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Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(4): 488-497, July-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385270


Abstract Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide, including among physicians. Professional peculiarities increase cardiovascular risk in this population, making it relevant to analyze mortality in the medical population (MPop) and non-medical population (NMPop). Objectives: To compare the CVD mortality coefficient (MC) in between MPop and NMPop in Brazil by analyzing the epidemiological profile and the main causes of deaths from CVD. Methods: Time-series study with data obtained from the Mortality Information System of the Federal Council of Medicine and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, from 2014 to 2018. The variables age group, sex, race, occupation, and CVD that caused the death were assessed in MPop and NMPop. MC, relative risk and odds ratio between the populations were calculated. Tests for difference in proportions, with approximation to the normal distribution, and chi-squared tests were performed, assuming p<0.01 as statistically significant. Results: Both MPop and NMPop had a predominance of men (86.7% and 52.3%), senior citizens (85.9% and 79.7%) and white individuals (86.4% and 52.2%). The MCs of the MPop and NMPop was 92.2 and 255.1 deaths/100,000 individuals, respectively. The main cause of death was acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (32.5% and 24.6% in MPop and NMPop, respectively) followed by cerebrovascular accident (CVA) (5.1% and 10.5% in MPop and NMPop, respectively). Conclusion: In Brazil, mortality from CVD was more prevalent in white elderly males, and mainly caused by AMI and CVA. Being a doctor, man and over 60 years old represents a greater chance of death from CVD in comparison with non-physicians.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Physicians/statistics & numerical data , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Brazil , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Time Series Studies , Heart Disease Risk Factors
Más Vita ; 4(2): 93-102, jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1392126


En el mundo las enfermedades cardiovasculares son responsables de casi un tercio del total de las muertes por año. Cada vez son más las personas que padecen hipertensión arterial (HTA), desconociendo muchos su condición. Objetivo: Diseñar una estrategia educativa para elevar el conocimiento sobre hipertensión arterial en la población de 20 años y más en el consultorio 2 de Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria; Centro de Salud Luchadores del Norte, año 2021.Materiales métodos: Se realizó una investigación descriptiva, observacional, prospectiva y transversal con la población de adultos del Centro de Salud Luchadores Norte, para elaborar el diseño de una estrategia educativa que eleve el conocimiento sobre esta enfermedad; se midieron variables sociodemográficas, de estilos de vida y de conocimiento. Resultados: El grupo de edad más frecuente de 50 a 59 años 26,2%; sexo masculino 66,4%; escolaridad nivel básico 41,1%; estado civil unión libre 52,3%; etnia mestizo 58,9% y ocupación empleado privado 29,0%; no realizan actividad física 65,4%; consumo excesivo de sal 67,3%; grasa 58,9%; gaseosas y energizantes 52,8%; no conocen de la enfermedad 62,6%; técnica charla 39,3%; frecuencia una vez cada 15 días 43,9%; horario de mañana 57,0%; duración 30 minutos 52,3%; lugar centro de salud 50,5% y tamaño del grupo de 6 a 10 (42,1%). Conclusión: La bibliografía concuerda mayoritariamente con los resultados de la investigación, en consumo de sal elevado, grasas, gaseosas y bebidas energizantes; el conocimiento sobre la enfermedad es escaso en los hipertensos, concordando con las citas de referencia; concluyendo, que coexisten estilos de vida no saludables con desconocimiento; favoreciendo las complicaciones de la enfermedad, una intervención educativa elevaría conocimiento y cambia actitudes evitando consecuencias y daños irreversibles(AU)

In the world, cardiovascular diseases are responsible for almost a third of all deaths per year. More and more people suffer from high blood pressure (HBP), many unaware of their condition. Objective: To design an educational strategy to raise awareness about arterial hypertension in the population aged 20 and over in Family and Community Medicine office 2; Luchadores del Norte Health Center, year 2021. Materials and methods: A descriptive, observational, prospective and cross-sectional investigation was carried out with the adult population of the Luchadores Norte Health Center, to develop the design of an educational strategy that raises knowledge about this illness; sociodemographic, lifestyle and knowledge variables were measured. Results: The most frequent age group was 50 to 59 years old, 26.2%; male sex 66.4%; basic level schooling 41.1%; marital status free union 52.3%; mestizo ethnic group 58.9% and occupation private employee 29.0%; do not perform physical activity 65.4%; excessive consumption of salt 67.3%; fat 58.9%; soft drinks and energy drinks 52.8%; 62.6% do not know about the disease; talk technique 39.3%; frequency once every 15 days 43.9%; morning hours 57.0%; duration 30 minutes 52.3%; health center location 50.5% and group size from 6 to 10 (42.1%). Conclusion: The bibliography mostly agrees with the results of the investigation, in consumption of high salt, fat, soft drinks and energy drinks; knowledge about the disease is scarce in hypertensive patients, in agreement with the reference citations; concluding that unhealthy lifestyles coexist with ignorance; favoring the complications of the disease, an educational intervention would increase knowledge and change attitudes, avoiding consequences and irreversible damage(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Health Education , Health Strategies , Hypertension/etiology , Health Centers , Educational Status , Noncommunicable Diseases , Life Style
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(1): 80-87, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356311


