liver cancer tissues and correlated with tumor stage and patient survival. In conclusion, LMNB1 is overexpressed in liver cancer cells, and it is expected to become an indicator for evaluating the clinical prognosis of liver cancer patients and a target for precise treatment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Telomerase/metabolism , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/genetics , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Telomere Shortening , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Mice, Nude , Telomere/pathology , Carcinogenesis
8.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 393-408, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971565

ABSTRACT

Glioma is the most common and lethal intrinsic primary tumor of the brain. Its controversial origins may contribute to its heterogeneity, creating challenges and difficulties in the development of therapies. Among the components constituting tumors, glioma stem cells are highly plastic subpopulations that are thought to be the site of tumor initiation. Neural stem cells/progenitor cells and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells are possible lineage groups populating the bulk of the tumor, in which gene mutations related to cell-cycle or metabolic enzymes dramatically affect this transformation. Novel approaches have revealed the tumor-promoting properties of distinct tumor cell states, glial, neural, and immune cell populations in the tumor microenvironment. Communication between tumor cells and other normal cells manipulate tumor progression and influence sensitivity to therapy. Here, we discuss the heterogeneity and relevant functions of tumor cell state, microglia, monocyte-derived macrophages, and neurons in glioma, highlighting their bilateral effects on tumors. Finally, we describe potential therapeutic approaches and targets beyond standard treatments.


Subject(s)
Humans , Glioma/metabolism , Neuroglia/metabolism , Carcinogenesis/pathology , Neural Stem Cells/metabolism , Microglia/metabolism , Brain Neoplasms/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971473

ABSTRACT

Given its state of stable proliferative inhibition, cellular senescence is primarily depicted as a critical mechanism by which organisms delay the progression of carcinogenesis. Cells undergoing senescence are often associated with the alteration of a series of specific features and functions, such as metabolic shifts, stemness induction, and microenvironment remodeling. However, recent research has revealed more complexity associated with senescence, including adverse effects on both physiological and pathological processes. How organisms evade these harmful consequences and survive has become an urgent research issue. Several therapeutic strategies targeting senescence, including senolytics, senomorphics, immunotherapy, and function restoration, have achieved initial success in certain scenarios. In this review, we describe in detail the characteristic changes associated with cellular senescence and summarize currently available countermeasures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cellular Senescence , Carcinogenesis , Immunotherapy , Aging , Tumor Microenvironment
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971381

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Gastric cancer is a common cancer of the digestive system. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) plays an important role in the formation and development of gastric cancer. This study aims to investigate the effect of long non-coding lncRNA 114227 on biologic behaviors in gastric cancer cells.@*METHODS@#The experiment was divided into 4 groups: a negative control (NC) group, a lncRNA 114227 small interference (si-lncRNA 114227) group, an empty vector (Vector) group, and an overexpression vector (OE-lncRNA 114227) group. The expressions of lncRNA 114227 in gastric mucosa and gastric cancer tissues, gastric mucosal epithelial cells and different gastric cancer strains were determined by real-time reverse transcription PCR (real-time RT-PCR).The proliferation were detected by CCK-8 assay in gastric cancer cells. The epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) was utilized by Transwell assay, scratch healing assay, and Western blotting in gastric cancer cells. The effect of lncRNA 114227 on proliferation of gastric cancer cells was detected by tumor bearing experiment in nude mice in vivo.@*RESULTS@#The expression level of lncRNA 114227 in the gastric cancer tissues was significantly lower than that in the gastric mucosa tissues, and in 4 kinds of gastric cancer strains was all significantly lower than that in gastric mucosal epithelial cells (all P<0.01). In vitro, the proliferation and migration abilities of gastric cells were significantly reduced after overexpressing lncRNA 114227, and cell proliferation and migration were enhanced after silencing lncRNA 114227 (all P<0.05). The results of in vivo subcutaneous tumorigenesis in nude mice showed that the tumorigenic volume of the tumor-bearing mice in the OE-lncRNA 114227 group was significantly smaller than that of the Vector group, and the tumorigenic quality was lower than that of the Vector group (P<0.05), indicating that lncRNA 114227 inhibited tumorigenesis.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The expression of lncRNA 114227 is downregulated in gastric cancer gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. LncRNA 114227 may inhibit the proliferation and migration of gastric cancer cells through EMT process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Mice, Nude , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Carcinogenesis/genetics , Cell Movement/genetics , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Apoptosis/genetics
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971323

