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1.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e06961, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1356551

ABSTRACT

Baccharis vulneraria Backer is a sub-shrub frequently found in southern Brazil, which leads to gastrointestinal tract intoxication. The objective of this study is to describe epidemiological, clinical and anatomopathological aspects of two cases of B. vulneraria poisoning in cattle. Two bovines from two different municipalities in the Itajaí Valley, Santa Catarina, Brazil were necropsied and performed the histopathological evaluation and botanical classification of the plant found in the pasture. Bovine 1 had dehydration, ruminal atony, diarrhea, congested mucous membranes and hypothermia for 20 hours, and died during clinical care. At necropsy, there was moderate multifocal detachment and reddening of the forestomachs mucosa. Bovine 2 presented anorexia, dry feces, ruminal atony, vocalization and muscle tremors for ten days, unresponsive to treatments, evolving to death. At necropsy were seen loosening of the mucosa with marked diffuse reddening and transmural edema. The microscopic exam revealed degeneration, necrosis, vesiculation, and detachment of the forestomachs' mucosa, associated with moderate multifocal neutrophilic infiltrate (Bovine 1); marked diffuse transmural necrosis, edema, hemorrhage, and marked fibrinous exudation (Bovine 2). A large amount of B. vulneraria was found in the pastures, with signs of consumption. In this report, a case of subacute evolution of B. vulneraria poisoning was observed, since the poisoning by this plant is usually acute. More knowledge about poisoning by this plant is necessary for the prevention and control, avoiding new mortality cases.(AU)


Baccharis vulneraria Backer é um subarbusto frequentemente encontrado no sul do Brasil, que leva a um quadro de intoxicação nocivo ao trato gastrointestinal. O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos de dois casos de intoxicação por B. vulneraria em bovinos. Foram necropsiados dois bovinos de dois municípios do Vale do Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brasil, com avaliação histopatológica dos órgãos e classificação botânica dos exemplares da planta localizada nos piquetes. No exame clínico do Bovino 1 foram constatados desidratação, atonia ruminal, diarreia, mucosas congestas e hipotermia durante 20 horas, com morte durante atendimento clínico. Na necropsia, havia desprendimento e avermelhamento multifocais moderados na mucosa dos proventrículos. Já o Bovino 2 teve manifestações clínicas de anorexia, fezes secas, atonia ruminal, vocalização e tremores musculares por 10 dias, não responsivas a tratamento, evoluindo para óbito. Na necropsia, havia desprendimento da mucosa dos proventrículos, com avermelhamento e edema transmural difusos acentuados. No exame histológico havia degeneração e necrose da mucosa proventricular, vacuolização e desprendimento do epitélio, infiltrado neutrofílico multifocal moderado (Bovino 1), e necrose transmural difusa acentuada, edema, hemorragia e exsudação fibrinosa acentuados (Bovino 2). Grande quantidade de B. vulneraria foi encontrada nas pastagens dos bovinos, com sinais de consumo. É relatado um caso de evolução subaguda de intoxicação por B. vulneraria, visto que a intoxicação por essa planta geralmente tem curso agudo. Conhecimentos acerca desta planta são necessários para prevenção e controle da intoxicação, evitando novos casos de mortalidade.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Plant Poisoning/pathology , Plant Poisoning/veterinary , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Baccharis/poisoning , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Plants, Toxic , Fatal Outcome
2.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(11): 852-862, Nov. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1155021

ABSTRACT

Somatic-cell nuclear transfer is a cloning technique that enables the creation of a viable embryo from a donor adult to produce a genetically identical individual. This technique opens numerous potential possibilities for medicine and animal reproduction. However, several reports have documented cloning-related issues. Embryo and fetal losses remain significantly higher than in other techniques, and there is a high incidence of dystocia and hydrops, which decreases efficiency and increases costs. Animals delivered at term often exhibit a syndrome known as macrosomia and experience difficulties in adapting to life outside the uterus, and death is a common outcome. In the present study, 41 cloned calves that died in the neonatal period were subjected to gross and histopathological examination. Most important gross lesions were found in the liver (enlargement, congestion, yellowish color), kidneys (brownish color at surface and cut, and cysts), lungs (atelectasis, parenchymal consolidation, and secretions in bronchi and bronchioles), and heart (concentric and eccentric hypertrophy, hematic cysts, persistence of ductus arteriosus). Primary microscopic findings were seen in the liver, kidneys, and lungs from neonatal calves. In the liver, 85% of the animals exhibited hepatic degeneration. The presence of a brownish pigment within the cortical tubules of the kidneys was found in approximately 90% of the samples; the presence of this pigment has not been previously reported in cloned calves. In the lungs, a large number of animals exhibiting lesions characteristic of pneumonia (55%). These changes were the pivotal causes of death, mainly due to problems in adapting to life outside the uterus and opportunistic infections in the neonatal period. Further investigation focusing on pathological anatomical changes is necessary to map these abnormalities in cloned animals.(AU)