Abstract Background The COVID-19 pandemic has imposed measures of social distancing and, during this time, there has been an elevation in cardiovascular mortality rates and a decrease in the number of emergency visits. Objectives To assess and compare in-hospital mortality for cardiovascular diseases and emergency department visits during the COVID-19 pandemic and the same period in 2019. Methods Retrospective, single-center study that evaluated emergency visits and in-hospital deaths between March 16, 2020 and June 16, 2020, when the steepest fall in the number of emergency admissions for COVID-19 was registered. These data were compared with the emergency visits and in-hospital deaths between March 16 and June 16, 2019. We analyzed the total number of deaths, and cardiovascular deaths. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Results There was a 35% decrease in the number of emergency visits and an increase in the ratio of the number of deaths to the number of emergency visits in 2020. The increase in the ratio of the number of all-cause deaths to the number of emergency visits was 45.6% and the increase in the ratio of the number of cardiovascular deaths to the number of emergency visits was 62.1%. None of the patients who died in the study period in 2020 tested positive for COVID-19. Conclusion In-hospital mortality for cardiovascular diseases increased proportionally to the number of emergency visits during the COVID-19-imposed social distancing compared with the same period in 2019. (Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)

Humans , Male , Female , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Emergency Service, Hospital , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Emergency Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(1): 95-106, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356307


Abstract Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular impairment, increasing the rates of atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic events. Additionally, adverse kidney events are directly linked with T2DM and cardiovascular diseases. In this context, the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) have demonstrated both cardioprotective and renoprotective effects in patients with or without T2DM. Therefore, the present meta-analysis aims to evaluate cardiovascular outcomes involving SGLT2i as monotherapy or other add-on antidiabetic agents (ADA) in patients with or without T2DM. Objetive: The present meta-analysis aims to evaluate cardiovascular outcomes involving SGLT2i as monotherapy or add-on other ADA in patients with or without T2DM. Methods: The entrance criteria to SGLT2i studies were: describing any data regarding cardiovascular effects; enrolling more than 1,000 participants; being approved by either the FDA or the EU, and having available access to the supplementary data. The trial had to exhibit at least one of the following results: major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure, cardiovascular death, hospitalization for heart failure, renal or cardiovascular adverse events, or non-cardiovascular death. The significance level of 0.05 was adopted in the statistical analysis. Results: Nine trials with a total of 76,285 participants were included in the meta-analysis. SGLT2i reduced MACE (RR 0.75, 95% CI [0.55-1.01]), cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure (RR 0.72, 95% CI [0.55-0.93]), cardiovascular death (RR 0.66, 95% CI [0.48-0.91]), hospitalization for heart failure (RR 0.58, 95% CI [0.46-0.73]), renal or cardiovascular adverse events (RR 0.55, 95% CI [0.39-0.78]), and non-cardiovascular death (RR 0.88, 95% CI [0.60-1.00]). Conclusions: Conjunction overall data suggests that these drugs can minimize the risk of cardiovascular events, thus decreasing mortality in patients, regardless of the presence of T2DM.

