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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010327

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the risk of aristolochic acid (AA)-associated cancer in patients with AA nephropathy (AAN).@*METHODS@#A retrospective study was conducted on patients diagnosed with AAN at Peking University First Hospital from January 1997 to December 2014. Long-term surveillance and follow-up data were analyzed to investigate the influence of different factors on the prevalence of cancer. The primary endpoint was the incidence of liver cancer, and the secondary endpoint was the incidence of urinary cancer during 1 year after taking AA-containing medication to 2014.@*RESULTS@#A total of 337 patients diagnosed with AAN were included in this study. From the initiation of taking AA to the termination of follow-up, 39 patients were diagnosed with cancer. No cases of liver cancer were observed throughout the entire follow-up period, with urinary cancer being the predominant type (34/39, 87.17%). Logistic regression analysis showed that age, follow-up period, and diabetes were potential risk factors, however, the dosage of the drug was not significantly associated with urinary cancer.@*CONCLUSIONS@#No cases of liver cancer were observed at the end of follow-up. However, a high prevalence of urinary cancer was observed in AAN patients. Establishing a direct causality between AA and HCC is challenging.


Subject(s)
Humans , Retrospective Studies , Incidence , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Kidney Diseases/chemically induced , Aristolochic Acids/adverse effects
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010599

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies and is a major cause of cancer-related mortalities worldwide (Forner et al., 2018; He et al., 2023). Sarcopenia is a syndrome characterized by an accelerated loss of skeletal muscle (SM) mass that may be age-related or the result of malnutrition in cancer patients (Cruz-Jentoft and Sayer, 2019). Preoperative sarcopenia in HCC patients treated with hepatectomy or liver transplantation is an independent risk factor for poor survival (Voron et al., 2015; van Vugt et al., 2016). Previous studies have used various criteria to define sarcopenia, including muscle area and density. However, the lack of standardized diagnostic methods for sarcopenia limits their clinical use. In 2018, the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) renewed a consensus on the definition of sarcopenia: low muscle strength, loss of muscle quantity, and poor physical performance (Cruz-Jentoft et al., 2019). Radiological imaging-based measurement of muscle quantity or mass is most commonly used to evaluate the degree of sarcopenia. The gold standard is to measure the SM and/or psoas muscle (PM) area using abdominal computed tomography (CT) at the third lumbar vertebra (L3), as it is linearly correlated to whole-body SM mass (van Vugt et al., 2016). According to a "North American Expert Opinion Statement on Sarcopenia," SM index (SMI) is the preferred measure of sarcopenia (Carey et al., 2019). The variability between morphometric muscle indexes revealed that they have different clinical relevance and are generally not applicable to broader populations (Esser et al., 2019).


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Sarcopenia/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnostic imaging , Muscle, Skeletal/diagnostic imaging , Deep Learning , Prognosis , Radiomics , Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies
3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 222-231, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007744

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Radiation (IR)-induced DNA damage triggers cell cycle arrest and has a suppressive effect on the tumor microenvironment (TME). Wee1, a cell cycle regulator, can eliminate G2/M arrest by phosphorylating cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1). Meanwhile, programed death-1/programed death ligand-1 (PD-1/PDL-1) blockade is closely related to TME. This study aims to investigate the effects and mechanisms of Wee1 inhibitor AZD1775 and anti-PD-1 antibody (anti-PD-1 Ab) on radiosensitization of hepatoma.@*METHODS@#The anti-tumor activity of AZD1775 and IR was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-y1)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on human and mouse hepatoma cells HepG2, Hepa1-6, and H22. The anti-hepatoma mechanism of AZD1775 and IR revealed by flow cytometry and Western blot in vitro . A hepatoma subcutaneous xenograft mice model was constructed on Balb/c mice, which were divided into control group, IR group, AZD1775 group, IR + AZD1775 group, IR + anti-PD-1 Ab group, and the IR + AZD1775 + anti-PD-1 Ab group. Cytotoxic CD8 + T cells in TME were analyzed by flow cytometry.@*RESULTS@#Combining IR with AZD1775 synergistically reduced the viability of hepatoma cells in vitro . AZD1775 exhibited antitumor effects by decreasing CDK1 phosphorylation to reverse the IR-induced G2/M arrest and increasing IR-induced DNA damage. AZD1775 treatment also reduced the proportion of PD-1 + /CD8 + T cells in the spleen of hepatoma subcutaneous xenograft mice. Further studies revealed that AZD1775 and anti-PD-1 Ab could enhance the radiosensitivity of hepatoma by enhancing the levels of interferon γ (IFNγ) + or Ki67 + CD8 T cells and decreasing the levels of CD8 + Tregs cells in the tumor and spleen of the hepatoma mice model, indicating that the improvement of TME was manifested by increasing the cytotoxic factor IFNγ expression, enhancing CD8 + T cells proliferation, and weakening CD8 + T cells depletion.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This work suggests that AZD1775 and anti-PD-1 Ab synergistically sensitize hepatoma to radiotherapy by enhancing IR-induced DNA damage and improving cytotoxic CD8 + T cells in TME.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/radiotherapy , Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/genetics , Apoptosis , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor , Cell Line, Tumor , G2 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Liver Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Tumor Microenvironment , Pyrazoles , Pyrimidinones
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007306

