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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010112

ABSTRACT

V-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF) alteration is one of the most essential driver genes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). BRAF encodes serine/threonine protein kinases, and its mutations typically lead to protein compositional activation, thereby activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) signaling pathway. A promising new approach for the treatment of mutated BRAF and/or downstream MEK may provide customized treatment opportunities for BRAF driven NSCLC patients. However, combination therapy is necessary to overcome the difficulties such as short duration of benefit, poor therapeutic effect of non-V600 BRAF mutations and susceptibility to drug resistance. This article reviewed the progress in structural characteristics, related signaling pathways, mutation types of BRAF gene, and the clinical pathological relationship between BRAF mutations and NSCLC, as well as the therapy, in order to provide more evidences for clinical doctors to make treatment decisions.
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Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Mutation , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases/therapeutic use , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010111

ABSTRACT

Granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (G-MDSCs) are one of the main subgroups of MDSCs, which are widely enriched in most cancers. It can inhibit the killing function of T-lymphocyte through the expression of arginase-1 (Arg-1) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), reshape the tumor immune microenvironment, and promote the occurrence and development of tumors. In recent years, more and more studies have found that G-MDSCs are significantly correlated with the prognosis and immunotherapy efficacy of patients with non-small cell lung cancer, and the use of drugs specifically targeting the recruitment, differentiation and function of G-MDSCs can effectively inhibit tumor progression. This article reviews the immunosuppressive effect of G-MDSCs in non-small cell lung cancer and the progress of related pathway targeting drugs.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , T-Lymphocytes , Immunotherapy , Tumor Microenvironment
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010110

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#With the rise of multicolor flow cytometry, flow cytometry has become an important means to detect the immune microenvironment of lung cancer, but most of them are used to detect the proportion of cell subsets or the function of major cell subsets, and they cannot be detected at the same time. Therefore, a reliable 21-color flow cytometry protocol was established to detect the immune cell subsets in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumor tissues.@*METHODS@#Cell membrane surface antibodies cluster of differentiation (CD)45, CD3, CD19, CD4, CD8, programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), CD39, CD103, CD25, CD127, chemokine receptor 8 (CCR8), CD56, CD11c, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, CD38, CD27, CD69, CD62L, CD45RA, CCR7 and nucleic acid dye L/D were used to develop the protocol. Firstly, antibody titration experiments, voltage optimization, subtraction of one color staining and single color staining experiments were carried out for each antibody, and after the experimental conditions and detection schemes were determined, the feasibility of the scheme was verified by using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) specimens of six healthy adult volunteers. Tumor tissue samples from 6 NSCLC patients were tested and analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The established 21-color flow cytometry protocol was used to detect the tumor tissue samples of 6 NSCLC patients, and the proportion of each cell subset in lung cancer tissue, as well as the immunophenotype and differentiation of the main cell population, were analyzed.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The successfully established 21-color flow cytometry protocol is suitable for the detection of PBMCs and NSCLC tissue samples, which provides an effective new idea for monitoring the immune microenvironment status in lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Flow Cytometry , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/pathology , Lung/pathology , Tumor Microenvironment
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Radiation therapy is one of the most common treatments for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the insensitivity of some tumor cells to radiation is one of the major reasons for the poor efficacy of radiotherapy and the poor prognosis of patients, and exploring the underlying mechanisms behind radioresistance is the key to solving this clinical challenge. This study aimed to identify the molecules associated with radioresistance in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), identified thyroid hormone receptor interactor 13 (TRIP13) as the main target initially, and explored whether TRIP13 is related to radioresistance in LUAD and the specific mechanism, with the aim of providing theoretical basis and potential targets for the combination therapy of LUAD patients receiving radiotherapy in the clinic.@*METHODS@#Three datasets, GSE18842, GSE19188 and GSE33532, were selected from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and screened for differentially expressed genes (|log FC|>1.5, P<0.05) in each of the three datasets using the R 4.1.3 software, and then Venn diagram was used to find out the differentially expressed genes common to the three datasets. The screened differential genes were then subjected to protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis and module analysis with the help of STRING online tool and Cytoscape software, and survival prognosis analysis was performed for each gene with the help of Kaplan-Meier Plotter database, and the TRIP13 gene was identified as the main molecule for subsequent studies. Subsequently, the human LUAD cell line H292 was irradiated with multiple X-rays using a sub-lethal dose irradiation method to construct a radioresistant cell line, H292DR. The radioresistance of H292DR cells was verified using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and clone formation assay. The expression levels of TRIP13 in H292 and H292DR cells were measured by Western blot. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to silence the expression of TRIP13 in H292DR cells and Western blot assay was performed. The clone formation ability and migration ability of H292DR cells were observed after TRIP13 silencing, followed by the detection of changes in the expression levels of proteins closely related to homologous recombination, such as ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein.@*RESULTS@#Screening of multiple GEO datasets, validation of external datasets and survival analysis revealed that TRIP13 was highly expressed in LUAD and was associated with poor prognosis in LUAD patients who had received radiation therapy. And the results of gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of TRIP13 suggested that TRIP13 might be closely associated with LUAD radioresistance by promoting homologous recombination repair after radiation therapy. Experimentally, TRIP13 expression was found to be upregulated in H292DR, and silencing of TRIP13 was able to increase the sensitivity of H292DR cells to radiation.@*CONCLUSIONS@#TRIP13 is associated with poor prognosis in LUAD patients treated with radiation, possibly by promoting a homologous recombination repair pathway to mediate resistance of LUAD cells to radiation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/radiotherapy , Cell Count , Combined Modality Therapy , ATPases Associated with Diverse Cellular Activities , Cell Cycle Proteins
5.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 934-942, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010101