A transferência nuclear de células somáticas ou clonagem é uma técnica que permite produzir um indivíduo geneticamente igual a um outro indivíduo adulto. Esta técnica abre inúmeras possibilidades para a medicina e para a reprodução animal. Porém, existem inúmeros relatos de problemas associados à clonagem. A taxa de perda nos períodos embrionário e fetal ainda é muito alta quando comparada a outras biotécnicas; além disso, há uma maior incidência de hidropsias e distocias, diminuindo a eficiência e aumentando o custo da técnica. Os animais que vem a termo frequentemente apresentam uma síndrome chamada de macrossomia, e apresentam dificuldades de adaptação à vida extrauterina e, por isso, o óbito é um desfecho comum. No presente trabalho realizou-se necropsia e coleta de fragmentos de órgãos para avaliação histopatológica de 41 bezerros com óbito neonatal. As lesões macroscópicas mais importantes foram encontradas no fígado (hepatomegalia, congestão e coloração amarelada), rins (coloração amarronzada na superfície e ao corte, e cistos), pulmões (atelectasia, parênquima consolidado, e secreções nos brônquios e bronquíolos), e coração (hipertrofia concêntrica e excêntrica, cistos hemáticos e persistência de ducto arterioso). As principais alterações microscópicas observadas foram presença de pigmento acastanhado no interior dos túbulos corticais renais (aproximadamente 90% dos animais), degeneração hepática (85% das amostras avaliadas) e lesões características de pneumonia (55% dos animais). A pigmentação acastanhada no interior dos túbulos corticais é uma alteração que ainda não havia sido relatada anteriormente em animais clonados. As alterações observadas nestes órgãos foram determinantes para o óbito, e devem ter ocorrido sobretudo devido a problemas na adaptação ao ambiente extrauterino e em decorrência de infecções adquiridas no período neonatal. Os achados encontrados no presente trabalho denotam a necessidade de investigação anatomopatológica detalhada de animais clonados inviáveis, na tentativa de mapear as anormalidades apresentadas por eles.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Infant, Newborn , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Cloning, Organism/veterinary , Perinatal Death/etiology
3.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(5): 333-339, May 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135638

ABSTRACT

The causes of death of cattle kept in pre-export feedlots (PEFs) and in feedlot for finishing for slaughter are described. Two studies were conducted: a retrospective study of mortality cases in feedlots from 2000 to 2017 registered at the "Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico" of the "Faculdade de Veterinária" of the "Universidade Federal de Pelotas"; and a prospective study from January 2018 to August 2019, following up 22 feedlots for finishing and six PEFs for the export of live cattle. From January 2000 to August 2019 samples of 150 cases of diseases that affected feedlot cattle were received from 22 feedlots for finishing and 115 of the six PEFs followed. Mortality considering all diagnosed diseases was significantly higher in feedlots for finishing (p<0.05), than in PEFs for the export of live cattle, of 1% and 0.12%, respectively. Diseases of the digestive system were the most important causes, of death in feedlots regardless of its purpose. Acidosis presented the highest mortality rates both in feedlot for finishing (3.33%) as in PEFs for export (0.95%). In all cases the disease occurred due to failure in the adaptation of animals to the ingestion of concentrated foods. Bovine tick fever and pneumonia presented mortality rates of 0.13% and 0.09%, respectively in PEFs. In the feedlot for finishing seneciosis was the second cause of death due to cattle coming from areas with high infestation by the plant. In the present study, it was possible to identify the main diseases that occur in cattle feedlots for finishing or for the export of live animals in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul. These diseases are known in other systems of cattle breeding and can be prevented or controlled through management, chemoprophylaxis or vaccination, minimizing losses due to mortality.(AU)


Descrevem-se as causas de morte de bovinos mantidos confinados em estabelecimentos pré-embarque (EPEs) para exportação de animais vivos e em estabelecimentos de terminação para abate. Foram realizados dois estudos: um retrospectivo dos casos de mortalidade em confinamentos de 2000 a 2017 registrados no Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico da Faculdade de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Pelotas; e um estudo prospectivo de janeiro de 2018 a agosto de 2019, acompanhando-se 22 confinamentos de terminação e seis EPEs para exportação de bovinos vivos. No total, de janeiro de 2000 a agosto de 2019 foram recebidos no LRD-UFPel amostras de 150 casos de enfermidades que afetaram bovinos confinados, 35 provenientes de 22 confinamentos de terminação e 115 dos seis EPEs acompanhados. A mortalidade considerando-se todas as enfermidades diagnosticadas foi significativamente maior nos confinamentos para terminação (p<0,05), do que nos EPEs para exportação de bovinos vivos, de 1% e 0,12%, respectivamente. As doenças do sistema digestivo foram as causas de morte mais importante nos confinamentos, independente da finalidade. Acidose apresentou as maiores taxas de mortalidade tanto nos confinamentos para terminação (3,33%) como nos EPEs para exportação (0,95%). Em todos os casos a doença ocorreu devido a falha na adaptação dos animais à ingestão de alimentos concentrados. Tristeza parasitária bovina e pneumonias apresentaram taxas de mortalidade de 0,13% e 0,09, respectivamente em EPEs de exportação. Nos confinamentos para terminação a seneciose foi a segunda causa de morte devido aos bovinos serem provenientes de áreas com alta infestação pela planta. Este estudo permitiu identificar as principais enfermidades diagnosticadas em confinamentos para terminação de bovinos ou para exportação de bovinos vivos na região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul. Observou-se que são doenças que ocorrem em outros sistemas de criação de bovinos e que podem ser prevenidas ou controladas por meio de manejo, quimioprofilaxia ou vacinação, minimizando prejuízos por mortalidade de animais.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Pneumonia/veterinary , Stomach Diseases/veterinary , Stomach, Ruminant , Acidosis/veterinary , Cattle Diseases/mortality , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Tick-Borne Diseases/veterinary , Quarantine/veterinary
4.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(3): e001720, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138102

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this study, we described the morphological features and unusual presentations of hydatidosis, fasciolosis, and eosinophilic myositis caused by Sarcocystis species diagnosed at the slaughterhouse lines. Twenty-seven samples of atypical parasitic lesions from distinct cattle were evaluated, of which 12 corresponded to hydatidosis, 11 to fasciolosis, and 4 to eosinophilic sarcocystosis. Hydatid cysts were observed mainly in the heart, with all cases involving the left ventricle. Fasciolosis lesions involved mainly the lungs, and were characterized by a focal nodular elevated area involving the edges of the lobes. Intralesional trematodes were observed in three cases. Sarcocystosis lesions were observed in four cases, and lesions were primarily located in the skeletal and cardiac muscles. Grossly, they presented as focal or focally extensive streaks, patches, or numerous nodules that were greenish to mildly yellowish. Histologically, all the cases had intralesional ruptured cysts of Sarcocystis that were associated with severe eosinophilic myositis and myocarditis. Parasitic lesions in atypical locations and/or with aberrant responses should be promptly identified because it may mistakenly diagnosed as other potentially zoonotic diseases, such as cysticercosis and tuberculosis.


