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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982774


This case report has described a case of papillary carcinoma of thyroglossal duct in a young male. This patient was admitted with a mass in the anterior neck for 2 years. Preoperative Bultrasonography, CT and MR showed a subcutaneous cystic mass with irregular calcification shadow in the central region of the neck without obvious enhancement. Initial diagnosis was thyroglossal duct cyst, and was excised by Sistrunk under general anesthesia. The postoperative pathological examination showed thyroglossal duct cyst combined with thyroid papillary carcinoma, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry as thyroglossal duct papillary carcinoma.

Humans , Male , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Thyroglossal Cyst/surgery , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982752


Objective:To analyze the clinical significance of multigene assay in papillary thyroid carcinoma(PTC). Methods:Patients who underwent thyroidectomy in a tertiary hospital from August 2021 to May 2022 were enrolled. The eight-gene panel was used to detect the tumor tissue of patients, and the correlation between gene mutations and clinical features was analyzed. Results:Among 161 patients, mutation rate of BRAF V600E, RET/PTC1 and TERT promotor were 82.0%, 6.8% and 4.3%, respectively. BRAF V600E mutation was more common in male patients(P=0.023). TERT promotor-mutated tumors had a large diameter(P=0.019), a high proportion of multifocal lesions(P=0.050), and a large number of lymph node metastases(P=0.031). Among 89 patients who completed preoperative BRAF detection, there was a strong consistency between the preoperative aspiration test and postoperative panel(Cohen κ=0.694, 95%CI: 0.482-0.906, P<0.01). In the hematoxylin-eosin sections obtained from 80 patients, BRAF V600E was still the main type of gene mutation, and the classical/follicular type was more distributed. TERT promotor and RET/PTC1 mutation were the main genetic events for tall-cell/columnar/hobnail type and diffuse sclerosing type, respectively. One-way ANOVA showed that there were differences in diagnosis age(P=0.029) and tumor size(P<0.01) among different pathological types. Conclusion:As a simple and feasible clinical detection method for PTC, the multigene assay can supplement the identification of important genetic events other than BRAF V600E, and provide more prognostic information and follow-up hints for postoperative patients.

Humans , Male , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/genetics , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Clinical Relevance , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Mutation
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981279


Objective To evaluate extrathyroidal extension (ETE) in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) with three-dimensional tomographic ultrasound imaging (3D-TUI). Methods A total of 97 thyroid nodules of 79 patients with PTMC treated in PUMC Hospital from February 2016 to January 2018 were included in this study.Two ultrasound experts performed independent blinded assessment of the relationship between thyroid nodules and thyroid capsule by two-dimensional ultrasound (2D-US) and 3D-TUI.The results of 2D-US and 3D-TUI in evaluating ETE were compared with intraoperative findings and postoperative histological and pathological results. Results Among the 97 nodules,54 (55.7%) nodules had ETE.The diagnostic sensitivity (68.5% vs.37.0%;χ2=10.737,P=0.002),accuracy (74.5% vs.56.7%;χ2=6.686,P=0.015),and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve[0.761 (95%CI=0.677-0.845) vs.0.592 (95%CI=0.504-0.680);Z=3.500,P<0.001] of 3D-TUI were higher than those of 2D-US.However,3D-TUI and 2D-US showed no significant difference in the specificity (84.1% vs.81.4%;χ2=0.081,P=0.776),negative predictive value (67.9% vs.50.7%;χ2=3.645,P=0.066),or positive predictive value (84.1% vs.71.4%;χ2=1.663,P=0.240). Conclusion Compared with 2D-US,3D-TUI demonstrates increased diagnostic efficiency for ETE of PTMC.

Humans , Thyroid Nodule , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Ultrasonography/methods , Retrospective Studies
Autops. Case Rep ; 12: e2021352, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355721


Solid Papillary Carcinoma (SPC) of the breast is a rare tumor with an incidence of less than 1%, mainly affecting elderly females. It is morphologically characterized by well-defined nodules with low-grade nuclear features associated with fibrovascular cores and shows neuroendocrine differentiation. SPC can be in-situ or invasive but has a favorable prognosis. It is a morphological mimicker of some pre-malignant conditions leading to its frequent misdiagnosis. An appropriate immunohistochemical (IHC) panel workup helps in distinguishing this tumor from its various morphological mimics. In this report, we present one such case of SPC with a small focus of invasion, reviewing the literature.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Unilateral Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Diagnostic Errors
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 15(1): 19-22, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359334