ABSTRACT

Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are currently the first-line standard of care for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that harbor EGFR mutations. Nevertheless, resistance to EGFR-TKIs is inevitable. In recent years, although immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have significantly shifted the treatment paradigm in advanced NSCLC without driver mutation, clinical benefits of these agents are limited in patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC. Compared with wild-type tumors, tumors with EGFR mutations show more heterogeneity in the expression level of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), tumor mutational burden (TMB), and other tumor microenvironment (TME) characteristics. Whether ICIs are suitable for NSCLC patients with EGFR mutations is still worth exploring. In this review, we summarized the clinical data with regard to the efficacy of ICIs in patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC and deciphered the unique TME in EGFR-mutated NSCLC.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , ErbB Receptors/metabolism , Immunotherapy , Mutation , B7-H1 Antigen/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Tumor Microenvironment
6.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 910-918, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010099

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The thoracic small biopsy sampling procedure including transbronchial forceps lung biopsy (TBLB) and endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) can be accompanied by rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) of sample material to provide immediate feedback for the proceduralist. The present study aims to investigate the supplemental effect of ROSE smear samples for lung cancer molecular test.@*METHODS@#In a retrospective study, 308 patients admitted to our hospital from August 2020 to December 2022 undergoing diagnostic TBLB and EBUS-TBNA with ROSE and subsequently diagnosed as non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were analyzed. The matched formalin-fixed paraffin-embedding (FFPE) tissue section and ROSE smears for tumor cellularity were compared. DNA yields of smears were determined. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) were performed on adequate smear samples.@*RESULTS@#ROSE smear samples were enriched in tumor cells. Among 308 biopsy samples, 78 cases (25.3%) exhibited inadequate FFPE tissue sections, whereas 44 cases (14.3%) yielded adequate smear samples. Somatic mutations detected in the FFPE tissue section samples were also detected in the matching adequate smear sample.@*CONCLUSIONS@#ROSE smear samples of the thoracic small biopsies are beneficial supplemental materials for ancillary testing of lung cancer. Combined use of cytology smear samples with traditional FFPE section samples can enhance the detection rate of informative mutations in patients with advanced NSCLC. We recommend that the laboratory could further evaluate the ROSE cell smears of the patient when FFPE tissue sections are inadequate, and that adequate cell smears can be used as a supplemental source for the molecular testing of NSCLC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Rapid On-site Evaluation , Retrospective Studies , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration/methods
7.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 881-888, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010097

