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1.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 26(5): e212118, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1345936

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Various surface pre-treatment methods have been adapted to optimize the bonding between the zirconia ceramics and the orthodontic brackets. Objective: This review is aimed at systematically analyzing the relevant data available in the literature, to find out the most effective and durable bonding protocol. Methods: Database search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect, during September 2020. The review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. Results: Based on the inclusion criteria, 19 articles were selected for qualitative analysis. Meta-analysis could not be performed due to the heterogeneity of the methodology among the studies. Most of the studies scored medium risk of bias. Compared to the untreated surface, surface pretreatments like sandblasting and lasers were advantageous. Primers and universal adhesive were mostly used as an adjunct to the mechanical pretreatment of the zirconia surface. In most studies, thermocycling seemed to lower the shear bond strength (SBS) of the orthodontic brackets. Conclusion: Based on this qualitative review, surface pretreatments with lasers and sandblasting can be suggested to optimize the bracket bond strength. To clarify this finding, meta-analysis is anticipated. Hence, high heterogeneity of the included studies demands standardization of the methodology.


RESUMO Introdução: Diferentes métodos de pré-tratamento da superfície foram adaptados para otimizar a colagem entre os braquetes ortodônticos e as cerâmicas de zircônia. Objetivo: A presente revisão teve como objetivo analisar, de forma sistemática, os dados relevantes na literatura, para buscar o protocolo de colagem mais efetivo e duradouro. Métodos: As buscas foram feitas em setembro de 2020, nas seguintes bases de dados: PubMed, Scopus e ScienceDirect. A revisão foi feita de acordo com as diretrizes do PRISMA. Resultados: Com base nos critérios de inclusão, 19 artigos foram selecionados para análise qualitativa. A metanálise não pôde ser feita, devido à heterogeneidade na metodologia dos estudos incluídos. A maior parte dos estudos apresentou risco de viés moderado. Comparadas às superfícies não tratadas, as superfícies com pré-tratamento usando jateamento ou laser apresentaram vantagem. Primers e adesivos universais foram mais usados como adjuntos ao pré-tratamento mecânico da superfície de zircônia. Na maioria dos estudos, a termociclagem parece ter reduzido a resistência ao cisalhamento dos braquetes ortodônticos. Conclusões: Com base nessa revisão qualitativa, os pré-tratamentos de superfície com laser e jateamento podem ser sugeridos para otimizar a resistência ao cisalhamento dos braquetes. Para esclarecer esse achado, uma metanálise é necessária. Para isso, faz-se necessária a padronização da metodologia, para lidar com a alta heterogeneidade dos estudos incluídos.


Subject(s)
Orthodontic Brackets , Zirconium , Ceramics/chemistry , Shear Strength
2.
Rev. bras. odontol ; 77(1): 1-5, jan. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104150

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: avaliar as principais caracteristicas das cerâmicas odontológicas, cimentos resinosos, tratamentos de superfície e verificação dos seus devidos modos de falha, frente à literatura e suas respectivas utilizações clínicas. Material e Métodos: foi realizada uma busca bibliográfica nos principais bancos de dados de saúde PUBMED (www.pubmed.gov) e Scholar Google (www.scholar.google.com.br), no qual coletou-se trabalhos que foram publicados de 2002 a 2020. Foram inclusos estudos laboratoriais, relatos de casos, revisões sistemáticas e revisões de literatura, que fossem desenvolvidos em indivíduos vivos. Logo, foram excluídos artigos que não tratavam a respeito das caracteristicas das cerâmicas odontológicas, cimentos resinosos, tratamentos de superfície e verificação dos seus devidos modos de falha, frente à literatura e suas respectivas utilizações clínicas. Resultados: as cerâmicas podem ser classificadas em cerâmicas vítreas, cerâmicas policristalinas e as cerâmicas híbridas. Do mesmo modo que existem diferentes composições das cerâmicas e agentes de união, há também alguns protocolos de tratamento de superfície que se diferem de acordo com a escolha desses materiais. Conclusão: diversos sistemas cerâmicos estão disponíveis no mercado, fazendo com que os profissionais da área protética necessitem de uma constante reciclagem acerca das suas propriedades e indicações, visto que bons resultados não são devidos exclusivamente ao tipo de material utilizado, mas sim, à seleção do melhor material, tipo de preparo em conjunto à habilidade do profissional, cimentos resinosos, tratamentos de superfície e verificação dos seus devidos modos de falha. Nesse contexto, fazem-se necessários maiores estudos com relação às cerâmicas odontológicas e seu devido uso em um cenário clínico


