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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009847

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the potential relationship between age and Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccination coverage in kindergarten children, and to provide a basis for guiding vaccination and developing new protein vaccines.@*METHODS@#The stratified cluster random sampling method was used to select 1 830 healthy children from six kindergartens in Shunde District, Foshan City, China, and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected for the isolation and identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The logistic regression model based on restricted cubic spline was used to analyze the dose-response relationship between age and Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccination coverage.@*RESULTS@#The rate of nasal Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage was 22.46% (411/1 830) among the kindergarten children, with the predominant serotypes of 6B, 19F, 15A, 23A, 34, and 23F. The coverage rates of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) were 53.0% and 57.9%, respectively, and there was a significant non-linear dose-response relationship between age and the coverage rates of PCV10 and PCV13 (P<0.05), with a higher coverage rate of PCV10 (88.0%) and PCV13 (91.1%) in the children aged 2 years. There was a significant non-linear dose-response relationship between age and the coverage rates of pilus islet 1 (PI-1) and pilus islet 2 (PI-2) (P<0.05), with a lower vaccination coverage rate for PI-1 (37.7%) and PI-2 (16.1%). The coverage rates of PI-1 (13.0%-58.5%) and PI-2 (6.0%-29.4%) were lower in all age groups. The virulence genes lytA (99.5%) and ply (99.0%) associated with candidate protein vaccines showed higher vaccination coverage rates.@*CONCLUSIONS@#There is a significant non-linear dose-response relationship between the age of kindergarten children and the coverage rates of PCV10 and PCV13 serotypes, and kindergarten children aged 2 years have a relatively high coverage rate of PCV. The high prevalence of the virulence genes lytA and ply shows that they are expected to become candidate virulence factors for the development of a new generation of recombinant protein vaccines.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Infant , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genetics , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Vaccination Coverage , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Serogroup , Vaccination , Nasopharynx , Carrier State/epidemiology
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969872

ABSTRACT

In order to investigate carriage status and serum groups distribution of Neisseria meningitidis(Nm) among healthy population in Jiangsu Province, four counties were selected as monitoring sites by random sampling method for cross-sectional study. Throat swab specimens were collected from four monitoring sites in October to November 2019 and November to December 2020 for bacterial culture and Real-time PCR detection. Chi-square test was used to compare the positive rate of Neisseria meningitidis, and multiple logistic regression model was used to analyze the influencing factors of Neisseria meningitidis carrier rate. The results showed that among 1 512 samples, 57 strains of Nm were isolated, and the carrier rate was 3.77%. Serogroup B was the dominant group (36.84%), followed by un-known serogroups (33.33%), serogroup C was the third (17.54%), serogroup W135 and serogroup A were 7.02% and 5.26%, respectively. The carriage rate (8.60%) of 15-20 years old was significantly higher than others (1.77%-3.74%)(Pearson χ2=18.211, P<0.05). Region, age and immunization history were risk factors for Neisseria meningitidis carrier rate. In summary, the Nm carrier rate of healthy population in Jiangsu Province is relatively low, which indicates that the epidemic cases will continue to be sporadic in the future. However, the prevention and control of meningococcal epidemics on campus should be strengthened, and the monitoring of neisseria meningitidis group B should be maintained as it has become the dominant epidemic strain.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Neisseria meningitidis , Meningococcal Infections/prevention & control , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Carrier State/microbiology
3.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e248295, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431129

ABSTRACT

Este ensaio propõe que a Covid-19 pode operar como um analisador, dentro da perspectiva da análise institucional, iluminando um determinado modo de organização social que promove profundas desigualdades e ameaça a vida em diversos níveis e revelando as condições sociais, institucionais e políticas de produção de sofrimento no corpo profissional de Enfermagem. A pandemia desvelou um conjunto de marcas relacionadas à profissão, agravadas pela crise sanitária, reforçando a naturalização das relações de cuidado atribuídas ao feminino, bem como um conjunto de clivagens e hierarquias internas à profissão a partir da sinergia de marcadores da diferença, como gênero, cor/raça, classe e geração. Além disso, este trabalho mostra a presença de uma necropolítica nas respostas à pandemia que banaliza a vida e permite morrer determinados grupos sociais. A ideia de "profissionais de linha de frente" é criticada em suas metáforas bélicas, mas tomada como figura de linguagem em sua potência para afirmar que existem corpos que, pelas marcas sociais e históricas e pela interdependência do cuidado, são mais presentes e exigidos e, portanto, mais vulneráveis à doença e ao sofrimento dela decorrente.(AU)


The essay proposes that Covid-19 can operate as an analyzer, within the perspective of institutional analysis, illuminating a certain mode of social organization that promotes profound inequalities and threatens life at various levels, revealing the social, institutional and political conditions for the production of suffering in the professional nursing body. The pandemic would unveil a set of marks related to the profession, aggravated by the sanitary crisis, reinforcing the naturalization of the care relations attributed to the feminine, as well as a set of cleavages and internal hierarchies to the profession from the synergy of markers of difference as gender, color/race, class and generation. The work shows the presence of necropolitics in responses to the pandemic, which trivializes life and allows certain social groups to die. The idea of "front-line professionals" is criticized in its war metaphors, but taken as a figure of speech in its potency to affirm that there are bodies that by social and historical marks, and by the interdependence of care, are more present and demanded, and therefore more vulnerable to disease and the resulting suffering.(AU)


El ensayo propone que el Covid-19 puede funcionar como analizador, desde la perspectiva del análisis institucional, revelando las condiciones sociales, institucionales y políticas de producción de sufrimiento de enfermeras. La pandemia revela algunas marcas relacionadas con la profesión, agravadas por la crisis de salud, reforzando la naturalización de la atribución del cuidado a lo femenino y un conjunto de jerarquías internas de la profesión. El trabajo también muestra la presencia de una necropolítica en las respuestas a la pandemia. La idea de "profesionales de primera línea" es criticada, pero tomada como una figura del lenguaje en su potencia para afirmar que hay cuerpos que, por las marcas sociales e históricas y por la interdependencia del cuidado, están más presentes y demandados, y por lo tanto más vulnerables a la enfermedad.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Nursing , Psychological Distress , Gender Identity , Self-Testing , COVID-19 , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pain , Patient Care Team , Patient Discharge , Patients , Politics , Primary Health Care , Psychology , Quality Assurance, Health Care , Quality of Life , Race Relations , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Social Change , Social Isolation , Social Sciences , Socioeconomic Factors , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Women, Working , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Population Characteristics , Nursing Theory , Occupational Risks , Burnout, Professional , Virus Diseases , Vaccines , Nursing Research , Accidents, Occupational , Carrier State , Mental Health , Mortality , Models, Nursing , Occupational Health , Workload , Professional Autonomy , Long-Term Care , Health Care Quality, Access, and Evaluation , Immunization Programs , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Continuity of Patient Care , Feminism , Critical Care , Disaster Vulnerability , Health Risk , Access to Information , Delivery of Health Care , Air Pollution , Health Care Economics and Organizations , Emergencies , Employment , Environment and Public Health , Essential Public Health Functions , Health Status Disparities , Ethics, Professional , Surveillance of the Workers Health , Program of Risk Prevention on Working Environment , Air Contamination Effects , Evidence-Based Nursing , Fear , Remuneration , Early Medical Intervention , Medicalization , Ambulatory Care , Personal Protective Equipment , Psychosocial Support Systems , Occupational Stress , Burnout, Psychological , Patient Care , Caregiver Burden , Models, Biopsychosocial , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Gender Equity , Vaccine Development , Community Resources , Intersectional Framework , Systemic Racism , Social Vulnerability , Humanitarian Crisis , Working Conditions , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Accident Prevention , Health Occupations , Health Services , Health Services Accessibility , Helping Behavior , Hierarchy, Social , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humanism , Life Support Care , Masks , Muscle Tonus , Night Care , Nursing Care , Nursing, Practical , Nursing, Team , Occupational Diseases
4.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1443965