Resumo No presente estudo, são descritas as características morfológicas e as apresentações incomuns das lesões parasitárias de hidatidose, fasciolose e miosite eosinofílica por Sarcocystis spp., diagnosticadas nas linhas de abate. Foram analisadas 27 amostras de diferentes bovinos, das quais 12 correspondiam a casos de hidatidose, 11 de fasciolose e 4 de sarcocistose eosinofílica. Os cistos hidáticos foram observados predominantemente no coração, todos com localização no ventrículo esquerdo. As lesões de fasciolose envolveram principalmente os pulmões e eram caracterizadas por áreas nodulares e elevadas nos bordos dos lobos pulmonares. Trematódeos intralesionais estavam presentes em três casos. Lesões de sarcocistose foram observadas em quatro casos, com localização nos músculos esquelético e cardíaco. Macroscopicamente, observaram-se listras, manchas ou numerosos nódulos de coloração esverdeada a discretamente amarelada. Histologicamente, todos os casos apresentaram cistos intralesionais de Sarcocystis spp. rompidos e degenerados, associados à acentuada miosite e miocardite eosinofílica. A identificação das lesões parasitárias em locais poucos frequentes é de extrema importância, pois podem constituir diagnósticos diferencias de enfermidades zoonóticas, como cisticercose e tuberculose.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Helminthiasis, Animal/parasitology , Helminthiasis, Animal/pathology , Brazil , Cattle , Abattoirs
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 347-350, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889235

ABSTRACT

Abstract In swine and bovines, leptospirosis prevention and control is carried out via vaccination of susceptible animals using bacterins. However, the efficiency of leptospirosis vaccines has been questioned. This work aimed to investigate the potency of five leptospirosis vaccines sold commercially in Brazil, challenging the animals with one autochthonous strain of Leptospira, Canicola serovar, denoted LO4, isolated from swine. The standard protocol was followed, and renal carriers of Leptospira were identified among the surviving animals by culture and PCR. Of the five vaccines tested, only two proved effective. None of the surviving animals was positive by culture; however, one animal was positive by PCR. Three of the five vaccines sold commercially in Brazil for the immunization of swine or bovines failed the test of the efficacy to protect the vaccinated animals following challenge with an autochthonous Leptospira strain, Canicola serovar. The two vaccines provided protection against the renal carrier state in the surviving animals. The criteria used to produce leptospirosis bacterins sold commercially in Brazil must be reviewed. The industry should support researches on leptospiral vaccinology to improve the quality of the present vaccines and discover new immunogenic strains, because it is known that vaccination is one of the most important tools to increase the reproduction rates in livestock.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Swine Diseases/prevention & control , Bacterial Vaccines/administration & dosage , Bacterial Vaccines/immunology , Cattle Diseases/prevention & control , Leptospira/immunology , Leptospirosis/veterinary , Swine , Swine Diseases/pathology , Brazil , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome , Kidney/microbiology , Leptospira/isolation & purification , Leptospirosis/pathology , Leptospirosis/prevention & control
6.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(4): 2987-2996, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886827

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT In order to study and characterize the lesions in the reproductive tract of Nellore heifers naturally infected with Ureaplasma diversum and presenting granular vulvovaginitis syndrome (GVS), fragments of uterine tube, uterus, cervix, vagina and vulva of 20 animals were evaluated. The macroscopic lesions of the vulvovaginal mucosa were classified in scores of "1" mild, until "4", severe inflammation and pustular or necrotic lesions. The histopathological evaluation was performed using scores of "1" to "4", according to the inflammatory alterations. The fragments with severe microscopic lesions (3 and 4) were from the uterine tubes and uterus, which showed leukocytes infiltration and destruction and/or necrosis of epithelium. Alterations in the lower reproductive tract fragments were mild, but characteristics of acute inflammatory processes. The histopathological findings of the reproductive tract of females naturally infected with Ureaplasma diversum are consistent with injuries that compromise the environment from the local where spermatozoa acquires ability to fertilize an oocyte until those where the oocyte is fertilized. Therefore, animals with GVS should be identified early in the herd, because, besides the reduction in the fertility rates caused by tissue damages, they can contribute to disseminate the microorganism. Key words: bovine, tissue evaluation, reproduction, Ureaplasma diversum.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Ureaplasma Infections/pathology , Genitalia, Female/pathology , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , Ureaplasma Infections/microbiology , Genitalia, Female/microbiology
7.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(1): 19-23, Jan. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-777380