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Ultrasonography (US) is the current standard of care for imaging surveillance in patients at risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been explored as an alternative, given the higher sensitivity of MRI, although this comes at a higher cost. We performed a cost-effective analysis comparing US and dual-sequence non-contrast-enhanced MRI (NCEMRI) for HCC surveillance in the local setting.@*METHODS@#Cost-effectiveness analysis of no surveillance, US surveillance and NCEMRI surveillance was performed using Markov modelling and microsimulation. At-risk patient cohort was simulated and followed up for 40 years to estimate the patients' disease status, direct medical costs and effectiveness. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio were calculated.@*RESULTS@#Exactly 482,000 patients with an average age of 40 years were simulated and followed up for 40 years. The average total costs and QALYs for the three scenarios - no surveillance, US surveillance and NCEMRI surveillance - were SGD 1,193/7.460 QALYs, SGD 8,099/11.195 QALYs and SGD 9,720/11.366 QALYs, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#Despite NCEMRI having a superior diagnostic accuracy, it is a less cost-effective strategy than US for HCC surveillance in the general at-risk population. Future local cost-effectiveness analyses should include stratifying surveillance methods with a variety of imaging techniques (US, NCEMRI, contrast-enhanced MRI) based on patients' risk profiles.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnostic imaging , Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Cost-Effectiveness Analysis , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009479

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is well characterized as a heterogeneous disease. Its late-stage diagnosis and chemotherapy resistance make it one of the refractory tumors in China. Natural killer (NK) cells play a significant role in immune surveillance. However, NK cells become dysfunctional in the progression of HCC, leading to tumor immune escape. This article reviews the recent progress on different strategies of NK cell-based immunotherapy in treating HCC, including direct adoptive NK cell transfer, gene engineering in NK cell, NK cell receptor targeting, immunosuppressive microenvironment modification, and tumor toxicity enhancement by cytokines or traditional Chinese medicine. These NK cell-based strategies have shown promising therapeutic potential.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/therapy , Liver Neoplasms/therapy , Immunotherapy , Killer Cells, Natural , Receptors, Natural Killer Cell , Tumor Microenvironment
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252676, 2024. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364501

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) is the foremost reason of progressive hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis, with an elevated risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. Medicinal plants have been used for human health benefits for several years, but their therapeutic potential needs to be explored. The main objective of this study was to figure out the in vitro antiviral and anticancer characteristics of total crude protein of Iberis gibraltarica against HCV and HCC. Total crude protein of Iberis gibraltarica was isolated and quantified. The level of cytotoxicity was measured against the HepG2 cell line and it shows no significant cytotoxicity at the concentration of 504µg/ml. The anti-HCV effect was determined by absolute quantification via real time RT-PCR method and viral titer was reduced up to 66% in a dose dependent manner against the total protein of Iberis gibraltarica. The anticancer potential of Iberis gibraltarica was also examined through mRNA expression studies of AFP and GPC3 genes against the total protein of Iberis gibraltarica-treated HepG2 cells. The results show up to 90% of the down-regulation expression of AFP and GPC3. The obtained results indicate the therapeutic potential of total protein of Iberis gibraltarica against HCV and hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro.


A infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C (HCV) é a principal causa de fibrose hepática progressiva e cirrose, com risco elevado de desenvolvimento de carcinoma hepatocelular (HCC). As plantas medicinais vêm sendo utilizadas para benefícios à saúde humana há vários anos, mas seu potencial terapêutico precisa ser explorado. O principal objetivo deste estudo foi descobrir as características antivirais e anticancerígenas in vitro da proteína bruta total de Iberis gibraltarica contra HCV e HCC. A proteína bruta total de Iberis gibraltarica foi isolada e quantificada. O nível de citotoxicidade foi medido contra a linha celular HepG2 e não apresenta citotoxicidade significativa na concentração de 504µg/ml. O efeito anti-HCV foi determinado por quantificação absoluta através do método RT-PCR em tempo real e o título viral foi reduzido em até 66% de forma dose-dependente contra a proteína total de Iberis gibraltarica. O potencial anticancerígeno de Iberis gibraltarica também foi examinado através de estudos de expressão de mRNA dos genes AFP e GPC3 contra a proteína total de células HepG2 tratadas com Iberis gibraltarica. Os resultados mostram até 90% da expressão de regulação negativa de AFP e GPC3. Os resultados obtidos indicam o potencial terapêutico da proteína total de Iberis gibraltarica contra HCV e carcinoma hepatocelular in vitro.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Therapeutics , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy
7.
Hepatología ; 4(2): 103-115, 2023. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1428989