ABSTRACT

Cancers have high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Current anticancer therapies have demonstrated specific signaling pathways as a target in the involvement of carcinogenesis. Autophagy is a quality control system for proteins and plays a fundamental role in cancer carcinogenesis, exerting an anticarcinogenic role in normal cells and can inhibit the transformation of malignant cells. Therefore, drugs aimed at autophagy can function as antitumor agents. Flavonoids are a class of polyphenolic secondary metabolites commonly found in plants and, consequently, consumed in diets. In this review, the systematic search strategy was used, which included the search for descriptors "flavonoids" AND "mTOR pathway" AND "cancer" AND "autophagy", in the electronic databases of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Scopus, from January 2011 to January 2021. The current literature demonstrates that flavonoids have anticarcinogenic properties, including inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, autophagy, necrosis, cell cycle arrest, senescence, impaired cell migration, invasion, tumor angiogenesis and reduced resistance to multiple drugs in tumor cells. We demonstrate the available evidence on the roles of flavonoids and autophagy in cancer progression and inhibition. (Registration No. CRD42021243071 at PROSPERO).


Subject(s)
Humans , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Neoplasms , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Apoptosis , Cell Proliferation , Carcinogenesis , Cell Line, Tumor
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971142

ABSTRACT

Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is a hot topic in the field of researching tumor pathogenesis, and the importance in hematologic malignancies has been gradually being elucidated. LncRNA not only regulates hematological tumorigenesis and progression through affecting various biological processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, pluripotency and apoptosis; moreover, abnormal expression and mutation of lncRNA are closely related to drug resistance and prognosis. Thus lncRNA can be used as novel biomarker and potential therapeutic target for hematological tumors. In this review, we will focus on the latest progress of lncRNA in hematological tumors to provide new ideas for the clinical diagnosis, prognostic evaluation together with research and development of target drugs for hematologic malignancies.


Subject(s)
Humans , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Hematologic Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms , Carcinogenesis/pathology , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
13.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2621-2631, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007549

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The molecular mechanisms driving tumorigenesis have continually been the focus of researchers. Cuproplasia is defined as copper-dependent cell growth and proliferation, including its primary and secondary roles in tumor formation and proliferation through signaling pathways. In this study, we analyzed the differences in the expression of cuproplasia-associated genes (CAGs) in pan-cancerous tissues and investigated their role in immune-regulation and tumor prognostication.@*METHODS@#Raw data from 11,057 cancer samples were acquired from multiple databases. Pan-cancer analysis was conducted to analyze the CAG expression, single-nucleotide variants, copy number variants, methylation signatures, and genomic signatures of micro RNA (miRNA)-messenger RNA (mRNA) interactions. The Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer and the Cancer Therapeutics Response Portal databases were used to evaluate drug sensitivity and resistance against CAGs. Using single-sample Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (ssGSEA) and Immune Cell Abundance Identifier database, immune cell infiltration was analyzed with the ssGSEA score as the standard.@*RESULTS@#Aberrantly expressed CAGs were found in multiple cancers. The frequency of single-nucleotide variations in CAGs ranged from 1% to 54% among different cancers. Furthermore, the correlation between CAG expression in the tumor microenvironment and immune cell infiltration varied among different cancers. ATP7A and ATP7B were negatively correlated with macrophages in 16 tumors including breast invasive carcinoma and esophageal carcinoma, while the converse was true for MT1A and MT2A . In addition, we established cuproplasia scores and demonstrated their strong correlation with patient prognosis, immunotherapy responsiveness, and disease progression ( P  <0.05). Finally, we identified potential candidate drugs by matching gene targets with existing drugs.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This study reports the genomic characterization and clinical features of CAGs in pan-cancers. It helps clarify the relationship between CAGs and tumorigenesis, and may be helpful in the development of biomarkers and new therapeutic agents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Genomics , Carcinogenesis , Carcinoma , Breast Neoplasms , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , Nucleotides , Tumor Microenvironment
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008142