Objective: to evaluate the main characteristics of dental ceramics, resin cements, surface treatments and verification of their failure modes, in relation to the literature and their respective clinical uses. Material and Methods: a bibliographic search was conducted in the main health databases PUBMED (www.pubmed.gov) and Scholar Google (www.scholar.google.com.br), in which studies published from 2002 to 2020 were collected. Laboratory studies, case reports, systematic and literature reviews, which were developed in living individuals, were included. Therefore, articles that did not deal with the main characteristics of dental ceramics, resin cements, surface treatments and verification of their failure modes, in relation to the literature and their respective clinical uses were excluded. Results: ceramics can be classified into glass-matrix ceramics, polycrystalline ceramics and hybrid ceramics. Just as there are different compositions of ceramics and bonding agents, there are also some surface treatment protocols that vary according to the choice of these materials. Conclusion: several ceramic systems are available, making professionals in the prosthetic area need a constant update about their properties and indications, since good results are not due exclusively to the type of material used, but also to the selection of the best material, type of preparation, professional's skill, resin cements, surface treatments and verification of their failure modes. In this context, further studies are needed in relation to dental ceramics and their proper clinical use


Subject(s)
Ceramics/chemistry , Resin Cements , Dental Materials
3.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e004, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055523

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze the structural, morphological and mechanical properties of two different lithium disilicate glass-reinforced ceramics for CAD-CAM systems (IPS e.max CAD and Rosetta SM). Five methodologies were used for both ceramics: microstructure (n = 2) was analyzed using x-ray diffraction (XRD); morphological properties (n = 2) were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with and without hydrofluoric etching; porosity (n = 3) was assessed using 3D micro-computed tomography (micro-CT); flexural strength was measured (n =1 0) using the three-point bending test; and bond strength was determined with self-adhesive resin cement (n = 10), using a microshear bond test. After performing all the tests, the data were analyzed using t-Student test and two-way ANOVA. All the tests used a significance level of α = 0.05. High peak positions corresponding to standard lithium metasilicate and lithium disilicate with similar intensities were observed for both ceramics in the XRD analysis. Morphological analysis showed that the crystalline structure of the two ceramics studied showed no statistical difference after acid etching. Additionally, no significant differences were recorded in the number or size of the pores for the ceramics evaluated. Moreover, no differences in flexural strength were found for the ceramic materials tested, or in the bond strength to ceramic substrates for the resin cements. Based on the study results, no significant differences were found between the two CAD-CAM lithium disilicate glass-reinforced ceramics tested, since they presented similar crystalline structures with comparable intensities, and similar total porosity, flexural strength and bond strength.


Subject(s)
Ceramics/chemistry , Computer-Aided Design , Dental Porcelain/chemistry , Glass/chemistry , Reference Values , Surface Properties , X-Ray Diffraction , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Porosity , Dental Bonding/methods , Resin Cements/chemistry , Shear Strength , Flexural Strength
4.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e035, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1100934

ABSTRACT

Abstract Although fiber-reinforced composites are commonly used in dental practice, whether fiber-reinforced crowns and fixed partial dentures can be used as definitive prostheses remains to be determined. This study used scanning electron microscopy to evaluate the load-bearing capacity of non-reinforced and fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) molar crowns prepared by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM). The crowns were fabricated from three empirical FRC blocks, one empirical composite block, and one commercial ceramic block. The FRC resin was prepared by mixing BaO silicate particles, E-glass fiber, and dimethacrylate resin. Specimens were divided into five groups (n = 10), differing in the amounts of filler, resin, and fiber. Crowns were statically loaded until fracture. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc multiple comparison tests were used for statistical analyses. The groups showed significant differences in load-bearing capacity; empirical bidirectional FRC resin blocks had the highest capacity, while commercial ceramic blocks had the lowest capacity. Molar crowns formed from FRC resin blocks had higher load-bearing capacity compared to non-reinforced composite resin and ceramic blocks. These results show that fiber reinforcement increased the load-bearing capacity of molar crowns.


Subject(s)
Humans , Weight-Bearing , Computer-Aided Design , Composite Resins/chemistry , Crowns , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Ceramics/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Dental Prosthesis Design , Evaluation Study , Molar
5.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180408, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132260

ABSTRACT

Abstract Waste produced by the construction sector is a problem that has grown over the last few years. Construction and demolition waste makes up about 50% by mass of the total solid waste produced in Brazil. One alternative by which to reduce this volume is recycling this material in the form of aggregates. However, it is necessary to analyze the environmental risk that the use of recycled aggregates can entail for adjacent soil and the water table. The purpose of this work was to evaluate pervious concrete samples that contained recycled aggregates and to subject them to leaching tests. The results were compared with the limits established by the Italian methodology. Aggregates with 10, 25, 50, and 100% ceramic were used, as well as a recycled concrete aggregate and a natural aggregate. With the exception of the 25% ceramic trial, all the treatments introduced chromium to the water in which they were immersed, with accumulated concentrations varying from 0.009 to 0.099 mg L-1. Cadmium was found in higher quantities, with cumulated concentrations between 0.104 and 0.417 mg L-1. Sulfate concentrations were higher after 24 h of immersion, with a maximum release of 71.7 mg L-1. The concrete made with 100% ceramic aggregate leached more chromium and sulfate than the other aggregates.