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El acceso al trasplante hepático (TH) en pacientes con carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC) se basa en la aplicación de criterios morfológicos rigurosos estipulados desde 1996, co-nocidos como criterios de Milán. Una de las estrategias descritas para expandir estos criterios se conoce como downstaging (reducción del estadiaje tumoral mediante terapias locorregionales). El objetivo de este estudio fue describir el comportamiento postrasplante de pacientes con CHC que ingresaron dentro de los parámetros de Milán, comparado con el de aquellos pacientes llevados a terapia de downstaging en un centro colombiano. Metodología. Se incluyeron pacientes adultos con cirrosis hepática (CH) y CHC que fueron llevados a TH en el Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe, entre julio de 2012 a septiembre de 2021. Como desenlace principal se definió recurrencia y tiempo de recurrencia de la enfermedad tumoral, muerte por todas las causas y tiempo al fallecimiento. Se evaluaron las características sociodemográficas y clínicas de cada grupo. Se incluyeron scores pronósticos de recurrencia de la enfermedad tumoral. Resultados. Se trasplantaron 68 pacientes con CH y CHC, 50 (73,5 %) eran hombres y la edad promedio fue 59 años; 51 pacientes (75 %) cumplían con los criterios de Milán y 17 (25 %) fueron llevados a terapia de downstaging previo al TH. No hubo diferencias significativas en la supervivencia global y supervivencia libre de trasplante entre los dos grupos evaluados, p=0,479 y p=0,385, respectivamente. Tampoco hubo diferencia significativa en la recurrencia de la enfermedad tumoral entre ambos grupos (p=0,81). En total hubo 7 casos de recurrencia tumoral (10,2 %) y 11 casos de muerte (16,2 %). Conclusiones. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en recurrencia y mortalidad entre los pacientes que cumplían los criterios de Milán y los trasplantados luego de la terapia de downstaging, en un tiempo de se-guimiento de 53 meses hasta el último control posterior al trasplante hepático. Esta sería la primera evaluación prospectiva de un protocolo de downstaging para CHC en Colombia.


Introduction. Access to liver transplantation (LT) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is based on the application of rigorous morphological criteria stipulated since 1996, known as the Milan criteria. One of the strategies described to expand these criteria is known as downstaging (tu-mor staging reduction through locoregional therapies). The objective of this study was to describe the post-transplant performance of patients with HCC who were admitted within the Milan parameters, compared with those of patients taken to downstaging therapy, in a Colombian center. Methodolo-gy. Adult patients with cirrhosis and HCC that received LT between July 2012 and September 2021 at the Pablo Tobón Uribe Hospital were included. The main outcome was defined as recurrence and time to recurrence of the tumor disease, death from all causes, and time to death. The socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of each group were evaluated. Tumor disease recurrence prognostic scores were included. Results. Sixty-eight patients with cirrhosis and HCC received LT in the time frame, 50 (73.5%) were men and the mean age was 59 years. Fifty-one patients were trans-planted (75%) fulfilling Milan criteria, and 17 (25%) patients received downstaging therapies before LT. There were no significant differences in overall survival and transplant-free survival between the two groups, p=0.479 and p=0.385, respectively. There was also no significant difference in the recurrence of the tumor disease between both groups (p=0.81). In total there were 7 tumoral recurrences (10.2%) and 11 deaths (16.2%). Conclusions. There were no differences in recurrence and survival between patients transplanted fulfilling Milan criteria and those receiving downstaging therapies, following a mean time of 53 months after LT. This is the first prospective evaluation of the downstaging protocol in Colombia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Survival , Liver Transplantation , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Survivorship , Therapeutics , Fibrosis , Liver Cirrhosis
8.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2023. 93 p. graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437666