El cáncer papilar constituye aproximadamente el 80% de todos los casos de cáncer de tiroides y el 85% de los tumores diferenciados. La variante de células altas representa el 1,3 al 12% del cáncer papilar siendo la variante agresiva más común de estos tumores. Posee un comportamiento agresivo, con mayor incidencia de invasión extratiroidea, linfovascular y metástasis a distancia, responsables de tasas de recurrencia más altas y peor pronóstico. Los casos aquí reportados reflejan las características que hacen sospechar mayor agresividad tumoral, desde el diagnóstico. Describimos dos pacientes de sexo femenino, entre 40 y 50 años, con historia de corta evolución, cuya presentación fue con síntomas de compresión locorregional y adenopatías metastásicas en cuello. Con hallazgos ecográficos e intraoperatorios de relevancia en cuanto la agresividad tumoral que hicieron sospechar la presencia de una variante agresiva del cáncer papilar. La histopatología de la variante de células altas posee una base molecular diferente respecto al papilar clásico que le confiere mayor morbi-mortalidad, constituyendo un factor de pronóstico independiente para la recurrencia. El tratamiento quirúrgico es la tiroidectomía total con vaciamiento profiláctico de los ganglios linfáticos centrales y eventualmente vaciamiento lateral de cuello según valoración preoperatoria, con posterior ablación postoperatoria de restos tiroideos mediante yodo radiactivo.

Papillary cancer constitutes approximately 80% of all thyroid cancer cases and 85% of differentiated tumors. The tall cell variant represents 1.3 to 12% of papillary cancers, being the most common aggressive variant of these tumors. It has an aggressive behavior, showing a higher incidence of extrathyroid and lymphovascular invasion and distant metastasis, responsible for higher recurrence rates and a worse prognosis. The cases reported here reflect characteristics that make us suspect tumor aggressiveness. These are female patients, between 40 and 70 years old, with a history of short evolution. They present locoregional symptoms or metastatic adenopathies, with ultrasound and intraoperative findings of relevance in terms of tumor aggressiveness that led to the suspicion of the presence of an aggressive variant of papillary cancer. The histopathology of the tall cell variant has a different molecular basis that confers its own morbidity and mortality, being an independent prognostic factor for recurrence. Total thyroidectomy is recommended with prophylactic dissection of the central lymph nodes and eventually lateral neck dissection according to preoperative evaluation followed by postoperative ablation with radioactive iodine.

Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/diagnosis , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
Rev. gastroenterol. Perú ; 40(3): 278-283, Jul-Sep 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144677


ABSTRACT Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) is a rare premalignant condition, defined as an epithelial neoplasm of the bile duct with exophytic papillary growth that can develop in any segment of the biliary tree. This pathology, with the highest prevalence in Asia, has been associated with the presence of hepatolithiasis and eastern liver infection (clonorchiasis). The diagnosis will depend on the clinical suspicion against the findings evidenced in the different diagnostic supports (invasive and non-invasive). Curative resection with negative margins is the treatment of choice in patients candidates for surgical management. In the event that the patient is not a candidate for curative resection, palliative treatment includes chemotherapy, percutaneous and endoscopic drainage, laser cholangioscopy ablation and intraluminal therapy with iridium 192. We present two cases of two patients with a diagnosis of IPNB confirmed by histology treated at our institution. The first case in an 86-year- old patient had a history of recurrent obstructive biliary syndrome and clinical suspicion of a new episode of cholangitis, and the second case in a 73-year-old patient who had a disseminated infectious process (spondylodiscitis, pelvic and intra-abdominal abscesses), and with the clinical suspicion of presenting a primary hepatobiliary focus. Both patients underwent single-operator cholangioscopy plus biopsy, confirming the diagnosis by histology. The first case was managed with palliative intent, indicating endoscopic diversion of the bile duct, while surgical management was indicated in the second case.

RESUMEN La neoplasia papilar intraductal de la vía biliar (NPIB) es una enfermedad premaligna poco frecuente, definida como una neoplasia epitelial de la vía biliar con crecimiento papilar exofítico que puede desarrollarse en cualquier segmento de la vía biliar. Esta patología, de mayor prevalencia en Asia, se ha asociado a la presencia de hepatolitiasis e infección hepática oriental (clonorquiasis). El diagnóstico dependerá de la sospecha clínica frente a los hallazgos evidenciados en los diferentes soportes diagnósticos (invasivos y no invasivos). La resección curativa con márgenes negativos es el tratamiento de elección en pacientes candidatos a manejo quirúrgico. En el caso de que el paciente no sea candidato a resección curativa, el tratamiento paliativo incluye quimioterapia, drenaje percutáneo y endoscópico, ablación por colangioscopia láser y terapia intraluminal con iridio 192. Presentamos dos casos de dos pacientes con diagnóstico de NPIB confirmado por histología tratado en nuestra institución. El primer caso de un paciente de 86 años con antecedentes de síndrome biliar obstructivo recurrente y cursando con un nuevo episodio y sospecha de colangitis aguda, y el segundo caso en un paciente de 73 años que presentaba un proceso infeccioso diseminado (espondilodiscitis, abscesos pélvicos e intraabdominales), con sospecha clínica de presentar un foco hepatobiliar primario. Ambos pacientes fueron sometidos a colangioscopia más biopsia, confirmando el diagnóstico por histología. El primer caso se manejó con intención paliativa, indicando derivación endoscópica de la vía biliar, mientras que en el segundo se indicó manejo quirúrgico.