ABSTRACT

Foi realizado um levantamento nos protocolos de necropsias de bovinos com histórico de morte súbita ou superaguda recebidos no Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico da Faculdade de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (LRD/UFPel) entre 2000 e 2014. Para o estudo foram considerados os casos em que os animais tinham morrido inesperadamente sem apresentação de uma doença prévia ou sinal clínico no intervalo de 24 horas antes da observação do cadáver (Categoria 1) ou bovinos movimentados ou que sofreram algum tipo de manejo e morreram após quedas ou tremores com observação destes sinais (Categoria 2). Foram identificados 72 casos ou surtos incluídos nestas duas categorias de um total de 2.031 cadáveres/materiais de bovinos recebidos no LRD/UFPel no período, representando 3,5% do total. Os casos ocorreram em todas as épocas do ano e em 34 casos (47,2%) os bovinos afetados eram adultos, em 23 casos (31,9%) tinham entre dois e três anos e em 11 (15,3%) tinham até um ano de idade. Em quatro protocolos (5,6%) a idade não foi informada. Em 62 casos (86,1%) a forma de criação era extensiva, em sete (9,7%) a forma era semi-intensiva e em três (4,2%) a forma era intensiva. Dos 72 casos/surtos observados 52 (72,2%) foram classificados na Categoria 1 e 20 (27,8%) na Categoria 2. As enfermidades que mais causaram morte súbita ou superaguda foram: babesiose cerebral (10/72), intoxicação por organofosforados (10/72), carbúnculo hemático (7/72), hemoglobinúria bacilar (5/72) e fulguração (3/72). Dos 18 casos inconclusivos em apenas cinco foi realizada a necropsia completa e nos 15 casos negativos a Bacillus anthracis o material remetido não permitiu a pesquisa de outras enfermidades. Os resultados obtidos, permitiram concluir que as mortes súbitas na região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul são causadas por doenças, na sua grande maioria, bem conhecidas e endêmicas da região e que podem ser controladas ou evitadas por vacinação e manejo adequados...


A survey of cases with history of sudden death in cattle was conducted in all necropsy protocols of the Regional Diagnostic Laboratory of the Veterinary School of the Federal University of Pelotas (LRD/UFPel) from 2000 to 2014. We considered animals that had died unexpectedly without prior illness or clinical signs 24 hours before death (Category 1), or before they were moved or suffered some type of management and died after falls or trembling (Category 2). We identified 72 cases (3.5%) from those two categories of a total of 2,031 materials of cattle received in LRD/UFPel. The cases occurred in all seasons of the year. In 34 cases (47.2%), affected cattle had more than four years of age, in 23 cases (31.9%) cattle had between two and three years, and in 11 cases (15.3%) they were up to one year of age. In four protocols (5.6%) age was not reported. In 62 cases (86.1%) the cattle were in an extensive grazing system, in seven (9.7%), they were in a semi-intensive grazing system, and in three cases (4.2%), they were maintained in an intensive farming system. Out of the 72 cases observed, 52 (72.2%) were classified in Category 1 and 20 (27.8%) in Category 2. The diseases that caused more often sudden death, were cerebral babesiosis (10/72), organophosphates poisoning (10/72), anthrax (7/72), bacillary hemoglobinuria (5/72), and fulguration (3/72). Out of the 18 cases considered inconclusive, just five full necropsiey were performed, and of the other 15, the material submitted was considered negative for Bacillus anthracis, and the material did not allow investigation for other diseases. The results showed that sudden deaths in southern Rio Grande do Sul are caused by diseases, mostly well-known and endemic to the region, which can be controlled or prevented by vaccination and appropriate management...


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Autopsy/veterinary , Cause of Death , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Death, Sudden/veterinary , Asymptomatic Infections/mortality , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary
8.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 34(7): 663-666, jul. 2014. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-720442

ABSTRACT

Casos de actinomicose com apresentação atípica são descritos em dois bovinos. Em ambos os casos notou-se uma aumento de volume extenso e duro na maxila. A maxila dos dois bovinos tomou um aspecto de favo de mel como resultado da rarefação destrutiva e da proliferação óssea regenerativa. Na superfície de corte as lesões consistiam de tecido fibroso branco e brilhante em meio ao qual numerosos grânulos amarelos podiam ser vistos. Tratos fistulosos podiam ser demonstrados em meio às lesões. Em cortes corados pela hematoxilina e eosina as lesões consistiam de ilhas de inflamação piogranulomatosa em meio a extenso estroma fibroso. No centro do granuloma havia uma massa basofílica de forma irregular cercada por uma zona com projeções eosinofílicas radiadas (reação de Splendore-Hoeppli). Ao redor da massa radiada havia uma zona de neutrófilos cercada por uma camada de macrófagos epitelioides e ocasionais células gigantes multinucleadas. Uma camada externa de linfócitos e plasmócitos limitava o granuloma do extenso estroma conjuntivo que o cercava. Na coloração de Gram, a parte central da colônia revelava um aglomerado de micro-organismos em forma de bastonetes, com morfologia compatível com Actinomyces bovis. Uma vez que a apresentação pouco usual das lesões levou a má interpretação diagnóstica inicial nestes casos, a descrição detalhada das lesões é feita aqui com o objetivo de ajudar no diagnóstico diferencial feito por veterinários clínicos e inspetores de carne.


Cases of actinomycosis with atypical presentation are described in two oxen. In both cases there was a hard irregular and extensive lesions in the maxilla. The maxilla of both cattle became enlarged and honeycombed as a result of destructive rarefaction and regenerative bone proliferation. The cut surface of the lesions consisted of white glistening fibrous tissue within which numerous yellow caseous granules could be seen. Sinus tracts could be demonstrated within the lesions. In hematoxylin-eosin stained sections the lesions consisted of island of pyogranulomatous inflammation within an extensive fibrous stroma. In the center of the granuloma there was a basophilic irregular shaped mass surrounded by a zone radially arranged eosinophilic projections (Splendore-Hoeppli material). Around the radiating mass there was a zone of neutrophils, surrounded by a layer of epithelioid macrophages and occasional multinucleated giant cells. An outer layer of lymphocytes and plasma cells was present that limit the granuloma from the abundant fibrous tissue surrounding it. Up on Gram stain the central part of the colony revealed a tangled mass of rod shaped organisms morphologically consistent with Actinomyces bovis. Since the unusual presentation of this lesions misled the initial diagnosis the detailed description of these cases are reported here in the hopes it can help in the differential diagnosis by veterinary practitioners and met inspectors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Actinomycosis/diagnosis , Actinomycosis/veterinary , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Histological Techniques , Maxilla/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Diagnosis, Differential
9.
Journal of Veterinary Research. 2014; 69 (1): 1-7
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-157604

