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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1712-1719, dic. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528776

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: This study is to investigate the effect of survivin down-regulation by Egr1-survivin shRNA combined with radiotherapy on the apoptosis and radiosensitivity of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma ECA109 and KYSE150 cells. ECA109 and KYSE150 cells were transfected with Egr1-survivin shRNA, and then treated with radiotherapy. After 24 h, the mRNA and protein levels of Egr1-survivin were detected by qPCR and Western-Blot. Cell cycle and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry. Western blot also detected levels of cleavaged Caspase 3 and Caspase 9. YM155 was used as a positive control to inhibit survivin expression. The levels of survivin mRNA and protein in ECA109 and KYSE150 cells treated with Egr1-survivin shRNA combined with radiotherapy were significantly lower than those of the blank control group, the empty vector control group, and, the YM155 + radiotherapy group (P<0.05). Meanwhile, after survivin down-regulation, the ratio of G2 to S phase of ECA109 and KYSE150 cells increased significantly, leading to significant G2 and S phase arrest. Additionally, apoptosis of ECA109 and KYSE150 cells increased significantly (P <0.01). Further, protein levels of cleavaged Caspase 3 and Caspase 9 significantly increased in Egr1-survivin shRNA combined with radiotherapy group. Egr1-survivin shRNA combined with radiotherapy can down-regulate survivin expression, which further increases the apoptosis, and enhances the radiosensitivity of ECA109 and KYSE150 cells.


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar el efecto de la regulación negativa de survivina por el shRNA de Egr1-survivina combinado con radioterapia sobre la apoptosis y la radiosensibilidad del carcinoma de células escamosas de esófago Células ECA109 y KYSE150. Las células ECA109 y KYSE150 se transfectaron con shRNA de survivina Egr1 y luego se trataron con radioterapia. Después de 24 h, los niveles de ARNm y proteína de Egr1-survivina se detectaron mediante qPCR y Western-Blot. El ciclo celular y la apoptosis se detectaron mediante citometría de flujo. La transferencia Western también detectó niveles de Caspasa 3 y Caspasa 9 escindidas. Se usó YM155 como control positivo para inhibir la expresión de survivina. Los niveles de ARNm y proteína de survivina en células ECA109 y KYSE150 tratadas con shRNA de survivina Egr1 combinado con radioterapia fueron significativamente más bajos que los del grupo control en blanco, el grupo control de vector vacío y el grupo de radioterapia YM155 + (P <0,05). Mientras tanto, después de la regulación negativa de survivina, la proporción entre las fases G2 y S de las células ECA109 y KYSE150 aumentó significativamente, lo que llevó a una detención significativa de las fases G2 y S. Además, la apoptosis de las células ECA109 y KYSE150 aumentó significativamente (P <0,01). Además, los niveles de proteína de Caspasa 3 y Caspasa 9 escindidas aumentaron significativamente en el shRNA de Egr1- survivina combinado con el grupo de radioterapia. El shRNA de survivina de Egr1 combinado con radioterapia puede regular negativamente la expresión de survivina, lo que aumenta aún más la apoptosis y mejora la radiosensibilidad de las células ECA109 y KYSE150.


Subject(s)
Humans , Esophageal Neoplasms/therapy , Survivin , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/therapy , Radiation-Sensitizing Agents , Radiation Tolerance , RNA, Messenger , Esophageal Neoplasms/genetics , Esophageal Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Transfection , Down-Regulation , Blotting, Western , Apoptosis , Combined Modality Therapy , RNA, Small Interfering , Cell Line, Tumor/radiation effects , Early Growth Response Protein 1 , Caspase 3 , Caspase 9 , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Flow Cytometry , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/genetics , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/radiotherapy
2.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1296-1302, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009984

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of phorbol-12-myristate-13-ace-tate (TPA) on the proliferation and apoptosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line NB4 and its molecular mechanism.@*METHODS@#The effect of different concentrations of TPA on the proliferation of NB4 cells at different time points was detected by CCK-8 assay. The morphological changes of NB4 cells were observed by Wright-Giemsa staining. The cell cycle and apoptosis of NB4 cells after TPA treatment were detected by flow cytometry. The mRNA expressions of NB4 cells after TPA treatment were analyzed by high-throughput microarray analysis and real-time quantitative PCR. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of CDKN1A, CDKN1B, CCND1, MYC, Bax, Bcl-2, c-Caspase 3, c-Caspase 9, PIK3R6, AKT and p-AKT.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, TPA could inhibit the proliferation of NB4 cells, induce the cells to become mature granulocyte-monocyte differentiation, and also induce cell G1 phase arrest and apoptosis. Differentially expressed mRNAs were significantly enriched in PI3K/AKT pathway. TPA treatment could increase the mRNA levels of CCND1, CCNA1, and CDKN1A, while decrease the mRNA level of MYC. It could also up-regulate the protein levels of CDKN1A, CDKN1B, CCND1, Bax, c-Caspase 3, c-Caspase 9, and PIK3R6, while down-regulate MYC, Bcl-2, and p-AKT in NB4 cells.@*CONCLUSION@#TPA induces NB4 cell cycle arrest in G1 phase and promotes its apoptosis by regulating PIK3/AKT signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 9/pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Division , Apoptosis , RNA, Messenger , Cell Proliferation
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008753