Humans , Cardiotonic Agents , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Reproducibility of Results , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 , Hospitalization , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 25(1): e2087, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1367592


Un estudio mostró que el aumento de valores de la hormona estimulante de la tiroides se asoció a un aumento de mortalidad por todas las causas, estimando que las enfermedades cardiovasculares mediaban dicha asociación en aproximada-mente el 14 % de los casos. Asimismo se observó que el reemplazo con levotiroxina disminuiría los niveles de colesterol, lo cual podría tener un efecto en la reducción de enfermedades cardiovasculares. Partiendo de una viñeta clínica la autora intenta, a través de una búsqueda bibliográfica y análisis de la evidencia, determinar si el tratamiento del hipotiroidismo subclínico en adultos mayores reduciría la morbimortalidad por eventos cardiovasculares. (AU)

A study showed that increased thyroid-stimulating hormone levels were associated with increased all-cause mortality, with cardiovascular disease estimated to mediate this association in approximately 14 % of cases. Additionally, levothyroxine replacement was found to lower cholesterol levels, which could have an effect in reducing cardiovascular diseases. Basedon a clinical vignette, the author attempts, through a literature search and an analysis of the evidence, to determine whether treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism in older adults would reduce morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular events. (AU)

Humans , Female , Aged , Thyroxine/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Hypothyroidism/drug therapy , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Age Factors , Hypothyroidism/blood
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2022. 71 f p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1392721


As doenças cardiovasculares (DCV) são a principal causa de morte no Brasil e no mundo. As doenças isquêmicas do coração (DIC) e doenças cerebrovasculares (DCBV) estão entre as dez principais causas de mortes no Brasil. A análise de tendência da mortalidade por DCV permite definir populações prioritárias para intervenções, elaborar e avaliar ações em saúde pública. Nesse sentido, o objetivo do estudo foi analisar a tendência da mortalidade por DIC e DCBV nas 27 capitais brasileiras, no período de 1990 a 2018. Trata-se de um estudo ecológico de série temporal, os dados de óbitos foram obtidos através do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM). Buscando corrigir problemas na qualidade da informação dos registros de óbito do SIM, realizou-se a correção dos óbitos referentes aos dados com sexo e/ou faixa etária ignorada e aos óbitos registrados com causas "mal definidas". As taxas de mortalidade por DIC e DBCV foram padronizadas pelo método direto, tomando-se como população padrão a população do Brasil no ano de 2010. A análise de tendência da mortalidade por DIC e DCBV para a população total, homens e mulheres foi realizada utilizando o modelo de regressão de Poisson. Os resultados mostraram tendência de redução da mortalidade por DCBV tanto para a população total como para homens e mulheres em todas as capitais brasileiras. Vitória, capital da região Sudeste, apresentou a maior redução da taxa de mortalidade total por DCBV dentre todas as capitais brasileiras, -5,6% ao ano (IC95%: -6,0; -5,1%). No entanto, Macapá, capital da região Norte, teve a menor dentre todas as capitais -1,7% ao ano (IC95%: -2,7; -0,7%). Paras as DIC foi observada tendência de redução da mortalidade tanto para a população total como para homens e mulheres nas capitais das regiões Sul, Sudeste e para a maioria das capitais da região Centro-Oeste. As capitais das regiões Norte e Nordeste apresentaram uma variabilidade na tendência da mortalidade por DIC. Conclui-se que as capitais das regiões Sul e Sudeste apresentaram as maiores reduções da tendência da mortalidade por DIC e DCBV. Os achados desse estudo são importantes para prover informações mais detalhadas buscando auxiliar a gestão local na promoção de políticas de saúde pública, planejamento de estratégias e elaboração de medidas e ações em saúde.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death in Brazil and worldwide. Ischemic heart diseases (IHD) and cerebrovascular diseases (CBVD) are among Brazil's ten main causes of death. The trend analysis of mortality from CVD allows defining priority populations for interventions, designing and evaluating public health actions. In this sense, the study's objective was to analyze the mortality trend from IHD and CBVD in the 27 Brazilian capitals from 1990 to 2018. This is an ecological time-series study with the Mortality Information System (SIM) data. Seeking to correct the quality of the information in the SIM death records, the correction of deaths referring to data with anonymous sex and age group and deaths recorded with "ill-defined" causes was carried out. IHD and CBVD mortality rates were standardized by the direct method, using the population of Brazil in 2010 as the standard population. Trend analysis of IHD and CBVD mortality for the total population, men and women, was performed using the Poisson regression model. The results showed a reduction in the trend of mortality from CBVD for both the total population and for men and women in all Brazilian capitals. Vitória, the capital of the Southeast region, showed the greatest reduction in the total mortality rate from CVD among all Brazilian capitals, -5.6% per year (95%CI: -6.0; -5.1%). However, Macapá, the capital of the North region, had the lowest among all capitals -1.7% per year (95%CI: -2.7; -0.7%). For IHD, a decrease in the mortality trend was observed both for the total population and for men and women in the capitals of the South and Southeast regions and most capitals of the Center-West region. The capitals of the North and Northeast regions showed variability in the trend of IHD mortality. In conclusion, the capitals of the South and Southeast regions showed the greatest reductions in the mortality trend due to IHD and CBVD. The findings of this study are essential to provide more detailed information to assist local management in promoting public health policies, planning strategies, and designing health measures and actions.

Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cerebrovascular Disorders/mortality , Time Series Studies , Myocardial Ischemia/mortality , Brazil , Epidemiology
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 32(2): e303, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347398


Introducción: El sexo influye en la susceptibilidad de las personas de ambos géneros con relación a la mayoría de las enfermedades comunes, incluidas la diabetes mellitus y la aterosclerosis. Objetivo: Identificar si existen diferencias en la presentación de la enfermedad cardiovascular aterosclerótica entre hombres y mujeres de edad mediana con diabetes mellitus. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en 1449 pacientes con diabetes mellitus en edad mediana (40 a 59 años) que ingresaron en el Centro de Atención al Diabético de Bayamo, Granma, desde el año 2010 al 2019. Se empleó la prueba de Chi Cuadrado para comprobar la relación entre las variables cualitativas, y T de Student para comparar los valores promedio de las variables cuantitativas. Resultados: La proporción de enfermedad cardiovascular aterosclerótica en el sexo masculino fue similar a la del femenino (51,4 por ciento x 48,6 por ciento, p=0.2328). No hubo discrepancias importantes en el porcentaje de la enfermedad, entre ambos sexos, en los diferentes grupos etarios. El riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular aterosclerótica en los hombres fue mayor que en las mujeres premenopausicas (OR=2,19, IC: 1,4-3,3 p=0,0002), pero inferior respecto a las posmenopáusicas. (OR=1.12, IC: 0.8-1.4, p=0.4129). El análisis multivariado mostró al tiempo de la diabetes >10 años y a la hipertensión arterial como riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular aterosclerótica en ambos sexos. Asimismo, se evidenció en la edad mayor de 45 años en los hombres (OR=2.5, IC: 1.4-4.6) y la menopausia en las mujeres (OR=1.8, IC: 1.1-3.07). Conclusiones: La frecuencia de la enfermedad cardiovascular aterosclerótica en las personas de edad mediana con diabetes mellitus es similar en ambos sexos. El sexo masculino tiene mayor riesgo de enfermarse que las mujeres premenopausicas, pero menor que las posmenopáusicas. La hipertensión arterial y el tiempo de la diabetes son factores de riesgo comunes para uno y otro sexo(AU)

Introduction: Sex influences the susceptibility of people of both genders to most common diseases, including diabetes mellitus (DM) and atherosclerosis. Objective: Identify if there are differences in the presentation of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease between middle-aged men and women with diabetes mellitus. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 1449 patients with DM in middle age (40 to 59 years) who were admitted to the Diabetic´s Care Center of Bayamo, Granma province, from 2010 to 2019. The Chi-Square test was used to check the relation between the qualitative variables, and the T Student test to compare the average values of the quantitative variables. Results: The proportion of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in males was similar to that of females (51.4 percent x 48.6 percent, p=0.2328). There were no major discrepancies in the percentage of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, between both sexes, in the different age groups. The risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in men was higher than in pre-menopausal women (OR=2.19, CI: 1.4-3.3 p=0.0002), but lower than in post-menopausal women. (OR=1.12, CI: 0.8-1.4, p=0.4129). Multivariate analysis showed diabetes >10 years and arterial hypertension as a risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in both sexes. It was also evidenced in ages over 45 years in men (OR=2.5, CI: 1.4-4.6) and menopause in women (OR=1.8, CI: 1.1-3.07). Conclusions: The frequency of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in middle-aged people with diabetes mellitus is similar in both sexes. Males have a higher risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease than pre-menopausal women, but lower than post-menopausal women. High blood pressure and diabetes time are common risk factors for both sexes(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Menopause , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Chi-Square Distribution , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis
Rev. cuba. angiol. cir. vasc ; 22(2): e278, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289365