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Bile Duct Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(1): 26-33, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056358


ABSTRACT Purpose: Clear cell papillary (CCP) renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a new subtype of RCC that was formally recognized by the International Society of Urological Pathology Vancouver Classification of Renal Neoplasia in 2013. Subsequently, CCP RCC was added to the 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs. In this study, we retrospectively investigated the computed tomography (CT) findings of pathologically diagnosed CCP RCC. Materials and Methods: This study included 12 patients pathologically diagnosed with CCP RCC at our institution between 2015 and 2017. We reviewed the patient's CT data and analyzed the characteristics. Results: Nine solid masses and 3 cystic masses with a mean tumor size of 22.7±9.2mm were included. Solid masses exhibited slight hyper-density on unenhanced CT with a mean value of 34±6 Hounsfield units (HU), good enhancement in the corticomedullary phase with a mean of 195±34HU, and washout in the nephrogenic phase with a mean of 133±29HU. The walls of cystic masses enhanced gradually during the corticomedullary and nephrogenic phases. Solid and cystic masses were preoperatively diagnosed as clear cell RCC and cystic RCC, respectively. Conclusions: The CT imaging characteristics of CCP RCCs could be categorized into either the solid or cystic type. These masses were diagnosed radiologically as clear cell RCC and cystic RCC, respectively.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Carcinoma, Papillary/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Kidney Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Immunohistochemistry , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Tumor Burden , Neoplasm Grading , Kidney Neoplasms , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 13(1): 17-19, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048802


INTRODUCCIÓN: Los quistes tiroglosos son las lesiones más comunes de la línea media cervical y se ha descrito el carcinoma papilar de tiroides en el 1%. Debido a su baja incidencia no existe un consenso acerca del tratamiento óptimo. Caso clínico: Paciente mujer de 34 años de edad consulta por aumento de volumen cervical doloroso y se evidencia nódulo doloroso en región cervical media. Ecografía de tiroides visualiza una lesión quística compleja. Se completa el estudio con tomografía computada del cuello con contraste que evidencia quiste del conducto tirogloso con compromiso inflamatorio-infeccioso, por lo que se decide cirugía. Biopsia evidencia cáncer papilar de 0.25 cm en quiste del conducto tirogloso, con bordes quirúrgicos negativos. Por bajo riesgo se decide control imagenológico estricto. DISCUSIÓN: Los quistes del conducto tirogloso comprenden las lesiones cervicales congénitas más frecuentes. Se presentan como masas indolentes y asintomáticas. El diagnóstico es confirmado mediante ecografía y la tomografía es utilizada para ampliar el estudio. La aparición de cáncer tiroideo en estos quistes es poco común, y generalmente son indistinguibles de las lesiones benignas en el preoperatorio. En relación al manejo del cáncer papilar en quiste del conducto tirogloso no existe un consenso de su tratamiento óptimo. Para los casos de bajo riesgo se sugiere control anual con TSH y ecografía tiroidea. Para aquellos pacientes de alto riesgo se sugiere tiroidectomía total y ablación de los restos tiroides con yodo radioactivo, con control anual con niveles de tiroglobulina. El pronóstico es excelente, con tasas de remisión que superan el 95%. CONCLUSIONES: Los carcinomas en quistes de conducto tirogloso son poco comunes y en la mayoría de los casos son lesiones diagnosticadas de manera incidental después de la resección quirúrgica. Para definir necesidad de tiroidectomía, debe realizarse estudio individualizado por un equipo multidisciplinario con amplia experiencia.

INTRODUCTION: Thyroglossal cysts are the most common affection of the cervical midline. Papillary carcinoma has been described in 1% of this cysts. Due to its low incidence a consensus on the optimal treatment does not exist. Clinical case: A 34 year old female with no relevant past medical history, presented with a painful cervical mass of many weeks of appearance. The thyroid ecography showed a complex cystic lesion and the cervical computed tomography with contrast evidenced a cyst of the thyroglossal duct with inflammatory and infectious findings. Surgery with no incidents was performed. Biopsy reported a 0.25 cm papillary cancer in the thyroglossal duct cyst, with negativa surgical margins. Strict follow up with imaging studies was decided. DISCUSSION: the thyroglossal duct cyst are the most common congenital cervical affections. Classically, they present as indolente, asyntomatic masses on the cervical midline. The diagnosis is confirmed with ecography and computed tomography is used to extent evaluation. Thyroid cancer in thyroglossal duct cyst is uncommon and generally indistinguishable from benign lesions in the preoperative phase. A consensus regarding the optimal management of this patients does not exist. For low risk cases, an anual control with THS and thyroid ecography is suggested. For patients with high risk a Sistrunk with total thyroidectomy and radioactive ablation of thyroids remnants is recommend. Follow up with anual thyroglubin levels should be performed. The prognostic is excellent, with more than 95% remission rates. CONCLUSSIONS: Thyroglossal duct cyst carcinomas are rare. In most cases, diagnosis is made incidentally after surgical resection. To decide wheter thyroidectomy is necessary each case should be analyzed individually by a multidisciplinary team with vast experience.