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the mechanism of Gegen Qinlian Decoction(GQD) in improving glucose metabolism in vitro and in vivo by alleviating endoplasmic reticulum stress(ERS). Molecular docking was used to predict the binding affinity between the main effective plasma components of GQD and ERS-related targets. Liver tissue samples were obtained from normal rats, high-fat-induced diabetic rats, rats treated with metformin, and rats treated with GQD. RNA and protein were extracted. qPCR was used to measure the mRNA expression of ERS marker glucose-regulated protein 78(GRP78), and unfolded protein response(UPR) genes inositol requiring enzyme 1(Ire1), activating transcription factor 6(Atf6), Atf4, C/EBP-homologous protein(Chop), and caspase-12. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of GRP78, IRE1, protein kinase R-like ER kinase(PERK), ATF6, X-box binding protein 1(XBP1), ATF4, CHOP, caspase-12, caspase-9, and caspase-3. The calcium ion content in liver tissues was determined by the colorimetric assay. The ERS-HepG2 cell model was established in vitro by inducing with tunicamycin for 6 hours, and 2.5%, 5%, and 10% GQD-containing serum were administered for 9 hours. The glucose oxidase method was used to measure extracellular glucose levels, flow cytometry to detect cell apoptosis, glycogen staining to measure cellular glycogen content, and immunofluorescence to detect the expression of GRP78. The intracellular calcium ion content was measured by the colorimetric assay. Whereas Western blot was used to detect GRP78 and ERS-induced IRE1, PERK, ATF6, and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α(eIF2α) phosphorylation. Additionally, the phosphorylation levels of insulin receptor substrate 1(IRS1), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit p85(PI3Kp85), and protein kinase B(Akt), which were involved in the insulin signaling pathway, were also measured. In addition, the phosphorylation levels of c-Jun N-terminal kinases(JNKs), which were involved in both the ERS and insulin signaling pathways, were measured by Western blot. Molecular docking results showed that GRP78, IRE1, PERK, ATF4, and various compounds such as baicalein, berberine, daidzein, jateorhizine, liquiritin, palmatine, puerarin and wogonoside had strong binding affinities, indicating that GQD might interfere with ERS-induced UPR. In vivo results showed that GQD down-regulated the mRNA transcription of Ire1, Atf6, Atf4, Grp78, caspase-12, and Chop in diabetic rats, and down-regulated GRP78, IRE1, PERK, as well as ERS-induced apoptotic factors ATF4 and CHOP, caspase-12, caspase-9, and caspase-3, while up-regulating XBP1 to enhance adaptive UPR. In addition, GQD increased the calcium ion content in liver tissues, which facilitated correct protein folding. In vitro results showed that GQD increased glucose consumption in ERS-induced HepG2 cells without significantly affecting cell viability, increased liver glycogen synthesis, down-regulated ATF6 and p-eIF2α(Ser51), and down-regulated IRE1, PERK, and GRP78, as well as p-IRS1(Ser312) and p-JNKs(Thr183/Tyr185), while up-regulating p-PI3Kp85(Tyr607) and p-Akt(Ser473). These findings suggested that GQD alleviates excessive ERS in the liver, reduces insulin resistance, and improves hepatic glucose metabolism in vivo and in vitro.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone BiP , Caspase 3 , Caspase 9 , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Caspase 12 , Calcium/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , Liver , Apoptosis , Insulin , Glucose , Glycogen/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4098-4107, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008014

ABSTRACT

Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are promising in regenerative medicine. However, the pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) may form clumps of cancerous tissue, which is a major safety concern in PSCs therapies. Rapamycin is a safe and widely used immunosuppressive pharmaceutical that acts through heterodimerization of the FKBP12 and FRB fragment. Here, we aimed to insert a rapamycin inducible caspase 9 (riC9) gene in a safe harbor AAVS1 site to safeguard hiPSCs therapy by drug induced homodimerization. The donor vector containing an EF1α promoter, a FRB-FKBP-Caspase 9 (CARD domain) fusion protein and a puromycin resistant gene was constructed and co-transfected with sgRNA/Cas9 vector into hiPSCs. After one to two weeks screening with puromycin, single clones were collected for genotype and phenotype analysis. Finally, rapamycin was used to induce the homodimerization of caspase 9 to activate the apoptosis of the engineered cells. After transfection of hiPSCs followed by puromycin screening, five cell clones were collected. Genome amplification and sequencing showed that the donor DNA has been precisely knocked out at the endogenous AAVS1 site. The engineered hiPSCs showed normal pluripotency and proliferative capacity. Rapamycin induced caspase 9 activation, which led to the apoptosis of all engineered hiPSCs and its differentiated cells with different sensitivity to drugs. In conclusion, we generated a rapamycin-controllable hiPSCs survival by homodimerization of caspase 9 to turn on cell apoptosis. It provides a new strategy to guarantee the safety of the hiPSCs therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Sirolimus/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , RNA, Guide, CRISPR-Cas Systems , Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Puromycin/metabolism
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981907

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effects of formononetin (FMN) on cognitive behavior and inflammation in aging rats with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Methods SD rats aged about 70 weeks were divided into healthy control group, CUMS model group, CUMS combined with 10 mg/kg FMN group, CUMS combined with 20 mg/kg FMN group and CUMS combined with 1.8 mg/kg fluoxetine hydrochloride (Flu) group. Except for healthy control group, other groups were stimulated with CUMS and administered drugs for 28 days. Sugar water preference, forced swimming experiment and open field experiment were used to observe the emotional behavior of rats in each group. HE staining was used to observe the pathological injury degree of brain equine area. The contents of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were detected by the kit. The apoptosis was tested by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) in the brain tissue. The levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in peripheral blood were measured by ELISA. Western blot analysis was used to detect Bcl2, Bcl2 associated X protein (BAX), cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and phosphorylated nuclear factor κB p65 (p-NF-κB p65) in brain tissues. Results Compared with CUMS model group, sugar water consumption, open field activity time, open field travel distance and swimming activity time significantly increased in the CUMS combined with 20 mg/kg FMN group and the CUMS combined with 1.8 mg/kg Flu group. The number of new outarm entry increased significantly, while the number of initial arm entry and other arm entry decreased significantly. The pathological damage of brain equine area was alleviated, and the contents of 5-HT and 5-HIAA were significantly increased. The ratio of BAX/Bcl2 and the expression of cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3 protein as well as the number of apoptotic cells were significantly decreased. The contents of TNF-α, iNOS and IL-6 were significantly decreased. The protein levels of TLR4, MyD88 and p-NF-κB p65 were significantly decreased. Conclusion FMN can inhibit the release of inflammatory factors by blocking NF-κB pathway and improve cognitive and behavioral ability of CUMS aged rats.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Horses , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Signal Transduction , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 , Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid/pharmacology , Serotonin/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Hippocampus/metabolism , Cognition
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981312