Introducción: Los aneurismas aórticos abdominales constituyen un problema de salud por la alta mortalidad que provocan. Su seguimiento y tratamiento son fundamentales para evitar las complicaciones posquirúrgicas. Objetivo: Caracterizar las principales complicaciones posquirúrgicas de los pacientes con aneurisma de la aorta abdominal operados electivamente. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional y descriptivo en 94 pacientes operados de forma electiva en el Instituto Nacional de Angiología y Cirugía Vascular por presentar un diagnóstico de aneurisma de la aorta abdominal. Las variables de estudio fueron: edad, sexo, color de la piel, enfermedades asociadas, diámetro del aneurisma, profilaxis antibiótica, tiempo quirúrgico, tipo de prótesis vascular, tipo de complicación posoperatoria, tiempo de aparición de las complicaciones, estadía hospitalaria posoperatoria y estado al egreso. Se determinaron las frecuencias absolutas y relativas. Resultados: El 56,4 por ciento de los pacientes operados presentó algún tipo de complicación, las cuales fueron más frecuentes en el sexo masculino por encima de los 60 años. Las más predominantes resultaron la bronconeumonía (24,5 por ciento) y las arritmias cardíacas (20,8 por ciento). La proporción de complicaciones se mostró mayor en los pacientes con injertos bifurcados, así como en aquellos sin profilaxis y con un tiempo quirúrgico prolongado. Hubo mayor frecuencia de enfermedades cardiovasculares entre los fallecidos. Conclusiones: En los pacientes operados de forma electiva de aneurisma de la aorta abdominal predominaron las complicaciones respiratorias y cardiovasculares, estas últimas provocaron un aumento en la mortalidad(AU)

Introduction: Abdominal aortic aneurysms are a health problem because of the high mortality they cause. Their follow-up and treatment are essential to avoid post-surgical complications. Objective: Characterize the main post-surgical complications of patients with electively operated abdominal aortic aneurysm. Methods: An observational and descriptive study was conducted in 94 electively operated patients at the National Institute of Angiology and Vascular Surgery after having a diagnosis of abdominal aortic aneurysm. The study variables were: age, sex, skin color, associated diseases, aneurysm diameter, antibiotic prophylaxis, surgical time, type of vascular prosthesis, type of postoperative complication, time of onset of complications, postoperative hospital stay, and state at discharge moment. Absolute and relative frequencies were determined. Results: 56.4 percent of operated patients had some form of complication, which were more common in the males over 60 years. The most predominant complications were bronchopneumonie (24.5 percent) and cardiac arrhythmias (20.8 percent). The proportion of complications was shown to be higher in patients with forked grafts, as well as in those without prophylaxis and with prolonged surgical time. There was a higher frequency of cardiovascular diseases among the deceased patients. Conclusions: In patients electively operated of abdominal aortic aneurysm, there was a predominance of respiratory and cardiovascular complications, and the latter caused an increase in mortality(AU)

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Postoperative Complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Observational Study
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(2): 170-178, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154552


Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is commonly associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). These diseases have a significant impact on life expectancy. Individuals with CKD are more likely to die from CVD than to progress to end-stage kidney disease. Objective To assess cardiovascular risk factors of patients with CKD under conservative treatment. Methods This was an observational, cross-sectional study. Socioeconomic, anthropometric, biochemical, and physical inactivity data were assessed, and 10-year risk for CVD were estimated using the Framingham Score in patients with CKD under conservative treatment. For statistical analysis, the Student's t-test and Pearson's chi-square test were performed. Results A total of 172 individuals were evaluated, 57% of whom were male, with an average age of 68.85 ± 11.41 years. The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes were 87.2% and 53.5%, respectively; 62.2% were physically inactive; 9.9% of men were smokers and 12.8% consumed alcohol. According to BMI, 82.4% of adults <60 years old and 60.6% of those older than 60 years were overweight. High waist circumference and a high waist-hip ratio were highly prevalent in females (91.9% and 83.8%, respectively) and males (64.3% and 39.8%, respectively); 92.4% had a high body fat percentage and 73.3% high uric acid levels. According to the Framingham score, 57% have a medium or high risk of developing CVD in 10 years. Conclusion There was a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the population studied. The assessment of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with CKD makes it possible to guide the conduct of health professionals to prevent mortality from cardiovascular causes. Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/mortality , Hypertension
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888604