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar a ocorrência de pacientes cirúrgicos assintomáticos com teste para COVID-19 positivo, delimitar o perfil epidemiológico, identificar o tipo de cirurgia e a especialidade, bem como determinar o tempo de execução do procedimento cirúrgico após testagem positiva. Método: Trata-se de um estudo de coorte retrospectiva, em um hospital de grande porte, filantrópico, de São Paulo, realizado no período de março a setembro de 2020, baseado na análise de dados de prontuário. Resultados: Foram 4.870 procedimentos cirúrgicos, dos quais 3.688 pacientes tiveram coleta de exame PCR. A ocorrência de pacientes cirúrgicos posi-tivos e assintomáticos foi de 1,7%; no perfil epidemiológico, observa-se predominância de sexo masculino, meia-idade, com classificação de risco anestésico ASA II e em procedimentos das especialidades de ortopedia, urologia, ginecologia e gastroenterologia. A execução do teste foi de dois dias pré-procedimento e a presença de pacientes com sintomas em até 14 dias após testagem foi de 0,5%. Conclusão: A ocorrência de pacientes cirúrgicos positivos e assintomáticos foi pequena dentro do quantitativo analisado, os achados deste estudo são similares aos de estudos nacionais e internacionais em relação a especialidade, comorbidades e idade


Objective: To analyze the occurrence of asymptomatic surgical patients with a positive COVID-19 test, delimit the epidemiological profile, iden-tify the type of surgery and specialty, as well as determine the time for performing the surgical procedure after a positive test. Method: This is a retrospective cohort study, in a large, philanthropic hospital in São Paulo, carried out from March to September 2020, based on the analysis of medical records. Results:There were 4,870 surgical procedures, of which 3,688 patients underwent a PCR test. The occurrence of positive and asymptomatic surgical patients was 1.7%; in the epidemiological profile, there is a predominance of males, middle-aged, with ASA II anesthetic risk classification and in procedures of the spe-cialties of orthopedics, urology, gynecology, and gastroenterology. The test was carried out two days before the procedure and the presence of patients with symptoms within 14 days after testing was 0.5%. Conclusion: The occurrence of positive and asymptomatic surgical patients was small within the quantita-tive analyzed, the findings of this study are similar to those of national and international studies in relation to specialty, comorbidities, and age


Objetivo: Analizar la ocurrencia de pacientes quirúrgicos asintomáticos con prueba COVID-19 positiva, delimitar el perfil epidemiológico, iden-tificar el tipo de cirugía y especialidad, así como determinar el tiempo para realizar el procedimiento quirúrgico luego de una prueba positiva. Método:Este es un estudio de cohorte retrospectivo, en un gran hospital filantrópico de São Paulo, realizado de marzo a septiembre de 2020, basado en el análi-sis de registros médicos. Resultados: Se realizaron 4.870 procedimientos quirúrgicos, de los cuales se recolectó examen PCR a 3.688 pacientes. La ocur-rencia de pacientes quirúrgicos positivos y asintomáticos fue de 1,7%; en el perfil epidemiológico predomina el sexo masculino, de mediana edad, con clasificación de riesgo anestésico ASA II y en procedimientos de las especialidades de ortopedia, urología, ginecología y gastroenterología. La prueba se realizó dos días antes del procedimiento y la presencia de pacientes con síntomas dentro de los 14 días posteriores a la prueba fue del 0,5%. Conclusión:La ocurrencia de pacientes quirúrgicos positivos y asintomáticos fue pequeña dentro de lo cuantitativo analizado, los hallazgos de este estudio son simi-lares a los de estudios nacionales e internacionales en relación a especialidad, comorbilidades y edad


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Preoperative Care/methods , Carrier State , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Elective Surgical Procedures
5.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e250675, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448938

ABSTRACT

Em março de 2020 a situação causada pela covid-19 foi elevada à categoria de pandemia, impactando de inúmeras formas a vida em sociedade. O objetivo deste estudo foi compreender os impactos da pandemia na atuação e saúde mental do psicólogo hospitalar, profissional que atua nos espaços de saúde e tem experienciado mais de perto o sofrimento dos doentes e dos profissionais de saúde frente à covid-19. Trata-se de um estudo exploratório-descritivo com 131 psicólogos que atuam em hospitais. Os profissionais foram convidados a participar através de redes sociais e redes de contatos das pesquisadoras, utilizando-se a técnica Bola de Neve. Foram utilizados dois questionários, disponibilizados na plataforma Google Forms, um abordando os impactos da pandemia sentidos pelos profissionais e outro referente ao sofrimento psíquico. Os dados foram analisados a partir de estatísticas descritivas e inferenciais. Foram observados impactos na atuação de quase a totalidade dos participantes, constatada a necessidade de preparação dos profissionais para o novo cenário, a percepção de pouco apoio institucional e quase metade da população estudada referiu-se a sintomas de sofrimento psíquico considerável desde o início da pandemia. É fundamental dar atenção a sinais e sintomas de sofrimento psíquico, procurando evitar o adoecimento de uma categoria profissional que se encontra na linha de frente do combate aos danos psicológicos da pandemia e cuja própria saúde mental é pouco abordada na literatura.(AU)


In March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic breakout hugely impacted life in society. This study analyzes how the pandemic impacted hospital psychologists' mental health and performance, professional who more closely experienced the suffering of patients and health professionals in this period. An exploratory and descriptive study was conducted with 131 hospital psychologists. Professionals were invited to participate through the researchers' social and contact networks using the Snowball technique. Data were collected by two questionnaires available on the Google Forms platform, one addressing the impacts felt by professionals and the other regarding psychic suffering, and analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. Results showed that almost all participants had their performance affected by the need to prepare for the new scenario, the perceived little institutional support. Almost half of the study sample reported considerable psychological distress symptoms since the beginning of the pandemic. Paying attention to signs and symptoms of psychic suffering is fundamental to avoid compromising a professional category that is on the front line of combating the psychological damage caused by the pandemic and whose own mental health is little addressed by the literature.(AU)