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the role and mechanism of eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1(EEF1) family members (EEF1D,EEF1A1,and EEF1A2) in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) based on public databases.Methods We examined EEF1 member expression levels in human LUAD samples via The Cancer Genome Atlas in the UCSC Xena browser and the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium.We analyzed the mRNA and protein levels of EEF1D,EEF1A1,and EEF1A2 and their correlations with pathological variables via the Mann-Whitney U test.The Kaplan-Meier curves were established to assess the prognostic values of EEF1D,EEF1A1,and EEF1A2.The single-sample gene set enrichment analysis algorithm was employed to explore the relationship between the expression levels of EEF1 members and tumor immune cell infiltration.Spearman and Pearson correlation analyses were performed to examine the relationship between the expression levels of EEF1 members and those of the genes in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B signaling pathway.The immunohistochemical assay was employed to determine the expression levels of EEF1D,EEF1A1,and EEF1A2 in the LUAD tissue (n=75) and paracancer tissue (n=75) samples.Results The mRNA and protein levels of EEF1D,EEF1A1,and EEF1A2 showed significant differences between tumor and paracancer tissues (all P<0.001).The patients with high protein levels of EEF1A1 showed bad prognosis in terms of overall survival (P=0.039),and those with high protein levels of EEF1A2 showed good prognosis in terms of overall survival (P=0.012).The influence of the mRNA level of EEF1D on prognosis was associated with pathological characteristics.The expression levels of EEF1 members were significantly associated with the infiltration of various immune cells and the expression of key molecules in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B signaling pathway.Conclusion EEF1D,EEF1A1,and EEF1A2 are associated with the progression of LUAD,serving as the candidate prognostic markers for LUAD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Peptide Elongation Factor 1/metabolism , Proteomics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Carcinogenesis , Adenocarcinoma of Lung , Lung Neoplasms , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Prognosis
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009902

ABSTRACT

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) which are usually thought to have no protein coding ability, are widely involved in cell proliferation, signal transduction and other biological activities. However, recent studies have suggested that short open reading frames (sORFs) of some lncRNAs can encode small functional peptides (micropeptides). These micropeptides appear to play important roles in calcium homeostasis, embryonic development and tumorigenesis, suggesting their potential as therapeutic targets and diagnostic biomarkers. Currently, bioinformatic tools as well as experimental methods such as ribosome mapping and in vitro translation are applied to predict the coding potential of lncRNAs. Furthermore, mass spectrometry, specific antibodies and epitope tags are used for validating the expression of micropeptides. Here, we review the physiological and pathological functions of recently identified micropeptides as well as research strategies for predicting the coding potential of lncRNAs to facilitate the further research of lncRNA encoded micropeptides.


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Humans , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Research Design , Antibodies , Carcinogenesis , Micropeptides
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982312

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the therapeutic effect of naringin on colorectal cancer (CRC) and the related mechanism.@*METHODS@#Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and annexin V-FITC/PI assay were used to detect the effect of naringin (50-400 µg/mL) on cell proliferation and apoptosis of CRC cells, respectively. The scratch wound assay and transwell migration assay were used to assess the effect of naringin on CRC cell migration. Four-week-old male nude mice were injected with HCT116 cells subcutaneously to establish the tumor xenograft model. Naringin was injected intraperitoneally at 50 mg/(kg·d), with solvent and 5-fluorouracil treatment as control. The width and length of the tumors were measured and recorded every 6 days, and tumor tissues were photographed and weighed on the last day of the 24-d observation period. Immunohistochemical staining for caspase-3, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and TUNEL assay were used to evaluate the effect of naringin on cell proliferation and apoptosis in tumor tissues. The body weight, food and water intake of mice were recorded, and the major organs in different treatment groups were weighed on the last day and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological analysis. Meanwhile, the routine blood indicators were recorded.@*RESULTS@#CCK-8 and annexin V-FITC/PI results confirmed that naringin (100, 200, and 400 µg/mL) could inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis. The scratch wound assay and transwell migration assay results confirmed the inhibitory activity of naringin against CRC cells migration. In vivo results demonstrated the inhibitory effect of naringin on tumor growth with good bio-compatibility.@*CONCLUSION@#Naringin inhibited colorectal carcinogenesis by inhibiting viability of CRC cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Animals , Mice , Mice, Nude , Sincalide/therapeutic use , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Apoptosis , Cell Movement , Carcinogenesis , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology
17.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 473-478, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982180

ABSTRACT

Klotho gene was originally discovered as an anti-aging gene, Klotho protein encoded by Klotho gene is expressed in multiple human tissues, and its most prominent function is the regulation of phosphate homeostasis. Klotho protein possesses various activities, including inhibition of multiple signaling pathways, reducing oxidative stress and suppressing inflammation, and these activities are associated with cancer. Klotho protein is discovered as a universal tumor suppressor, and its expression is associated with tumorigenesis and prognosis of patients. Lung cancer is the most common malignancy tumor, and it is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide because of its high incidence and mortality. This article summarizes the research progress of the role of Klotho on pathogenesis, therapeutic effect and prognosis in lung cancer, in order to provide new biomarker and target for diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of lung cancer.
.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Carcinogenesis , Inflammation
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982133