BACKGROUND@#Ambient temperature may contribute to seasonality of mortality; in particular, a warming climate is likely to influence the seasonality of mortality. However, few studies have investigated seasonality of mortality under a warming climate.@*METHODS@#Daily mean temperature, daily counts for all-cause, circulatory, and respiratory mortality, and annual data on prefecture-specific characteristics were collected for 47 prefectures in Japan between 1972 and 2015. A quasi-Poisson regression model was used to assess the seasonal variation of mortality with a focus on its amplitude, which was quantified as the ratio of mortality estimates between the peak and trough days (peak-to-trough ratio (PTR)). We quantified the contribution of temperature to seasonality by comparing PTR before and after temperature adjustment. Associations between annual mean temperature and annual estimates of the temperature-unadjusted PTR were examined using multilevel multivariate meta-regression models controlling for prefecture-specific characteristics.@*RESULTS@#The temperature-unadjusted PTRs for all-cause, circulatory, and respiratory mortality were 1.28 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27-1.30), 1.53 (95% CI: 1.50-1.55), and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.44-1.48), respectively; adjusting for temperature reduced these PTRs to 1.08 (95% CI: 1.08-1.10), 1.10 (95% CI: 1.08-1.11), and 1.35 (95% CI: 1.32-1.39), respectively. During the period of rising temperature (1.3 °C on average), decreases in the temperature-unadjusted PTRs were observed for all mortality causes except circulatory mortality. For each 1 °C increase in annual mean temperature, the temperature-unadjusted PTR for all-cause, circulatory, and respiratory mortality decreased by 0.98% (95% CI: 0.54-1.42), 1.39% (95% CI: 0.82-1.97), and 0.13% (95% CI: - 1.24 to 1.48), respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#Seasonality of mortality is driven partly by temperature, and its amplitude may be decreasing under a warming climate.

Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cause of Death , Climate Change/mortality , Cold Temperature/adverse effects , Hot Temperature/adverse effects , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Mortality/trends , Regression Analysis , Respiratory Tract Diseases/mortality , Seasons , Time
Rev. méd. hondur ; 89(1): 17-23, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283039


Antecedente: El infarto miocárdico es un problema de salud global. El conocimiento del perfil de riesgo podría con- tribuir a planificar intervenciones sobre todo en la atención prima- ria. Objetivo: Describir el perfil de riesgo en fallecidos por infarto miocárdico en la atención pre-hospitalaria en Florida, Cuba entre 2017 y 2019. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo retros- pectivo de los 53 fallecidos por infarto miocárdico en la atención pre-hospitalaria en el municipio Florida. Los datos se obtuvieron del registro de fallecidos, historias clínicas, y de la autopsia verbal realizada a familiares. Resultados: Predominaron los hombres con 67.9% (36), el color de piel blanca 35.8% (19) y el grupo de edad entre 60 a 69 años 30.2% (16). El edema agudo del pulmón representado por 37.8% y la insuficiencia cardiaca 24.3%, fueron las complicaciones más frecuentes. La mayoría de los pacientes fallecieron en domicilio 35.9% (19) y el 22.6% (12) fallecieron en traslado no sanitario hacia hospitales. Procedían de áreas urba- nas 56.6%. La hipertensión arterial 73.6%, el tabaquismo 66.0%, y obesidad 52.8% fueron los factores de riesgo modificables más identificados. Tener más de 3 factores de riesgo y mayor demora en ser admitido influyó negativamente en la sobrevida. La morta- lidad fue significativamente mayor en los pacientes con elevación del segmento ST en 74.2%. Discusión: Existió un comportamien- to similar al revisado en la literatura en cuanto a riesgos y tiempo en llegar al hospital. La atención pre-hospitalaria al IAM es el punto más crítico en el abordaje de esta entidad...(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Prehospital Care , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 33(6): 629-634, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143119


Abstract Background Malnutrition can affect the clinical course of hospitalized patients, increasing hospital stay, infections, mortality, and hospital costs. Among heart disease patients, the malnutrition prevalence ranges from 25 to 51.9%. Objective To assess the prevalence of malnutrition and its association with clinical complications in cardiac patients admitted to a cardiology hospital. Method Retrospective cohort study with patients evaluated within 48 hours of admission to the ward of a referral center for cardiology in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Patients were aged 18 years or older. Malnutrition was assessed by Subjective Global Assessment. Length of hospital stay, transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU), hospital discharge and in-hospital death were collected from medical records. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 22.0 program. Comparisons between groups with and without malnutrition were made by unpaired Student's t-test and chi-square test with adjusted residuals, and multivariate Poisson regression used for analysis of outcomes. The significance level considered was 5%. Results We evaluated 130 patients aged 63 ± 13 years, 63% were male, and the most frequent cause of hospitalization was angina (25%). The prevalence of malnutrition was 27% and, after statistical adjustment for age, malnutrition was positively associated with ICU transfer and length of hospital stay longer than seven days. Conclusion The prevalence of malnutrition found in this sample was 27% and this nutritional diagnosis was positively associated with ICU transfer and length of hospital stay longer than seven days. (Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Malnutrition/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Length of Stay
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 33(6): 656-665, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143110