En marzo de 2020, la situación provocada por el COVID-19 se caracterizó como pandemia e impactó el mundo de diversas maneras. El objetivo de este estudio fue comprender los impactos de la pandemia en la salud mental y la actuación del psicólogo en los hospitales, uno de los profesionales que trabaja en espacios sanitarios y que ha experimentado más de cerca el sufrimiento de pacientes y profesionales sanitarios frente al COVID-19. Este es un estudio exploratorio descriptivo, realizado con 131 psicólogos que trabajan en hospitales. Los profesionales recibieron la invitación a participar a través de las redes sociales y redes de contactos de las investigadoras, mediante la técnica snowball. Se utilizaron dos cuestionarios disponibles en la plataforma Google Forms: uno sobre los impactos de la pandemia en los profesionales y el otro sobre el sufrimiento psíquico. Los datos se analizaron a partir de estadísticas descriptivas e inferenciales. Se observaron impactos en el trabajo de casi todos los participantes, la necesidad de preparación de los profesionales para este nuevo escenario, la percepción de poco apoyo institucional, y casi la mitad de la población estudiada reportaron sentir síntomas de considerable angustia psicológica desde el inicio de la pandemia. Es esencial prestar atención a los signos y síntomas del sufrimiento psíquico, buscando evitar la enfermedad de una categoría profesional que está a la vanguardia de la lucha contra el daño psicológico de la pandemia y cuya propia salud mental se aborda poco en la literatura.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Psychology , Mental Health , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Anxiety , Orientation , Physicians , Protective Clothing , Respiration , Respiratory Tract Infections , Safety , Attention , Set, Psychology , Social Adjustment , Social Isolation , Stress, Physiological , Stress, Psychological , Awareness , Software , Immunoglobulin M , Adaptation, Psychological , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Irritable Mood , Family , Carrier State , Epidemiologic Factors , Public Health Practice , Quarantine , Sanitation , Hygiene , Public Health , Epidemiology , Risk , Disease Outbreaks , Data Collection , Survival Rate , Mortality , Transportation of Patients , Triage , Contact Tracing , Occupational Health , Immunization , Universal Precautions , Infection Control , Immunization Programs , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Coronavirus , Comprehensive Health Care , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Remote Consultation , Containment of Biohazards , Pulmonary Ventilation , Emergency Plans , Disaster Vulnerability , Declaration of Emergency , Death , Trust , Air Pollution , Ethanol , Economics , Emergencies , Emergency Services, Psychiatric , Empathy , Ethics, Professional , Professional Training , Surveillance of the Workers Health , Family Relations , Family Therapy , Resilience, Psychological , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Fear , Epidemics , Social Networking , Binge Drinking , Epidemiological Monitoring , Personal Protective Equipment , Emotional Adjustment , Emergency Medical Dispatch , Survivorship , Family Separation , Posttraumatic Growth, Psychological , Embarrassment , Sadness , Teleworking , Physical Distancing , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , Sociodemographic Factors , Suicide Prevention , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Health Services Research , Immune System , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anger , Loneliness , Masks , Mass Media , Negativism , Nurses, Male , Nursing Assessment
6.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 63(2): 47-52, dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414124

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: determinar la seroprevalencia, características clínicas de SARS-COV-2 y su relación con sistema ABO en 85 voluntarios residentes de gran altura. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: estudio observacional, trasversal analítico. Se realizó pruebas de flujo lateral con plasma de sangre venosa, saturación de oxígeno, frecuencia cardíaca, frecuencia respiratoria y se aplicó una encuesta sobre características demográficas y clínicas. RESULTADOS: se obtuvo la información de 85 voluntarios, 64.71% mujeres y 35.29% varones. La edad fue de 37.42±14.7 años. El 15.3% tuvo IgM e IgG positivos, el 58.8% negativos, el 21.2% IgM negativo e IgG positivo y el 4.7% IgM positivo e IgG negativo. En los 4 grupos la mayoría fueron asintomáticos, siendo presintomáticos el 15.38% en los IgM IgG positivos y sintomáticos en proporciones similares en los 4 grupos. El 27% declaró alguna comorbilidad, 8% del grupo IgM e IgG positivos con obesidad; 39% del grupo IgM- IgG+ con obesidad y una embarazada; 50% del grupo IgM+ IgG- con asma y lumbago y en 26% del grupo IgM e IgG negativos con 2 embarazos, 2 gastritis y 1 eritrocitosis. En relación al tipo sanguíneo, el más frecuente fue 0 positivo con 92.8%, seguido de A positivo con 4.8%, A negativo con 1.2% y B positivo también 1.2% (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONES: las características clínicas de COVID­19 y seroprevalencia de IgM e IgG de habitantes de gran altura son similares a los habitantes del llano.


OBJECTIVE: to determine the seroprevalence, clinical characteristics of SARS-COV-2 and its relationship with the ABO system in 85 high-altitude resident volunteers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: observational, cross-sectional analytical study. Lateral flow tests with venous blood plasma, oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiratory rate were performed, and a survey on demographic and clinical characteristics was applied. RESULTS: information was obtained from 85 volunteers, 64.71% women and 35.29% men. The age was 37.42±14.7 years. 15.3% had positive IgM and IgG, 58.8% negative, 21.2% negative IgM and positive IgG, and 4.7% positive IgM and negative IgG. In the 4 groups, most were asymptomatic, with 15.38% being presymptomatic in positive IgM IgG and symptomatic in similar proportions in the 4 groups. 27% declared some comorbidity, 8% of the positive IgM and IgG group with obesity; 39% of the IgM-IgG+ group with obesity and one pregnant; 50% of the IgM+ IgG- group with asthma and lumbago and 26% of the IgM and IgG negative group with 2 pregnancies, 2 gastritis and 1 erythrocytosis. In relation to blood type, the most frequent was 0 positive with 92.8%, followed by A positive with 4.8%, A negative with 1.2% and B positive also 1.2% (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The clinical characteristics of COVID-19 and the seroprevalence of IgM and IgG in inhabitants of high altitudes are similar to those in the plains.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Adult , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Carrier State , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(5): 726-733, Sept.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407702

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To estimate the frequency of Staphylococcus aureus and cephalosporin nonsusceptible bacteria colonization in patients with proximal femoral fracture during preoperative hospitalization. Methods Prevalence and incidence assessment in 63 hospitalized patients over 1 year. The median time of pretreatment hospitalization was 12 days. Samples were collected from the nostrils, groin skin and anal mucosa during the pretreatment hospitalization and were tested by the disc-diffusion technique. Results The hospital colonization incidence and the prevalence of positive results were 14.3 and 44.4% for S. aureus; 3.2 and 6.4% for meticillin-resistant S. aureus; 28.6 and 85.7% for meticillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus; 28.6 and 61.9% for cefazolin nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae (KFNSE); and 20.6 and 28.6% for cefuroxime nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae (CXNSE). In addition, factors such as to the duration of the pretreatment hospitalization period, being non-walker before fracture, antimicrobial use, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) 4 surgical risk, and previous hospitalization, were related to an increase in the incidence of hospital acquisition and prevalence of colonization by the evaluated strains. The prevalence of colonization by KFNSE was three times higher than by CXNSE on admission, and twice as high at the time of fracture treatment. Conclusion There was a high incidence of hospital colonization and prevalence of colonization by all strains studied, which may guide the indication of prophylactic measures for infection.