Humans , Female , Adult , Thyroglossal Cyst/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Papillary/diagnosis , Thyroglossal Cyst/surgery , Thyroglossal Cyst/pathology , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 47: e20202545, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1136550


ABSTRACT Introduction: papillary thyroid carcinoma is a tumor with good prognosis. However, some patients treated present neck recurrence. Objective: to evaluate the risk factors for neck recurrence. Methods: a retrospective study enrolled 89 patients (68 women and 21 men) diagnosed with papillary carcinoma who underwent total thyroidectomy. In 21 patients, neck dissection was performed and 62 patients underwent radioiodinetherapy. Twelve patients relapsed with metastasis in this period with an average of 3.6 years. Results: out of 89 patients, 76.4% were female. Relapse occurred in nine (13.23%) women and three (14.28%) men. The average age of the patients was 44 years in the control group and in patients with relapsed. Eighteen patients (23.37%) in the control group and eight (64.28%) who relapsed had positive lymph nodes at initial diagnosis. The tumor size was significantly larger in the group of patients with cervical recurrence (3.3cm vs. 1.6cm - p=0.008, Student t test), whereas the presence of metastatic lymph nodes at the moment of the first operation was also significant (p=0.004 -Fisher exact test). The tumor size was an independent risk factor for recurrence at the multivariate anaylsis (OR=2.4, IC95%:1.3-4.6 - p=0,007, logistic regression). Conclusion: there is an increase in the risk of lymph node recurrence during the follow up of 2.4 folds for each increase of 1cm in the longer nodule diameter.

RESUMO Introdução: o carcinoma papilífero da tireoide é um tumor com bom prognóstico. Entretanto, alguns pacientes tratados evoluem com recidiva cervical. Objetivo: avaliar os fatores de risco para recidiva cervical. Métodos: um estudo retrospectivo arrolou 89 pacientes (68 mulheres e 21 homens) diagnosticados com carcinoma papilífero, submetidos à tireoidectomia total. Em 21 pacientes, realizou esvaziamento cervical e, em 62, radioiodoterapia. Doze pacientes apresentaram recorrência linfonodal no período, com media de 3,6 anos. Resultados: dos 89 pacientes, 76,4% eram mulheres. A falha ocorreu em nove mulheres (13,23%) e três homens (14,28%). A média etária tanto dos pacientes recidivados como do grupo-controle foi de 44 anos. Dezoito pacientes (23,37%) no grupo-controle e oito (64,28%) dentre os que recidivaram tinham linfonodos positivos ao diagnóstico inicial. O tamanho tumoral foi significativamente maior no grupo de pacientes que apresentaram recidiva cervical (3,3 cm vs. 1,6cm - p=0,008, teste t de Student), o mesmo foi observado para a presença de linfonodos metastáticos quando da primeira cirurgia (p=0,004 - teste exato de Fisher). À análise multivariada, o tamanho tumoral foi fator de risco independente de recidiva (OR=2,4, IC95%:1,3-4,6 - p=0,007, regressão logística. Conclusão: para cada aumento de 1cm no maior diâmetro da lesão, há um aumento de 2,4 vezes no risco de recidiva linfonodal ao longo do acompanhamento.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Neck Dissection , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Prognosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 13(3): 105-109, 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117580


El carcinoma papilar de tiroides variante de células altas, descrito en 1976 por Hawk y Hazard, representa el 1% de los carcinomas diferenciados, siendo más agresivo e invasivo que la forma clásica y 80% de los casos se asocia con mutación B-RAF. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 49 años con tumoración dolorosa en cara anterolateral de cuello, que tuvo un crecimiento rápido, disfonía y lateralización del cuello a izquierda. En la ecografía de tiroides se vio en el lóbulo derecho un voluminoso nódulo mixto, predominantemente sólido, hipoecogénico, con micro calcificaciones, sin separación del plano graso con los músculos infra hioideos. Se realizó punción con aguja fina que resultó Bethesda VI. En valoración pre quirúrgico se encontró la parálisis de cuerda vocal derecha. Se realizó tiroidectomía total con vaciamiento central y lateral derecho. El estudio anatomo-patológico reportó un carcinoma papilar de tiroides variante de células altas de 33 x 40 x 27 mm en lóbulo derecho que contacta con la tinta china, evade la cápsula y presenta invasión perineural. Ocho ganglios de 18 analizados fueron metastásicos en el compartimento VI. Posteriormente se realizó rastreo corporal total con una dosis mínima de I131 y luego se administró 150 mCi de I131. El carcinoma papilar de tiroides, variante de células altas puede presentarse inicialmente con el compromiso locorregional y su correcto diagnóstico tiene implicancia en el pronóstico y su manejo terapéutico. Debemos pensar en variantes agresivas cuando al inicio ya encontramos elementos sugestivos de extensión extratiroidea, como en este reporte.