ABSTRACT

This study explored the effect and underlying mechanism of Stellera chamaejasme extract(SCE) on multidrug resistance of breast cancer. The chemotherapy-sensitive breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and adriamycin(ADR)-resistant cell line MCF-7/ADR were used as experimental subjects. MTT assay was used to detect cell proliferation activity. Pi staining was used to detect the cell cycle. 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole, dihydrochloride(DAPI) staining and flow cytometry were used to detect apoptosis. Dansylcadaverine(MDC) staining and GFP-LC3B-Mcherry adenovirus transfection were used to detect autophagy. The protein expression of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-9, caspase-3, LC3B, p62, and Beclin-1 was detected by Western blot. The results showed that SCE could significantly inhibit the proliferation of both sensitive and resistant breast cancer cell lines. The drug resistance factor was 0.53, which was significantly lower than 59 of ADR. Meanwhile, the proportion of sensitive/resistant cells in the G_0/G_1 phase increased significantly after SCE treatment. In addition, DAPI staining showed that a series of apoptosis phenomena such as nuclear pyknosis, staining deepening, and nuclear fragmentation appeared in sensitive/resistant cell lines after SCE administration. Moreover, the results of flow cytometry double staining showed that the proportion of apoptotic cells in sensitive/resistant cell lines increased significantly after SCE administration. Besides, Western blot showed that the protein expression levels of caspase-3, caspase-9, and Bcl-2 significantly decreased and the expression level of Bax protein significantly increased in both breast cancer cell lines after SCE administration. Furthermore, SCE could also increase the positive fluorescent spots after MDC staining and yellow fluorescent spots after GFP-LC3B-mcherry transfection, and up-regulate the expression levels of autophagy-related proteins LC3B-Ⅱ, p62, and Beclin-1 in breast cancer cells. In summary, SCE may play the role of anti-multidrug resistance by blocking the cell cycle of breast cancer multidrug-resistant cells, blocking autophagy flow, and ultimately interfering with the apoptosis resistance of drug-resistant cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/metabolism , MCF-7 Cells , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , Beclin-1/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Cell Proliferation
7.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 471-481, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984746

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of lncRNA DRAIC on proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma cells and its mechanism. Methods: Reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to detect the expression of DRAIC in lung cancer tissues and corresponding adjacent normal tissues of 40 patients with lung adenocarcinoma who underwent surgery in Tangshan People's Hospital from 2019 to 2020. Lung adenocarcinoma cells A549 and H1299 were cultured in vitro and divided into si-NC group, si-DRAIC group, miR-NC group, let-7i-5p mimics group, si-DRAIC+ inhibitor-NC group, and si-DRAIC+ let-7i-5p inhibitor group. CCK-8 method and clone formation experiment were used to detect cell proliferation. Flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis. Transwell array was used to detect the cell migration and invasion. Western blot was used to detect the protein expressions of Caspase-3, Caspase-9, Bcl-2 and Bax. The double luciferase reporter gene experiment was used to verify the regulatory relationship between DRAIC and let-7i-5p. Independent sample t test was used for comparison between two groups, one-way ANOVA was used for comparison between multiple groups, and Pearson correlation analysis was used for correlation analysis. Results: Compared with adjacent tissues, the expression level of DRAIC in lung adenocarcinoma tissues increased (P<0.05), but the expression level of let-7i-5p decreased (P<0.05). The expression levels of DRAIC and let-7i-5p in lung adenocarcinoma tissues were negatively correlated (r=-0.737, P<0.05). The absorbance value of A549 and H1299 cells in the si-DRAIC group at 48, 72 and 96 hours were lower than those in the si-NC group (P<0.05), the number of clones formed [(91.00±6.08 vs. 136.67±6.51); (50.67±1.53 vs. 76.67±4.51)], the number of migration [(606.67±31.34 vs. 960.00±33.06); (483.33±45.96 vs. 741.67±29.67)], the number of invasion [(185.00±8.19 vs. 447.33±22.05); (365.00±33.87 vs. 688.00±32.97)] were lower than those in the si-NC group (P<0.05). However, the apoptosis rates of cells [(13.43±2.79)% vs. (4.53±0.42)%; (23.77±1.04)% vs. (6.60±1.42)%] were higher than those in the si-NC group (P<0.05). The protein expressions of Caspase-3, Caspase-9 and Bax in si-DRAIC group were higher than those in si-NC group, and the protein expression of Bcl-2 was lower than that in si-NC group (P<0.05). DRAIC is located in the cytoplasm. DRAIC targeted and negatively regulated the expression of let-7i-5p. The absorbance values of A549 and H1299 cells in the let-7i-5p mimics group at 48, 72 and 96 hours were lower than those in the miR-NC group (P<0.05), the number of clones formed [(131.33±14.47 vs. 171.33±6.11); (59.33±4.93 vs. 80.33±7.09)], the number of migration [(137.67±3.06 vs. 579.33±82.03); (425.00±11.14 vs. 669.33±21.13)], the number of invasion [(54.00±4.36 vs. 112.67±11.59); (80.00±4.58 vs. 333.33±16.80)] were lower than those in the miR-NC group (P<0.05). However, the apoptosis rates of cells [(14.57±1.10)% vs. (6.97±1.11)%; (23.97±0.42)% vs. (7.07±1.21)%] were higher than those in the miR-NC group (P<0.05). The protein expressions of Caspase-3, Caspase-9 and Bax in let-7i-5p mimics group were higher than those in miR-NC group, and the protein expression of Bcl-2 was lower than that in miR-NC group (P<0.05). The absorbance values of A549 and H1299 cells in the si-DRAIC+ let-7i-5p inhibitor group at 48, 72 and 96 hours were higher than those in the si-DRAIC+ inhibitor-NC group (P<0.05), the number of clones formed [(82.00±5.29 vs. 59.00±5.57); (77.67±4.93 vs. 41.33±7.57)], the number of migration [(774.33±35.81 vs. 455.67±19.04); (569.67±18.72 vs. 433.67±16.77)], the number of invasion [(670.33±17.21 vs. 451.00±17.52); (263.67±3.06 vs. 182.33±11.93)] were higher than those in the si-DRAIC+ inhibitor-NC group (P<0.05). However, the apoptosis rates of cells [(7.73±0.45)% vs. (19.13±1.50)%; (8.00±0.53)% vs. (28.40±0.53)%] were lower than those in the si-NC group (P<0.05). The protein expressions of Caspase-3, Caspase-9 and Bax in si-DRAIC+ let-7i-5p inhibitor group were higher than those in si-DRAIC+ inhibitor-NC group, and the protein expression of Bcl-2 was lower than that in si-DRAIC+ inhibitor-NC group (P<0.05). Conclusion: DRAIC is highly expressed in lung adenocarcinoma, and DRAIC promotes the proliferation, migration and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma cells and inhibits apoptosis by targeting let-7i-5p.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenocarcinoma/genetics , Apoptosis/genetics , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Lung/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929000