Resumo Objetivo Estimar a frequência da colonização por Staphylococcus aureus e as bactérias não suscetíveis à cefalosporina, em pacientes com fratura proximal do fêmur durante a internação pré-operatória. Métodos Avaliação da prevalência e incidência em 63 pacientes hospitalizados ao longo de um ano. O tempo médio de internação pré-tratamento foi de 12 dias. As amostras foram coletadas das narinas, pele da virilha e mucosa anal, durante a internação prévia ao tratamento e testadas pela técnica de disco-difusão. Resultados A incidência da colonização hospitalar e a prevalência de resultados positivos foram de 14,3% e 44,4% para Staphylococcus aureus; 3,2% e 6,4% para S. aureus resistente à meticilina; 28,6% e 85,7% para Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo resistente à meticilina; 28,6% e 61,9% para Enterobacteriaceae não suscetível à cefazolina (KFNSE); e 20,6% e 28,6% para Enterobacteriaceae não suscetível à cefuroxima (CXNSE). Além da duração do período de internação pré-tratamento, os pacientes não deambularam previamente à ocorrência da fratura e nem fizeram uso de antimicrobiano. Além disso, a duração do período de internação pré-tratamento cirúrgico, ser não-deambulador antes da fratura, uso de antimicrobianos, risco cirúrgico IV pela American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) e internação anterior, estiveram relacionados a um aumento na incidência de aquisição hospitalar e prevalência de colonização pelas cepas avaliadas. A prevalência de colonização pela KFNSE foi três vezes maior do que pela CXNSE na admissão e duas vezes maior no momento do tratamento da fratura. Conclusão Observou-se uma alta incidência da colonização hospitalar e prevalência da colonização por todas as cepas estudadas, o que pode orientar a indicação de medidas profiláticas contra a infecção.


Subject(s)
Humans , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Carrier State , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Enterobacteriaceae Infections , Femoral Fractures , Anti-Infective Agents
8.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1383551

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones intrahospitalarias (IIH) son causa de elevada morbimortalidad y representan un problema sanitario importante. El personal de salud es reservorio y potencial transmisor de los agentes etiológicos de las mismas. S. aureus es uno de los microorganismos implicados, por lo tanto es importante conocer la frecuencia de portación en el personal de salud y establecer el perfil de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana para contribuir con la elaboración de medidas de prevención incluyendo actividades educativas. Objetivo: Conocer la frecuencia de portación de S. aureus, distribución y antibiotipos de las cepas presentes en el personal sanitario del Hospital Pediátrico de Referencia (HPR). Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo durante el periodo julio-setiembre del año 2018. Se incluyeron muestras de hisopados nasales de trabajadores de la salud de distintas áreas de internación que consintieron participar en el estudio. Se excluyeron aquellos que recibieron antibióticos dentro de los 3 meses previos al estudio. Las muestras fueron sembradas en agar sangre ovina al 5% (ASO) y se incubaron a 35-37ºC en aerobiosis por 24-48 horas. La identificación de las colonias sospechosas de Staphylococcus aureus por métodos convencionales y MALDI-TOF. El patrón de resistencia antimicrobiana de S. aureus se detectó por disco-difusión. En los cultivos resistentes a meticilina (SAMR) se determinó la presencia del gen mecA y se realizó la tipificación del SCCmec por pruebas de reacción en cadena de polimerasa. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 225 hisopados a partir de 225 trabajadores, presentaron desarrollo 212. En 49 se recuperaron cultivos de S. aureus. Correspondieron a SAMR 11 de las 49 cepas, todas portaban el gen mecA. Hubo predominio en el personal de enfermería (7/11), en los servicios de hemato-oncología (3/11) y cuidados intensivos neonatales (4/11). Asociaron resistencia a macrólidos y clindamicina 8 de 11 aislamientos SAMR, a gentamicina 2 y a mupirocina uno. El SCCmec más frecuentemente identificado fue el tipo IV (7/11). Conclusiones: Los resultados muestran la presencia de cepas SAMR entre el personal de salud del CHPR y aportan información complementaria para efectuar prevención y control de las IIH, actuando sobre todo en el personal de salud encargado de la atención de pacientes susceptibles.


Hospital-acquired infections (IIH) are a cause of high morbidity and mortality and represent a major health problem. Health personnel are reservoirs and potential transmitters of their etiological agents. S. aureus is one of the microorganisms involved, therefore it is important to know the frequency of carriage in health personnel and establish the antimicrobial susceptibility profile to contribute to the development of prevention measures, including educational activities. Objective: To know the frequency of carriage of S. aureus, distribution and antibiotypes of the strains present in the health personnel of the Reference Pediatric Hospital (HPR). Materials and methods: A descriptive study was carried out during the period July-September 2018. Nasal swab samples from health workers from different hospitalization areas who agreed to participate in the study were included. Those who received antibiotics within 3 months prior to the study were excluded. The samples were seeded in 5% sheep blood agar (ASO) and incubated at 35-37ºC in aerobiosis for 24-48 hours. Identification of suspicious Staphylococcus aureus colonies by conventional methods and MALDI-TOF. The antimicrobial resistance pattern of S. aureus was detected by disc diffusion. In methicillin-resistant cultures (MRSA), the presence of the mecA gene was determined and SCCmec was typified by polymerase chain reaction tests. Results: 225 swabs were obtained from 225 workers, 212 showed development. S. aureus cultures were recovered from 49. 11 of the 49 strains corresponded to MRSA, all of them carried the mecA gene. There was a predominance in the nursing staff (7/11), in the hematology-oncology services (3/11) and neonatal intensive care (4/11). They associated resistance to macrolides and clindamycin in 8 of 11 MRSA isolates, 2 to gentamicin, and 1 to mupirocin. The most frequently identified SCCmec was type IV (7/11). Conclusions: The results show the presence of MRSA strains among the health personnel of the CHPR and provide complementary information to carry out prevention and control of IIH, acting especially on the health personnel in charge of the care of susceptible patients.


As infecções hospitalares (HII) são causa de alta morbidade e mortalidade e representam um importante problema de saúde. Os profissionais de saúde são reservatórios e potenciais transmissores de seus agentes etiológicos. O S. aureus é um dos micro-organismos envolvidos, por isso é importante conhecer a frequência de portadores em profissionais de saúde e estabelecer o perfil de suscetibilidade antimicrobiana para contribuir no desenvolvimento de medidas de prevenção incluindo atividades educativas. Objetivo: Conhecer a frequência de portadores de S. aureus, distribuição e antibiótipos das cepas presentes no pessoal de saúde do Hospital Pediátrico de Referência (HPR). Materiais e métodos: Foi realizado um estudo descritivo durante o período de julho a setembro de 2018. Foram incluídas amostras de swab nasal de profissionais de saúde de diferentes áreas de internação que concordaram em participar do estudo. Aqueles que receberam antibióticos nos 3 meses anteriores ao estudo foram excluídos. As amostras foram semeadas em 5% de ágar sangue de carneiro (ASO) e incubadas a 35-37ºC em aerobiose por 24-48 horas. Identificação de colônias suspeitas de Staphylococcus aureus por métodos convencionais e MALDI-TOF. O padrão de resistência antimicrobiana de S. aureus foi detectado por difusão em disco. Em culturas resistentes à meticilina (MRSA), a presença do gene mecA foi determinada e SCCmec foi tipificado por testes de reação em cadeia da polimerase. Resultados: 225 swabs foram obtidos de 225 trabalhadores, 212 apresentaram desenvolvimento. Culturas de S. aureus foram recuperadas de 49. 11 das 49 cepas correspondiam a MRSA, todas carregavam o gene mecA. Houve predominância na equipe de enfermagem (7/11), nos serviços de hematologia-oncologia (3/11) e de terapia intensiva neonatal (4/11). Eles associaram resistência a macrolídeos e clindamicina em 8 de 11 isolados de MRSA, 2 à gentamicina e 1 à mupirocina. O SCCmec mais frequentemente identificado foi o tipo IV (7/11). Conclusões: Os resultados mostram a presença de cepas de MRSA entre os profissionais de saúde do CHPR e fornecem informações complementares para realizar a prevenção e controle da HII, atuando principalmente sobre os profissionais de saúde responsáveis ​​pelo atendimento de pacientes suscetíveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Physicians/statistics & numerical data , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Carrier State/epidemiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Housekeeping, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Nurses/statistics & numerical data , Uruguay/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Nasal Cavity/microbiology
9.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 29(1): 46-49, jan./mar. 2022. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1393360