ABSTRACT

A quimioprevenção do câncer refere-se ao uso de compostos naturais ou sintéticos para prevenir o desenvolvimento das neoplasias antes do estabelecimento da malignidade. O ácido butirico (AB) atua como um potente quimiopreventivo na hepatocarcinogênese, reduzindo o número e o tamanho de lesões pré neoplásicas persistentes (pLPN), induzindo a apoptose e modulando mecanismos epigenéticos. Já o ácido caprílico (AC), além da sua atuação como potencializador de absorção, vem sendo investigado na área da prevenção do câncer. Neste cenário, o objetivo do trabalho visa avaliar a atividade quimiopreventiva de lipídios estruturados (EST) obtidos por interesterificação enzimática da tributirina com a tricaprilina, na fase de promoção da hepatocarcinogênese experimental. Após o processo de interesterificação, o produto final apresentou novos triacilgliceróis com composição de duas moléculas de ácido butírico para uma de ácido caprilíco. Ratos machos isogênicos da linhagem Fischer 344 foram submetidos ao modelo do hepatócito resistente, sendo distribuídos em dois grupos e tratados diariamente por via intragástrica com lipídios estruturados (EST) ou com o seu controle isocalórico, a maltodextrina (MD), durante a fase de promoção. Como esperado, não houve diferença estatística (p>0,05) em relação ao peso inicial e final dos animais dos grupos MD e EST, o que indica ausência de toxicidade dos compostos administrados. Na análise macroscópica do fígado, foi observada uma redução de 33,3% no grupo EST em relação ao número médio de nódulos macroscópicos em comparação ao grupo MD, porém essa redução não atingiu diferença estatística (p>0,05). Para a avaliação das lesões pré neoplásicas (LPN) foi utilizada a marcação imunoistoquímica para glutationa-S-transferase (GST-P). O grupo EST apresentou uma redução no número de lesões em remodelação e total GSTP-P+, quando comparado com o grupo MD (p<0,05). Quando avaliada a % de corpúsculos apoptóticos e índice de proliferação celular, não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos (p>0,05). Animais tratados com lipídios estruturados apresentaram maiores (p<0,05) concentrações de AC e AB por grama de tecido hepático em relação ao tratamento com maltodextrina. Em relação aos danos no DNA, o grupo EST resultou em cometas de comprimentos menores (p<0,05), menores níveis de γ-H2AX (p<0,05) e maiores concentrações de p53 nuclear, quando comparados aos animais que receberam maltodextrina, sugerindo uma proteção contra danos no DNA no grupo tratado com EST. Os resultados mostraram que o tratamento com EST resultou em ações efetivas na fase de promoção da hepatocarcinogênese experimental


Cancer chemoprevention refers to the use of natural or synthetic compounds to prevent the development of neoplasms before the establishment of malignancy. Butyric acid (AB) acts as a potent chemopreventive in hepatocarcinogenesis, reducing the number and size of persistent preneoplastic lesions (pLPN), inducing apoptosis and modulating epigenetic mechanisms. Caprylic acid (CA), in addition to its role as an absorption enhancer, has been investigated in the area of cancer prevention. In this scenario, the objective of this work was to evaluate the chemopreventive activity of structured lipids (EST) obtained by enzymatic interesterification of tributyrin with tricaprylin, in the phase of promotion experimental hepatocarcinogenesis. After the interesterification process, the final product presented new triacylglycerols with a composition of two molecules of butyric acid to one of caprylic acid. Isogenic male Fischer 344 rats were submitted to the resistant hepatocyte model, divided into two groups and treated daily intragastrically with structured lipids (EST) or with its isocaloric control, maltodextrin (MD), during the promotion phase. As expected, there was no statistical difference (p>0.05) in relation to the initial and final weight of the animals in the MD and EST groups, which indicates the absence of toxicity of the administered compounds. In the macroscopic analysis of the liver, a reduction of 33.3% was observed in the EST group in relation to the mean number of macroscopic nodules compared to the MD group, but this reduction did not reach a statistical difference (p>0.05). For the evaluation of pre-neoplastic lesions (PNL) immunohistochemical staining for glutathione-Stransferase (GST-P) was used. The EST group showed a reduction in the number of remodeling lesions and total GSTP-P+, when compared to the MD group (p<0.05). Animals treated with structured lipids had higher (p<0.05) concentrations of AC and AB per gram of liver tissue compared to treatment with maltodextrin. Regarding DNA damage, the EST group resulted in comets of shorter lengths (p<0.05), lower levels of γ-H2AX (p<0.05) and high concentration of nuclear p53, when compared to animals that received maltodextrin, suggesting protection against DNA damage in the EST treated group. The results showed that EST treatment resulted in effective actions in the promotion phase of experimental hepatocarcinogenesis


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Chemoprevention , Lipase/analysis , Neoplasms/pathology , Wounds and Injuries/complications , Biotechnology/classification , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Absenteeism
9.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 24(1): 9-15, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1414325