Subject(s)
Water/analysis , Solid Waste , Construction Industry , Percolation/methods , Ceramics/chemistry , Environmental Hazards , Brazil , Recycling , Italy
6.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(6): 787-797, nov.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252167

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Estimar la prevalencia de niveles elevados (≥5.0μg/dL) de plomo en sangre (PbS) y su asociación con el uso de loza de barro vidriado con plomo (LBVPb). Material y métodos: En 2018 se midió PbS capilar en una muestra representativa de niños de 1 a 4 años de edad residentes en localidades de México menores de 100 000 habitantes (Ensanut 100k). Se indagó sobre uso de LBVPb para consumo de alimentos. Para estimar su asociación con PbS, se generaron modelos logit multinomial estratificados por región. Resultados: La prevalencia de niveles elevados de PbS fue de 21.8%. En las regiones Norte, Centro y Sur las prevalencias fueron 9.8, 20.7 y 25.8%, respectivamente. La asociación con uso y frecuencia de LBVPb fue altamente significativa y diferencial por región. Conclusiones: La exposición a plomo permanece como un problema de salud pública en México, particularmente en el Centro y Sur, y está fuertemente asociada con el uso de LBVPb.


Abstract: Objective: To estimate the prevalence of elevated (≥5.0μg / dL) blood lead levels (BLL) and its association with the use of lead glazed ceramics (LGC). Materials and methods: In 2018, we measured capillary BLL in a representative sample of children 1 to 4 years old residing in Mexican localities under 100 000 inhabitants (Ensanut 100k). We inquired about use of LGC for food preparation and consumption. To estimate its association with BLL, multinomial logit models stratified by region were generated. Results: The prevalence of elevated BLL levels was 21.8%. For the North, Central and South regions, the prevalence were 9.8, 20.7 and 25.8%, respectively. The association with use and frequency of LGC was highly significant and differential by region. Conclusions: Lead exposure remains a public health problem in Mexico, particularly in the Central and South regions, and is strongly associated with the use of LGC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Ceramics/chemistry , Cooking and Eating Utensils/statistics & numerical data , Lead/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vulnerable Populations , Lead/analysis , Mexico
7.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e083, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019613

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the influence of activation modes, on Diametral Tensile Strength (DTS) of dual cured resin cements subjected to a Mechanical Fatigue test (MF). Four dual-cured resin cements (RelyX UNICEM [U], RelyX ARC [A], ENFORCE [E] and Nexus 2 [N]) were activated by three different curing modes as follows: Self-Curing (SC), Dual Cure activation with photoactivation executed directly (DC) and Dual Cure activation with Photoactivation Through Porcelain (DCTP). After 24 hours, half of the sample was subjected to 30.000 fatigue cycles at 1 Hz frequency and 12 N load. Then, all specimens were subjected to DTS test in Instron Universal Testing Machine and data were analyzed by three-way ANOVA and Tukey's Test (5%). The results of DTS test means (MPa) and standard deviation, for each cement factor activated by SC, DC and DCTP was respectively: U (28.12 ± 5.29; 37.44 ± 6.49 and 40.10 ± 4.39), A (49.68 ± 8.42; 55.12 ± 5.16 and 63.43 ± 6.92), E (49.12 ± 3.89; 56.42 ± 8.88 and 56.96 ± 6.45) and N (61.89 ± 11.21; 59.26 ± 9.47 and 62.56 ± 10.93). Turkey's test indicated that DC is related to the highest DTS values; Nexus 2 DTS remained the same independently of activation mode and that the Porcelain disk interposition enhanced DTS only for RelyX ARC the ANOVA statistical test indicated that MF didn't alter the DTS values for all experimental groups. MF results clinical implication is that all cements tested exhibited, in an immediate loading, good cross linked bonds quality.