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste trabalho foi detectar a presença de DNA do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina (FIV) em gatos domesticos (Feliz catus) assintomáticos. Foi realizada a tecnica de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) em 50 animais. Para tal, foram coletadas amostras de sangue, por venopunção da jugular, de forma asséptica para armazenamento de 1-2 mL de sangue total. Os animais que participaram do estudo fizeram parte do projeto de castração "Vida digna" da Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia. E a escolha dos animais foi realizada de maneira aleatória, sem distinção por sexo ou idade, resultando em 29 foram fêmeas e 21 machos. Para o diagnóstico, foi realizada a extração do DNA, em seguida as amostras foram testadas em duas reações de PCR utilizando- se dois conjuntos de primers do Gene gag de FIV. Achou-se uma prevalência de 2% (1/50), confirmando assim a presença do vírus na cidade de Belém. Assim, evidenciando a importância de testar os felinos mesmo sendo assintomáticos. Desta forma, faz-se necessário a realização de trabalhos futuros que amplie o número amostral dos animais testados para assim elucidar o perfil epidemiológico da doença na região de Belém do Pará, considerando a relevância clínica desta infecção e a correta conduta médica veterinária para evitar novas infecções.


The objective of this work was to detect the presence of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) proviral DNA in asymptomatic domestic cats (Feliz catus). The polymerase chain reaction technique was performed from 50 animals. For this, blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture, aseptically for storage of 1-2 mL of whole blood. The animals that participated in the study were part of the castration project "Vida digna" at the Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia. And the choice of animals was performed randomly, without distinction by sex or age, resulting in 29 females and 21 males. For diagnosis, DNA extraction was performed, then the samples were tested in two PCR reactions using two sets of FIV gag gene primers. A prevalence of 2% (1/50) was observed, thus confirming the presence of the virus in the city of Belém. Thus, highlighting the importance of testing the felines even if they are asymptomatic. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out future work that expands the sample number of animals tested in order to elucidate the epidemiological profile of the disease in the region of Belém do Pará, considering the clinical relevance of this infection and the correct veterinary medical conduct to avoid new infections.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Carrier State/veterinary , Epidemiologic Studies , Cats/immunology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline/immunology , Prevalence
10.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 55(4): 490-500, dic. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1393753

ABSTRACT

Resumen La detección de SARS-CoV-2 y su implicancia en el diagnóstico de COVID-19 han sido muy debatidas en la pandemia. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el costo/beneficio de la detección de SARS-CoV-2 en contactos estrechos asintomáticos (CE) mediante el uso de distintas pruebas de diagnóstico molecular. Se estudiaron 51 CE de personas con diagnóstico de SARS-CoV-2 confirmado por RTqPCR, clasificadas por el umbral de ciclos (Ct) (<20, entre 20 y 30 y >30) en hospitales públicos de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Del total de contactos estudiados el 15,7% resultó confirmado para SARS-CoV-2; no hubo contactos positivos de casos con Ct>30. La cantidad de contactos positivos de casos con Ct<20 fue significativamente mayor que la de casos con Ct>20. Las muestras con Ct<20 se asociaron a una carga viral estimada de entre uno a cuatro órdenes de magnitud de diferencia con los rangos de Ct>20. Un 13,7% de contactos positivos fueron casos con Ct<20. De las muestras positivas confirmadas por PCR, correspondientes a la semana epidemiológica 1 de 2021 (SE1), sólo un 19,35% correspondían a muestras con Ct<20 y un 50,7% con Ct entre 20 y 30. Estos datos muestran un incremento de sólo un 3,7% de casos detectados. El esfuerzo por parte del sistema de salud pública para esta estrategia, con bajo poder predictivo, puede tener un efecto negativo para el cumplimiento del aislamiento de los contactos y podría generar una demora en los resultados de los casos sospechosos, sin aportar significativamente en el control de la pandemia.


Abstract The detection of SARS-CoV-2 and its implication in the diagnosis of COVID-19 have been highly debated in the pandemic. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost/benefit of detecting SARS-CoV-2 in asymptomatic close contacts (CC) using different molecular diagnostic tests. A total of 51 CC of people with a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 confirmed by RTqPCR, classified by the cycle threshold (Ct) (<20, between 20 and 30 and >30), were studied in public hospitals in the Province of Buenos Aires. Of the total contacts studied, 15.7% were confirmed for SARS-CoV-2; there were no positive contacts of cases with Ct>30 positive. The number of positive contacts of cases with Ct<20 was significantly higher than that of cases with Ct>20. Samples with Ct<20 were associated with an estimated viral load of one to four orders of magnitude difference with Ct ranges >20. A total of 13.7% of positive close contacts were from cases with Ct<20. When studying positive samples with confirmed diagnosis by PCR, corresponding to 1 epidemiological week of 2021 (EW1), only 19.35% corresponded to samples with Ct<20 and 50.7% with Ct between 20 and 30. From these data it is shown that with the CC test only 3.7% of the cases were detected. The effort by the public health system for this strategy, with low predictive power, may have a negative effect on the fulfillment of the isolation of contacts and could generate a delay in the results of suspected cases, without contributing significantly to controlling the pandemic.


Resumo A detecção do SARS-CoV-2 e seu envolvimento no diagnóstico da COVID-19 têm sido muito discutidos durante a pandemia. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a relação custo/benefício na detecção de SARSCoV- 2 em casos de contatos próximos assintomático (CP), por meio do uso de diferentes testes de diagnóstico molecular. Foram estudados 51 casos de CP de pessoas com diagnóstico de SARS-CoV-2 confirmado pelo RTqPCR, sendo classificados pelo limiar de ciclos (Ct) (<20, entre 20 e 30 e >30), em hospitais públicos da província de Buenos Aires. Do total de contatos estudados, 15,7% foram confirmados para SARS-CoV-2, não houve contatos positivos de casos com Ct>30. O número de contatos positivos de casos com Ct<20, foi significativamente maior que os casos com Ct>20. As amostras com Ct<20 foram associadas a uma carga viral estimada de uma a quatro ordens de magnitude de diferença com os intervalos de Ct>20. Dos casos positivos, 13,7% foram com Ct<20. Das amostras positivas confirmadas por PCR, correspondentes à semana epidemiológica 1 de 2021 (SE1), apenas 19,35% correspondiam a amostras com Ct>20 e 50,7% com Ct entre 20 e 30. Esses dados mostram incremento de apenas 3,7% de casos detectados. O esforço por parte do sistema de saúde pública para essa estratégia, com baixo poder preditivo, pode ter um efeito negativo no cumprimento do isolamento dos contatos e poderia gerar uma demora nos resultados dos casos suspeitos, sem contribuir significativamente para o controle da pandemia.


