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1.
Prensa méd. argent ; 108(3): 113-119, 20220000.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1372907

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones urinarias complicadas, dentro de las cuales se encuentran las asociadas a catéteres, son un hallazgo frecuente de la práctica clínica. Las complicaciones infecciosas después de los procedimientos urológicos son una fuente importante de morbimortalidad y consumen múltiples recursos sanitarios. La colonización bacteriana en el catéter ureteral juega un papel esencial en la patogénesis de la infección, y el uso de profilaxis antimicrobiana en urología es controvertido. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue evaluar la utilidad de la profilaxis antibiótica en la extracción del catéter doble J


Complicated urinary infections, among which are those associated with catheters, are a frequent finding in clinical practice. Infectious complications after urological procedures are an important source of morbidity and mortality and consume multiple healthcare resources. Bacterial colonization in the ureteral catheter plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of infection, and the use of antimicrobial prophylaxis in urology is controversial. Te objective of our work was to evaluate the usefulness of antibiotic prophylaxis in the extraction of the double J catheter


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Urinary Tract Infections/therapy , Chi-Square Distribution , Stents , Prospective Studies , Aftercare , Ureteroscopy , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Cystoscopes , Nephrolithiasis/surgery , Urinary Catheters
2.
Prensa méd. argent ; 108(3): 165-189, 20220000. tab, fig, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1373279

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los adenomas gigantes de hipófisis (AGHs) son aquellos tumores con un diámetro máximo ≥4 cm en cualquier dirección, representando del 5% al 14% del total de los adenomas que se tratan quirúrgicamente. Su manejo terapéutico es desafiante ya que, debido a su extensión hacia otras estructuras cerebrales,está asociado a un riesgo mayor de complicaciones quirúrgicas, con una menor tasa de resección total. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el impacto de la cirugía endoscópica transesfenoidal en AGHs, analizando las variables asociadas a resultados visuales, endocrinológicos y según el grado de resección. Pacientes y Métodos. Se evaluó en 44 pacientes con AGHs(diámetro ≥4 cm y/o volumen ≥10 ml) la presentación visual, endocrinológica e imágenes. Se analizaron estadísticamente resultados visuales, endocrinológicos, grado de resección y complicaciones quirúrgicas. Resultados. Edad promedio de 48.8 años, 24 mujeres y 20 hombres. Presentación: déficit del campo visual (93.1%), hipopituitarismo (61.3%), cefalea (54.5%). Diámetro, volumen y extensión supraselar promedios: 4.8 cm, 20.3 ml, 1.8 cm, respectivamente. Campo visual: mejoría: 83.3%, sin cambios: 9.5%, mayormente en síntomas bilaterales (p<0.0001). Desmejoríavisual: 0%. En resección total: mayor posibilidad de mejoría visual (p=0.040). Buenos resultados endocrinológicos: 85.7%. Tasa de resección total: 52.3%. Resección subtotal: más frecuente con invasión del seno cavernoso (p=0.014). Sin diferencias en el grado de resección según diámetro, volumen, extensión supraselar, forma ni aspecto. Hipopituitarismo: 4.2%. Diabetes insípida: 9.5%, asociada a mayor diámetro (p=0.038) o extensión supraselar (p=0.010) y aspecto sólido (p=0.023). Fístula de LCR: 7.1%. Conclusión. La resección total puede lograrse en la mitad de los casos, siendo la limitante principal el grado de invasión del seno cavernoso y no el aspecto morfológico del AGH per se. Aun así, los resultados visuales y endocrinológicos son muy buenos. En resecciones incompletas se logra el control de la enfermedad mediante tratamientos complementarios


Introduction. Giant pituitary adenomas (sGAs) are those tumors with a maximum diame- ter ≥4 cm in any direction, representing 5% to 14% of all adenomas that are treated surgi- cally. Its therapeutic management is challenging since, due to its extension to other brain structures, it is associated with a higher risk of surgical complications, with a lower rate of total resection. Te objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of transsphenoidal endoscopic surgery on AGHs, analyzing the variables associated with visual and endocri- nological results and according to the degree of resection. Patients and Methods. Visual, endocrinological and imaging presentation were evaluated in 44 patients with sHAA (dia- meter ≥4 cm and/or volume ≥10 ml). Visual and endocrinological results, degree of resection and surgical complications were statistically analyzed. Results. Average age of 48.8 years, 24 women and 20 men. Presentation: visual field deficit (93.1%), hypopituitarism (61.3%), headache (54.5%). Average diameter, volume and suprasellar extension: 4.8 cm, 20.3 ml, 1.8 cm, respectively. Visual field: improvement: 83.3%, no changes: 9.5%, mostly in bilate- ral symptoms (p<0.0001). Visual impairment: 0%. In total resection: greater possibility of visual improvement (p=0.040). Good endocrinological results: 85.7%. Total resection rate: 52.3%. Subtotal resection: more frequent with invasion of the cavernous sinus (p=0.014). No differences in the degree of resection according to diameter, volume, suprasellar exten- sion, shape or appearance. Hypopituitarism: 4.2%. Diabetes insipidus: 9.5%, associated with greater diameter (p=0.038) or suprasellar extension (p=0.010) and solid appearance (p=0.023). CSF fistula: 7.1%. Conclusion. Total resection can be achieved in half of the cases, the main limitation being the degree of invasion of the cavernous sinus and not the morphological appearance of the HGA per se. Even so, the visual and endocrinological results are very good. In incomplete resections, disease control is achieved through com- plementary treatments