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Acute kidney injury (AKI) can be caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), nephrotoxin, and sepsis, with poor prognosis and high mortality. Leptin is a protein molecule that regulates the body's energy metabolism and reproductive activities via binding to its specific receptor. Leptin can inhibit cardiomyocyte apoptosis caused by I/R, but its effect on I/R kidney injury and the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. This study aims to investigate the effect and mechanisms of leptin on renal function, renal histopathology, apoptosis, and autophagy during acute I/R kidney injury.@*METHODS@#Healthy adult male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: a sham+wild-type mice (ob/+) group, a sham+leptin gene-deficient mice (ob/ob) group, an I/R+ob/+ group, and an I/R+ob/ob group (n=8 per group). For sham operation, a longitudinal incision was made on the back of the mice to expose and separate the bilateral kidneys and renal arteries, and no subsequent treatment was performed. I/R treatment was ischemia for 30 min and reperfusion for 48 h. The levels of BUN and SCr were detected to evaluate renal function; HE staining was used to observe the pathological changes of renal tissue; TUNEL staining was used to observe cell apoptosis, and apoptosis-positive cells were counted; Western blotting was used to detect levels of apoptosis-related proteins (caspase 3, caspase 9), autophagy-related proteins [mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR), LC3 I, LC3 II], mTOR-dependent signaling pathway proteins [phosphate and tension homology (PTEN), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK), phosphorylated PTEN (p-PTEN), phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK), phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT), phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK)].@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in the levels of BUN and SCr between the sham+ob/+ group and the sham+ob/ob group (both P>0.05). The levels of BUN and SCr in the I/R+ob/+ group were significantly higher than those in the sham+ob/+ group (both P<0.05). Compared with the mice in the sham+ob/ob group or the I/R+ob/+ group, the levels of BUN and SCr in the I/R+ob/ob group were significantly increased (all P<0.05). There was no obvious damage to the renal tubules in the sham+ob/+ group and the sham+ob/ob group. Compared with sham+ob/+ group and sham+ob/ob group, both the I/R+ob/+ group and the I/R+ob/ob group had cell damage such as brush border shedding, vacuolar degeneration, and cast formation. Compared with the I/R+ob/+ group, the renal tubules of the mice in the I/R+ob/ob group were more severely damaged. The pathological score of renal tubular injury showed that the renal tubular injury was the most serious in the I/R+ob/ob group (P<0.05). Compared with the sham+ob/+ group, the protein levels of caspase 3, caspase 9, PTEN, and LC3 II were significantly up-regulated, the ratio of LC3 II to LC3 I was significantly increased, and the protein levels of p-mTOR, p-PTEN, p-AMPK, p-AKT, and p-ERK were significantly down-regulated in the I/R+ob/+ group (all P<0.05). Compared with the sham+ob/ob group, the protein levels of caspase 3, caspase 9, PTEN, and LC3 II were significantly up-regulated, and the ratio of LC3 II to LC3 I was significantly increased, while the protein levels of p-mTOR, p-PTEN, p-AMPK, p-AKT, and p-ERK were significantly down-regulated in the I/R+ob/ob group (all P<0.05). Compared with the I/R+ob/+ group, the levels of p-mTOR, p-PTEN, p-AMPK, p-AKT were more significantly down-regulated, while the levels of caspase 3, caspase 9, PTEN, and LC3 II were more significantly up-regulated, and the ratio of LC3 II to LC3 I was more significantly increase in the I/R+ob/ob group (all P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Renal function and tubular damage, and elevated levels of apoptosis and autophagy are observed in mice kidneys after acute I/R. Leptin might relieve I/R induced AKI by inhibiting apoptosis and autophagy that through a complex network of interactions between mTOR-dependent signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Apoptosis , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/pharmacology , Autophagy , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , Ischemia , Kidney/pathology , Leptin/pharmacology , Mammals/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Reperfusion/adverse effects , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939677