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the twelfth most common cancer and the fifth leading cause of worldwide cancer related death. Chronic hepatitis B infection, caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and exposure to aflatoxins is fundamental in the formation of HCC in developing countries. This review of scientific publications aims to establish the detrimental effects of aflatoxin-contaminated foods and highlights the correlation between aflatoxin and hepatitis B viral-associated hepatocellular carcinoma. Research has shown a significant increase in the occurrence of HCC in HBV-infected individuals exposed to fungal toxins. HBV demonstrates the ability to integrate and bind to p53 protein in the host DNA and propagate hepatocyte vulnerability through carcinogenic aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) damage. Although there has been clear evidence about the synergistic interaction of exposure to AFB1 and HBV infection in the induction of HCC, other literature has shown otherwise, mainly because incomplete and vague findings and hypotheses were made in regions where AFB1 and HBV pose a public health risk. Vaccination against hepatitis B and measures such as robust food safety systems to avoid hepatotoxicity and hepatocellular carcinogenesis induced by AFB1 is the most effective methods in the prevention of HCC induced by HBV and AFB1


Subject(s)
Hepatitis B virus , Vaccination , Aflatoxin B1 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Aflatoxins , Hepatitis
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987029

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the potential mechanisms that mediate the inhibitory effect of porcine recombinant NKlysin (prNK-lysin) against liver cancer cell metastasis.@*METHODS@#HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify the differentially expressed proteins in prNK-lysin-treated hepatocellular carcinoma SMMOL/LC-7721 cells in comparison with the control and PBS-treated cells. GO functional annotation and KEGG pathway analysis of the differentially expressed proteins were performed using GO and KEGG databases. RT-qPCR was used to determine the mRNA expression levels of polypeptide-N-acetylgalactosaminotransferase 13 (GALNT13), transmembrane protein 51 (TMEM51) and FKBP prolyl isomerase 3 (FKBP3) in the cells, and the protein expression of FKBP3 was verified using Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Proteomic analysis identified 1989 differentially expressed proteins in prNK-lysin-treated cells compared with the control cells, and 2753 compared with PBS-treated cells. Fifteen proteins were differentially expressed between PBS-treated and the control cells, and 1909 were differentially expressed in prNK- lysin group compared with both PBS and control groups. These differentially expressed proteins were involved mainly in the viral process, translational initiation and RNA binding and were enriched mainly in ribosome, protein process in endoplasmic reticulum, and RNA transport pathways. RT-qPCR showed that compared with the control group, prNK-lysin treatment significantly increased the mRNA expressions of GALNT13 (P < 0.05) and TMEM51 (P < 0.01) and lowered FKBP3 mRNA expression (P < 0.05). Western blotting also showed a significantly decreased expression of FKBP3 protein in prNK-lysin-treated cells (P < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#Treatment with prNK-lysin causes significant changes in protein expression profile of SMMOL/LC-7721 cells and inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis by downregulating FKBP3 protein and affecting the cellular oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Proteomics , Glycolysis , RNA, Messenger
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970674

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common liver malignancy, where HCC segmentation and prediction of the degree of pathological differentiation are two important tasks in surgical treatment and prognosis evaluation. Existing methods usually solve these two problems independently without considering the correlation of the two tasks. In this paper, we propose a multi-task learning model that aims to accomplish the segmentation task and classification task simultaneously. The model consists of a segmentation subnet and a classification subnet. A multi-scale feature fusion method is proposed in the classification subnet to improve the classification accuracy, and a boundary-aware attention is designed in the segmentation subnet to solve the problem of tumor over-segmentation. A dynamic weighted average multi-task loss is used to make the model achieve optimal performance in both tasks simultaneously. The experimental results of this method on 295 HCC patients are superior to other multi-task learning methods, with a Dice similarity coefficient (Dice) of (83.9 ± 0.88)% on the segmentation task, while the average recall is (86.08 ± 0.83)% and an F1 score is (80.05 ± 1.7)% on the classification task. The results show that the multi-task learning method proposed in this paper can perform the classification task and segmentation task well at the same time, which can provide theoretical reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment of HCC patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver Neoplasms , Learning
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970447

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the performance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) liver imaging reporting and data system (LI-RADS) LR-5 in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods The clinical research reports with the application of CEUS LI-RADS in the diagnosis of HCC were collected from PubMed,Embase,Cochrane Library,CNKI,and Wanfang Data from inception to November 14,2021.Two researchers respectively screened the literature and extracted relevant information.The Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) was used to evaluate the quality of all the included articles.RevMan 5.4,Meta disc 1.4,and Stata 16.0 were employed to analyze the diagnostic performance of LR-5 for HCC in high-risk patients. Results Twenty original studies were included,involving a total of 6131 lesions,of which 5142 were HCC.The results of meta-analysis showed that the LR-5 in CEUS LI-RADS for diagnosing HCC in the high-risk population had the overall sensitivity of 0.72 (95%CI=0.66-0.77),the overall specificity of 0.93 (95%CI=0.87-0.96),the overall positive likelihood ratio of 9.89 (95%CI=5.31-18.41),the overall negative likelihood ratio of 0.30 (95%CI=0.25-0.37),and the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.88 (95%CI=0.85-0.91).There was heterogeneity among the included studies (I2=95.31,P<0.001).The funnel plot indicated the existence of publication bias (P=0.04). Conclusion The CEUS LI-RADS can effectively diagnose HCC in high-risk patients based on the LR-5 criteria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnostic imaging , Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Diagnostic Imaging , Ultrasonography
13.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 575-583, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010963