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Drug resistance is the main cause of high mortality of lung cancer. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of folic acid (FA) on the resistance of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells to Osimertinib (OSM) by regulating the methylation of dual specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1).@*METHODS@#The OSM resistant NSCLC cell line PC9R was establishd by gradually escalation of OSM concentration in PC9 cells. PC9R cells were randomly grouped into Control group, OSM group (5 μmol/L OSM), FA group (600 nmol/L FA), methylation inhibitor decitabine (DAC) group (10 μmol/L DAC), FA+OSM group (600 nmol/L FA+5 μmol/L OSM), and FA+OSM+DAC group (600 nmol/L FA+5 μmol/L OSM+10 μmol/L DAC). CCK-8 method was applied to detect cell proliferation ability. Scratch test was applied to test the ability of cell migration. Transwell assay was applied to detect cell invasion ability. Flow cytometry was applied to measure and analyze the apoptosis rate of cells in each group. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) method was applied to detect the expression level of DUSP1 mRNA in cells. Methylation specific PCR (MSP) was applied to detect the methylation status of the DUSP1 promoter region in each group. Western blot was applied to analyze the expression levels of DUSP1 protein and key proteins in the DUSP1 downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in each group.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the Control group, the cell OD450 values (48 h, 72 h), scratch healing rate, number of cell invasions, and expression of DUSP1 in the OSM group were obviously decreased (P<0.05); the apoptosis rate, the methylation level of DUSP1, the expression of p38 MAPK protein, and the phosphorylation level of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) were obviously increased (P<0.05); the cell OD450 values (48, 72 h), scratch healing rate, number of cell invasions, and expression of DUSP1 in the DAC group were obviously increased (P<0.05); the apoptosis rate, the expression of p38 MAPK protein, the phosphorylation level of ERK, and the methylation level of DUSP1 were obviously reduced (P<0.05). Compared with the OSM group, the cell OD450 values (48, 72 h), scratch healing rate, number of cell invasions, and expression of DUSP1 in the FA+OSM group were obviously decreased (P<0.05); the apoptosis rate, the methylation level of DUSP1, the expression of p38 MAPK protein, and the phosphorylation level of ERK were obviously increased (P<0.05). Compared with the FA+OSM group, the cell OD450 values (48, 72 h), scratch healing rate, number of cell invasions, and expression of DUSP1 in the FA+OSM+DAC group were obviously increased; the apoptosis rate, the methylation level of DUSP1, the expression of p38 MAPK protein, and the phosphorylation level of ERK were obviously reduced (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#FA may inhibit DUSP1 expression by enhancing DUSP1 methylation, regulate downstream MAPK signal pathway, then promote apoptosis, inhibit cell invasion and metastasis, and ultimately reduce OSM resistance in NSCLC cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/pharmacology , Methylation , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010573

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide and is the most common cancer in males. Immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) that target programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) or programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) have achieved impressive efficacy in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (Pardoll, 2012; Champiat et al., 2016; Gao et al., 2022). Although ICIs are usually well tolerated, they are often accompanied by immune-related adverse events (irAEs) (Doroshow et al., 2019). Non-specific activation of the immune system produces off-target immune and inflammatory responses that can affect virtually any organ or system (O'Kane et al., 2017; Puzanov et al., 2017). Compared with adverse events caused by chemotherapy, irAEs are often characterized by delayed onset and prolonged duration and can occur in any organ at any stage of treatment, including after cessation of treatment (Puzanov et al., 2017; von Itzstein et al., 2020). They range from rash, pneumonitis, hypothyroidism, enterocolitis, and autoimmune hepatitis to cardiovascular, hematological, renal, neurological, and ophthalmic irAEs (Nishino et al., 2016; Kumar et al., 2017; Song et al., 2020). Hence, we conducted a retrospective study to identify validated factors that could predict the magnitude of the risk of irAEs in patients receiving PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors; our approach was to analyze the correlation between the clinical characteristics of patients at the start of treatment and relevant indicators such as hematological indices and the risk of developing irAEs. Then, we developed an economical, practical, rapid, and simple model to assess the risk of irAEs in patients receiving ICI treatment, as early as possible.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor , Retrospective Studies , Apoptosis
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008121