ABSTRACT

Digital dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin on the bulbs of the heel which cause lameness and economic losses. Atypical digital dermatitis is a new form of an old disease which has been reported recently in the USA, UK and Netherlands. The purpose of this study is the clinical and histopathological evaluation of claw lesions with exposed corium in cases of concurrent digital dermatitis in two endemically infected herds without preventative herd strategies for BDD. The majority of non-healing claw lesion samples included in this study were taken from 'typical' clinical cases, namely, from lame cows examined in the course of veterinary practice by one author over a period of 8 months in two commercial dairy farms in Iran. Fourty five lame cows with claw lesions were selected for clinical and histopathological purposes. Examination of the affected claws revealed a topical granular appearance, painful to touch, prone to bleed with distinctive odour and extensive regional loss of the claw horn. Histologically, the epidermis was lost completely over the extension of sole ulcer lesion. The underlying dermis was intensely infiltrated by inflammatory cells, mainly polymorphic leukocytes, and in deep, newly formed capillaries were embedded in the stroma. Hyalinized thrombi were also significant in small blood vessels. In wall ulcer, there was extremely proliferative epidermis, 2-3 times with severe acanthosis and rete ridge formation. Stratum corneum was hyperplastic. The stratum corneum were filled with neutrophils, cellular debris and erythrocytes lodged in the orthokeratotic stratum corneum. In all the observed cases, the disorder included penetration through the horn capsule lesions to involve the corium, resulting in damage of the horn-forming cells. This new manifestation seems to be a combination of metabolic and infectious diseases


Subject(s)
Animals , Hoof and Claw/pathology , Foot Diseases/veterinary , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Evaluation Studies as Topic
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(3): 905-909, July-Sept. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-699793

ABSTRACT

This study describes the clinical, histopathological, and virological characterization of teat papillomatosis from Brazilian dairy cattle herds. Four types of bovine papillomavirus were identified (BPV6, 7, 9, and 10); one of these (BPV7) is being detected for the first time in Brazilian cattle.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases/virology , Papilloma/veterinary , Papillomaviridae/classification , Papillomaviridae/isolation & purification , Brazil/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases/pathology , DNA, Viral/chemistry , DNA, Viral/genetics , Genotype , Genotyping Techniques , Histocytochemistry , Molecular Sequence Data , Papilloma/epidemiology , Papilloma/pathology , Papilloma/virology , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA
11.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 33(7): 873-889, jul. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-683230

ABSTRACT

During a period of 28 months (January 2011-April 2013) periodical visits were made to four cattle slaughter houses to collect samples of lesions found in cattle slaughtered for human consumption. Three hundred and three lesions were collected, 25% of which were caused by six different parasites: The metacestodes of Echinocccus granulosus (hydatid cysts), Fasciola hepatica, the metacestodes of Taenia saginata (Cysticercus bovis), Oesophagostomum radiatum, Eurythrema coelomaticum, and Paramphistomum cervi. Gross and microscopic aspects of the lesions caused by these worms are profusely illustrated and a detailed description of both pathological aspects, gross and microscopic, are provide in the hopes that the neophyte veterinary meat inspector can benefit from them in the task of recognition and interpretation of the significance of these lesion both to human and animal health. In regard to the two latter objectives, the life cycle, and the pathogenicity to the animal and human hosts, and the destination of the affected carcass or organ in the line of inspection are discussed for each parasite.


Durante um período de 28 meses (janeiro 2011-abril 2013) foram feitas visitas periódicas a quarto abatedouros frigoríficos de bovinos para colher lesões regularmente encontradas em bovinos abatidos para consumo humano. Trezentas e três lesões foram colhidas, 25% das quais eram causadas por seis parasitas diferentes: o metacestoide de Echinocccus granulosus (cisto hidático), Fasciola hepatica, o metacestoide de Taenia saginata (Cysticercus bovis), Oesophagostomum radiatum, Eurythrema coelomaticum e Paramphistomum cervi. Os aspectos macro e microscópicos causados por esses vermes são profusamente ilustrados e uma descrição macro e microscópicadas lesões é fornecida na esperança de auxiliar o inspetor de carnes iniciante na tarefa de reconhecer e interpretar o significado dessas lesões tanto para a saúde animal quanto para a saúde humana. Com respeito a esses últimos objetivos, o ciclo evolutivo, e os efeitos nos hospedeiros animal e humano, e ainda a destinação da carcaça ou órgão afetado na linha de inspeção, são discutidos para cada parasita.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Abattoirs , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Echinococcosis/parasitology , Echinococcosis/veterinary , Oesophagostomum/parasitology , Taenia saginata/parasitology , Cysticercosis/veterinary , Fasciola , Paramphistomatidae/parasitology , Parasites/parasitology
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 31(2): 777-784, jun. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-687137

ABSTRACT

Papillomaviruses, belonging to the Papillomaviridae family, are small oncogenic viruses, causing papillomas and fibropapillomas in the mucosal and cutaneous epithelia of several animals. In bovine species, thirteen types (BPV 1-13) were characterized to date. In this study, the occurrence of papillomatosis in four outbreaks in cattle herds, coming from Brazilian states were registered. The papillomatous lesions were found located in the teats, udders, head and neck. Under the transmission electron microscope, by the negative staining technique, it was possible to visualized rounded-format papillomavirus, with icosahedral symmetry, characterized as "full" and "empty" particles, measuring on average 60 nm in diameter, in all the 40 samples observed of skin lesion fragments. The ultrathin sections revealed the presence of groups of viral, intranuclear, rounded particles measuring 35 nm in diameter and tubular particles with a diameter of 35-39 nm. At immunoelectron microscopy technique, positivity obtained was marked by the presence of aggregates of viral particles formed by the antigen-antibody interaction. In the immunocytochemistry technique, the antigen-antibody reaction showed colloidal gold particles evenly distributed over the surface of the virus. These results showed the importance of the transmission electron microscopy techniques in the diagnosis of bovine papillomatosis that can be used in routine procedures to identify viral agent of this important disease.