ABSTRACT

AbstractObjective: To explore the effect and mechanism of curcumin on human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cell apoptosis induced by Mcl-1 small molecule inhibitors UMI-77.@*METHODS@#T-ALL cell line Molt-4 was cultured, and the cells were treated with different concentrations of curcumin and Mcl-1 small molecule inhibitor UMI-77 for 24 h. The MTT method was used to detect the cell survival rate after different treatment; According to the results of curcumin and UMI-77, the experimental settings were divided into control group, curcumin group (20 μmol/L curcumin treated cells), UMI-77 group (15 μmol/L Mcl-1 small molecule inhibitor UMI-77 treated cells) and curcumin+ UMI-77 group (20 μmol/L curcumin and 15 μmol/L Mcl-1 small molecule inhibitor UMI-77 treated cells), MTT method was used to detect cell proliferation inhibition rate, Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining method and TUNEL staining were used to detect cell apoptosis, DCFH-DA probe was used to detect cell reactive oxygen species, JC-1 fluorescent probe was used to detect mitochondrial membrane potential, Western blot was used to detect the expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins and Notch1 signaling pathway-related proteins.@*RESULTS@#After the treatment of Molt-4 cells with different concentrations of curcumin and Mcl-1 small molecule inhibitor UMI-77, the cell survival rate was decreased (P<0.05); Compared with the control group, the cell proliferation inhibition rate of the curcumin group and the UMI-77 group were increased, the apoptosis rate of cell was increased, the level of ROS was increased, the protein expression of Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 in the cells were all increased, and the protein expression of Bcl-2 was reduced (P<0.05); Compared with the curcumin group or UMI-77 group, the cell proliferation inhibition rate and apoptosis rate of the curcumin+UMI-77 group were further increased, and the level of ROS was increased. At the same time, the protein expression of Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 in the cells were all increased, the protein expression of Bcl-2 was reduced (P<0.05); In addition, the mitochondrial membrane potential of the cells after curcumin treatment was decreased, and the proteins expression of Notch1 and HES1 were reduced (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Curcumin can enhance the apoptosis of T-ALL cells induced by Mcl-1 small molecule inhibitor UMI-77 by reducing the mitochondrial membrane potential, the mechanism may be related to the inhibition of Notch1 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 9/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Curcumin/pharmacology , Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein/metabolism , Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/pharmacology , Sulfonamides , Thioglycolates , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/pharmacology
10.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 326-333, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935216

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the effects of dihydromyricetin (DMY) on the proliferation, apoptosis and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell KYSE150 and KYSE410. Methods: KYSE150 and KYSE410 cells were treated with different concentrations of DMY (0, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200 μmol/L) for 24 hours. The median inhibition concentration (IC50) values of KYSE150 and KYSE410 were detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) method. Then 0.5‰ dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was used as control group, dihydromyricetin (DMY), dihydromyricetin and transforming growth factor-β1 (DMY+ TGF-β1), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) were used as experimental group. Cell proliferation and apoptosis rates were measured by clonal formation and flow cytometry. Transwell invasion and wound healing assay were used to detect cell invasion and migration. The protein expression levels of Caspase-3, Caspase-9, Bcl-2, Bax, Smad2/3, phosphorylation-Smad2/3 (p-Smad2/3) and Vimentin were detected by western blot. Results: The IC50 values of DMY on KYSE410 and KYSE150 cells were 100.51 and 101.27 μmol/L. The clone formation numbers of KYSE150 and KYSE410 in DMY group [(0.53±0.03) and (0.31±0.03)] were lower than those in DMSO group [(1.00±0.10) and (1.00±0.05), P<0.05]. The apoptosis rates of KYSE150 and KYSE410 cells in DMY group [(1.84±0.22)% and (2.80±0.07)%] were higher than those in DMSO group [(1.00±0.18)% and (1.00±0.07)%, P<0.05]. The invasion numbers of KYSE150 and KYSE410 cells in DMY group [(0.42±0.03) and (0.29±0.05)] were lower than those in DMSO group [(1.00±0.08) and (1.00±0.05), P<0.05]. The migration rates of KYSE150 and KYSE410 cells in DMY group [(0.65±0.14)% and (0.40±0.17)%] were lower than those in DMSO group [(1.00±0.10)% and (1.00±0.08)%, P<0.05]. The clone formation numbers of KYSE150 and KYSE410 in TGF-β1 group [(1.01±0.08) and (0.99±0.25)] were higher than those in DMY+ TGF-β1 group [(0.73±0.10) and (0.58±0.05), P<0.05]. The apoptosis rates of KYSE150 and KYSE410 cells in TGF-β1 group [(0.81±0.14)% and (1.18±0.10)%] were lower than those in DMY+ TGF-β1 group [(1.38±0.22)% and (1.85±0.04)%, P<0.05]. The invasion numbers of KYSE150 and KYSE410 cells in TGF-β1 group [(1.19±0.11) and (1.39±0.11)] were higher than those in DMY+ TGF-β1 group [(0.93±0.09) and (0.93±0.05), P<0.05]. The migration rates of KYSE150 and KYSE410 cells in TGF-β1 group [(1.87±0.19)% and (1.32±0.04)%] were higher than those in DMY+ TGF-β1 group [(0.86±0.16)% and (0.77±0.12)%, P<0.05]. The protein expression levels of Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 in KYSE150 and KYSE410 cells in DMY group were higher than those in DMSO group, while the protein expression level of Bcl-2 was lower than that in DMSO group (P<0.05). The protein expression levels of p-Smad2/3, Smad2/3 and Vimentin in KYSE150 and KYSE410 cells in DMY group were lower than those in DMSO group (P<0.05). The protein expression levels of Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 in KYSE150 and KYSE410 cells in TGF-β1 group were lower than those in DMY+ TGF-β1 group, and the protein expression level of Bcl-2 was higher than that in DMY+ TGF-β1 group (P<0.05). The protein expression levels of Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 in KYSE150 and KYSE410 cells in DMY+ TGF-β1 group were lower than those in DMY group, and the protein expression level of Bcl-2 was higher than that in DMY group (P<0.05). The protein expression levels of p-Smad2/3, Smad2/3 and Vimentin in KYSE150 and KYSE410 cells in TGF-β1 group were higher than those in DMY+ TGF-β1 group (P<0.05). Conclusion: DMY can inhibit the proliferation and EMT of ESCC mediated by TGF-β1 and promote cell apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Dimethyl Sulfoxide/pharmacology , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Esophageal Neoplasms/metabolism , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma , Flavonols , Signal Transduction , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/pharmacology , Vimentin/metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/pharmacology
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928734