High-cell variant papillary thyroid carcinoma, described in 1976 by Hawk and Hazard, represents 1% of differentiated carcinomas, being more aggressive and invasive than the classic form, and 80% of cases is associated with a B-RAF mutation. We present the case of a 49-year-old woman with a painful tumor on the anterolateral side of the neck, who had rapid growth, dysphonia and lateralization of the neck to the left. On thyroid ultrasound, a voluminous mixed node, predominantly solid, hypo echogenic, with micro calcifications, without separation of the fat plane with the infrahyoid muscles, was seen in the right lobe. Fine needle puncture was performed, resulting in Bethesda VI. In pre-surgical evaluation, right vocal cord paralysis was found. Total thyroidectomy was performed with central and right lateral emptying. The pathology study reported a 33 x 40 x 27 mm high cell variant papillary thyroid carcinoma in the right lobe that contacted with the Chinese ink, evaded the capsule and presented perineural invasion. Eight lymph nodes out of 18 analyzed were metastatic in compartment VI. Subsequently, a total body scan wasperformed with a minimum dose of I131 and then 150 mCi of I131 was administered. Papillary thyroid carcinoma, a high-cell variant, may initially present with loco regional involvement and its correct diagnosis has implications for prognosis and therapeutic management. We must think of aggressive variants when at the beginning we already found elements suggestive of extra thyroid extension, as in this report.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/diagnostic imaging , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Iodine Radioisotopes/administration & dosage
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 12(3): 175-178, jul. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1006639


Los nódulos tiroideos suelen ser benignos en más del 95% de los casos y eutiroideos. La probabilidad de cáncer de tiroides en el hipertiroidismo es baja. Al enfrentarse a un nódulo tiroideo la importancia radica en excluir patología maligna, pero se debe mantener el orden en el algoritmo de estudio para evitar un diagnóstico incorrecto y caer en costos innecesarios. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 23 años de edad con hipertiroidismo que en la ecografía aparece un nódulo tiroideo y adenopatía derecha, ambos con elementos sospechosos de malignidad, por lo que se pide punción de ambas estructuras, y se confirma el carcinoma papilar en el nódulo tiroideo, no así en la adenopatía. En el centellograma se observa un nódulo caliente que coincide con el nódulo maligno. Se realiza biopsia intraoperatoria de la adenopatía sospechosa y resulta ser una metástasis de carcinoma papilar. Se procedió a la tiroidectomía total con vaciamiento ganglionar central y lateral derecho. La anatomía patológica confirmó la presencia del carcinoma papilar clásico con metástasis de la adenopatía sospechosa. Posteriormente se administraron 130 mCi de radioyodo. Se debe considerar que los carcinomas pueden enmascararse ocasionalmente como nódulos «calientes¼ en el centellograma y en este caso, si bien en principio no estaría indicada la punción con aguja fina del nódulo dado que es hipercaptante en el centellograma, la ecografía demuestra elementos sospechosos contundentes de malignidad. En este caso el hilo conductor fue la ecografía y se rompió con el esquema clásico en la solicitud de estudios paraclínicos, obteniendo finalmente la confirmación diagnóstica de un cáncer y se realizó el tratamiento adecuado del mismo.

Thyroid nodules are usually benign in more than 95% of cases and euthyroid. The likelihood of thyroid cancer in hyperthyroidism is low. When dealing with a thyroid nodule the importance lies in excluding malignant pathology, but order must be maintained in the study algorithm to avoid an incorrect diagnosis and to fall into unnecessary costs. We present the case of a 23-year-old woman with hyperthyroidism who presented a thyroid nodule and right adenopathy on ultrasound, both with suspicious elements of malignancy, so puncture of both structures was requested, and papillary carcinoma was confirmed in the thyroid nodule, but not in adenopathy. In the scintigraphy a hot nodule is observed that coincides with the malignant nodule. Intraoperative biopsy of the suspected adenopathy is performed and it turns out to be a metastasis of papillary carcinoma. Total thyroidectomy was performed with central and right lateral lymph node dissection. The pathological anatomy confirmed the presence of classic papillary carcinoma with metastasis of the suspected adenopathy. Subsequently, 130 mCi of radioiodine was administered. It should be considered that carcinomas can occasionally be masked as «hot¼ nodules in the scintigraphy and in this case, although in principle the fine needle puncture of the nodule is not indicated given that it is hypercaptant in the scintigraphy, the ultrasound shows blunt suspicious elements of malignancy. In this case, the common thread was ultrasound and it was broken with the classic scheme in the request for paraclinical studies, finally obtaining the diagnostic confirmation of a cancer and the appropriate treatment was carried out.