Los virus del papiloma que pertenecen a la familia Papillomaviridae son pequeños virus oncogénicos que causan papilomas y fibropapilomas en epitelio cutáneo y mucoso de distintas especies de animales. En el ganado vacuno, trece tipos (BPV- 1-13) se caracterizaron hasta el momento. En este estudio, se documenta la ocurrencia de cuatro brotes de papilomatosis en los rebaños de ganado, procedentes de estados brasileños. Las lesiones papilomatosas se localizaron en los pezones, la ubre, la cabeza y el cuello. Al microscopio electrónico de transmisión, en la técnica de tinción negativa fueran visualizadas partículas del virus del papiloma redondeadas, con simetría icosaédrica, caracterizadas como "llenas" y "vacías", midiendo unos 60 nm de diámetro en todas las 40 muestras de fragmentos de lesión de piel estudiado. Los cortes ultra finos mostraron la presencia de grupos de partículas virales, intranucleares redondeadas con 35 nm de diámetro y tubulares 35-39 nm de diámetro. En la técnica de microscopía inmunoelectrónica, la positividad obtenida se caracterizó por la presencia de agregados de partículas virales formadas por la interacción antígeno-anticuerpo. En la aplicación de la técnica de inmunocitoquímica, la reacción antígeno-anticuerpo mostró partículas de oro coloidal distribuidos de manera uniforme sobre la superficie del virus. Estos resultados muestran la importancia de las técnicas de microscopía electrónica de transmisión en el diagnóstico de papilomatosis bovina, que pueden ser utilizados en los procedimientos de rutina para la identificación del agente viral causante de esta importante enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Cattle Diseases/virology , Papillomaviridae/ultrastructure , Brazil , Cattle , Disease Outbreaks , Immunohistochemistry , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission
13.
Journal of Veterinary Research. 2011; 66 (3): 187-192
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-117505

ABSTRACT

Endocarditis of cattle can develop as valvular, mural or concurrent involvement of the valvular and mural endocardium. Given the importance of endocarditis among the diseases of the cardiovascular system in cattle, 568 dairy cows were studied through complete clinical examination, looking particularly for special signs of heart involvement. The cows suspected of having a heart problem were labeled following the identification. Additional measures including blood sampling, carcass examination, and lesion sampling for histopathology were carried out in the abattoir, and endocarditis was diagnosed in 2.81% of the cases. The mean age of the cows with endocarditis was 5.4 years. The body temperature was higher than 39[degree sign]C in 56.2% of the cases. Almost 70% of the cows had more than 84 heart beats per minute. Acardiac systolic murmur was found in 56.2% of the cows. Fewer than 5,500 white blood cells per microliter and neutrophilia with more than 40% neutrophils was diagnosed in 75% and 50% of the cases, respectively. Given these results, it was concluded that despite the absence of audible systolic murmur using a stethoscope, it is probable to see valvular endocarditis, particularly in industrial mid-aged dairy cows with a focal active infective involvement showing mild fever, persistent high or at least relatively high heart beat rate and intensity, marginal leucopenia, and relatively increased neutrophils and monocytes. Therefore it may be suitable to conduct echocardiography due to its very applicable findings


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Systolic Murmurs , Echocardiography , Endocarditis/pathology
14.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 29(9): 713-718, Sept. 2009. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-532841

ABSTRACT

Casos de linfedema congênito foram observados acometendo 12 terneiros cruza Red Angus na região Central do Rio Grande do Sul. Os terneiros afetados apresentavam graus variáveis de edema subcutâneo ao nascimento, envolvendo principalmente os membros pélvicos, mas também outras regiões do corpo. A injeção de solução a 5 por cento de azul de metileno no espaço interdigital dos membros pélvicos de três terneiros afetados e um controle, indicaram uma interrupção no fluxo da linfa, sugerindo uma falha dos linfáticos periféricos distais em contactar os troncos centrais. Na necropsia de três terneiros afetados, edema subcutâneo foi observado de modo variável nos membros pélvicos, prepúcio e abdômen ventral. Não foi observado edema nas cavidades orgânicas. Em dois casos, observou-se hipoplasia dos linfonodos poplíteos associadas à dilatação dos vasos linfáticos. Testes de DNA demonstraram que todos os terneiros afetados nasceram de vacas inseminadas pelo mesmo touro, sugerindo uma base genética para a doença. Levando em consideração que uma pequena porcentagem de terneiros nasceram de vacas inseminadas pelo touro suspeito, é provável que um modo autossômico recessivo esteja envolvido na hereditariedade da doença.