Subject(s)
Humans , Pituitary Gland/pathology , Postoperative Complications , Adenoma/pathology , Chi-Square Distribution , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Endoscopy/methods , Surgical Clearance , Margins of Excision , Hypophysectomy/methods
3.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 22(1): 79-86, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376213

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to compare the intrauterine and postnatal growth of preterm infants according to the Intergrowth-21st and Fenton curves. Methods: study carried out in a maternity hospital, reference in high-risk pregnancy, with preterm infants born in 2018 who were hospitalized in the neonatal units of the institution. Preterm newborns weighed at least twice after birth were included in the sample and those that were syndromic, malformed or presented fluid retention were excluded. Proportions and means were compared using Pearson's chi-square and Student's t tests for paired samples, respectively. The McNemar test was used to compare categorical variables and the Kappa test to verify the degree of agreement between birth weight classifications obtained by the curves. Results: one hundred and fifty three infants with a median gestational age of 34.4 weeks were included. The incidences of the categories of nutritional status at birth did not differ between the curves. There was perfect agreement between the curves, except when newborns born under 33 weeks of gestational age were evaluated, in which case the agreement was substantial. About 21% of the babies classified as small for gestational age (SGA) by Intergrowth-21st were adequate for gestational age (AGA) according to Fenton and, on average, 20% of cases that had postnatal growth restriction (PNGR) according to Fenton standards were categorized as adequate weight by Intergrowth-21st. Postnatal weight classifications obtained by the evaluated curves had perfect agreement. Conclusions: the differences in theclassifications found between the charts reveal the importance of choosing the growth curve for monitoring preterm infants since behaviors based on their diagnoses can impact the life of this population.


Resumo Objetivos: comparar o crescimento intrauterino e pós-natal de prematuros segundo as curvas de Intergrowth-21st e Fenton. Métodos: estudo realizado em uma maternidade de referência em gestação de alto risco com prematuros nascidos em 2018 que ficaram internados nas unidades neonatais da instituição. Foram incluídos os pré-termos pesados em pelo menos dois momentos após o nascimento e excluídos aqueles sindrômicos, malformados ou com retenção hídrica. As proporções e médias foram comparadas a partir dos testes qui-quadrado de Pearson e t de student para amostras emparelhadas, respectivamente. Já o teste de McNemar foi utilizado para comparar as variáveis categóricas e teste Kappa para verificar o grau de concordância entre as classificações de peso ao nascer obtidos pelas curvas. Resultados: foram incluídos 153 lactentes com idade gestacional mediana de 34,4 semanas. As incidências das categorias de estado nutricional ao nascer não diferiram entre as curvas. Houve concordância perfeita entre as mesmas, exceto quando se avaliou os nascidos com menos de 33 semanas, onde a concordância foi substancial. Cerca de 21% dos bebês classificados como pequenos para a idade gestacional (PIG) por Intergrowth-21st foram adequados para idade gestacional (AIG) segundo Fenton e, em média, 20% dos casos que tiveram restrição de crescimento pós-natal (RCPN) de acordo aos padrões de Fenton foram categorizados com peso adequado por Intergrowth-21st. As classificações de peso pós-natal obtidas pelas curvas avaliadas tiveram concordância perfeita. Conclusões: as diferenças de classificação encontradas revelam a importância da escolha da curva de crescimento para monitorização de prematuros visto que, condutas baseadas em seus diagnósticos, podem impactar na vida dessa população.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Postnatal Care , Birth Weight , Infant, Premature/growth & development , Nutritional Status , Neonatal Screening , Growth Charts , Fetal Growth Retardation , Tertiary Healthcare , Brazil , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Chi-Square Distribution , Gestational Age , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Observational Study
4.
Psico USF ; 27(1): 157-167, jan.-mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1376039

ABSTRACT

Estudos mostram que o tabagismo é responsável por afetar algumas funções cognitivas. No entanto, a nicotina é apenas um dos componentes existentes no cigarro e existem evidências de que pode servir como agente neuroprotetivo e causar melhoras em algumas funções cognitivas. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi investigar como a nicotina interage com algumas funções cognitivas. Um ensaio clínico piloto com administração de gomas de nicotina contendo 2-mg ou 4-mg, ou gomas placebo contendo a mesma textura, sabor e aparência, foi realizado. Quarenta e dois participantes participaram da pesquisa e os resultados indicaram que a relação entre nicotina e o desempenho na tarefa Go/No-Go podem ser bidirecionais. Os resultados indicaram que participantes do grupo que utilizaram 4-mg de nicotina apresentaram menor desempenho, enquanto os participantes que fizeram uso de 2-mg de nicotina tiveram melhor desempenho do que os demais. Esta pesquisa tem aplicações biopsicossociais e podem ajudar na compreensão da relação entre tabagismo e nicotina, além de contribuir para estratégias que possam ajudar no abandono do cigarro ou na melhora de condições que afetem a cognição (AU).