Humans , Female , Young Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Papillary/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Radionuclide Imaging , Ultrasonography , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m , Hyperthyroidism
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(2): 237-243, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001541


Abstract Introduction: For papillary thyroid microcarcinoma patients, the reported incidence of lymph node metastasis is as high as 40%, and these occur mainly in the central compartment of the neck. Because these metastases are difficult to detect using ultrasonography preoperatively, some authors advocate routine central neck dissection in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma patients at the time of initial thyroidectomy. Objective: To evaluate whether prophylactic central neck dissection can decrease the local recurrence rate of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma after thyroidectomy. Methods: The publicly available literature published from January 1990 to December 2017 concerning thyroidectomy plus prophylactic central neck dissection versus thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid microcarcinoma was retrieved by searching the national and international online databases. A meta-analysis was performed after the data extraction process. Results: Four studies were finally included with a total of 727 patients, of whom, 366 cases underwent thyroidectomy plus prophylactic central neck dissection and 361 cases received thyroidectomy only. As shown by the meta-analysis results, the recurrence rates in cases of thyroidectomy plus prophylactic central neck dissection were approximately 1.91% and were significantly lower than those with thyroidectomy only (OR = 0.24, 95% CI [0.10, 0.56], p = 0.0009). Conclusion: For patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma, thyroidectomy plus prophylactic central neck dissection is a safe and efficient procedure and it results in lower recurrence rate. Since the evidences are of low quality (non-randomized studies), further randomized trials are needed.

Resumo Introdução: A incidência relatada de metástases linfonodais chega a 40% em pacientes com microcarcinoma papilífero de tireoide e essas ocorrem principalmente no compartimento cervical central. Como essas metástases são difíceis de ser detectadas com o uso de ultrassonografia no pré-operatório, alguns autores defendem o esvaziamento cervical central de rotina em pacientes portadores de microcarcinoma papilífero de tireoide no momento da tireoidectomia inicial. Objetivo: Avaliar se o esvaziamento cervical central profilático pode diminuir a taxa de recorrência local de microcarcinoma papilífero de tireoide após a tireoidectomia. Método: A literatura disponível, publicada de janeiro de 1990 a dezembro de 2017, sobre tireoidectomia com esvaziamento cervical central profilático versus tireoidectomia somente para microcarcinoma papilífero de tireoide foi obtida através de busca nas bases de dados online nacionais e internacionais. A metanálise foi feita após o processo de extração de dados. Resultados: Quatro estudos foram finalmente incluídos na metanálise, com 727 pacientes, dos quais 366 foram submetidos à tireoidectomia com esvaziamento cervical central profilático e 361 só receberam tireoidectomia. Como mostrado pelos resultados da metanálise, as taxas de recorrência com tireoidectomia com esvaziamento cervical central profilático foram de 1,91% e foram significantemente menores do que aquelas em pacientes submetidos somente à tiroidectomia (OR = 0,24, IC95% [0,10-0,56], p = 0,0009). Conclusão: Para pacientes com microcarcinoma papilífero de tireoide, o esvaziamento cervical central profilático é um procedimento seguro e eficiente e resulta em menor taxa de recorrência. Como as evidências são de baixa qualidade (estudos não randomizados), mais estudos randomizados são necessários.

Humans , Male , Female , Neck Dissection/methods , Thyroidectomy/methods , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Prophylactic Surgical Procedures/methods , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/prevention & control , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 79(1): 67-74, mar. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004385


RESUMEN Introducción: Aunque el carcinoma papilar de tiroides (CPT) tiene una buena sobrevida, en el 30% de los casos recidivará a largo plazo. Se han descrito factores pronósticos como el tamaño, histopatología, procedimiento quirúrgico y administración de yodo radiactivo. Objetivo: Este trabajo pretende determinar factores de riesgo de recidiva a largo plazo. Material y método: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo y observacional, se incluyeron a los pacientes sometidos a cirugía por CPT con seguimiento a 10 años, y se analizaron variables clínicas y bioquímicas relacionadas con la recidiva a largo plazo. Resultados: Se identificaron 91 pacientes con seguimiento de 10 años. No se encontró relación para recidiva con historia familiar oncológica, enfermedad tiroidea pre-via, pero sí con tabaquismo (p 0,040). Se encontraron a 27 (29%) con recidiva, en relación a lesiones >3 cm (p 0,05), y CPT multicéntrico (p 0,003). Conclusión: El tiempo de evolución prolongado favorece el crecimiento de las lesiones, y la diseminación de la enfermedad, así como la recidiva. El CPT es una enfermedad con capacidad metastásica a largo plazo, que requiere un seguimiento cercano y detección oportuna de pacientes susceptibles de recidiva. El tiempo entre el diagnóstico y la cirugía es un factor fundamental para el crecimiento de las lesiones y la propagación de la enfermedad, por lo que se debe reducir el tiempo de espera, evitando así las lesiones de mayor tamaño, diseminación de células tumorales y la recidiva con peor pronóstico para los pacientes.