Subject(s)
Polyethylene Glycols/chemistry , Polymethacrylic Acids/chemistry , Ceramics/chemistry , Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate/chemistry , Resin Cements/chemistry , Reference Values , Tensile Strength , Materials Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Self-Curing of Dental Resins/methods , Light-Curing of Dental Adhesives/methods
8.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e095, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039305

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluates the shear bond strength (SBS) of various resin cements to different ceramics. Composite resin cylinders of Z100 were fabricated and cemented to disks of feldspathic ceramic (Creation), leucite-reinforced feldspathic ceramic (Empress I), and densely sintered aluminum oxide ceramic (Procera AllCeram) using five resin cements: Panavia F (PAN), RelyX ARC (ARC), RelyX Unicem (RXU), RelyX Veneer, and Variolink II. SBS was measured after three days of water storage (baseline) and after artificial aging (180 days of water storage along with 12,000 thermal cycles). Failure mode of fractured specimens also was evaluated. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (α=0.05). RXU showed 1) the lowest baseline median SBS to feldspathic ceramic, which was not statistically different from PAN; 2) the lowest median baseline SBS to leucite-reinforced feldspathic and densely sintered aluminum-oxide ceramics. All cements performed similarly after aging, except for ARC (median 0.0 MPa) and PAN (median 16.2 MPa) in the densely sintered aluminum-oxide ceramic group. Resin cements perform differently when bonded to different ceramic substrates. While all test resin cements worked similarly in the long-term to feldspathic and leucite-reinforced feldspathic ceramics, only the MDP-containing resin cement provided durable bonds to densely sintered aluminum-oxide ceramic.


Subject(s)
Ceramics/chemistry , Dental Bonding/methods , Resin Cements/chemistry , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Materials Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Potassium Compounds/chemistry , Statistics, Nonparametric , Shear Strength , Aluminum/chemistry , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry
9.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e0088, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019596

ABSTRACT

Abstract The main of the study was quantify the effect of two ceramics with two underlying resin cements on apparent fluorescence levels. Buccal surfaces of two bovine incisors were ground flat producing one enamel and one dentin substrate. The veneers were fabricated (0.5 and 1.0 mm thickness) using two ceramics (IPSe.max Press and IPSe.max Zirpress, Ivoclar Vivadent). Veneers were cemented using either light-cured (Variolink II, Ivoclar Vivadent) or self-adhesive dual (Rely X U200, 3M ESPE) cement. The layered Control group materials had no cement application. Semi-quantitative fluorescence image analysis (Matlabs software, Matworks) involved processing the images as captured under each daylight (DL, Gretagmacbeth) and ultraviolet illuminants (UVA, Sylvania) within a neutral-gray lightbox (Macbeth Spectral Light). Statistical analysis of the quantitative fluorescence values was performed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < 0.05). The e.max Zirpress on the dentin substrate produced greater fluorescence (p < 0.05) when subjected to UV illumination and more fluorescence (p < 0.05) than e.max Press in both cement groups. Light-cured cement produced higher (p < 0.05) fluorescence than the dual-cement with e.max Press on enamel under UV illumination. The fluorescence for e.max Press on the dentin substrate was greater (p < 0.05) than for e.max Zirpress using dual self-adhesive cement subjected to daylight illumination. Thus, it is possible to conclude that the combination of ceramic and cement produce definite, significant effects on the apparent fluorescence, vital quality for restorative dentistry.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Resin Cements/chemistry , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Materials Testing , Ceramics/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Dental Veneers , Dentin , Dentin/drug effects , Optical Imaging/methods , Light
10.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e042, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001597

ABSTRACT

Abstract: This study evaluated the cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of a new bioceramic endodontic sealer (i.e., Sealer Plus BC) in comparison with those of MTA Fillapex and AH Plus. L929 fibroblasts were cultured and Alamar Blue was used to evaluate cell viability of diluted extracts (1:50, 1:100, and 1:200) from each sealer at 24 h. Polyethylene tubes that were filled with material or empty (as a control) were implanted in the subcutaneous tissue of rats. The rats were killed after 7 and 30 d (n = 8), and the tubes were removed for histological analysis. Parametric data was analyzed using a one-way ANOVA test, and nonparametric data was analyzed via the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Dunn test (p < 0.05). A reduction in cell viability was observed in the extracts that were more diluted for Sealer Plus BC when compared to that of Control and AH Plus (p < 0.05). However, the 1:50 dilution of the Sealer Plus BC was similar to that of the Control (p > 0.05). Conversely, more diluted extracts of MTA Fillapex (1:200) and AH Plus (1:100 and 1:200) were similar to the Control (p > 0.05). Histological analysis performed at 7 d did not indicate any significant difference between tissue response for all materials, and the fibrous capsule was thick (p > 0.05). At 30 d, Sealer Plus BC was similar to the Control (p > 0.05) and MTA Fillapex and AH Plus exhibited greater inflammation than the Control (p < 0.05). The fibrous capsule was thin for the Control and for most specimens of Sealer Plus BC and AH Plus. Thus, Sealer Plus BC is biocompatible when compared to MTA Fillapex and AH Plus, and it is less cytotoxic when less-diluted extracts are used.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Bone Cements/chemistry , Calcium Hydroxide/chemistry , Ceramics/chemistry , Oxides/chemistry , Root Canal Filling Materials/toxicity , Biocompatible Materials , Bone Cements/toxicity , Bone Cements/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Materials Testing , Calcium Hydroxide/toxicity , Calcium Hydroxide/pharmacology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Silicates/chemistry , Calcium Compounds/blood , Aluminum Compounds/chemistry , Subcutaneous Tissue/pathology , Drug Combinations , Epoxy Resins/chemistry , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Inflammation
11.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e041, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001595