Subject(s)
Virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Patient Isolation , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Health Systems , Power, Psychological , Carrier State , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Public Health , Viral Load , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Costs and Cost Analysis , Richter Scale , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Diagnosis , Pathology, Molecular , Pandemics , Procrastination , COVID-19 , Hospitals, Public , Persons
11.
São Paulo med. j ; 139(6): 607-614, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352285

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is a worldwide concern given its presence even in non-hospitalized healthy individuals, such as university students. OBJECTIVE: To identify in the literature the prevalence of colonization by MRSA among healthcare students. DESIGN AND SETTING: Integrative review of the literature conducted in Universidade Federal do Piauí. METHOD: A search for primary studies was performed in the following databases: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System on-line; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; Web of Science; Scopus; and LILACS. RESULTS: This review included 27 studies that demonstrated MRSA infection prevalence ranging from 0.0 to 15.3% among students. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of colonization of MRSA among healthcare students is high, and the nasal cavity was cited as an important reservoir location for these microorganisms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Students , Carrier State/epidemiology , Prevalence , Delivery of Health Care
12.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 20(2): e691, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289356

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La trombofilia es un desorden de la hemostasia congénito o adquirido que predispone al desarrollo de trombosis. Las trombofilias congénitas más frecuentes son las deficiencias de antitrombina III, proteína C y proteína S, el factor V Leiden, la mutación del gen de la protrombina (G20210A) y las mutaciones de la enzima metilentetrahidrofolato reductasa (MTHFR). Objetivo: Describir el manejo anestésico en un paciente portador de trombofilia congénita. Presentación del caso: Se reporta un paciente de 19 años de edad con antecedentes de historia familiar y personal de trombosis venosa profunda, tratamiento con doble antiagregación plaquetaria y asociación de tres mutaciones para trombofilia congénita, G20210A, A1298C MTHFR y C677T MTHFR que recibe anestesia espinal para una herniorrafia inguinal. Se mantiene tratamiento con aspirina, se suspende clopidogrel 7 días antes de la cirugía y durante ese tiempo se administra fraxiparina 0.6 Uds. subcutánea diarias hasta 12 h antes de la cirugía, se utiliza medias elásticas, deambulación precoz y reinicio de clopidogrel 24 h después de la cirugía, con evolución satisfactoria. Conclusiones: La tromboprofilaxis en pacientes portadores de trombofilia congénita es mandatoria, por eso resulta determinante la utilización de heparina de bajo peso molecular junto al resto de las medidas de prevención de la trombosis venosa profunda(AU)


Introduction: Thrombophilia is a congenital or acquired hemostasis disorder that predisposes to thrombosis development. The commonest congenital thrombophilias are deficiencies of antithrombin III, protein C and protein S, factor V Leiden, prothrombin gene mutation (G20210A), and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutations. Objective: To describe the anesthetic management in a patient with congenital thrombophilia. Case presentation: The case is reported of a 19-year-old patient with a family and personal history of deep-vein thrombosis, treatment with double antiplatelet therapy and association of three mutations for congenital thrombophilia (G20210A, A1298C MTHFR and C677T MTHFR), who receives spinal anesthesia for an inguinal herniorrhaphy. Aspirin treatment is maintained. Clopidogrel is suspended seven days before surgery. During this time, fraxiparin is administered subcutaneously in 0.6-mL units daily, up to twelve hours before surgery. Elastic stockings are used, early ambulation is allowed, and clopidogrel is restarted 24 hours after surgery, with satisfactory evolution. Conclusions: Thromboprophylaxis in patients with congenital thrombophilia is mandatory, a reason why the use of low-molecular-weight heparin, together with the rest of the prevention measures against deep-vein thrombosis, is decisive(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Carrier State , Venous Thrombosis , Anesthesia, Spinal , Antithrombin III , Early Ambulation , Stockings, Compression
13.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 50(2): e919, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341411

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La COVID-19 presenta formas clínicas asintomáticas y sintomáticas, ambas con similar frecuencia, pero con diferencias clínicas y epidemiológicas. Objetivo: Comparar la características clínicas y epidemiológicas entre pacientes asintomáticos y sintomáticos de la COVID-19. Métodos: Estudio comparativo de 91 pacientes positivos a la COVID-19, desde marzo hasta julio de 2020. Según las formas clínicas, se conformaron dos grupos (asintomáticos y sintomáticos). Fueron comparados en cuanto a edad, sexo, antecedentes epidemiológicos, clínicos, manifestaciones clínicas y comorbilidades. Resultados: Los pacientes asintomáticos fueron más jóvenes (media 37,2), pero similares en el sexo. Prevaleció la fuente de infección contacto con caso confirmado (83,3 por ciento) y los municipios Holguín y Gibara. El número reproductivo básico fue similar. Ser adulto mayor (63,0 por ciento) y portador de hipertensión arterial (44,4 por ciento) predominó en casos sintomáticos, la mayoría de los asintomáticos no tenían comorbilidades (56,8 por ciento). Prevalecieron como síntomas la fiebre, tos seca y manifestaciones extrapulmonares digestivas y neurológicas. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en la edad (p = 0,02) y factores de riesgo: adulto mayor (p = 0,00) e hipertensión arterial (p = 0,00). Conclusiones: Existió similitud entre los grupos comparados, excepto en la edad y los factores de riesgo: adulto mayor e hipertensión arterial(AU)


Introduction: COVID-19 presents asymptomatic and symptomatic clinical forms, both with similar frequency, but with clinical and epidemiological differences. Objective: To compare the clinical and epidemiological characteristics between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients of COVID-19. Methods: Comparative study of 91 COVID-19 positive patients, from March to July 2020. According to the clinical forms, two groups were created (asymptomatic and symptomatic). They were compared regarding age, sex, epidemiological and clinical antecedents, clinical manifestations and comorbidities. Results: Asymptomatic patients were younger (mean 37,2), but similar in gender. The source of infection, contact with a confirmed case (83,3 percent) and the municipalities Holguín and Gibara prevailed. The basic reproductive number was similar. Being elderly (63,0 percent) and a carrier of arterial hypertension (44,4 percent) predominated in symptomatic cases, most of the asymptomatic did not have comorbidities (56,8 percent). Fever, dry cough and extrapulmonary digestive and neurological manifestations prevailed as symptoms. Significant differences were found in age (p = 0,02) and risk factors: older adult (p = 0,00) and arterial hypertension (p = 0,00). Conclusions: There was similarity between the groups compared, except for age and risk factors: elderly and arterial hypertension(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Carrier State , COVID-19 , Signs and Symptoms , Risk Factors , Gender Identity
14.
São Paulo med. j ; 139(2): 163-169, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1181010