Cases of congenital lymphedema were observed affecting 12 cross Red Angus calves from the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Affected calves presented variable degrees of subcutaneous edema at birth, involving mainly the hind limbs but also other body regions. The injection of methylene blue dye in 5 percent solution into the interdigital space of the hind limbs of three affected calves and one normal control indicated an interruption of the lymph flow in the affected calves; this suggests a failure of the distal peripheral lymphatics to connect with the central trunks. At necropsy of three affected calves subcutaneous edema was variably observed in the hind limbs, prepuce and ventral abdomen. Edema of body cavities was not observed. In two cases there was hipoplasia of the popliteal lymph nodes associated to dilatation of lymphatic vessels. DNA tests demonstrated that all affected calves were born from cows sired by the same bull suggesting an inherited basis for the disease. Considering the small percentage of affected calves born from cows sired by the suspect bull it is probable that an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance is involved.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/congenital , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Lymphedema/congenital , Lymphedema/genetics , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/veterinary , Lymphedema/veterinary
15.
Ciênc. rural ; 39(3): 798-802, maio-jun. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-514076

ABSTRACT

A técnica de biópsia hepática em ruminantes tem importante valor no diagnóstico clínico de doenças tóxicas e metabólicas, em especial nos desequilíbrios minerais. As técnicas mais comumente utilizadas restringem análises devido ao limitado volume de tecido obtido. No presente trabalho, avaliou-se o uso de uma técnica de biópsia hepática por laparotomia paracostal em bovinos e búfalos. Foram utilizados 10 bovinos e 10 búfalos hígidos. Os animais foram mantidos em estação, sedados com xilazina e infiltrados localmente com lidocaína e epinefrina. O acesso à cavidade abdominal foi realizado por meio de uma incisão dorso-ventral de 15cm no flanco direito, iniciada ventralmente (cerca de 4-5cm) ao processo transverso da 2a ou 3a vértebra lombar e situada caudalmente (cerca de 4cm) e paralelamente à 13a costela, obtendo-se visualização do fígado. Foi então realizado pinçamento do bordo caudal do órgão com pinça Doyen para remoção de fragmento hepático (2 a 4g). Procedeu-se o fechamento da cavidade abdominal como de rotina. Foram analisados os parâmetros bioquímicos e hematológicos antes do procedimento (tempo zero) e após 24 horas, 48 horas, 5 dias e 10 dias após a biópsia. Todas as variáveis bioquímicas estudadas retornaram aos valores basais 5 e 10 dias após o procedimento nos bovinos e búfalos, respectivamente. O tempo médio de cirurgia por animal foi de 25 minutos. A biópsia hepática por laparotomia paracostal demonstrou ser uma técnica eficaz e de baixo risco à saúde dos animais, permitindo a coleta de suficiente quantidade de tecido hepática para realização de múltiplas análises.


Liver biopsy in ruminants is an important technique for clinical diagnosis of toxic and metabolic diseases, especially mineral disorders. The most frequent procedures used so far results in an small amount of liver and not enough for multiple tests. The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy of paracostal laparotomy liver biopsy technique in cattle and buffalo and to follow possible changes on biochemical and hematological profiles caused by the surgery. Ten cattle and ten buffalo were used in this study. The animals were kept on their normal position and sedated with xilazin and locally infiltrated with lidocain and epinefrin. The access to abdominal cavity was carried through a right paracoastal laparotomy, ventrally to the transverse process of 2nd or 3rd lombar vertebra. A small portion of the hepatic caudal lobe (2 to 4g) was clinched by a Doyen clamp and removed. The abdominal cavity was closed as normally routine. Blood samples were taken to biochemical tests and hemogram before the procedure, and 24h, 48h, 5 and 10 days later. The technique was practical and easy to be performed (took approximately 25 minutes). The technique described here was efficient and offers low risk to animal health and provided enough amount of liver tissue for multiple tests.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Liver/pathology , Laparoscopy/veterinary , Biopsy/methods , Biopsy/veterinary
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-151429

ABSTRACT

The presence of galectin-3 was immunohistochemically quantified in bovine intestines infected with paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) to determine whether galectin-3 was involved in the formation of granulation tissue associated with the disease. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection was histochemically confirmed using Ziehl-Neelsen staining and molecularly diagnosed through rpoB DNA sequencing. Galectin-3 was detected in the majority of inflammatory cells, possibly macrophages, in the granulomatous lesions within affected tissues, including the ileum. These findings suggest that galectin-3 is associated with the formation of chronic granulation tissues in bovine paratuberculosis, probably through cell adhesion and anti-apoptosis mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Chronic Disease , Galectin 3/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Intestine, Small/microbiology , /growth & development , Paratuberculosis/pathology , RNA Polymerase II/genetics
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-67600

ABSTRACT

The objective of this retrospective field study was to associate the type and smell of discharge, the size of the uterus, the ovarian and treatment status, and the time to diagnosis of animals with chronic clinical endometritis (CCE) with the incidence of ovarian cysts and with a marked loss in body condition in German Holstein Friesian cows. Two hundred and sixty-four cows diagnosed with CCE from day 14 to day 42 postpartum participated in this study. In addition, 100 days milk production and the parity of the animals were included in the analysis. With the use of logistic regression, a purulent vaginal discharge (>or = 50% pus), the decision not to treat the animals for CCE and a high 100 days milk production proved to be significant factors for the incidence of ovarian cysts. Additionally, the type of discharge showed interactions with the parity and the smell of the discharge, as more animals with fetid and purulent discharge and more animals in the first lactation with a purulent discharge developed ovarian cysts. A high milk production and the parity showed associations with an excessive body condition score loss. Additionally, more animals with a diagnosis of an oversized uterus in comparison to cows with an early involution experienced a considerable reduction in their nutritional condition.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Chronic Disease , Endometritis/complications , Female , Lactation , Models, Biological , Ovarian Cysts/complications , Parity , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
18.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 28(6): 285-292, jun. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-489054