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the hydrofluoridric acid (HF) concentration and time of acid conditioning on bond strength of three glass ceramics to a resin cement. Thus, fifty blocks (10 mm x 5 mm x 2 mm) of each ceramic (LDCAD: IPS e.max CAD; LCAD: IPS Empress CAD and LDHP: IPS e.max Press) were made and embedded in acrylic resin. The surfaces were polished with sandpaper (#600, 800, 1000, and 1200 grits) and blocks were randomly divided into 15 groups (n = 10) according to the following factors: Concentration of HF (10% and 5%), conditioning time (20 s and 60 s) and ceramic (LDCAD, LDHP, and L). After conditioning, silane (Prosil / FGM) was applied and after 2 min, cylinders (Ø = 2 mm; h = 2 mm) of dual resin cement (AllCem / FGM) were made in the center of each block using a Teflon strip as matrix and light cured for 40 s (1,200 mW/cm2). Then, the samples were thermocycled (10,000 cycles, 5/55°C, 30s) and submitted to the shear bond test (50 KgF, 0.5 mm/min). The data (MPa) were analyzed with 3-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (5%). Failure analysis was performed using a stereomicroscope (20x) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). ANOVA revealed that the "concentration" factor (p = 0.01) and the interaction "acid concentration X ceramic" (p = 0.009) had a significant effect, however, the "ceramic" (p = 0.897) and "conditioning time" (p = 0.260) factors did not influence the results. The LDHP10%60s (10.98 MPa)aA* group presented significantly higher bond strength than LDHP10%20s (6.57 MPa)bA, LCAD5%20s (6,90 ±3,5)aB and LDHP5%60s (5.66 ± 2,9MPa)aA* groups (Tukey). Failure analysis revealed that 100% of specimens had mixed failure. In conclusion, etching with 5% HF for 20 seconds is recommended for lithium disilicate and leucite-reinforced CAD/CAM ceramics. However, for pressed lithium disilicate ceramic, 10% HF for 60 s showed significantly higher bond strength to resin cement.


Subject(s)
Ceramics/chemistry , Dental Bonding/methods , Hydrofluoric Acid/administration & dosage , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Acid Etching, Dental , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Resin Cements/chemistry , Shear Strength , Dental Porcelain/chemistry , Dental Stress Analysis , Hydrofluoric Acid/chemistry
12.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e049, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001594

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to assess the penetration capacity of two endodontic cements, Endosequence BC Sealer and AH Plus, in artificial lateral canals. Twenty-six two-rooted, maxillary first premolars were instrumented to size 40.06 using K3 files. In each root, six lateral canals of two diameters (0.06 and 0.10 mm) were created with a working length of 2, 4, and 6 mm. The specimens were randomly divided into two groups according to the endodontic cement to be used (Endosequence BC Sealer and AH Plus) and obturated by the single-cone technique. The specimens were imaged by digital periapical radiography and scores from 0 to 4 were attributed according to the degree of penetration by sealers into the lateral canals. Data were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis and Student-Newman-Keuls tests, and a significance level of p < 0.05 was adopted. No significant difference was observed between the two endodontic cements used to fill the simulated lateral canals (p > 0.05). The diameter of lateral canals only influenced the capacity of the Endosequence BC Sealer in filling the canals, and presented greater penetration in the lateral canals of diameter 0.10 mm (p < 0.05). We concluded that the bioceramic endodontic cement Endosequence BC Sealer presented similar ability as AH Plus to fill simulated lateral canals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Oxides/chemistry , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Calcium Phosphates/chemistry , Ceramics/chemistry , Silicates/chemistry , Dental Pulp Cavity/drug effects , Epoxy Resins/chemistry , Reference Values , Root Canal Obturation/methods , Materials Testing , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric , Drug Combinations
13.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e010, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989483