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the mechanism of the in vitro toxicity of doxycycline to myeloma cell line H929 and also the possible pathway involved its toxicity.@*METHODS@#Myeloma cell line H929 was treated with DOX, MEK inhibitor U0126 or RAS agonist ML-098, either alone or in combination. Then, the expression of p-MEK, caspase-3, caspase-9 and c-Jun in H929 were used to detected by Western blot; the cells proliferation and apoptosis were detected by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively.@*RESULTS@#DOX significantly increased the levels of cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-9, and down-regulated the level of p-MEK in H929 (P<0.05). MEK antagonist U0126 significantly increased the levels of cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-9, and down-regulated the level of p-MEK (P<0.05). After Dox combined with ML-098 treatment of H929 cells, the apoptosis rate of H929 cells was lower than that of DOX alone treatment group(P<0.05). Compared with DOX alone treatment group, the expressions of p-MEK and p-ERK1/2 in DOX+ML-098 combined treatment group were increased, and the levels of cleaved caspase-3,9 in H929 cells were decreased (P<0.05). The levels of c-Jun mRNA and protein increased in H929 when treated by DOX alone (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#DOX can induce apoptosis of H929 via intrinsic apoptosis pathway, and MEK/ERK pathway and c-Jun possibly play a role in this process.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis , Caspase 3 , Caspase 9/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Doxycycline/pharmacology , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases/pharmacology , Multiple Myeloma
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942305

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate evodiamine (EVO)-induced hepatotoxicity and the underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#HepG2 cells were treated with EVO (0.04-25 μmol/L) for different time intervals, and the cell survival rate was examined by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) method. After HepG2 cells were treated with EVO (0.2, 1 and 5 μmol/L) for 48 h, the alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and total bilirubin (TBIL) content of supernatant were detected. A multifunctional microplate reader was used to detect the intracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in HepG2 cells to evaluate the level of cell lipid peroxidation damage. The interactions between EVO and apoptosis, autophagy or ferroptosis-associated proteins were simulated by molecular docking. The HepG2 cells were stained by mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) fluorescent probe (JC-10) and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide (Annexin V-FITC/PI), and MMP and apoptosis in HepG2 cells were detected by flow cytometry. The protein expression levels of caspase-9, caspase-3, bile salt export pump (BSEP) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) were detected by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#The cell survival rate was significantly reduced after the HepG2 cells were exposed to EVO (0.04-25 μmol/L) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the HepG2 cells treated with EVO for 24, 48 and 72 h were 85.3, 6.6 and 4.7 μmol/L, respectively. After exposure to EVO (0.2, 1 and 5 μmol/L) for 48 h, the ALT, AST, LDH, ALP activities and TBIL content in the HepG2 cell culture supernatant, and the MDA content in the cells were increased, and SOD enzyme activity was decreased. Molecular docking results showed that EVO interacted with apoptosis-associated proteins (caspase-9 and caspase-3) better. JC-10 and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining assays demonstrated that EVO could decrease MMP and promote apoptosis in the HepG2 cells. Western blot results indicated that the protein expressions of cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3 were upregulated in the HepG2 cell treated with EVO for 48 h. In contrast, the protein expressions of pro-caspase-3, BSEP and MRP2 were downregulated.@*CONCLUSION@#These results suggested that 0.2, 1 and 5 μmol/L EVO had the potential hepatotoxicity, and the possible mechanism involved lipid peroxidation damage, cell apoptosis, and cholestasis.


Subject(s)
Humans , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B, Member 11 , Apoptosis , Caspase 3 , Caspase 9 , Cholestasis , Hep G2 Cells/drug effects , Lipid Peroxidation , Liver/drug effects , Molecular Docking Simulation , Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 2 , Quinazolines/toxicity
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008587

ABSTRACT

Polyphyllin D is a steroid saponin monomer in Polyphyllin, with antibacterial, analgesic, sedative, anti-tumor and other pharmacological effects, but is rarely reported in pancreatic cancer. This study detected apoptosis-relevant indicators, in order to explore the effect of polyphyllin D on the proliferation and apoptosis of human pancreatic cancer Panc-1 cells and relevant mechanisms of action. After pancreatic cancer Panc-1 cells were treated with polyphyllin D(0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 μg·μL~(-1)) for 24, 48 and 72 hours, CCK-8 method was used to detect the effect of polyphyllin D on the proliferation of pancreatic cancer Panc-1 cells. Flow cytometry was used to detect cell cycle and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential(MMP). The apoptosis was detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, and Western blot was used to detect the protein expressions of cytochrome C(Cyto C), Bax, Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9. The results indicated that compared with the control group, polyphyllin D could inhibit the proliferative activity of Panc-1 cells in a time and concentration-dependent manner. Flow cytometry results showed that polyphyllin D could block the cells in S and G_2/M phase in a concentration manner, the MMP of the cells was significantly reduced, and the apoptosis rate increased with the concentration of polyphyllin D. Western blot results showed that polyphyllin D could concentration-dependently up-regulate the protein expression levels of Bax, Cyto C, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9, and down-regulate the protein expression level of Bcl-2. The above findings suggested that polyphyllin D could effectively inhibit the proliferation of Panc-1 cells, and its mechanism may be related to the blocking of cell growth cycle and the apoptosis induced by mitochondrial pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Diosgenin/pharmacology , Pancreatic Neoplasms/pathology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Saponins/pharmacology , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826660