ABSTRACT

Objective To develop a CT-based weighted radiomic model that predicts tumor response to programmed death-1(PD-1)/PD-ligand 1(PD-L1)immunotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.Methods The patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated by PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitors in the Peking Union Medical College Hospital from June 2015 to February 2022 were retrospectively studied and classified as responders(partial or complete response)and non-responders(stable or progressive disease).Original radiomic features were extracted from multiple intrapulmonary lesions in the contrast-enhanced CT scans of the arterial phase,and then weighted and summed by an attention-based multiple instances learning algorithm.Logistic regression was employed to build a weighted radiomic scoring model and the radiomic score was then calculated.The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve(AUC)was used to compare the weighted radiomic scoring model,PD-L1 model,clinical model,weighted radiomic scoring + PD-L1 model,and comprehensive prediction model.Results A total of 237 patients were included in the study and randomized into a training set(n=165)and a test set(n=72),with the mean ages of(64±9)and(62±8)years,respectively.The AUC of the weighted radiomic scoring model reached 0.85 and 0.80 in the training set and test set,respectively,which was higher than that of the PD-L1-1 model(Z=37.30,P<0.001 and Z=5.69,P=0.017),PD-L1-50 model(Z=38.36,P<0.001 and Z=17.99,P<0.001),and clinical model(Z=11.40,P<0.001 and Z=5.76,P=0.016).The AUC of the weighted scoring model was not different from that of the weighted radiomic scoring + PD-L1 model and the comprehensive prediction model(both P>0.05).Conclusion The weighted radiomic scores based on pre-treatment enhanced CT images can predict tumor responses to immunotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , B7-H1 Antigen/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Immunotherapy
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2562-2572, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007708

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Lung cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide, with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounting for the majority of cases. Patients with NSCLC have achieved great survival benefits from immunotherapies targeting immune checkpoints. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are frequently used for palliation of cancer-associated symptoms, as supportive care for non-cancer-associated symptoms, and for management of immune-related adverse events (irAEs). The aim of this study was to clarify the safety and prognostic significance of glucocorticoid use in advanced patients with NSCLC treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs).@*METHODS@#The study searched publications from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, China Biology Medicine disc, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data, and Chinese Science and Technology Journal Database up to March 1st, 2022, and conducted a meta-analysis to assess the effects of glucocorticoid use on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in NSCLC patients treated with ICIs through the available data. The study calculated the pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).@*RESULTS@#This study included data from 25 literatures that were mainly retrospective, with 8713 patients included. Patients taking GCs had a higher risk for tumor progression and death compared with those not taking GCs (PFS: HR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.33-1.86, P <0.001; OS: HR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.41-1.88, P <0.001). GCs used for cancer-associated symptoms caused an obviously negative effect on both PFS and OS (PFS: HR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.32-2.29, P <0.001; OS: HR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.52-2.04, P <0.001). However, GCs used for irAEs management did not negatively affect prognosis (PFS: HR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.46-1.00, P = 0.050; OS: HR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.34-0.83, P = 0.005), and GCs used for non-cancer-associated indications had no effect on prognosis (PFS: HR = 0.92, 95%CI: 0.63-1.32, P = 0.640; OS: HR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.59-1.41, P = 0.680).@*CONCLUSIONS@#In advanced NSCLC patients treated with ICIs, the use of GCs for palliation of cancer-associated symptoms may result in a worse PFS and OS, indicating that they increase the risk of tumor progression and death. But, in NSCLC patients treated with ICIs, the use of GCs for the management of irAEs may be safe, and the use of GCs for the treatment of non-cancer-associated symptoms may not affect the ICIs' survival benefits. Therefore, it is necessary to be careful and evaluate indications rationally before administering GCs in individualized clinical management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies
11.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2156-2165, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007648