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Aconite is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been found to inhibit the development of liver cancer; however, its exact molecular mechanisms in this process remain unclear. This study explores how aconite aqueous extract (AAE) inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).@*METHODS@#An in vivo mouse model of subcutaneous liver cancer was established. After AAE treatment, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to determine the effect of AAE on natural killer (NK) cells. Subsequently, C57BL/6 mice were used to establish the subcutaneous tumor model, and a group of these mice were treated with anti-PK163 antibody to remove NK cells, which was verified by flow cytometry and IHC. The effect of AAE on the proliferation of HCC cells in vitro was determined using cell counting kit-8. The effect of AAE on chemokine production in HCC cells was measured using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effect of AAE on the migration of NK cells was determined using a transwell assay. Finally, the molecular mechanism was investigated using the Western blotting method.@*RESULTS@#We demonstrated that the ability of AAE to induce overexpression of the cytokine C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) in HCC cells is fundamental to the infiltration of NK cells into the tumor bed. Mechanistically, we found that the upregulation of CCL2 was achieved by the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase but not extracellular regulated protein kinase or p38.@*CONCLUSION@#Our findings suggest that AAE can be used as an effective immune adjuvant to enhance antitumor immunity by increasing NK cell infiltration into tumors, which could help to improve the efficacy of HCC treatments. Please cite this article as: Yang KD, Zhang X, Shao MC, Wang LN. Aconite aqueous extract inhibits the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma through CCL2-dependent enhancement of natural killer cell infiltration. J Integr Med. 2023; 21(6): 575-583.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Aconitum , Ligands , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Chemokines/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor
14.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 474-486, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010952

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Jiedu Recipe (JR), a Chinese herbal remedy, has been shown to prolong overall survival time and decrease recurrence and metastasis rates in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This work investigated the mechanism of JR in HCC treatment.@*METHODS@#The chemical constituents of JR were detected using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The potential anti-HCC mechanism of JR was screened using network pharmacology and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) microarray chip assay, followed by experimental validation in human HCC cells (SMMC-7721 and Huh7) in vitro and a nude mouse subcutaneous transplantation model of HCC in vivo. HCC cell characteristics of proliferation, migration and invasion under hypoxic setting were investigated using thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide, wound healing and Transwell assays, respectively. Image-iT™ Hypoxia Reagent was added to reveal hypoxic conditions. Stem cell sphere formation assay was used to detect the stemness. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers like E-cadherin, vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin, and pluripotent transcription factors including nanog homeobox, octamer-binding transcription factor 4, and sex-determining region Y box protein 2 were analyzed using Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Western blot was performed to ascertain the anti-HCC effect of JR under hypoxia involving the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.@*RESULTS@#According to network pharmacology and mRNA microarray chip analysis, JR may potentially act on hypoxia and inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that JR significantly decreased hypoxia, and suppressed HCC cell features of proliferation, migration and invasion; furthermore, the hypoxia-induced increases in EMT and stemness marker expression in HCC cells were inhibited by JR. Results based on the co-administration of JR and an agonist (LiCl) or inhibitor (IWR-1-endo) verified that JR suppressed HCC cancer stem-like properties under hypoxia by blocking the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.@*CONCLUSION@#JR exerts potent anti-HCC effects by inhibiting cancer stemness via abating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway under hypoxic conditions. Please cite this article as: Guo BJ, Ruan Y, Wang YJ, Xiao CL, Zhong ZP, Cheng BB, Du J, Li B, Gu W, Yin ZF. Jiedu Recipe, a compound Chinese herbal medicine, inhibits cancer stemness in hepatocellular carcinoma via Wnt/β-catenin pathway under hypoxia. J Integr Med. 2023; 21(5): 474-486.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/genetics , beta Catenin/pharmacology , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , RNA, Messenger/therapeutic use , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Cell Movement , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008127