Abstract Background: Mortality from cardiovascular diseases has reduced in Brazil in recent decades, but this phenomenon is not clear in the northeast region of the country. Objectives: To describe the mortality trends from cardiovascular disease in Bahia from 2000-2015, in total population and by sex and age groups, and by specific causes (ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases, rheumatic heart disease and heart failure). Methods: This was a time series study. Data were obtained from SIM-DATASUS and IBGE, and the 10th revision of the ICD used for disease classification. Mortality rates (per 100,000 inhabitants) were calculated from total cardiovascular disease and specific causes, by sex and age groups. Direct standardization was used to adjust for age, using the population of 2010 as reference. Linear regression models estimated percentage variation. The significance level of 5% was adopted. Results: In Bahia, crude mortality rates from cardiovascular disease increased in the period; however, after standardization by age, mortality rates became stable for the total and female populations, with a slight reduction for the male population. An increase in mortality rates from cardiovascular disease was found in the elderly groups. For ischemic heart disease, a progressive increase in adjusted mortality rates was observed: 43%, 24% and 29% for the total, male, and female population, respectively. There was a progressive reduction in crude and age-standardized mortality rates from heart failure in all groups, a modest reduction in age-adjusted mortality rates from cerebrovascular diseases, and a slight reduction in age-standardized mortality rate from rheumatic heart disease, especially in the subgroup <40 years. Conclusions: Mortality from cardiovascular disease in Bahia did not follow the decreasing trend of other Brazilian states, especially in relation to ischemic heart disease, which showed an increase in mortality rates.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Rheumatic Heart Disease/mortality , Cerebrovascular Disorders/mortality , Myocardial Ischemia/mortality , Heart Failure/mortality , Time Factors , Brazil , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Age Factors , Ecological Studies
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(3): 293-299, Jul.-Sep. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131046


Resumen Introducción: La utilidad de la aspirina en la prevención primaria es todavía objeto de controversia. Los avances médicos y la variabilidad del riesgo cardiovascular podrían explicar la heterogeneidad de los estudios publicados, y las poblaciones de alto riesgo tendrían mayor beneficio. Objetivo: Analizar los efectos de la aspirina en pacientes sin antecedentes cardiovasculares y evaluar los resultados de acuerdo con el riesgo cardiovascular de las poblaciones. Métodos: Se incluyeron estudios que evaluaron el uso de la aspirina en comparación con placebo en la prevención primaria. Se analizó la combinación de muerte cardiovascular, infarto agudo de miocardio (IAM) y accidente cerebrovascular (ACV) isquémico. El punto final de seguridad fue la combinación de ACV hemorrágico y sangrado mayor. Se clasificaron los estudios en riesgo bajo y moderado/ alto, de acuerdo con el número de episodios en la rama de placebo. Resultados: Se evaluaron 13 estudios (n = 164,225), ocho de riesgo cardiovascular bajo (n = 118,455) y cinco de moderado/alto (n = 45,770). Se observó una reducción del punto final combinado en el grupo de aspirina (OR 0.90; IC 95%, 0.85-0.94), sin diferencias en mortalidad cardiovascular (OR 0.94; IC 95%, 0.86-1.04). No se identificaron diferencias entre los subgrupos de riesgo. Se reconocieron mayores complicaciones hemorrágicas en el grupo de aspirina (OR 1.45; IC 95%, 1.32-1.60), sin diferencias entre los subgrupos de riesgo. Conclusión: La aspirina se relacionó con una leve disminución de IAM y ACV isquémico en términos absolutos, sin diferencias en la mortalidad cardiovascular. Esto, junto con el aumento de las complicaciones hemorrágicas, se traduce en una ausencia de beneficio clínico neto. El riesgo cardiovascular basal de la población no modificó los resultados.