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are standard treatments for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, evidence regarding their relative efficacy and safety is lacking. This study compared the efficacy and safety of all currently available ICI treatments in patients with advanced NSCLC to identify optimal treatment regimens.@*METHODS@#PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, and Embase databases were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to August 8, 2022. The primary outcomes were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary outcomes included objective response rate (ORR) and adverse events (AEs).@*RESULTS@#Forty RCTs involving 22,526 patients were selected, and a total of 26 treatment regimens were identified. Treatment with anti-programmed cell death protein-1 (anti-PD-1) provided superior OS compared with anti-programmed death ligand 1 (anti-PD-L1) treatment. ICIs plus platinum-based chemotherapy (PBC) were superior to ICIs treatment alone, although the addition of PBC increased treatment toxicity. Cemiplimab ranked first for OS and lowest for any-grade AEs in advanced NSCLC patients without PD-L1 selection. Regarding grade ≥3 AEs, the toxicity of ICI monotherapy or ICI-ICI combination was consistently lower than that of the other treatments. For patients without PD-L1 selection, cemiplimab showed the best OS, pembrolizumab plus docetaxel (Pem-DXT) showed the best PFS, and atezolizumab plus bevacizumab and PBC (Atezo-Beva-PBC) showed the best ORR. Pembrolizumab plus PBC and Atezo-Beva-PBC were the most likely optimal treatments for OS and PFS in patients with PD-L1 expression <1%, respectively. In patients with PD-L1 expression ≥1%, treatment regimens containing anti-PD-1 provided superior OS benefits compared with those of anti-PD-L1 treatment, and sintilimab plus PBC (Sint-PBC) provided the best OS benefit; as for PFS, ICI plus PBC consistently showed greater PFS benefits than ICI or PBC alone. For patients with anti-PD-L1 expression of 1-49%, camrelizumab plus PBC provided the best benefit for OS and PFS among included treatment. Durvalumab-tremelimumab-PBC and Atezo-Beva-PBC respectively presented the highest OS and PFS for patients with PD-L1 expression ≥50%. Moreover, cemiplimab and Atezo-Beva-PBC yielded the best OS and PFS benefits as first-line treatments for patients with advanced NSCLC, respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Although ICI plus PBC likely resulted in superior survival outcomes compared to ICI treatment alone, it did increase toxicity. Cemiplimab presented a well-balanced efficacy and safety profile in advanced NSCLC treatment. Our findings with the current ICIs comparisons will aid future trials for cancer immunotherapy.@*REGISTRATION@#PROSPERO, https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/ , CRD42022323879.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Network Meta-Analysis , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy
12.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2776-2786, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007602

ABSTRACT

Epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ) mutations are common oncogenic driver mutations in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The application of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is beneficial for patients with advanced and early-stage NSCLC. With the development of next-generation sequencing technology, numerous patients have been found to have more than one genetic mutation in addition to a single EGFR mutation; however, the efficacy of conventional EGFR-TKIs and the optimal treatments for such patients remain largely unknown. Thus, we review the incidence, prognosis, and current treatment regimens of EGFR compound mutations and EGFR concomitant mutations to provide treatment recommendations and guidance for patients with these mutations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Mutation/genetics , ErbB Receptors
13.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1765-1782, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007580

ABSTRACT

Immune escape mechanisms in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can disrupt every step of the anti-cancer immune response. In recent years, an increased understanding of the specific mechanisms fueling immune escape has allowed for the development of numerous immunotherapeutic treatments that have been introduced into the clinical practice. The advent of immunotherapy has dramatically changed the current treatment landscape of advanced or metastatic NSCLC because of its durable efficacy and manageable toxicity. In this review, we will first present a brief overview of recent evidence on immune escape mechanisms in NSCLC. We will then discuss the current promising immunotherapeutic strategies in advanced or metastatic NSCLC tumors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Immunotherapy
14.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2551-2561, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007566