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the role of ATP citrate lyase(ACLY)in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC)and the impact of this enzyme on the immune microenvironment of HCC.Methods We utilized the University of Alabama at Birmingham Cancer Data Analysis Portal and the Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis to identify the changes in ACLY expression and prognosis across different tumor types from The Cancer Genome Atlas.With HCC as the disease model,we analyzed the ACLY expression in HCC samples from the gene expression database.Furthermore,we collected the clinical specimens from HCC patients to verify the mRNA and protein levels of ACLY.In addition,we conducted transcriptome sequencing after knocking down the expression of ACLY to analyze the differentially expressed genes and investigated the impact of ACLY expression interference on cell proliferation and other functions.Finally,we explored the correlations of ACLY with immune cells and immune infiltration in the tumor microenvironment,new antigens,and immune checkpoint genes.Results ACLY expression was significantly up-regulated in solid tumors including HCC(all P<0.05),and high ACLY expression was associated with overall survival rate in HCC(P=0.005).Furthermore,high ACLY expression affected the presence of immune cells(e.g.,tumor-associated fibroblasts)and the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism(all P<0.05).Conclusions ACLY is closely related to the occurrence and development of HCC and lipid metabolism abnormalities.Moreover,it has a specific impact on the immune microenvironment of HCC.


Subject(s)
Humans , ATP Citrate (pro-S)-Lyase/metabolism , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Clinical Relevance , Lipid Metabolism , Liver Neoplasms , Tumor Microenvironment
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3738-3746, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007989

ABSTRACT

Current studies have shown that centromere protein F (CENPF) was overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and might be involved in the pathogenesis of HCC. Specifically, due to the very large molecular weight (358 kDa) of CENPF full length protein, only CENPF knock-down, but not overexpression models, were applied currently to explore the carcinogenicity of CENPF in HCC. Whether CENPF overexpression is a cause or an effect in HCC remains to be illustrated. We aimed to establish a CENPF overexpression cell model using CRISPR/dCas9 synergistic activation mediator (SAM) system with lentiMPHv2 and lentiSAMv2 vectors to explore the role of CENPF overexpression in HCC. Single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) that specifically identify the transcription initiation site of CENPF gene were synthesized and inserted into the lentiSAMv2 plasmid. Huh-7 and HCCLM3 cells were first transduced with lentiMPHv2 and then selected with hygromycin B. The cells were then transduced with lentiSAMv2 carrying specific sgRNA for CENPF gene, followed by blasticidin S selection. The mRNA and protein detection results of Huh-7 and HCCLM3 cells screened by hygromycin B and blasticidin S showed that the endogenous overexpression of CENPF can be induced by sgRNA1 and sgRNA4, especially by sgRNA4. By using the CRISPR/dCas9 technique, stable cell models with overexpressed CENPF were successfully constructed to explore the role of CENPF in tumorigenesis, which provides a reference for the construction of cell models overexpressing large molecular weight protein.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/genetics , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , RNA, Guide, CRISPR-Cas Systems , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Hygromycin B
17.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 1035-1045, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007819

ABSTRACT

Recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after surgery is a major factor affecting the efficacy of the treatment of patients. Neoadjuvant treatment is an effective therapeutic method to reduce postoperative recurrence and prolong patient survival. However,there is no generally accepted neoadjuvant treatment regimen that has been proven to be effective so far. Recently,with the progress in systemic antitumor therapies,represented by targeted molecular agents and immune checkpoint inhibitors,and the improvement in local regional therapies,these treatment approaches have shown promising efficacy and safety in the field of neoadjuvant treatment for HCC. Under the organizational leadership of Committee of Digestive Surgery of Chinese Research Hospital Association and Committee of Liver Cancer of Chinese Anti-Cancer Association,Alliance of Chinese Expert Consensus on Neoadjuvant Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma has discussed and revised several times and finally formulated the Chinese expert consensus on neoadjuvant therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (2023 edition). This consensus aimed to review the Chinese characteristics of the diagnosis and treatment of HCC,to provide specific guidance and suggestions for preoperative treatment strategies for HCC,and further promote the management of the clinical pathway for neoadjuvant treatment of HCC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/surgery , China , Consensus , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Neoadjuvant Therapy
18.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2706-2711, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Distinguishing between primary clear cell carcinoma of the liver (PCCCL) and common hepatocellular carcinoma (CHCC) through traditional inspection methods before the operation is difficult. This study aimed to establish a Faster region-based convolutional neural network (RCNN) model for the accurate differential diagnosis of PCCCL and CHCC.@*METHODS@#In this study, we collected the data of 62 patients with PCCCL and 1079 patients with CHCC in Beijing YouAn Hospital from June 2012 to May 2020. A total of 109 patients with CHCC and 42 patients with PCCCL were randomly divided into the training validation set and the test set in a ratio of 4:1.The Faster RCNN was used for deep learning of patients' data in the training validation set, and established a convolutional neural network model to distinguish PCCCL and CHCC. The accuracy, average precision, and the recall of the model for diagnosing PCCCL and CHCC were used to evaluate the detection performance of the Faster RCNN algorithm.@*RESULTS@#A total of 4392 images of 121 patients (1032 images of 33 patients with PCCCL and 3360 images of 88 patients with CHCC) were uesd in test set for deep learning and establishing the model, and 1072 images of 30 patients (320 images of nine patients with PCCCL and 752 images of 21 patients with CHCC) were used to test the model. The accuracy of the model for accurately diagnosing PCCCL and CHCC was 0.962 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.931-0.992). The average precision of the model for diagnosing PCCCL was 0.908 (95% CI: 0.823-0.993) and that for diagnosing CHCC was 0.907 (95% CI: 0.823-0.993). The recall of the model for diagnosing PCCCL was 0.951 (95% CI: 0.916-0.985) and that for diagnosing CHCC was 0.960 (95% CI: 0.854-0.962). The time to make a diagnosis using the model took an average of 4 s for each patient.@*CONCLUSION@#The Faster RCNN model can accurately distinguish PCCCL and CHCC. This model could be important for clinicians to make appropriate treatment plans for patients with PCCCL or CHCC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Neural Networks, Computer
19.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2229-2242, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007608