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Spreader and super-spreader are terms that refer to people who have greater potential for disease transmission, to infect other people. OBJECTIVE: To present scientific evidence regarding the impact of COVID-19 spreaders. DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic review of the literature (using the PRISMA framework), performed at the Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis (SC), Brazil. METHODS: A search for articles was carried out in the SciELO, LILACS, PubMed, Scopus, Bireme and Web of Science databases. A search for gray literature was also conducted via Google Scholar. There was no restriction regarding place or language, and the search covered the period from January 2010 to August 2020. Studies were selected based on a combination of descriptors from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). RESULTS: Isolated cases of people diagnosed with COVID-19 who were classified as super-spreaders were found. They had been classified thus because they may have had greater potential for infecting other individuals. However, greater numbers of interventions are needed in order to identify and manage COVID-19 cases. There is little evidence regarding this detection, which further hinders recognition and understanding of super-spreading events. CONCLUSION: The scientific community needs greater depth of evaluation and understanding of how these patients physiologically develop the ability to propagate COVID-19 more intensely. A simpler way of tracking them is also necessary, given that many infected people are asymptomatic. Many patients also have mild symptoms, suggesting that these individuals could also be classified as possible COVID-19 spreaders. PROSPERO Number: ID 217874 (submitted for publication and is being assessed by the editorial team).


Subject(s)
Humans , Carrier State , COVID-19/transmission , Brazil , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology
15.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(1): 37-42, ene.-feb. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279071

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La identificación de portadores del virus de la hepatitis B en donantes de sangre es imperativo para evitar la transmisión de la enfermedad a través de transfusiones sanguíneas. Objetivo: Determinar si los donantes de sangre con resultados positivos de los marcadores serológicos HbsAg y anti-HBc eran portadores de ADN del virus de la hepatitis B. Métodos: Se recolectaron 12 745 muestras de seis bancos de sangre ecuatorianos, las cuales fueron analizadas con pruebas serológicas para identificar los marcadores infecciosos HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs mediante prueba ELISA automatizada. Todas las muestras positivas para uno, dos o los tres marcadores fueron analizadas con técnica molecular para determinar la presencia de ADN viral. Resultados: Se identificó que 27.5 % de las muestras reactivas solo a anti-HBc y 100 % de las muestras con resultados positivos de HBsAg/anti-HBc-IgM/IgG presentaron ADN del virus de la hepatitis B (p = 0.001). Conclusiones: La elección de los marcadores de infección y los métodos de detección definen los resultados. Es importante la realización de dos pruebas serológicas y una molecular para identificar a los portadores del virus de la hepatitis B y evitar su transmisión.


Abstract Introduction: Identification of hepatitis B virus carriers in blood donors is imperative in order to avoid transmission of the disease via blood transfusion. Objective: To determine if blood donors with positive results for serological markers HBsAg and anti-HBc were hepatitis B virus DNA carriers. Methods: 12,745 samples were collected from six Ecuadorian blood banks and analyzed for HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HBs infectious markers by automated ELISA. All samples that tested positive for one, two or all three markers were analyzed with molecular techniques to determine the presence of viral DNA. Results: 27.5 % of the samples that were reactive for anti-HBc alone and 100 % of those with positive results for HbsAg and IgM/IgG anti-HBc were identified to contain hepatitis B virus DNA (p = 0.001). Conclusions: The selection of infection markers, as well as the detection methods define the results. Performing two serological and one molecular test is important in order to identify hepatitis B virus carriers and prevent its transmission.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , DNA, Viral/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Blood Banks , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Biomarkers/blood , Carrier State/diagnosis , Carrier State/virology , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Ecuador
16.
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20200188, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279384

ABSTRACT

Resumo Contexto A ultrassonografia vascular é o exame de imagem de escolha para rastreamento inicial da compressão na veia ilíaca comum esquerda, cujo achado assintomático pode ser encontrado em até 25% em algumas casuísticas. Objetivo Identificar, pela ultrassonografia vascular, se há diferença na avaliação da compressão na veia ilíaca comum esquerda em mulheres assintomáticas em decúbito dorsal e ao ortostatismo. Métodos Trata-se de um estudo observacional transversal em 50 mulheres voluntárias, sem sintomas de compressão venosa pélvica. Os parâmetros avaliados pela ultrassonografia vascular em decúbito dorsal e ao ortostatismo foram os diâmetros e as velocidades máximas na veia ilíaca comum esquerda no local do cruzamento com a artéria ilíaca comum direita e antes desse cruzamento, além dos índices de velocidade na veia ilíaca comum esquerda no local do cruzamento. Resultados Foram identificados oito casos de compressão significativa na veia ilíaca comum esquerda na avaliação em decúbito dorsal (16%) e somente dois casos (4%) ao ortostatismo. Os diâmetros na veia ilíaca comum esquerda foram estatisticamente maiores (p = 0,002) no local de cruzamento com a artéria ilíaca comum direita ao ortostatismo, e as velocidades e índices de velocidades foram estatisticamente maiores (p < 0,001) em decúbito dorsal. Não houve identificação de compressão significativa na veia ilíaca comum esquerda em ortostatismo quando os índices de velocidades estavam normais em decúbito dorsal. Conclusão Não houve diferença na detecção de compressão significativa da veia ilíaca comum esquerda ao ortostatismo em relação ao decúbito dorsal; no entanto, o estudo mostrou que pode haver menor compressão anatômica da veia ilíaca comum esquerda em posição ortostática.


Abstract Background Vascular ultrasonography is the imaging exam of choice for initial screening for left common iliac vein compression, which is an asymptomatic finding that can be detected in up to 25% of some patient samples. Objective To determine, using vascular ultrasonography, whether findings of left common iliac vein compression in asymptomatic women are different when assessed in the prone and standing positions. Methods This is a cross-sectional observational study of 50 adult female volunteers with no symptoms of pelvic venous compression. The parameters assessed with vascular ultrasonography in the prone and standing positions were diameters and maximum velocities of the left common iliac vein at the point at which it crosses behind the right common iliac artery and before this point, in addition to left common iliac vein velocity indices at the crossing. Results Eight cases of significant compression of the left common iliac vein were identified when assessed in prone position (16%) and just two cases (4%) were identified in the standing position. Left common iliac vein diameters were statistically larger (p = 0.002) at the point where it crosses behind the right common iliac artery in the standing position and velocities and velocity indices were statistically higher (p < 0.001) in the prone position. No significant compression of the left common iliac vein was identified in the standing position when velocity indices were normal in the prone position. Conclusions There was no difference in detection of significant compression of the left common iliac vein when assessed in the standing position in comparison with assessment in the prone position. However, the study showed that anatomic compression of the left common iliac vein may be reduced in the standing position.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Ultrasonography , Supine Position , Standing Position , Iliac Artery/diagnostic imaging , Iliac Vein/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography, Doppler , Carrier State , Cross-Sectional Studies , Iliac Artery/anatomy & histology , Iliac Vein/anatomy & histology
18.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 45: e66, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280511