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The brain is a common metastatic site in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), resulting in a relatively poor prognosis. Systemic therapy with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is recommended as the first-line treatment for EGFR -mutated, advanced NSCLC patients. However, intracranial activity varies in different drugs. Thus, brain metastasis (BM) should be considered when choosing the treatment regimens. We conducted this network meta-analysis to explore the optimal first-line therapeutic schedule for advanced EGFR -mutated NSCLC patients with different BM statuses.@*METHODS@#Randomized controlled trials focusing on EGFR-TKIs (alone or in combination) in advanced and EGFR -mutant NSCLC patients, who have not received systematic treatment, were systematically searched up to December 2021. We extracted and analyzed progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). A network meta-analysis was performed with the Bayesian statistical model to determine the survival outcomes of all included therapy regimens using the R software. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to compare intervention measures, and overall rankings of therapies were estimated under the Bayesian framework.@*RESULTS@#This analysis included 17 RCTs with 5077 patients and 12 therapies, including osimertinib + bevacizumab, aumolertinib, osimertinib, afatinib, dacomitinib, standards of care (SoC, including gefitinib, erlotinib, or icotinib), SoC + apatinib, SoC + bevacizumab, SoC + ramucirumab, SoC + pemetrexed based chemotherapy (PbCT), PbCT, and pemetrexed free chemotherapy (PfCT). For patients with BM, SoC + PbCT improved PFS compared with SoC (HR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.17-0.95), and osimertinib + bevacizumab was most likely to rank first in PFS, with a cumulative probability of 34.5%, followed by aumolertinib, with a cumulative probability of 28.3%. For patients without BM, osimertinib + bevacizumab, osimertinib, aumolertinib, SoC + PbCT, dacomitinib, SoC + ramucirumab, SoC + bevacizumab, and afatinib showed superior efficacy compared with SoC (HR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.20-0.90; HR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.31-0.68; HR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.34-0.77; HR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.38-0.66; HR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.43-0.89; HR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.44-0.94; HR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.48-0.76; HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.50-1.00), PbCT (HR = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.11-0.74; HR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.15-0.62; HR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.17-0.69; HR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.18-0.64; HR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.21-0.82; HR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.22-0.87; HR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.22-0.74; HR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.31-0.75), and PfCT (HR = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.06-0.32; HR = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.09-0.26; HR = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.09-0.29; HR = 0.16, 95% CI: 0.10-0.26; HR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.12-0.35; HR = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.12-0.39; HR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.12-0.31; HR = 0.23, 95% CI: 0.16-0.34) in terms of PFS. And, SoC + apatinib showed relatively superior PFS when compared with PbCT (HR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.22-0.92) and PfCT (HR = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.12-0.39), but similar PFS to SoC (HR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.42-1.03). No statistical differences were observed for PFS in patients without BM between PbCT and SoC (HR = 1.49, 95% CI: 0.84-2.64), but both showed favorable PFS when compared with PfCT (PfCT vs. SoC, HR = 3.09, 95% CI: 2.06-4.55; PbCT vs. PfCT, HR = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.06-0.32). For patients without BM, osimertinib + bevacizumab was most likely to rank the first, with cumulative probabilities of 47.1%. For OS, SoC + PbCT was most likely to rank first in patients with and without BM, with cumulative probabilities of 46.8%, and 37.3%, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#Osimertinib + bevacizumab is most likely to rank first in PFS in advanced EGFR -mutated NSCLC patients with or without BM, and SoC + PbCT is most likely to rank first in OS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/metabolism , Afatinib/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism , Bevacizumab/therapeutic use , Bayes Theorem , Network Meta-Analysis , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pemetrexed/therapeutic use , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Brain Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation/genetics
15.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 991-1002, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007382

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in China. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common histological type of lung cancer. Mutations of driver genes have major impacts on incidence and progression of lung cancer. Advances in molecular biology research and clinical research have promoted the discovery of rare tumor driver genes, as well as the development and application of new targeted drugs. Nearly 1% to 2% of NSCLCs harbor RET fusions, and this patient population may not respond well to traditional treatments like chemotherapy or radiation therapy. After the new highly selective RET inhibitors pralsetinib (BLU-667) and selpercatinib (LOXO-292) entered clinical application, the diagnosis and treatment of RET fusion positive NSCLC has made breakthrough progress. At present, there is a lack of guiding consensus on the standardized diagnosis and treatment of RET fusion-positive NSCLC in China. The Society of Cancer Precision of Chinese Anti-Cancer Association and Lung Cancer Expert Group of Chinese Medical Journal, invited 38 experts form respiratory medicine, medical oncology, oncology radiotherapy and pathology to form a consensus development group. Based on the existing research evidence, combined with China's clinical practice experience, a standardized process for the diagnosis and treatment of advanced RET fusion-positive NSCLC is proposed, including suitable populations and methods for RET gene fusion, treatment drug selection, treatment of resistance to highly selective RET inhibitors, and management of adverse reactions to treatment, with a view to providing guidance for clinicians.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , China , Consensus , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret/genetics
16.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 717-740, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007377