Past findings in the literature indicated that smoking could affect given cognitive functions. However, nicotine is only one of the components in cigarettes and there is evidence that it may act as a neuroprotective agent and improve some cognitive functions. The purpose of this research was to investigate how nicotine interacts with certain cognitive functions. We conducted a pilot clinical trial using nicotine gum containing 2-mg or 4-mg, or placebo gum with the same texture, flavor, and appearance. Forty-two healthy nonsmokers were enrolled in this research. Our findings indicated that the relationship between nicotine and performance on the Go/No-Go task might be opposite. The results showed that participants in the 4-mg group performed worse, while participants who used 2-mg of nicotine performed better than the others. This research supports biopsychosocial applications and can help interpret the relationship between smoking and nicotine, and contribute to strategies that may support smoking cessation, or improve conditions that affect cognition (AU).


Estudios demuestran que el tabaquismo es responsable de afectar a algunas funciones cognitivas. Sin embargo, la nicotina es solo uno de los componentes de los cigarrillos, y existen evidencias de que la nicotina puede actuar como un agente neuroprotector y mejorar algunas funciones cognitivas. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar cómo la nicotina interactúa con algunas funciones cognitivas. Se realizó un ensayo clínico piloto con la administración de chicles de nicotina de 2 mg o 4 mg, o chicles de placebo con la misma textura, sabor y apariencia. Cuarenta y dos participantes participaron en la investigación y los resultados indicaron que la relación entre la nicotina y el rendimiento en la tarea Go/No-go puede ser bidireccional. Los resultados indicaron que los participantes del grupo de 4 mg obtuvieron un menor rendimiento en las variables del Go/No-Go, mientras que los participantes que utilizaron 2 mg de nicotina obtuvieron un mejor rendimiento que los demás. Esta investigación respalda las aplicaciones biopsicosociales y puede ayudar a interpretar la relación entre el tabaquismo y la nicotina, además de contribuir a las estrategias que pueden ayudar a dejar de fumar o mejorar las condiciones que afectan la cognición (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Executive Function , Nicotine Chewing Gum , Nicotine/administration & dosage , Placebos/administration & dosage , Tobacco Use Disorder/psychology , Chi-Square Distribution , Pilot Projects , Double-Blind Method , Analysis of Variance
5.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 8(1): e25630, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1349028

ABSTRACT

Introdução:Em 2020 a Organização Mundial da Saúde declarou a pandemia do novo coronavírus. Diante desse cenário vários estudos começaram a ser realizados em busca de uma terapia eficaz para o manejo clínico dos pacientes. A Cloroquina e a Hidroxicloroquina foram os primeiros medicamentos testados. A divulgação dos resultados iniciais fez aumentar a procura desses medicamentos em farmácias e drogarias. Objetivo:Avaliar o acesso da população a medicamentos na pandemia e o uso das "promessas terapêuticas":Cloroquina, Hidroxicloroquina e Ivermectina para prevenção e tratamento da COVID-19. Metodologia:Trata-se de um estudo descritivo exploratório de abordagem quantitativa, não probabilístico e por conveniência. A coleta de dados foi realizada online,via Google Formulários. Participaram 1.754 pessoas, resultando em 1.748 questionários válidos. A amostra foi distribuída em 3 grupos, de acordo com a pergunta de nº 11 do formulário de pesquisa: "Você já teve COVID-19?". Resultados:Dos 1.748 respondentes, 200 (11,4%) pertenciam ao grupo que "teve COVID-19", 1.041 (59,6%) ao grupo que não teve a doença, e 507 (29%) responderam não saber se foram infectados. No que diz respeito ao acesso a medicamentos na pandemia, 55,2% do total da amostra relatou não ter sido afetado, e 29% disseram ter tido o acesso afetado de alguma forma. Em relação ao uso das "promessas terapêuticas", 61% dos respondentes disse não ter feito uso com finalidade de prevenção, e sim para tratamento, já 52,6% da população do estudo disse que não fez uso de jeito nenhum, e 46,2% relatou que fez uso dos medicamentos mencionados para tratar a COVID-19. Conclusões:Constatou-se que a explosão na busca por medicamentos durante a pandemia não afetou o acesso da população. Além disso, a Cloroquina e a Hidroxicloroquina, não foram amplamente utilizadas para prevenção da doença (AU).


Introduction:In 2020the World Health Organization declared the new coronavirus pandemic. In view of this scenario, several studies began to be carried out in search of an effective therapy for the clinical management of patients. The release of initial results has increased demand for Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine in pharmacies and drugstores. Objective: To assess the population's access to medicines in the pandemic and the use of "therapeutic promises": Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine and Ivermectin for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Methodology:Exploratory descriptive study with a quantitative approach, non-probabilistic and for convenience. Data collection was performed online, via Google Forms. 1,754 people participated, resulting in 1,748 valid questionnaires. The sample was divided into 3 groups, according to question #11 of the survey form: "Have you ever had COVID-19?". Results:Of the 1,748 respondents, 200 (11.4%) belonged to the group that "had COVID-19", 1,041 (59.6%) to the group that did not have the disease, and 507 (29%) answered not knowing if they were infected. With regard to access to medicines in the pandemic, 55.2% of the total sample reported not being affected, and 29% said their access was affected in some way. Regarding the use of "therapeutic promises", 61% of respondents said they did not use it for prevention purposes, but for treatment, while 52.6% of the study population said they did not use it at all, and 46, 2% used the medications mentioned to treat COVID-19. Conclusions:It wasfound that the explosion in the search for medicines during the pandemic did not affect the population's access. Furthermore, Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine have not been widely used for disease prevention (AU).