Abstract Background: The usefulness of aspirin in primary prevention continues to be the subject of debate. Medical advances and the variability of cardiovascular risk could explain the heterogeneity of the published studies. High risk populations would have greater benefit. Objective: Analyzing the effects of aspirin in patients without cardiovascular disease and evaluating the results according to the cardiovascular risk of the populations. Methods: Studies evaluating aspirin versus placebo in primary prevention were included. The primary endpoint was the combined cardiovascular death, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and ischemic stroke. The final safety point was the combination of hemorrhagic stroke and major bleeding. The studies were classified into low and moderate/high risk, according to the number of events in the placebo arm. Results: Thirteen studies were evaluated (n = 164,225), eight of low cardiovascular risk (n = 118,455) and five of moderate/high risk (n = 45,770). There was a reduction of the combined endpoint in the aspirin group (odds ratio [OR] 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85-0.94), without differences in cardiovascular mortality (OR 0.94; 95% CI, 0.86-1.04). No differences were observed when comparing the risk subgroups. Greater hemorrhagic complications were observed in the aspirin group (OR 1.45; 95% CI, 1.32-1.60), without differences between the risk subgroups. Conclusion: Aspirin was associated with a slight decrease in AMI and ischemic stroke in absolute terms, with no differences in cardiovascular mortality. This accompanied by the increase in hemorrhagic complications, results in an absence of net clinical benefit. The baseline cardiovascular risk of the population did not affect the results.

Humans , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Primary Prevention/methods , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Aspirin/adverse effects , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Ischemic Stroke/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(2): 273-277, ago., 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131294


Resumo Fundamento O SARS-CoV-2 é um vírus de RNA emergente associado à doença respiratória aguda grave conhecida como COVID-19. Embora a COVID-19 seja predominantemente uma doença pulmonar, alguns pacientes apresentam graves danos cardiovasculares. Realizamos uma síntese de evidências quantitativas de dados clínicos, biomarcadores de lesão miocárdica e complicações cardíacas associadas ao óbito hospitalar em pacientes com COVID-19. Métodos Buscamos nas bases de dados PubMed, Embase e Google Scholar para identificar estudos que comparassem dados clínicos, biomarcadores de lesão miocárdica e complicações cardíacas entre pacientes sobreviventes e não sobreviventes da COVID-19. Os tamanhos dos efeitos foram apresentados como diferença média ou diferença média padronizada para variáveis contínuas e razão de risco para variáveis dicotômicas, com intervalos de confiança de 95%. Foi utilizado um modelo de efeitos aleatórios para agrupar os resultados. Resultados Foram incluídos seis estudos retrospectivos que relataram dados de 1.141 pacientes (832 sobreviventes e 309 não sobreviventes). Verificamos que condições cardiovasculares subjacentes; elevação de troponina cardíaca I de alta sensibilidade; N-terminal do pró-hormônio do peptídeo natriurético do tipo B e creatina quinase-MB; e complicações cardíacas foram associadas ao aumento do risco de óbito em pacientes com infecção por SARS-CoV-2. Conclusões A confirmação de que condições cardiovasculares subjacentes, elevação de biomarcadores de lesão miocárdica durante a infecção por COVID-19 e descompensação cardiovascular aguda são preditores de mortalidade na infecção por SARS-CoV-2 deve incentivar novas pesquisas para esclarecer possíveis mecanismos e testar tratamentos adequados. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(2):273-277)

Abstract Background SARS-CoV-2 is an emerging RNA virus associated with a severe acute respiratory disease known as COVID-19. Although COVID-19 is predominantly a pulmonary disease, some patients have severe cardiovascular damage. We performed a quantitative evidence synthesis of clinical data, myocardial injury biomarkers, and cardiac complications associated with in-hospital death in patients with COVID-19. Methods We searched the databases PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar to identify studies comparing clinical data, myocardial injury biomarkers, and cardiac complications between non-survivors and survivors of COVID-19. Effect sizes were reported as mean difference or standardized mean difference for continuous variables and risk ratio for dichotomous variables with 95% confidence intervals. A random effects model was used to pool the results. Results Six retrospective studies reporting data from 1,141 patients (832 survivors and 309 non-survivors) were included. We found that underlying cardiovascular conditions; elevation of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and creatine kinase-MB; and cardiac complications were associated with increased risk of death for patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conclusions The confirmation that underlying cardiovascular conditions, elevation of myocardial injury biomarkers during COVID-19 infection, and acute cardiovascular decompensation are predictors for mortality in SARS-CoV-2 infection must encourage new research to clarify potential mechanisms and test appropriate treatments. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(2):273-277)

Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Biomarkers/blood , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Myocardium/pathology