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world. The ubiquitin-specific peptidase 25 (USP25) protein has been reported to participate in the development of several cancers. However, few studies have reported its association with HCC. In this study, we aimed to investigate the function and mechanism of USP25 in the progression of HCC.@*METHODS@#We analyzed USP25 protein expression in HCC based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) database cohorts. Then, we constructed USP25-overexpressing and USP25-knockdown HepG2, MHCC97H, and L-O2 cells. We detected the biological function of USP25 by performing a series of assays, such as Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), colony formation, transwell, and wound healing assays. Western blotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses were performed to detect the interaction between USP25 and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. The relationship between USP25 and tripartite motif-containing 21 (TRIM21) was assessed through mass spectrometry and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) analysis. Finally, we constructed a mouse liver cancer model with the USP25 gene deletion to verify in vivo role of USP25.@*RESULTS@#USP25 was highly expressed in HCC tissue and HCC cell lines. Importantly, high expression of USP25 in tissues was closely related to a poor prognosis. USP25 knockdown markedly reduced the proliferation, migration, and invasion of HepG2 and MHCC97H cells, whereas USP25 overexpression led to the opposite effects. In addition, we demonstrated that USP25 interacts with TRIM21 to regulate the expression of proteins related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT; E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and Snail) and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway (β-catenin, Adenomatous polyposis coli, Axin2 and Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta) and those of their downstream proteins (C-myc and Cyclin D1). Finally, we verified that knocking out USP25 inhibited tumor growth and distant metastasis in vivo .@*CONCLUSIONS@#In summary, our data showed that USP25 was overexpressed in HCC. USP25 promoted the proliferation, migration, invasion, and EMT of HCC cells by interacting with TRIM21 to activate the β-catenin signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , beta Catenin/genetics , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement/genetics , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/metabolism , Wnt Signaling Pathway/genetics
20.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2066-2076, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007579

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Glutamine synthetase (GS) and arginase 1 (Arg1) are widely used pathological markers that discriminate hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma; however, their clinical significance in HCC remains unclear.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively analyzed 431 HCC patients: 251 received hepatectomy alone, and the other 180 received sorafenib as adjuvant treatment after hepatectomy. Expression of GS and Arg1 in tumor specimens was evaluated using immunostaining. mRNA sequencing and immunostaining to detect progenitor markers (cytokeratin 19 [CK19] and epithelial cell adhesion molecule [EpCAM]) and mutant TP53 were also conducted.@*RESULTS@#Up to 72.4% (312/431) of HCC tumors were GS positive (GS+). Of the patients receiving hepatectomy alone, GS negative (GS-) patients had significantly better overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) than GS+ patients; negative expression of Arg1, which is exclusively expressed in GS- hepatocytes in the healthy liver, had a negative effect on prognosis. Of the patients with a high risk of recurrence who received additional sorafenib treatment, GS- patients tended to have better RFS than GS+ patients, regardless of the expression status of Arg1. GS+ HCC tumors exhibit many features of the established proliferation molecular stratification subtype, including poor differentiation, high alpha-fetoprotein levels, increased progenitor tumor cells, TP53 mutation, and upregulation of multiple tumor-related signaling pathways.@*CONCLUSIONS@#GS- HCC patients have a better prognosis and are more likely to benefit from sorafenib treatment after hepatectomy. Immunostaining of GS may provide a simple and applicable approach for HCC molecular stratification to predict prognosis and guide targeted therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/metabolism , Sorafenib/therapeutic use , Liver Neoplasms/metabolism , Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase/metabolism , Hepatectomy , Retrospective Studies , Prognosis , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery
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