Introducción:En 2020, la Organización Mundial de la Salud declaró la nueva pandemia de coronavirus. Ante este escenario, se comenzaron a realizar varios estudios en busca de una terapia eficaz para el manejo clínico de lospacientes. La publicación de los resultados iniciales ha aumentado la demanda de cloroquina e hidroxicloroquina en farmacias y droguerías. Objetivo:Evaluar el acceso de la población a medicamentos en la pandemia y el uso de "promesas terapéuticas": cloroquina, hidroxicloroquina e ivermectina para la prevención y tratamiento de COVID-19. Metodología:Se trata de un estudio descriptivo exploratorio con enfoque cuantitativo, no probabilístico y por conveniencia. La recopilación de datos se realizó en línea, a través de Google Forms. Participaron 1.754 personas, resultando 1.748 cuestionarios válidos. La muestra se dividió en 3 grupos, de acuerdo con la pregunta # 11 del formulario de la encuesta: "¿Alguna vez ha tenido COVID-19?". Resultados: De los 1.748 encuestados, 200 (11,4%) pertenecían al grupo que "tenía COVID-19", 1.041 (59,6%) al grupo que no tenía la enfermedad y 507 (29%) respondieron sin saber si estaban infectados. Con respecto al acceso a medicamentos en la pandemia, el 55,2% del total de la muestra informó no estar afectado y el 29% dijo que su acceso se vio afectado de alguna manera. Con respecto al uso de "promesas terapéuticas", el 61% de los encuestados dijo que no lo usaba con fines de prevención, sino de tratamiento, mientras que el 52,6% de la población del estudio dijo que no lo usaba en absoluto, y el 46,2% informó que utilizaron los medicamentos mencionados para tratar COVID-19. Conclusiones: Se encontró que la explosión en la búsqueda de medicamentos durante la pandemia no afectó el acceso de la población. Además, la cloroquina y la hidroxicloroquina no se han utilizado ampliamente para la prevención de enfermedades (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Self Medication/statistics & numerical data , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Chi-Square Distribution , Surveys and Questionnaires , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use
6.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 22: e210076, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1365222

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the frequency of occupational hazards and the criteria for their prevention among Iranian dentists. Material and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 187 general dentists in Kerman. The data collection tool was a questionnaire including personal information (gender, age, marital status, condition and place and years of employment, and the average of weekly working hours) and a valid and reliable questionnaire of occupational hazards, including 24 questions about occupational hazards (6 domain) and nine questions about criteria for the prevention of the risks of dentistry. The t-test, chi-square, and linear regression were used. Results 92 (49.2%) were men. The mean and standard deviation of the score of occupational hazards was 27.04±16.21 out of 96, and the criteria of prevention were 22.00±7.28 out of 36. Regression analysis showed significant correlations between single statuses, years of occupational and type of employment, weekly work hours and occupational hazards, participation in occupational injury identification courses, and hepatitis vaccination. In addition, there were significant correlations between gender, age, weekly work hours, and preventive measures. Moreover, 3.2% of dentists were in a high-risk group and 26.2% were weak in preventive measures. Conclusion A total of 32.6% of dentists are at moderate risk of occupational hazards, and 10.7% meet the prevention criteria properly. It is recommended to hold training classes to identify occupational hazards and the criteria for their prevention among dentists.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Occupational Risks , Risk Factors , Dentists , Iran/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Occupational Dentistry/instrumentation , Chi-Square Distribution , Linear Models , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Regression Analysis , Occupational Health , Disease Prevention , Occupational Injuries
7.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1365223

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To compare the Oncostatin M (OSM) concentrations in tissues of patients with chronic periodontitis with and without diabetes. Material and Methods: Sixty-four subjects visiting the dental outpatient department were categorized as "healthy" (Group 1), "periodontitis" (Group 2), and "diabetes with periodontitis" (Group 3) groups. The clinical oral examination included assessment of plaque, gingivitis, probing depth, clinical attachment level. Blood glucose was assessed for group 3 patients. OSM concentration in the tissues was assessed using ELISA in all groups. Results: The mean OSM was 0.02 ± 0.04 pg/mg in the healthy group, 0.12 ± 0.09 pg/mg in the chronic periodontitis group and 0.13 ± 0.10 pg/mg in the diabetes-periodontitis group. A significantly higher mean OSM was seen in Group 2 and Group 3 than Group 1. The amount of OSM positively correlated with probing depth and clinical attachment level. Conclusion: Periodontal disease causes a rise in Oncostatin M, independent of the diabetic status. Expression of OSM in the gingival tissues can serve as an inflammatory marker.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Dental Plaque Index , Cytokines , Diabetes Mellitus , Oncostatin M/analysis , Chronic Periodontitis/pathology , Periodontal Diseases , Blood Glucose , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Diagnosis, Oral , Gingiva , India/epidemiology , Inflammation
8.
Rev. Bras. Cancerol. (Online) ; 68(1)jan./fev./mar. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369846