ABSTRACT

São descritos os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, patológicos e diagnósticos de uma forma de dermatite associada à doença das mucosas (DM) em bovinos. Também são abordadas metodologias para a identificação de animais persistentemente infectados (PI) e o impacto nos índices zootécnicos no rebanho afetado. Os casos de dermatite associados com DM ocorreram em dois bovinos Nelore, de 12 e 24 meses de idade, pertencentes a uma fazenda de ciclo completo de bovinos de corte no estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. Os sinais clínicos nesses animais consistiam de emagrecimento lento e progressivo, formação de crostas difusas na pele de todo o corpo, pele ressecada, múltiplas ulcerações nas gengivas e face dorsal da língua, que evoluíram para fendas longitudinais, formação de projeções cornificadas e desprendimento dos cascos. Em um caso, também ocorreu diarréia no estágio final da doença. Na necropsia observaram-se ainda erosões longitudinais no esôfago. O exame histológico revelou focos de necrose de coagulação na mucosa do esôfago e língua, com infiltrado de neutrófilos e linfócitos. As lesões da pele consistiam de necrose de coagulação da epiderme associada com infiltrado de neutrófilos e hiperqueratose. Nos dois casos, a suspeita clínica foi confirmada pelo isolamento viral e identificação dos biótipos citopático e não-citopático do vírus da diarréia viral bovina (BVDV), além da detecção de antígenos virais em tecidos por imunoistoquímica. De um lote de 300 bovinos que tiveram contato com animais afetados, 38 foram testados e apresentaram altos títulos de anticorpos para o BVDV. Amostras de sangue coletadas de 1.025 animais jovens e 40 touros da propriedade foram submetidas a pesquisa de vírus para se identificarem possíveis animais persistentemente infectados (PI). O vírus foi isolado do sangue de três bezerros no teste inicial e, 12 meses depois, em dois deles que permaneceram na propriedade. Imunoistoquímica realizada em biópsia de orelhas identificou...


This paper reports epidemiological, clinical, pathological and laboratory diagnostic aspects of a form of dermatitis associated with mucosal disease (MD) in cattle. It also focuses on the methods used for identifying persistently infected (PI) animals and on the impact of the disease on fertility and weaning rates in the affected herd. Cases of dermatitis associated with MD were diagnosed in two 12 and 24-month-old Nelore calves belonging to a beef cattle farm that operates the full cycle of production (calving, rearing, finishing) in Mato Grosso do Sul, Midwest Brazil. The clinical signs exhibited by affected cattle 0included slow, progressive weight loss; formation of diffuse skin crusts in multiple body areas; skin dryness; multiple ulcerations on the gums and dorsal surface of the tongue which evolved to longitudinal fissures; formation of keratinized projections; and detachment of hoof horn. In addition, diarrhea affected one animal in the late stage of the disease. Necropsies also revealed longitudinal erosions in the esophagus. Histological examination showed coagulation necrosis foci in esophageal and lingual mucosae, with neutrophil and lymphocyte infiltration. Skin lesions consisted of epidermal coagulation necrosis associated with neutrophil infiltration and hyperkeratosis. In both cases, clinical diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation and identification of cytopathic and noncytopathic biotypes of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and immunohistochemical detection of viral antigens in formalin fixed tissues. Out of 300 cattle that had contact with the affected animals, 38 were found to be seropositive - in high neutralizing titers - to BVDV. Blood samples from 1,025 young animals and 40 bulls from the farm were examined for the presence of BVDV to identify potential PI animals. The virus was isolated from blood of three calves in the initial test and, 12 months later, from two of them which had remained...


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Cattle , Cattle/anatomy & histology , Dermatitis/diagnosis , Dermatitis/epidemiology , Dermatitis/pathology , Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease/diagnosis , Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease/epidemiology , Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease/pathology , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral/isolation & purification
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65384

ABSTRACT

Histopathological findings of eosinophilic myositis in the carcass of a slaughtered Korean native cow are presented. Lesions contained massive fibrous septae with vacuolar changes in some lesions, and the hypercontraction and rupturing of muscle bundles, with replacement by eosinophils. Necrosis and severe eosinophil infiltration were observed. Sarcoplasmic fragmentation and atrophy developed. Typical of granuloma, calcified myofibers were focally surrounded by macrophages and numerous inflammatory cells, and multinucleated giant cell formation was evident.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Eosinophilia/pathology , Female , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Muscular Diseases/pathology
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72552

ABSTRACT

Thirty seven cases of bursitis presented to our Veterinary Teaching Hospital from 2001 to 2005. There were 10 adult female buffalos with olecranon bursitis (one had bilateral bursitis) and 26 calves (7 cattle and 19 buffalos, 16 males and 10 females) with presternal bursitis. There were 10 out of 11 cases of olecranon bursitis and 21 out of 26 cases of presternal bursitis with different forms (cystic, proliferative and fibrous) that were removed surgically. The remaining 6 cases, cystic bursitis (olecranon = 1, presternal = 5), were treated by aspiration of their contents and injection of 4% iodine tincture intrabursally. Only 2 cases recovered, 3 cases progressed to fibrosis and required further surgical treatment 2 to 3 weeks later, and 1 case continued to have a cystic lesion. Histopathological examination of tissue specimens from different forms of bursitis revealed that the acquired bursae were generally lined with synovial-like membrane formed from 2-3 cellular layers that covered the connective tissue capsule. The connective tissue capsule differed from one type to another and consisted of fibrous tissues containing numerous small blood vessels, blood capillaries, lymphatics and nerves. There was also evidence for inflammation within the capsule represented by congestion of blood vessels and the presence of perivascular inflammatory cells, mostly mononuclear. In conclusion, surgical treatment was successful and effective for treatment of olecranon and presternal bursitis particularly for the chronic proliferative and fibrous form in cattle and buffalo. The histological structure of the acquired bursae was relatively similar consisting of a synovial-like membrane and a connective tissue capsule with varying degrees of the inflammatory process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Buffaloes/surgery , Bursitis/pathology , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Female , Histocytochemistry/veterinary , Male
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