ABSTRACT Introduction: The papillary thyroid cancer has good survival rate, however, 30% of the patients will have a recurrence. Prognostic factors have been described such as size, histopathology, surgical procedure and administration of radioactive iodine. Aim: To determine preventable risk factors for long-term recurrence. Material and method: This is a retrospective and observational study, patients undergoing surgery for CPT and 10 year follow up were included to analyze clinical and biochemical variables related to long-term recurrence. Results: Ninety-one patients with a 10-year follow-up were identified. No relationship was found for recurrence with oncological family history, previous thyroid disease, but smoking was a risk factor (p 0.040). We found 27 (29%) with relapse, in relation to lesions > 3 cm (p 0.05), and multicentric PTC (p 0.003). Conclusion: The long evolution time favors the growth of lesions, the spread of the disease, as well as the recurrence. The CPT is a disease with long-term metastatic capacity; it requires close monitoring and opportune detection of patients susceptible to recurrence. The time between diagnosis and surgery is a fundamental factor for the growth of the lesions and the spread of the disease, so the waiting time must be reduced, thus avoiding larger lesions, malignant cell dissemination and recurrence with worse prognosis for patients.

Humans , Male , Female , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Neck Dissection , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Disease-Free Survival
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 84(6): 729-735, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974370


Abstract Introduction: The link between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid carcinoma has long been a topic of controversy. Objective: The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of thyroid carcinoma and Hashimoto's thyroiditis coexistence in histopathologic material of thyroidectomized patients. Methods: In a retrospective study, the clinicohistopathologic data of 2117 patients (1738 females/379 males), who underwent total or partial thyroidectomy for thyroid gland disorder at a single institution from the 1st of January 2005 to the 31st of December 2014 were analyzed. Results: Thyroid carcinoma was detected in 318 cases (15%) and microcarcinoma (thyroid cancer ≤10 mm in diameter) was found in permanent sections in 169 cases (8%). Hashimoto's thyroiditis was detected in 318 (15%) patients. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was significantly more often associated with thyroid carcinoma and microcarcinoma compare to benign condition (p = 0.048, p = 0.00014, respectively). Coexistence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid carcinoma/thyroid microcarcinoma did not affect tumor size (p = 0.251, p = 0.098, respectively), or tumor multifocality (p = 0.831, p = 0.957, respectively). Bilateral thyroid microcarcinoma was significantly more often detected when Hashimoto's thyroiditis was also diagnosed (p = 0.041), but presence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis did not affect bilateral occurrence of thyroid carcinoma (p = 0.731). Conclusion: Hashimoto's thyroiditis is associated with significantly increased risk of developing thyroid carcinoma, especially thyroid microcarcinoma.

Resumo: Introdução: A relação entre a tireoidite de Hashimoto e o carcinoma de tireoide tem sido um tema de controvérsia por um longo tempo. Objetivo: Determinar a prevalência da coexistência de carcinoma de tireoide e tireoidite de Hashimoto no exame histopatológico de amostras de pacientes tireoidectomizados. Método: Em um estudo retrospectivo, foram analisados os dados clinico-histopatológicos de 2.117 pacientes (1.738 mulheres/379 homens), submetidos à tireoidectomia total ou parcial por distúrbio da glândula tireoide em uma única instituição, de 1º de janeiro de 2005 a 31 de dezembro de 2014. Resultados: O carcinoma de tireoide foi detectado em 318 casos (15%) e o microcarcinoma (câncer de tireoide ≤ 10 mm de diâmetro) foi encontrado em secções permanentes em 169 casos (8%). A tireoidite de Hashimoto foi detectada em 318 (15%) pacientes e foi associada ao carcinoma da tireoide e ao microcarcinoma com maior frequência em comparação com condições benignas (p = 0,048, p = 0,00014, respectivamente). A coexistência de tireoidite de Hashimoto e carcinoma/microcarcinoma não influenciou o tamanho do tumor (p = 0,251, p = 0,098, respectivamente) ou a multifocalidade tumoral (p = 0,831, p = 0,957, respectivamente). O microcarcinoma de tireoide bilateral foi detectado com maior frequência quando a tireoidite de Hashimoto também foi diagnosticada (p = 0,041), mas a presença de tireoidite não influenciou na ocorrência bilateral de carcinoma (p = 0,731). Conclusão: A tireoidite de Hashimoto está associada a um aumento significativo do risco do desenvolvimento de carcinoma de tireoide, especialmente microcarcinoma da tireoide.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Papillary/epidemiology , Hashimoto Disease/epidemiology , Particle Size , Thyroid Gland/cytology , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Comorbidity , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Slovakia/epidemiology , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Hashimoto Disease/pathology
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 37(3): 252-257, 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362875


Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is a neuroectodermal tumor thought to originate from cells of the subcommissural organ. Its oncologic properties are still under investigation, as well as the most suitable therapeutic measures for this type of neoplasm.We report the case of a 36-year-old woman with a 1-year history of headache and intermittent diplopia. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed a heterogeneously enhancing mass in the pineal region that caused an acute hydrocephalus, and an emergency shunt derivation was necessary. One week later, the patient was submitted to subtotal tumor resection, and remained asymptomatic in the post-operative period. In the follow-up, the patient remained asymptomatic; in the imaging control 3.5 years after the surgical resection, local recurrence was identified, and the patient was submitted to a local radiation protocol. Our literature review showed an early clinical onset due to intracranial hypertension signs. Definitive clinical onset might be reached only through a histopathological examination. Gross total resection followed by radiotherapy is the current standard of care. Local recurrence is often observed, with rare dissemination to the cerebral spinal fluid. The natural history of the PTPR remains unknown, as well as the best treatment strategy. Large case series with longer follow-ups are necessary for further conclusions.