ABSTRACT

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with oncogenic driver mutations was previously deemed " forbidden territory" for immunotherapy. With the growing understanding of the impact of target drugs on the immune microenvironment and the continuous generation of clinical evidence, immunotherapy is expected to bring new hope for the NSCLC with oncogenic driver mutations. This consensus is updated based on the Chinese expert consensus on immunotherapy for advanced non-small lung cancer with oncogenic driver mutations (2022 edition), and developed by the consensus expert panel through symposiums, combining the latest medical evidence and clinical practice. After thorough discussion, the expert panel reached new consensuses on 3 clinical questions: in patients with ALK fusion who are progressing on tyrosine kinase inhibitor(TKI) therapy, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs)-based treatment is not recommended; ICIs-based treatment is recommended for patients with HER-2 mutations; ICIs-based treatment is recommended for NSCLC patients with MET exon 14 skipping after resistance to the targeted therapy. At the same time, with the continuous accumulation of clinical evidence, the recommendation levels of the three consensus opinions were adjusted in this update: the recommendation of ICIs combined with anti-angiogenesis therapy for patients with extensive progression after EGFR-TKIs resistance was adjusted to the level of strong; the ICIs recommendations for patients with advanced KRAS mutant and BRAF mutant NSCLC were adjusted to the level of consistent and strong, respectively. This updated consensus, combined with the latest evidence and clinical experience widely recognized by the expert panel in the immunotherapy of driver gene mutation advanced NSCLC, aims to provide standardized guidance for the clinical practice in China.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Consensus , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation , Tumor Microenvironment , China
17.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1422-1429, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980945

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are increasingly used as first-line therapy for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring no actionable mutations; however, data on their efficacy among patients presenting with intracranial lesions are limited. This study aimed to explore the efficacy and safety of ICIs combined with chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC patients with measurable brain metastasis at initial diagnosis.@*METHODS@#Our study retrospectively analyzed clinical data of a total of 211 patients diagnosed with driver gene mutation-negative advanced NSCLC with measurable, asymptomatic brain metastasis at baseline from Hunan Cancer Hospital between January 1, 2019 and September 30, 2021. The patients were stratified into two groups according to the first-line treatment regimen received: ICI combined with chemotherapy ( n = 102) or chemotherapy ( n = 109). Systemic and intracranial objective response rates (ORRs) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed. Adverse events were also compared between the groups.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the chemotherapy-based regimen, the ICI-containing regimen was associated with a significantly higher intracranial (44.1% [45/102] vs . 28.4% [31/109], χ2 = 5.620, P = 0.013) and systemic (49.0% [50/102] vs . 33.9% [37/109], χ2 = 4.942, P = 0.019) ORRs and longer intracranial (11.0 months vs . 7.0 months, P <0.001) and systemic (9.0 months vs . 5.0 months, P <0.001) PFS. Multivariable analysis consistently revealed an independent association between receiving ICI plus platinum-based chemotherapy as a first-line regimen and prolonged intracranial PFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.37-0.73, P <0.001) and systemic PFS (HR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.35-0.66, P <0.001). No unexpected serious adverse effects were observed.@*CONCLUSION@#Our study provides real-world clinical evidence that ICI combined with chemotherapy is a promising first-line treatment option for driver gene mutation-negative advanced NSCLC patients who present with brain metastasis at initial diagnosis.@*CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION@#https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ , OMESIA, NCT05129202.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Brain Neoplasms/genetics
18.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1523-1531, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980918