ABSTRACT

Abstract This in situ study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial and anti-demineralization effects of an experimental orthodontic adhesive containing triazine and niobium phosphate bioglass (TAT) around brackets bonded to enamel surfaces. Sixteen volunteers were selected to use intra-oral devices with six metallic brackets bonded to enamel blocks. The experimental orthodontic adhesives were composed by 75% BisGMA and 25% TEGDMA containing 0% TAT and 20% TAT. Transbond XT adhesive (TXT) was used as a control group. Ten volunteers, mean age of 29 years, were included in the study. The six blocks of each volunteer were detached from the appliance after 7 and 14 days to evaluate mineral loss and bacterial growth including total bacteria, total Streptococci, Streptococci mutans, and Lactobacilli. Statistical analysis was performed using GLM model - univariate analysis of variance for microhardness and 2-way ANOVA for bacterial growth (p<0.05). The 20% TAT adhesive caused no difference between distances from bracket and the sound zone at 10-µm deep after 7 and 14 days. After 14 days, higher mineral loss was shown around brackets at 10- to 30-µm deep for TXT and 0% TAT adhesives compared to 20% TAT. S. mutans growth was inhibited by 20% TAT adhesive at 14 days. Adhesive with 20% TAT showed lower S. mutans and total Streptococci growth than 0% TAT and TXT adhesives. The findings of this study show that the adhesive incorporated by triazine and niobium phosphate bioglass had an anti-demineralization effect while inhibiting S. mutans and total Streptococci growth. The use of this product may inhibit mineral loss of enamel, preventing the formation of white spot lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Oxides/pharmacology , Phosphates/pharmacology , Streptococcus/drug effects , Tooth Demineralization/prevention & control , Dental Cements/pharmacology , Lactobacillus/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Niobium/pharmacology , Ceramics/pharmacology , Ceramics/chemistry , Double-Blind Method , Dental Cements/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
14.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e009, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001606

ABSTRACT

Abstract: This study investigates the color correspondence of resin cements and try-in pastes, and the color stability of bonded lithium disilicate ceramic disks. Resin composite disks were fabricated (n = 36) to serve as the background for lithium disilicate disks prepared in two thicknesses (0.5 and 1.0 mm, n = 18 each). Two brands were used for try-in and cement procedures: Variolink Veneer and AllCem Veneer. For baseline, water was applied between the ceramic disks and their respective backgrounds to achieve the control group. This set was subjected to color measurement using an intraoral measurement device (T0). The try-in was inserted between background and ceramic, and this set was subjected to color measurement (T1). After adhesive procedures, the ceramic disk was placed under cement, and color measurement was performed with uncured cement (T2) and 24 h after light-curing (T3). Each set was immersed in distilled water and thermal-cycled, with color measurement being performed after 10,000 (T4) and 20,000 (T5) cycles. Color differences were calculated by CIELab (rEab) and CIEDE2000 (rE00). Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA for repeated measurements and Tukey's test (α=5%). There was color correspondence of try-in and resin cement for the Variolink system, regardless of the ceramic thickness (p > 0.05). For the AllCem system, the thickness significantly influenced the color measurement (p < 0.001). The Variolink system also demonstrated color stability after 20,000 thermal cycles with rEab < 3.46 and rE00 < 2.25. It was concluded that the color correspondence between a try-in and its respective cement may vary according to resin cement composition.


Subject(s)
Color , Resin Cements/chemistry , Dental Porcelain/chemistry , Ointments/chemistry , In Vitro Techniques , Materials Testing , Ceramics/chemistry , Dental Veneers
15.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e026, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001604

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate the machinability of four CAD/CAM materials (n = 13) assessed by brittleness index, Vickers hardness, and fracture toughness and interaction among such mechanical properties. The materials selected in this in vitro study are Feldspathic ceramic [FC], Lithium-disilicate glass ceramic [LD], leucite-reinforced glass ceramic [LR], and nanofilled resin material [RN]. Slices were made from the blocks following original dimensions 14 × 12 × 3 mm (L × W × H), using a precision slow-speed saw device and then surfaces were regularized through a polishing device. Brittleness index and fracture toughness were calculated by the use of specific equations for each one of the properties. The Vickers hardness was calculated automated software in the microhardness device. One-way Anova and Pearson's correlation were applied to data evaluation. LD obtained the highest values for brittleness index and was not significantly different from FC. LR presented statistically significant difference compared with RN, which had the lowest mean. Vickers hardness showed LD with the highest average, and no statistical difference was found between FC and LR. RN presented the lowest average. Fracture toughness showed FC and LR not statistically different from each other, likewise LD and RN. The brittleness index, considered also as the machinability of a material, showed within this study as positively dependent on Vickers hardness, which leads to conclusion that hardness of ceramics is related to its milling capacity. In addition, fracture toughness of pre-sintered ceramics is compared to polymer-based materials.