Humans , Female , Adult , Pineal Gland/surgery , Brain Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt , Pineal Gland/pathology , Pineal Gland/diagnostic imaging , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Brain Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Immunohistochemistry , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary/diagnostic imaging , Diagnosis, Differential
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(6): 643-646, Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887603


SUMMARY Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer. On the contrary, primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) is a rare disease, accounting for 2% to 5% of all thyroid malignancies. Despite several cases in which both PTC and PTL arise in the setting of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), the coexistence of both tumors in HT patients is very rare. Herein we report the case of a 66-year-old woman with long-standing nodular HT under replacement therapy, who presented with a fast, painless enlargement in the right anterior side of the neck. Thyroid ultrasonography demonstrated increased growth of a hypoechoic nodule in the right lobe measuring 32 × 20 mm. A total thyroidectomy was performed, and histology revealed a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) on a background of florid HT. Moreover, a unifocal papillary microcarcinoma, classical variant (7 mm, pT1aNxMx), was discovered. The patient was then treated with chemotherapy for the PTL, but she did not undergo radioactive iodine ablation treatment for the microPTC as per guidelines. Two years after surgery, the patient had no evidence of recurrence of either malignancy. This rare case highlights the importance of monitoring HT patients with nodular lesions, especially if they have long-standing disease. In addition, PTL should be considered for differential diagnosis in elder HT patients who present with sudden thyroid enlargement.

Humans , Female , Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/pathology , Hashimoto Disease/pathology , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary/pathology , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Immunohistochemistry , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/surgery , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Hashimoto Disease/surgery , Hashimoto Disease/complications , Image-Guided Biopsy , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary/surgery
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(5): 464-469, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887592


ABSTRACT Objective Ghrelin plays a role in several processes of cancer progression, and numerous cancer types express ghrelin and its receptor. We aimed to investigate serum levels of ghrelin in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and its association with the prognostic factors in PTC. Materials and methods We enrolled 54 patients with thyroid cancer (7 male, 47 female) and 24 healthy controls (6 male, 18 female) in the study. We compared demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical data, and serum ghrelin levels between the groups. Serum ghrelin levels were measured using as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Ghrelin levels were similar between the groups, but plasma ghrelin levels were significantly higher in tumors larger than 1 cm diameter compared with papillary microcarcinomas. Serum ghrelin levels also correlated with tumor size (r = 0.499; p < 0.001). Body mass index, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and HOMA-IR levels were similar between the groups. There were no statistically significant differences regarding average age and other prognostic parameters including lymph node invasion, capsule invasion, multifocality and surgical border invasion between patients with microcarcinoma and tumors larger than 1 cm. Conclusion In our study, no significant difference in serum ghrelin levels was determined between patients with papillary thyroid cancer and healthy controls however, serum ghrelin levels were higher in tumors larger than 1 cm compared to in those with thyroid papillary microcarcinoma.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms/blood , Carcinoma, Papillary/blood , Ghrelin/blood , Prognosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor/blood , Case-Control Studies , Tumor Burden , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Staging
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(3): 222-227, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887555


ABSTRACT Objective The present study describes the clinical and tumor characteristics of patients that died from differentiated thyroid cancer and reports on the cause and circumstances of death in these cases. Subjects and methods Retrospective analysis of all the differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) related deaths at a single institution over a 5-year period, with a total of 33 patients. Results Most of the patients were female (63.6%), with a mean age at diagnosis of 58.2 years. The most common histologic type was papillary (66.7%) and 30.3% were follicular. The distribution according to the TNM classification was: 15.4% of T1; 7.7% T2; 38.4% T3; 19.2% of T4a and 19.2% of T4b. Forty-four percent of cases were N0; 20% N1a and 36.6% of N1b. Twelve patients were considered non-responsive to radioiodine. Only one of the patients did not have distant metastases. The most common metastatic site was the lung in 69.7%. The majority of deaths were due to pulmonary complications related to lung metastases (17 patients, 51.5%), followed by post-operative complications in 5 cases, neurological disease progression in 3 cases, local invasion and airway obstruction in one patient. Median survival between diagnosis and death was reached in 49 months while between disease progression and death it was at 22 months. Conclusion Mortality from DTC is extremely rare but persists, and the main causes of death derive from distant metastasis, especially respiratory failure due to lung metastasis. Once disease progression is established, median survival was only 22 months.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/mortality , Carcinoma, Papillary/mortality , Adenocarcinoma, Follicular/mortality , Time Factors , Brazil , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cause of Death , Sex Distribution , Adenocarcinoma, Follicular/pathology , Disease Progression , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lung Neoplasms/secondary , Neoplasm Staging