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective. To evaluate the seroprevalence of COVID-19 infection in pauci-symptomatic and asymptomatic people, the associated epidemiological factors, and IgG antibody kinetic over a 5-month period to get a better knowledge of the disease transmissibility and the rate of susceptible persons that might be infected. Methods. Seroprevalence was evaluated by a cross-sectional study based on the general population of Santa Fe, Argentina (non-probabilistic sample) carried out between July and November 2020. A subgroup of 20 seropositive individuals was followed-up to analyze IgG persistence. For the IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies detection, the COVID-AR IgG® ELISA kit was used. Results. 3 000 individuals were included conforming asymptomatic and pauci-symptomatic groups (n=1 500 each). From the total sample, only 8.83% (n=265) presented reactivity for IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2. A significant association was observed between positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and a history of contact with a confirmed case; the transmission rate within households was approximately 30%. In the pauci-symptomatic group, among the seropositive ones, anosmia and fever presented an OR of 16.8 (95% CI 9.5-29.8) and 2.7 (95% CI 1.6-4.6), respectively (p <0.001). In asymptomatic patients, IgG levels were lower compared to pauci-symptomatic patients, tending to decline after 4 months since the symptoms onset. Conclusion. We observed a low seroprevalence, suggestive of a large population susceptible to the infection. Anosmia and fever were independent significant predictors for seropositivity. Asymptomatic patients showed lower levels of antibodies during the 5-month follow-up. IgG antibodies tended to decrease over the end of this period regardless of symptoms.


RESUMEN Objetivo. Evaluar la seroprevalencia de la infección por el virus causante de la COVID-19 en personas paucisintomáticas y asintomáticas, los factores epidemiológicos asociados y la cinética de los anticuerpos IgG durante un período de cinco meses para conocer mejor la transmisibilidad de la enfermedad y la tasa de personas susceptibles a estar infectadas. Métodos. Se evaluó la seroprevalencia mediante un estudio transversal basado en la población general de Santa Fe, Argentina (muestra no probabilística) llevado a cabo entre julio y noviembre del 2020. Se realizó un seguimiento de un subgrupo de 20 personas seropositivas para analizar la persistencia de los anticuerpos IgG. Para la detección de los anticuerpos IgG contra SARS-COV-2, se empleó el kit ELISA COVID-AR IgG®. Resultados. Hubo 3 000 participantes divididos en un grupo asintomático y un grupo paucisintomático (n=1 500 cada grupo). De la muestra total, solo 8,83% (n=265) presentó una reactividad de IgG contra el SARS-CoV-2. Se observó una asociación significativa entre anticuerpos IgG positivos contra el SARS-CoV-2 y antecedente de contacto con un caso confirmado. La tasa de transmisión en el hogar fue de 30% aproximadamente. En el grupo paucisintomático, entre las personas seropositivas, la anosmia y la fiebre presentaron un OR de 16,8 (IC 95% 9,5-29,8) y 2,7 (IC 95% 1,6-4,6), respectivamente (p <0,001). En los pacientes asintomáticos, los niveles de IgG fueron inferiores en comparación con los pacientes paucisintomáticos, con tendencia a la baja pasados cuatro meses desde la aparición de los síntomas. Conclusiones. Se observó una seroprevalencia baja, indicadora de una gran población susceptible a la infección. La anosmia y la fiebre fueron factores predictivos independientes de relevancia para la seropositividad. Los pacientes asintomáticos mostraron niveles inferiores de anticuerpos durante el seguimiento de cinco meses. Los anticuerpos IgG tendieron a disminuir hacia el final del período con independencia de los síntomas.


RESUMO Objetivo. Avaliar a soroprevalência de anticorpos contra a COVID-19 em indivíduos paucissintomáticos e assintomáticos, os fatores epidemiológicos associados e a cinética dos anticorpos da classe IgG em um período de 5 meses, visando aprimorar o conhecimento sobre a transmissibilidade da doença e a taxa de suscetíveis à infecção. Métodos. Inquérito transversal de soroprevalência realizado na população geral (amostra não probabilística) de Santa Fé, na Argentina, entre julho e novembro de 2020. Um subgrupo de 20 indivíduos soropositivos foi acompanhado para analisar a persistência de anticorpos IgG. O kit de ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA) COVID-AR IgG® foi usado para a detecção de anticorpos IgG contra SARS-CoV-2. Resultados. A amostra compreendeu 3 000 indivíduos, divididos entre assintomáticos e paucissintomáticos (n = 1.500 por grupo). Deste total, somente 8,83% (n = 265) apresentaram reatividade, com a detecção de anticorpos IgG contra SARS-CoV-2. Observou-se uma associação significativa entre a presença de anticorpos IgG contra SARS-CoV-2 e histórico de contato com caso confirmado. A taxa de transmissão intradomiciliar foi de aproximadamente 30%. No grupo paucissintomático, entre os soropositivos, o odds ratio (OR) para anosmia foi de 16,8 (IC 95% 9,5-29,8), e para febre, 2,7 (IC 95% 1,6-4,6) (p <0,001). Os indivíduos assintomáticos apresentaram níveis de IgG mais baixos que os paucissintomáticos, com uma tendência de declínio após 4 meses do início dos sintomas. Conclusões. Observou-se uma soroprevalência baixa de anticorpos contra a COVID-19 na população estudada, o que indica um grande número de pessoas suscetíveis à infecção. Anosmia e febre foram preditores importantes independentes de soropositividade. Os assintomáticos apresentaram níveis mais baixos de anticorpos aos 5 meses de acompanhamento. Houve uma tendência de redução dos anticorpos IgG ao final deste período, independentemente da presença de sintomas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Carrier State/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Anosmia/virology
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 18(4): 231-236, DEZ 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361666

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste trabalho foi evidenciar o papel dos viajantes na transmissão e na disseminação do novo coronavírus. A busca pelos artigos foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed®, SciELO, MEDLINE®, Cochrane, Center for Disease Control and Prevention e UpToDate. Foram incluídos artigos relacionados à transmissibilidade, principalmente aqueles associados à disseminação realizada por viajantes, do novo coronavírus. Excluíram-se artigos relacionados a outros surtos de coronavírus. Todos os estudos foram lidos e analisados integralmente. Onze artigos foram selecionados e tabulados, dos quais se pôde desenvolver uma fundamentação teórica, que expõe o grande impacto dos viajantes perante o crescimento da pandemia relacionada ao SARS-CoV-2, levando em consideração as diversas formas com que esse vírus pode se propagar, sendo elas por contato com superfícies contaminadas ou pessoa a pessoa, visto que a infecção pode ser decorrente de gotículas, aerossóis, fômites e, possivelmente, contato sexual, estando os indivíduos sintomáticos ou não.


The objective of this study was to highlight the travelers role in the transmission and dissemination of new coronavirus. The search for the articles was carried out in PubMed®, SciELO, MEDLINE®, Cochrane, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and UpToDate databases. Articles related with transmissibility of the new coronavirus were included, mainly those linked with the dissemination from travelers. Articles related with other coronavirus outbreaks were excluded. All of the studies were read and analyzed in their entirety. Eleven articles were selected and tabulated, from which a theoretical framework was developed, which exposes the great impact of travelers in the face of the growth of the pandemic related to the SARS-CoV-2, considering the several ways in which this virus can spread, either through contact with contaminated surfaces or person-to-person, since the infection may occur through droplets, aerosols, fomites, and possibly sexual contact, whether individuals are symptomatic or not.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Carrier State , Virus Shedding , Sanitary Control of Travelers , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Imported/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis
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