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O câncer bucal corresponde a cerca de 30% de todos os tumores de cabeça e pescoço. Aproximadamente 90% dessas neoplasias malignas são carcinomas espinocelulares (CEC) e cerca de 15 mil casos novos são estimados a cada ano no Brasil. Objetivo: Avaliar os aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos de pacientes com CEC oral. Método: Estudo observacional, com delineamento transversal, quantitativo e retrospectivo, a partir da análise de prontuários de pacientes com diagnóstico histopatológico de CEC bucal atendidos em um centro de referência em Oncologia da Região Nordeste do Brasil. Variáveis clínicas e epidemiológicas foram coletadas e analisadas. A análise estatística foi realizada utilizando-se o teste de qui-quadrado (p≤0,05). Resultados: Entre os 298 prontuários avaliados, predominaram pacientes do sexo masculino (75,2%), com idade média de 60,4 anos, tabagistas e etilistas (62,0%). A queixa mais frequente foi a presença de ferida ou lesão na boca (61,1%), e o local mais comum foi a língua (62,1%). As variáveis clínicas revelaram estadiamento clínico avançado (III ou IV) em 76,4% dos pacientes. Entre os pacientes com idade até 50 anos, houve maior concentração de homens (p=0,015) e maior consumo de álcool do que entre os pacientes acima dos 50 anos (p=0,010). As demais variáveis não exibiram diferença estatística significante entre os grupos. Conclusão: As características clínico-epidemiológicas relacionadas ao CEC bucal devem ser consideradas para o planejamento de políticas públicas, a fim de prevenir novos casos e permitir a realização de diagnóstico precoce


Introduction: Oral cancer corresponds to about 30% of all head and neck tumors. Approximately 90% of these malignancies are squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and about 15 thousand new cases are estimated each year in Brazil. Objective: Evaluate the clinical and epidemiological aspects of patients with oral SCC. Method: Observational cross-sectional, quantitative and retrospective design study, based on the analysis of medical records of patients with histopathological diagnosis of oral SCC treated at a reference center in oncology in Brazil's Northeast. Clinical and epidemiological variables were collected and analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test (p≤0.05). Results: Among the 298 medical records evaluated, male patients predominated (75.2%), with an average age of 60.4 years, smokers and alcoholics (62.0%). The most reported complaint was the presence of a wound or injury in the mouth (61.1%) and the most common location was the tongue (62.1%). Clinical variables revealed advanced clinical staging (III or IV) in 76.4% of patients. Among patients aged up to 50 years, there was high concentration of men (p=0.015) and greater use of alcohol than among patients over 50 years (p=0.010). The other variables did not show a statistically significant difference between the groups. Conclusion: The clinical and epidemiological characteristics related to oral SCC should be considered when planning public policies, in order to prevent new cases as well as to allow for early diagnosis


Introducción: El cáncer oral corresponde a aproximadamente 30% de todos los tumores de cabeza y cuello. Aproximadamente 90% de estos tumores malignos son carcinomas de células escamosas (CCE) y se estiman alrededor de 15 mil casos nuevos cada año en Brasil. Objetivo: Evaluar los aspectos clínicos y epidemiológicos de los pacientes con CCE oral. Método: Estudio observacional, con diseño transversal, cuantitativo y retrospectivo, basado en el análisis de historias clínicas de pacientes con diagnóstico histopatológico de CCE oral tratados en un centro de referencia en Oncología del Noreste de Brasil. Se recogieron y analizaron variables clínicas y epidemiológicas. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante la prueba de chi-cuadrado (p≤0,05). Resultados: Entre las 298 historias clínicas evaluadas, predominaron los pacientes del sexo masculino (75,2%), con una edad promedio de 60,4 años, fumadores y alcohólicos (62,0%). La queja más frecuente fue la presencia de herida o lesión en la boca (61,1%) y la ubicación más común fue la lengua (62,1%). Las variables clínicas revelaron estadificación clínica avanzada (III o IV) en 76,4% de los pacientes. Entre los pacientes de hasta 50 años, hubo una mayor concentración de hombres (p=0,015) y un mayor consumo de alcohol que entre los pacientes mayores de 50 años (p=0,010). Las otras variables no mostraron una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los grupos. Conclusión: Las características clínicas y epidemiológicas relacionadas con el CCE oral deben considerarse al planificar las políticas públicas, a fin de prevenir nuevos casos y permitir un diagnóstico precoz


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Mouth Neoplasms , Chi-Square Distribution , Medical Records , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/diagnosis , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/epidemiology
9.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 22: e210046, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1365231

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To describe and evaluate the xylitol products' applicability and its effects in the health area worldwide utilizing a bibliometric analysis from randomized controlled trials (RCT) with humans. Material and Methods Electronic searches were carried out in Medline/PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and VHL databases. The main data extracted were: year, area of applicability, type of treatment, country, journal, xylitol posology and concentration, presentation form, outcomes, and effects. Results From 1476 studies, 257 were included. These studies were published between 1973-2021. The majority was carried out in dentistry (73.9%) and under preventive treatment (67.4%). These studies were developed in the USA (15.4%) and published in Caries Research (6.6%). The posology and concentration ranged between 0.004-67 g/day and 0.002-100%, respectively. The xylitol is usually used in the chewing gum form (44.0%), and for antimicrobial activity evaluation (38.5%). A positive effect was observed in 204 studies (79.3%) and was associated with xylitol concentration ≥ 15(p=0.007). Side effects were reported in 8.2and were associated with posology ≥ 5 g/day (p=0.03). Conclusion Most studies with xylitol were conducted to prevent diseases in the dentistry field. The chewing gum form and antimicrobial activity evaluation were more frequent. Most xylitol products have a positive effect, and few studies report side effects.