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the biological function of miR-203a-5p and the underlying mechanism in multiple myeloma (MM).@*METHODS@#Three miRNA expression profiles (GSE16558, GSE24371 and GSE17498) were downloaded from the GEO database. The three miRNA expression profiles contained 131 MM samples and 17 normal plasmacyte samples. The robust rank aggregation (RRA) method was used to identify the differentially expressed miRNAs between MM and normal plasmacytes. In order to carry out cytological experiments, MM cell line with stable over-expression of miR-203a-5p was constructed with lentivirus. Expression levels of miR-203a-5p in MM cells were quantified by qRT-PCR. The effects of miR-203a-5p on MM cells were investigated using assays of cell viability and cell cycle. Cell proliferation was measured using the Cell Counting kit (CCK)8 assay. The percentage of cells in each cell cycle was measured with a FACSCalibur system. Xenograft tumor models were established to evaluate the role of miR-203a-5p in tumorigenesis in vivo . To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of miR-203a-5p in mediating cell proliferation inhibition and cell cycle arrest in MM, we used TargetScan and miRanda to predict the candidate targets of miR-203a-5p. The potential target of miR-203a-5p in MM cells was explored using the luciferase reporter assay, qRT-PCR, and Western blot.@*RESULTS@#An integrated analysis of three MM miRNA expression datasets showed that the levels of miR-203a-5p in MM were notably downregulated compared with those in normal plasmacytes. Accordingly, the relative expression levels of miR-203a-5p were decreased in MM cell lines. In addition, overexpression of miR-203a-5p inhibited the proliferation and cell cycle progression of RPMI8226 and U266 cells. In vivo experiments demonstrated that upregulation of miR-203a-5p expression could significantly inhibit the tumorigenesis of subcutaneous myeloma xenografts in nude mice. Mechanistic investigation led to the identification of Jagged 1 (JAG1) as a novel and direct downstream target of miR-203a-5p. Interestingly, the reintroduction of JAG1 abrogated miR-203a-5p-induced MM cell growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest.@*CONCLUSION@#Our data demonstrate that miR-203a-5p inhibits cell proliferation and cell cycle progression in MM cells by targeting JAG1, supporting the utility of miR-203a-5p as a novel and potential therapeutic agent for miRNA-based MM therapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Humans , Multiple Myeloma/pathology , Cell Line, Tumor , Mice, Nude , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Cell Division , Cell Proliferation , Disease Models, Animal , Carcinogenesis/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Jagged-1 Protein/metabolism
19.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 253-268, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970071

ABSTRACT

Integrins are a family of transmembrane receptors that connect the extracellular matrix and actin skeleton, which mediate cell adhesion, migration, signal transduction, and gene transcription. As a bi-directional signaling molecule, integrins can modulate many aspects of tumorigenesis, including tumor growth, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance. Therefore, integrins have a great potential as antitumor therapeutic targets. In this review, we summarize the recent reports of integrins in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), focusing on the abnormal expression, activation, and signaling of integrins in cancer cells as well as their roles in other cells in the tumor microenvironment. We also discuss the regulation and functions of integrins in hepatitis B virus-related HCC. Finally, we update the clinical and preclinical studies of integrin-related drugs in the treatment of HCC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Integrins/metabolism , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/genetics , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Cell Adhesion , Carcinogenesis , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , Tumor Microenvironment
20.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 184-191, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971016

ABSTRACT

The circadian clock is an evolutionary molecular product that is associated with better adaptation to changes in the external environment. Disruption of the circadian rhythm plays a critical role in tumorigenesis of many kinds of cancers, including prostate cancer (PCa). Integrating circadian rhythm into PCa research not only brings a closer understanding of the mechanisms of PCa but also provides new and effective options for the precise treatment of patients with PCa. This review begins with patterns of the circadian clock, highlights the role of the disruption of circadian rhythms in PCa at the epidemiological and molecular levels, and discusses possible new approaches to PCa therapy that target the circadian clock.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Carcinogenesis , Circadian Clocks/physiology , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/physiopathology
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