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the impacts of electroacupuncture (EA) on neurological function, the pathological morphology in brain tissue, apoptosis level and the protein expressions of apoptosis-related cytochrome C (Cyt-C) and cysteine aspartic acid protease-9 (Caspase-9) in the rats with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and explore the potential mechanism of EA in treatment of TBI.@*METHODS@#A total of 70 clean-grade SD mice were randomized into a blank group (8 rats), a sham-operation group (8 rats), a model group (27 rats) and an EA group (27 rats). In terms of interventions of 3, 7 and 14 days, 3 subgroups were divided in the model group and the EA group successively, 9 rats in each subgroup. The modified Feeney free-fall percussion method was adopted to establish TBI models of rats. In the sham-operation group, only the skull was exposed and drilled and no free-fall percussion was exerted. One day after modeling, EA was given in the rats of EA group at "Shuigou" (GV 26), "Baihui" (GV 20) and "Neiguan" (PC 6) and "Zusanli" (ST 36) on the affected side, with intermittent wave, 2 Hz in frequency, once daily, 10 min each time, for 3, 7 and 14 days successively. Separately, on the day 3, 7 and 14 of intervention, the modified neurological severity scale (mNSS) was used to evaluate the degree of neurological function injury in the rats, HE staining and Nissl staining were to observe the pathological and morphological changes in brain tissue, TUNEL method was to observe the level of apoptosis in brain tissue and immunohistochemistry (IHC) method and Western blot were to determine the protein expressions of Cyt-C and Caspase-9 in brain tissue.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the sham-operation group, on the day 3, 7 and 14 of intervention, mNSS scores were increased obviously in the rats of the model group respectively (<0.01). Compared with the model group, on the day 3, 7 and 14 of intervention, mNSS scores were reduced in the rats of the EA group respectively (<0.05). On day 3 of intervention, in brain injury region of the rats in the model group and the EA group, gross tissue necrosis, nuclear fragmentation, consolidation and obvious vacuolar changes, reduced Nissl bodies and scattered arrangement were found. On day 7 and 14 of intervention, in the model group and the EA group, the new connective tissue filling and normal cells were visible and Nissl bodies increased. The overall repair and Nissl body quantity in the EA group were better than the model group. Compared with the sham-operation group, on day 3, 7 and 14 of intervention, the numbers of apoptotic cells were increased obviously in the model group (<0.01) and they were reduced in the EA group as compared with the model group (<0.05). Compared with the sham-operation group, on day 3, 7 and 14 of intervention, the protein expressions of Cyt-C and Caspase-9 in damaged brain tissue were all increased obviously in the model group (<0.01) and they were all reduced in the EA group as compared with the model group successively (<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Electroacupuncture remarkably improves the condition in the neurological function injury and reduces apoptosis degree in TBI model rats, which is likely related to the down-regulation of the protein expressions of Cyt-C and Caspase-9 in damaged brain tissue and further to bring the impacts on mitochondria mediated apoptosis process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Apoptosis , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Therapeutics , Caspase 9 , Metabolism , Cytochromes c , Metabolism , Electroacupuncture , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
15.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 250-263, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811353

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To reveal the detail mechanism of miR-484 on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI/R) injury.METHODS: Rats model of MI/R injury was established based on control (Con; sham operate) group, ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) group, miR-484 treatment (miR) group, and I/R-negative control (IR-C) group, followed by pathological and interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-1β expression evaluation. Then the myocardial apoptosis, as well as the expression of miR-484, caspase-3, and caspase-9 in myocardium were examined. Finally, the regulatory relation between miR-484 and SMAD family member 7 (SMAD7) was predicated, followed by verification analysis.RESULTS: Compared with Con group, the expression of miR-484 in I/R and IR-C group was decreased. Compared with I/R and IR-C group, the expression of miR-484 was increased in miR group. Compared with Con group, the expression levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β in cardiac myocytes of I/R group and IR-C group were increased. Compared with Con group, the apoptotic index, membrane potential of I/R, and the expression of caspase-3/9 were increased in IR-C group. Compared with the I/R and IR-C groups, the apoptotic index of myocardial cells in the ischemic region was decreased, the membrane potential was increased, and the expression of caspase-3/9 was decreased significantly in the miR group. SMAD7 was the target gene of miR-484.CONCLUSIONS: MiR-484 protected myocardial cells from I/R injury by suppressing caspase-3 and caspase-9 expression during cardiomyocyte apoptosis. MiR-484 reduced the expression of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β in MI/R. MiR-484 might alleviate the decreasing of mitochondrial membrane potential in MI/R cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Rats , Apoptosis , Caspase 3 , Caspase 9 , Interleukin-6 , Interleukins , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Membrane Potentials , Myocardium , Myocytes, Cardiac , Reperfusion Injury , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
17.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(10): 689-695, Oct. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038728

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study aimed to analyze the cerebellum of rats submitted to an experimental focal cerebral ischemia, by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 90 minutes, followed by reperfusion for 48 hours, associated with an alcoholism model. Methods Fifty adult Wistar rats were used, subdivided into five experimental groups: control group (C): animals submitted to anesthesia only; sham group (S): animals submitted to complete simulation of the surgical procedure; ischemic group (I): animals submitted to focal cerebral ischemia for 90 minutes followed by reperfusion for 48 hours; alcoholic group (A): animals that received daily absolute ethanol diluted 20% in water for four weeks; and, ischemic and alcoholic group (I + A): animals receiving the same treatment as group A and, after four weeks, submitted to focal cerebral ischemia for 90 minutes, followed by reperfusion for 48 hours. The cerebellum samples were collected and immunohistochemical analysis of Caspase-9 protein and serum analysis by RT-PCR of microRNAs miR-21, miR-126 and miR155 were performed. Results The expression of Caspase-9 was higher in groups I, A and I + A. In the microRNAs analyses, miR-126 was higher in groups A and I + A, miR-155 was higher in groups I and I + A. Conclusions We conclude that apoptosis occurs in the cerebellar cortex, even if it is distant from the ischemic focus, and that microRNAs 126 and 155 show a correlation with cellular apoptosis in ischemic rats and those submitted to the chronic alcohol model.


RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o cerebelo de ratos submetidos à isquemia cerebral focal experimental, por oclusão da artéria cerebral média por 90 minutos, seguida de reperfusão por 48 horas, associada a um modelo de alcoolismo. Métodos Foram utilizados 50 ratos Wistar adultos, subdivididos em cinco grupos experimentais: grupo controle (C): animais submetidos apenas à anestesia; grupo sham (S): animais submetidos à simulação completa do procedimento cirúrgico; grupo isquêmico (I): animais submetidos à isquemia cerebral focal por 90 minutos, seguidos de reperfusão por 48 horas; grupo alcoólico (A): animais que receberam etanol absoluto diário diluído em 20% em água por quatro semanas; e grupo isquêmico e alcoólico (I + A): animais que recebem o mesmo tratamento do grupo A e, após quatro semanas, submetidos à isquemia cerebral focal por 90 minutos, seguidos de reperfusão por 48 horas. As amostras de cerebelo foram coletadas e a análise imuno-histoquímica da proteína Caspase-9 e a análise sérica por RT-PCR dos microRNAs miR-21, miR-126 e miR155 foram realizadas. Resultados A expressão de Caspase-9 foi maior nos grupos I, A e I + A. Nas análises de microRNAs, o miR-126 foi maior nos grupos A e I + A, o miR-155 foi maior nos grupos I e I + A. Conclusões Concluímos que a apoptose ocorre no córtex cerebelar, mesmo distante do foco isquêmico, e que os microRNAs 126 e 155 mostram uma correlação com a apoptose celular em ratos isquêmicos e submetidos ao modelo crônico de álcool.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cerebellum/pathology , Brain Ischemia/pathology , Apoptosis , MicroRNAs/blood , Alcoholism/pathology , Caspase 9/analysis , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Random Allocation , Cerebellum/chemistry , Brain Ischemia/blood , Rats, Wistar , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Alcoholism/blood , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741768

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Despite all the efforts and increased knowledge of rabies, the exact mechanisms of infection and mortality from the rabies virus are not well understood. To understand the mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of rabies virus infection, it is crucial to study the tissue that the rabies virus naturally infects in humans. METHODS: Cerebellum brain tissue from 9 human post mortem cases from Iran, who had been infected with rabies virus, were examined histopathologically and immunohistochemically to evaluate the innate immune responses against the rabies virus. RESULTS: Histopathological examination revealed inflammation of the infected cerebellum and immunohistochemical analyses showed an increased immunoreactivity of heat shock protein 70, interleukin-6, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, caspase-3, caspase-9, toll-like receptor3 and toll-like receptor4 in the infected brain tissue. CONCLUSION: These results indicated the involvement of innate immunity in rabies infected human brain tissue, which may aggravate the progression of this deadly disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain , Caspase 3 , Caspase 9 , Central Nervous System , Cerebellum , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins , Immunity, Innate , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation , Interleukin-1 , Interleukin-6 , Iran , Mortality , Pathology , Rabies virus , Rabies , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Virulence
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719643

ABSTRACT

The apoptotic effects of shikonin (5,8-dihydroxy-2-[(1R)-1-hydroxy-4-methylpent-3-enyl]naphthalene-1,4-dione) on the human colon cancer cell line SNU-407 were investigated in this study. Shikonin showed dose-dependent cytotoxic activity against SNU-407 cells, with an estimated IC50 value of 3 µM after 48 h of treatment. Shikonin induced apoptosis, as evidenced by apoptotic body formation, sub-G1 phase cells, and DNA fragmentation. Shikonin induced apoptotic cell death by activating mitogen-activated protein kinase family members, and the apoptotic process was mediated by the activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, leading to activation of the PERK/elF2α/CHOP apoptotic pathway, and mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation. Shikonin increased mitochondrial membrane depolarization and altered the levels of apoptosis-related proteins, with a decrease in B cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 and an increase in Bcl-2-associated X protein, and subsequently, increased expression of cleaved forms of caspase-9 and -3. Taken together, we suggest that these mechanisms, including MAPK signaling and the ER-and mitochondria-mediated pathways, may underlie shikonin-induced apoptosis related to its anticancer effect.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Caspase 9 , Cell Death , Cell Line , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , DNA Fragmentation , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Extracellular Vesicles , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Mitochondria , Mitochondrial Membranes , Protein Kinases
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764708

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the cytotoxic effect of Cimicifuga rhizoma extract is associated with cell death in the human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and human melanoma cell lines (G361). METHODS: Apoptosis induced by Cimicifuga rhizoma extract was confirmed by water-soluble tetrazolium salts-1 (WST-1) assay, immunocytochemistry, and western blot. Additionally, the release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy. RESULTS: The results showed that Cimicifuga rhizoma extract significantly reduced the viability of G361 cells with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50) of 200 µg/ml, and the apoptotic process was found to occur via the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 pathways. Besides, the release of cytochrome c and AIF was also detected. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that Cimicifuga rhizoma extract causes apoptosis of human melanoma cells through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis Inducing Factor , Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Caspase 3 , Caspase 9 , Cell Death , Cell Line , Cimicifuga , Cytochromes c , Immunohistochemistry , Keratinocytes , Melanoma , Microscopy, Confocal
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