Subject(s)
Therapeutics , Xylitol/therapeutic use , Bibliometrics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Chewing Gum , Anti-Infective Agents , Brazil , Chi-Square Distribution , Oral Health/education , Data Interpretation, Statistical
10.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 22: e210106, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1365239

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the physical conditions and presence of residues of toothbrushes used by mothers and their babies and mothers' knowledge about toothbrush care. Material and Methods This was a cross-sectional study comprising a convenience sample represented by 60 mother-baby pairs. The mothers answered a questionnaire to evaluate their knowledge of toothbrush care. A calibrated dentist performed a visual inspection of the toothbrushes. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, with a significance level of 5%. Results It was found that 82% of the mothers had never received instructions regarding the care of toothbrushes after use (p=0.024). Most of them believed that their toothbrushes (70%) and their children's toothbrushes (88%) were in good condition to use (p=0.043). However, most mother's toothbrushes presented an unacceptable deformity of the bristles (65%) and the presence of residues (60%). In addition, babies' toothbrushes also presented unacceptable deformities of the bristles (52%) and residues (55%). There was an association between the lack of instructions received by the mother and the presence of deformity and residues on the mother's toothbrush bristles (p=0.037 and p=0.003, respectively). Conclusion Most mothers had never received instructions regarding toothbrush care, which is reflected in the condition of their and their baby's toothbrushes, which presented unacceptable physical conditions concerning deformation and presence of residues.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Adult , Oral Hygiene , Toothbrushing/methods , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Dental Devices, Home Care , Home Nursing , Brazil/epidemiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Dentists , Observational Study , Infant , Mothers
11.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 22: e210015, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1365235

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To determine the level of knowledge of dentistry students regarding the COVID-19 outbreak and to evaluate whether the risk factors of the outbreak cause depression. Material and Methods This study was conducted with 516 dentistry students (3rd, 4th and 5th grades) who started clinical practice in their education. The first part of the questionnaires applied to the students includes questions about demographic information, while the second part contains questions to determine their knowledge levels on the COVID-19 pandemic and protection against it. In the third section, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to examine depression symptoms. The data were analyzed by frequency analyses and Chi-squared tests via the IBM SPSS 22.0 software. Results Of the 516 students, 150 (29%) participants were in the 3rd, 212 (41%) were in the 4th and 154 (30%) were in the 5th grade. 355 (69%) students stated that their knowledge level about COVID-19 was high. 30.9% were conscious of the importance of using masks. 29.6% were aware of the importance of using gloves, 30.3% of not shaking hands. According to BDI scores, 37.1% of the participants seemed to experience moderate to severe and very severe depression. Conclusion It was observed that the students didn't have a sufficient level of knowledge about the factors affecting the spread of the pandemic. New stress factors such as COVID-19 may increase the incidence of depression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Students, Dental , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Risk Factors , Infection Control , Education, Dental , COVID-19 , Turkey/epidemiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Statistics, Nonparametric , Depression
12.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 22: e200087, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1365236

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the direct and oral impact-mediated association between reduced dentitions and the self-perceived need for complete dentures (CD) in dentate adults. Material and Methods: Data from the Brazilian Oral Health Survey (2010) were analyzed. The outcome was self-perceived need for CD. Functional dentition (FDClassV) was defined by the presence of the following criteria: level I - ≥1 tooth in each arch, level II - 10 teeth in each arch, level III - 12 anterior teeth, level IV - ≥ 3 posterior occluding pairs (POPs) of premolars and level V - ≥1 bilateral POPs of molars. Oral impacts were assessed with Oral Impacts on Daily Performances scale. Results: FDClassV was associated with a less self-perceived need for CD both directly and mediated by oral impacts. Dentitions without level V were associated with the outcome mediated by oral impacts. Between individuals with 10 teeth in each arch, self-perceived need for CD was similar for those who had or not anterior teeth and POPs. Individuals with <10 teeth in each arch and level III did not have a higher frequency of self-perceived need for CD compared to those with level II. Conclusion: Oral impacts mediated the association between reduced dentitions and self-perceived need for CD. Individuals with tooth loss may report need for CD, even when they have dental configurations compatible with functionality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , Self Concept , Brazil/epidemiology , Patient Satisfaction , Dental Prosthesis/instrumentation , Dental Arch , Chi-Square Distribution , DMF Index , Oral Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Information Storage and Retrieval
13.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 42: e230895, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1356583

ABSTRACT

Diante do quadro de expansão e reestruturação das universidades federais no Brasil, o presente trabalho visa investigar seu impacto no perfil de estudantes de Psicologia. Objetiva-se traçar um panorama dos cursos de Psicologia vinculados às Instituições Federais de Ensino Superior no Brasil e analisar os efeitos da ampliação e interiorização no acesso ao ensino superior federal sobre o perfil dos estudantes que têm ingressado nos cursos de graduação em Psicologia no Brasil. Trata-se de um estudo documental, com base nos microdados do Censo do Ensino Superior no Brasil e do Exame Nacional do Desempenho dos Estudantes (Enade), divulgados em domínio público pelo Ministério da Educação (MEC). Foram selecionados apenas os estudantes de Instituições Federais de Ensino Superior (Ifes) para compor a amostra final de 3.059 estudantes. A análise foi realizada por meio do Software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows versão 21, com base no teste qui-quadrado (χ2) de independência e grau de significância 0,05 (p<0,05). Observou-se avanços quanto à ampliação do acesso de estudantes com perfil socioeconômico menos elitizado nos cursos de graduação em Psicologia das Ifes, sobretudo no que diz respeito àqueles oriundos de famílias com renda mais baixa, com mães e pais com menor escolaridade, e que estudam em municípios de porte populacional menor, cujo estudo é proporcionado pelos programas de expansão à educação superior no país. Nessa lógica, entende-se a importância dessas políticas como estratégia de deselitização do perfil do estudante de graduação brasileiro.(AU)