Subject(s)
Polymers/chemistry , Ceramics/chemistry , Computer-Aided Design , Resin Cements/chemistry , Dental Porcelain/chemistry , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Materials Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Hardness Tests
16.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180297, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1012517

ABSTRACT

Abstract Polymer-based composite materials have been proposed as an alternative for single unit restorations, due to their resilient and shock absorbing behavior, in contrast to the brittleness of ceramic materials that could result in failure by fracture. Objective: To evaluate the fatigue strength and damage modes of monolithic posterior resin nanoceramic and lithium disilicate glass ceramic crowns. Methodology: Twenty-six resin nanoceramic (RNC) and lithium disilicate glass ceramic (LD) 2 mm monolithic crowns (n=13) were cemented on composite resin replicas of a prepared tooth and subjected to cyclic load with lithium disilicate indenters for 2 million cycles. Specimens and indenters were inspected every 500,000 cycles and suspended when presenting fractures or debonding. Surviving specimens were embedded in epoxy resin, polished and subsurface damage was analyzed. Specimens presenting fractures or severe subsurface damage were considered as failures. Survival data was subjected to Fisher's exact test; damage modes were subjected to Mann-Whitney test (p<0.05). Results: There were no debonding, cohesive or catastrophic failures. Considering subsurface damage, 53.8% of RNC and 46.2% of LD crowns survived the fatigue test, presenting no statistical difference. Chief damage modes were radial cracks for RNC and inner cone cracks for LD, presenting no statistical difference. Conclusions: The results suggest that if debonding issues can be resolved, resin nanoceramic figures can be an alternative to posterior crowns. Although distinct, damage modes revealed potential to cause bulk fracture in both glass ceramic and resin nanoceramic crowns.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ceramics/chemistry , Resin Cements/chemistry , Crowns , Dental Porcelain/chemistry , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Dental Prosthesis Design , Computer-Aided Design , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Restoration Failure , Dental Restoration Wear , Dental Restoration, Permanent/methods , Dental Stress Analysis
17.
Braz. dent. j ; 29(5): 492-499, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974174

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the effect of different hydrofluoric acid (HF) concentrations on the bond strength between a lithium disilicate-based glass ceramic and a resin cement. Eighty ceramic-blocks (12×7×2 mm) of IPS e.Max CAD (Ivoclar Vivadent) were produced and randomly assigned to 8 groups, considering 2 study factors: HF concentration in 4 levels, i.e., 1% (HF1), 3% (HF3), 5% (HF5), and 10% (HF10), and storage in 2 levels, i.e., baseline (tests were performed 24 h after cementation), and aged (storage for 150 days + 12,000 thermal-cycles at 5°C and 55°C). Acid etching (20 s) was performed, followed by washing, drying, and silanization. Four resin cement cylinders (ϕ= 0.96 mm) were built-up from starch matrices on each ceramic sample (n= 40). Additional ceramic samples were etched and analyzed for contact angle, micro-morphology, and roughness. In baseline condition (without aging), the HF3, HF5, and HF10 groups showed similar bond strength values (13.9 - 15.9 MPa), and HF1 (11.2 MPa) presented lower values than HF5, being that statistically different (p= 0.012). After aging, all the mean bond strengths statistically decreased, being that HF3, HF5, and HF10 (7.8 - 11 MPa) were similar and higher than HF1 (1.8 MPa) (p= 0.0001). For contact angle, HF3, HF5, and HF10 presented similar values (7.8 - 10.4°), lower than HF1 and CTRL groups. HF5 and HF10 presented rougher surfaces than other conditions. For better bond strength results, the tested ceramic may be etched by HF acid in concentrations of 3%, 5%, and 10%.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito de diferentes concentrações de ácido fluorídrico (HF) na resistência de união entre uma cerâmica vítrea à base de dissilicato de lítio e um cimento resinoso. Oitenta blocos cerâmicos (12×7×2 mm) de IPS e.Max CAD (Ivoclar Vivadent) foram produzidos e distribuídos aleatoriamente em 8 grupos, considerando 2 fatores de estudo: concentração de HF em 4 níveis, isto é, 1% (HF1), 3% (HF3), 5% (HF5), e 10% (HF10), e armazenamento em 2 níveis, isto é, condição inicial (testes foram realizados 24 h após a cimentação), e envelhecidos (150 dias de armazenamento + 12.000 ciclos térmicos a 5°C e 55°C). Condicionamento ácido (20 s) foi realizado, seguido por lavagem, secagem e silanização. Quatro cilindros de cimento resinoso (ϕ= 0.96 mm) foram construídos a partir de matrizes de amido em cada amostra cerâmica (n= 40). Amostras cerâmicas adicionais foram condicionadas e analisadas quanto ao ângulo de contato, micro-morfologia e rugosidade. Na condição inicial (sem envelhecimento), os grupos HF3, HF5, e HF10 mostraram valores de resistência de união similares (13.9 - 15.9 MPa), e HF1 apresentou valores menores que HF5, sendo estatisticamente diferente (p= 0.012). Após o envelhecimento, todas as médias de resistência de união diminuíram estatisticamente, sendo que HF3, HF5 e HF10 foram similares e maiores que HF1 (p= 0.0001). Para o ângulo de contato, HF3, HF5 e HF10 apresentaram valores similares (7.8 - 10.4°), menores que os grupos HF1 e CTRL. HF5 e HF10 apresentaram superfícies mais rugosas que as outras condições. Para melhores resultados de resistência de união, a cerâmica testada pode ser condicionada com ácido fluorídrico nas concentrações de 3%, 5% e 10%.