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer has the highest risk of brain metastasis (BM) among all solid carcinomas. The emergence of BM has a significant impact on the selection of oncologic treatment for patients. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are the most promising treatment option for patients without druggable mutations and have been shown to improve survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) BM in clinical trials with good safety. Moreover, ICI has shown certain effects in NSCLC BM, and the overall intracranial efficacy is comparable to extracranial efficacy. However, a proportion of patients showed discordant responses in primary and metastatic lesions, suggesting that multiple mechanisms may exist underlying ICI activity in BM. According to studies pertaining to tumor immune microenvironments, ICIs may be capable of provoking immunity in situ . Meanwhile, systematic immune cells activated by ICIs can migrate into the central nervous system and exert antitumor effects. This review summarizes the present evidence for ICI treatment efficacy in NSCLC BM and proposes the possible mechanisms of ICI treatment for NSCLC BMs based on existing evidence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Brain Neoplasms/drug therapy , Carcinoma , Tumor Microenvironment
19.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 539-574, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980724

ABSTRACT

To standardize the prevention and clinical management of lung cancer, improve patients' survival outcomes, and offer professional insight for clinicians, the Oncology Society of Chinese Medical Association has summoned experts from departments of pulmonary medicine, oncology, thoracic surgery, radiotherapy, imaging, and pathology to formulate the Oncology Society of Chinese Medical Association guideline for clinical diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer in China (2023 edition) through consensus meetings. Updates in this edition include 1) cancer screening: deletion of high-risk traits of lung cancer based on epidemiological investigations in the Caucasian population, while preserving features confirmed by research on the Chinese population. Advice on screening institutions is also added to raise awareness of the merits and demerits of lung cancer screening through detailed illustrations. 2) Principles of histopathologic evaluation: characteristics of four types of neuroendocrine tumors (typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, large cell carcinoma, and small cell carcinoma) are reviewed. 3) Surgical intervention: more options of resection are available for certain peripheral lesions based on several clinical studies (CALGB140503, JCOG0802, JCOG1211). 4) neoadjuvant/adjuvant therapy: marked improvement in the prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients receiving neoadjuvant immunotherapy are reviewed; more options for consolidation immunotherapy after radiochemotherapy have also emerged. 5) Targeted and immune therapy: tyrosine kinase inhibitors of sensitive driver mutations such as EGFR and ALK as well as rare targets such as MET exon 14 skipping, RET fusion, ROS1 fusion, and NTRK fusion have been approved, offering more treatment options for clinicians and patients. Furthermore, multiple immune checkpoint inhibitors have been granted for the treatment of NSCLC and SCLC, resulting in prolonged survival of late-stage lung cancer patients. This guideline is established based on the current availability of domestically approved medications, recommendations of international guidelines, and present clinical practice in China as well as integration of the latest medical evidence of pathology, genetic testing, immune molecular biomarker detection, and treatment methods of lung cancer in recent years, to provide recommendations for professionals in clinical oncology, radiology, laboratory, and rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/therapy , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/therapeutic use , Early Detection of Cancer , Proto-Oncogene Proteins , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma , Carcinoid Tumor
20.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 279-290, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980722

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is the malignant tumor with the highest incidence and mortality rate in China, among which non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for about 85%. BRAF mutation occurs about 1.5% to 5.5% in NSCLC patients, while BRAF V600 accounts for about 30% to 50% of all BRAF mutations. The overall prognosis of patients with BRAF-mutation is poor. At present, there are many clinical trials on BRAF-mutation NSCLC and new drugs constantly emerging. However, there is no standardized consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of BRAF-mutation NSCLC in China. The expert group of the Lung Cancer Professional Committee of the Chinese Anti-Cancer Association formulated this consensus by integrating foreign and domestic BRAF-mutation-related guidelines, consensus, and existing clinical trials, and combining with Chinese experts' clinical experience in the diagnosis and treatment of BRAF-mutation NSCLC. This consensus provides systematic recommendations for the clinical diagnosis and treatment process, rational drug choice, and adverse events management of BRAF-mutation NSCLC, aiming to provide reference for the standard of diagnosis and treatment of BRAF-mutation NSCLC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Consensus , Mutation
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