In view of the expansion and restructuring of federal universities in Brazil, the present work aims to investigate its impact on the profile of Psychology students. It aims to draw a panorama of Psychology courses linked to the Federal Institutions of Higher Education in Brazil and to analyze the effects of the expansion and internalization in the access to federal higher education in the profile of students who have entered the Psychology undergraduate courses in Brazil. This is a documental study, based on microdata from the Census of Higher Education in Brazil and from the National Exam of Student Performance (ENADE), released in the public domain by the Ministry of Education (MEC). Only students from Federal Higher Education Institutions (IFES) were selected to compose the final sample of 3,059 students. The analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows version 21, based on the chi-square test (χ2) of independence and 0.05 significance level (p<0.05). Advances were observed in increasing the access of students with a less elitist socioeconomic profile in undergraduate courses in Psychology in the IFES, especially those coming from families with lower income, with mothers and fathers with less education, and who study in cities with smaller population, provided by the Higher Education Expansion Programs in the country. In this logic, it is possible to understand the importance of these policies as a strategy for de-elitizing the profile of the Brazilian undergraduate student.(AU)


Dado el marco de expansión y reestructuración de las universidades federales en Brasil, este trabajo pretende investigar su impacto en el perfil de los estudiantes de Psicología. Tiene como objetivo trazar un panorama de los cursos de Psicología vinculados a las Instituciones Federales de Educación Superior en Brasil y analizar los efectos de la expansión e internalización en el acceso a la educación superior federal en el perfil de los estudiantes que han ingresado a los cursos de pregrado de Psicología en Brasil. Se trata de un estudio documental, basado en los microdatos del Censo de la Enseñanza Superior en Brasil y del Examen Nacional de Rendimiento Estudiantil (ENADE), divulgados al público por el Ministerio de Educación (MEC). Sólo se seleccionaron los estudiantes de las Instituciones Federales de Enseñanza Superior (IFES) para componer la muestra final de 3.059 estudiantes. El análisis se realizó con el paquete estadístico para las ciencias sociales (SPSS) para Windows versión 21, basado en la prueba de chi-cuadrado (χ2) de independencia y un nivel de significación de 0,05 (p<0,05). Se observaron avances en la ampliación del acceso de estudiantes con un perfil socioeconómico menos elitista en los cursos de pregrado en Psicología en el IFES, especialmente en lo que respecta a los que provienen de familias con menores ingresos, con madres y padres con menos educación, y que estudian en ciudades con menor población, proporcionados por los Programas de Expansión de la Educación Superior en el país. En esta lógica, es posible entender la importancia de estas políticas como estrategia para deselitizar el perfil del estudiante brasileño de pregrado.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Psychology , Universities , Social Sciences , Students , Chi-Square Distribution , Fellowships and Scholarships
14.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(4): 1015-1023, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360721

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to identify factors resulting from the correlation between mother-child bonding, environment, and infant motor development (MD). Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted with 130 mothers/guardians and their infants at risk from 3 to 12 months of age, accompanied in an outpatient clinic follow-up at a public maternity. The data were collected using a form with socioeconomic data, mother/child routine at the hospital and home environments, and three other instruments validated in Brazil: Protocolo de Avaliação do Vínculo Mãe-Filho (Mother-Child Bonding Evaluation Protocol), Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development - Infant Scale, and Escala Motora Infantil de Alberta (Alberta Infant Motor Scale). Pearson's chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and a significance level of 5% was used for the correlation. Results: the data showed a predominance of preterm babies (74.5%), low-income families (86.2%), and domestic opportunities below the adequate (93.8%) for good motor development. Regarding the mother-child bonding, 60% of the mothers showed a strong bonding with their children. A total of 62.3% of the children had typical motor development. Concerning the interaction between variables, statistical significance (p˂0.05) was observed in the correlation between bonding and typical motor development. Conclusion: despite the presence of risk factors, motor development was normal in most of the babies in this study, suggesting that the mother-child bonding favored motor development even with environmental and biological adversities.


Resumo Objetivos: identificar fatores resultantes da correlação vínculo mãe-filho, ambiente e desenvolvimento motor (DM) infantil. Métodos: estudo transversal com 130 mães/responsáveis e seus lactentes de 3 a 12 meses de vida, acompanhados em ambulatório de seguimento de risco de uma maternidade pública. Os dados foram coletados através de ficha contendo dados socioeconômicos e rotina de mãe/filho no ambiente hospitalar e domiciliar, e três outros instrumentos validados no Brasil: Protocolo de Avaliação do Vínculo Mãe-Filho, Affordances in the Home Envirornent for Motor Development - Infant Scale e Escala Motora Infantil de Alberta. Para correlação utilizou-se teste de qui-quadrado de Pearson, exato de Fisher e nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: os dados mostraram predominância de bebês prematuros (74,5%), famílias de baixa renda (86,2%) e com oportunidades domésticas abaixo do adequado (93,8%) para um bom desenvolvimento motor. No que concerne a vinculação, 60% das mães apresentou forte vinculação com seu filho. O desenvolvimento motor de 62,3% das crianças apresentouse típico. Nas interações entre variáveis, observou-se significância estatística (p<0,05) na correlação entre vínculo e desenvolvimento motor típico. Conclusão: apesar dos fatores de risco, o desenvolvimento motor apresentou-se típico na maioria dos bebês desse estudo, sugerindo que a presença de vínculo favoreceu o desenvolvimento motor mesmo com a presença de adversidades ambientais e biológicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Infant, Premature , Child Development , Risk Factors , Mother-Child Relations , Motor Skills , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Study , Maternal Behavior
15.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(4): 1035-1043, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360722