Subject(s)
Acid Etching, Dental/methods , Ceramics/chemistry , Dental Bonding/methods , Resin Cements/chemistry , Dental Porcelain/chemistry , Hydrofluoric Acid/chemistry , Stress, Mechanical , Surface Properties , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Shear Strength
19.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e106, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974464

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to determine if multiple processing (heat-pressing) of a dental ceramic influences flexural strength, hardness, and microstructure. Ninety bar-shaped specimens (15 mm × 4 mm × 2 mm) of a pressed ceramic (Vita PM9) were fabricated and randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 15) according to the factors "number of pressings" (C1, C2, and C3, fired 1, 2, and 3 times, respectively) and "mechanical cycling" (M). Half of the specimens were mechanically cycled (106 cycles, 45 N, 3.4 Hz, in water) and all specimens were tested for 3-point bending (0.5 mm/min, load 1000 kgf) and Vickers hardness (19.6 N for 20 s). X-ray diffraction was used to characterize the phases and scanning electron microscopy to characterize the microstructure. The flexural strength data was statistically analyzed with Weibull analysis, ANOVA, and Tukey test. Hardness data was evaluated by 2-way ANOVA and Fisher test. All tests were performed with a significance level of 0.05. Two-way ANOVA revealed that neither "number of pressings" (p=0.085) or "mechanical cycling" (0.055) significantly affected flexural strength. But Weibull analysis showed significant difference for Weibull moduli and characteristic strength between groups. For hardness, a statistical difference was seen for the interaction "Number of pressings * Mechanical cycling", (p = 0.016). Hardness decreased in the following order: C1 (775±17.2), CM3 (751±101), CM2 (735±45), C3 (701±82), CM1 (671±82), and C2 (663±92). Fewer defects were observed with an increased number of firings. Therefore, the possibility of recycling PM9 ceramic does not interfere in the evaluated mechanical properties and improves microstructure.


Subject(s)
Ceramics/chemistry , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry , Hot Temperature , Surface Properties , Time Factors , X-Ray Diffraction , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Pliability , Hardness Tests
20.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e005, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889474

ABSTRACT

Abstract Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has generally been used as a nondestructive technique to evaluate integrities of composite restorations. We investigated marginal and internal adaptations of ceramic inlay restorations with OCT and compared them to results with the silicone replica technique. Round-shaped class I cavities were prepared on 16 human maxillary first premolar teeth. Ceramic inlays were fabricated. Silicone replicas from inlays were obtained and sectioned to measure marginal and internal adaptations with a stereomicroscope (Leica Dfc 295, Bensheim, Germany). Inlays were cemented on respective teeth. Marginal and internal adaptations were then measured with the OCT system (Thorlabs, New Jersey, USA) in 200- μm intervals. Replica and OCT measurements were compared with independent samples t-tests. A paired t-test was used to evaluate the marginal and internal adaptations of each group (p < 0.05). Marginal and internal adaptations were 100.97 ± 31.36 and 113.94 ± 39.75 μm, respectively, using the replica technique and 28.97 ± 17.86 and 97.87 ± 21.83 μm, respectively, using OCT. The differences between the techniques were significant (p = 0.00 and p = 0.01, respectively). On evaluation within the groups, internal adaptation values were found to be significantly higher than the marginal adaptation values for the replica technique (p = 0.00) and OCT (p = 0.00). Therefore, the replica and OCT techniques showed different results, with higher values of marginal and internal adaptation found with the replica technique. Marginal and internal adaptation values of ceramic inlays, whether measured by replica or OCT techniques, were within clinically acceptable limits.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ceramics/chemistry , Dental Marginal Adaptation , Inlays/methods , Replica Techniques/methods , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Materials Testing , Reference Standards , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Resin Cements/chemistry , Surface Properties
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