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to evaluate the nutritional status of iodine in pregnant adolescents, taking into account the increase in the demand for iodine during pregnancy and the absence of iodization strategies for this population. Methods: cross-sectional study conducted with 62 pregnant and 71 non-pregnant adolescents assisted in primary care. The nutritional status of iodine was determined by urinary samples. The iodine concentration in the consumed culinary salt was also evaluated. For the comparative analyses of categorical variables, the Chi-square test was used and for the continuous variables, the Kruskal-Wallis test, considering a 95% confidence interval (CI) and significance level of 5%. Results: the mean iodine concentration in household salt was 25.1 mg/kg (CI95%= 11.1-67.5 mg/kg), with higher mean content in culinary salt in the group of pregnant women (p<0.028). Regarding the nutritional status of iodine, 71% of pregnant adolescents were deficient and 29% iodine-sufficient, with significant difference when compared to 38% of deficiency and 62% of sufficiency in the control group (p<0.001). Conclusions: there was an iodic deficiency among pregnant adolescents, even in the face of higher concentrations of iode in household salt, exposing a paradox between higher consumption and lower sufficiency in this group. Thus, it is suggested to consider iodine supplementation during pregnancy, seeking to minimize the effects of this deficiency on maternal and child health.


Resumo Objetivos: avaliar o estado nutricional de iodo em adolescentes gestantes, levando-se em consideração o aumento na demanda de iodo na gestação e a ausência de estratégias de iodização para essa população. Métodos: estudo transversal realizado com 62 adolescentes gestantes e 71 não gestantes assistidas na atenção primária. O estado nutricional de iodo foi determinado pela concentração de iodo em amostras urinárias. O teor de iodo no sal culinário também foi avaliado. Para as análises comparativas das variáveis categóricas utilizou-se o teste de qui-quadrado e para as variáveis contínuas o teste Kruskal-Wallis, considerando intervalo de confiança (IC) de 95% e nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: a média da concentração de iodo no sal domiciliar foi de 25,1 mg/kg (IC95%= 11,1-67,5 mg/kg), com maior teor médio no sal culinário de gestantes (p<0,028). Em relação ao estado nutricional de iodo, 71% das adolescentes gestantes mostraram-se deficientes e 29% iodo-suficientes, com diferença significativa quando comparadas aos 38% de deficiência e 62% de suficiência no grupo controle (p<0,001). Conclusões: observou-se deficiência iódica entre adolescentes gestantes, mesmo diante de maiores concentrações de iodo no sal domiciliar, expondo um paradoxo entre maior consumo e menor suficiência neste grupo. Assim, sugere-se considerar a suplementação de iodo na gestação, buscando-se minimizar os efeitos desta carência sobre a saúde maternoinfantil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Pregnancy in Adolescence , Iodine Deficiency , Nutritional Status , Cross-Sectional Studies , Iodine/analysis , Primary Health Care , Brazil , Chi-Square Distribution , Maternal and Child Health , Dietary Supplements
16.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(4): 1055-1064, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360724

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: describing maternal characteristics, risk behavior, obstetric data, prenatal care and childbirth in adolescent mothers in Brazil (age groups: 12-16 years and 17-19 years). Methods: hospital-based cross-sectional study substantiated by Nascer no Brasil", (Born in Brazil) data. The study encompassed puerperal adolescent mothers from all regions in the country, and their newborns. Chi-square test was used to compare adolescents in the 12-16 years old age group and those in the 17-19 years old age group. Results: pregnant women in the 12-16 years old age group mostly lived in the Northeast of Brazil (p=0.014); most of them did not have a partner (p<0.001), unplanned pregnancy (p<0.001), they had inadequate schooling for their age (p=0.033), had less than six prenatal consultations (p=0.021), were subjected to episiotomy (p=0.042) and accounted for the largest number of premature babies (p=0.014). Conclusions: puerperal women in the 12-16 years old age group presented vulnerability in their socioeconomic conditions, inadequate assistance at the prenatal and childbirth care, as well as their babies showed neonatal complications that pointed towards these adolescent mothers' need of multidisciplinary care.


Resumo Objetivos: descrever características maternas, comportamentos de risco, dados obstétricos, de pré-natal e parto de puérperas adolescentes do Brasil (12-16 anos e 17-19 anos). Métodos: estudo transversal, de base hospitalar, a partir de dados do estudo "Nascer no Brasil" composto por puérperas adolescentes e por seus recém-nascidos, em todas as regiões do país. Utilizou-se o teste qui-quadrado para comparar as adolescentes de 12-16 anos com as de 17-19 anos. Resultados: as gestantes de 12-16 anos viviam mais na região Nordeste do país (p=0,014), nelas foi mais frequente não ter companheiro (p<0,001), engravidar sem intenção (p<0,001), apresentar escolaridade inadequada para a idade (p=0,033), realizar menos de seis consultas de pré-natal (p=0,021), a episiotomia (p=0,042) e a prematuridade espontânea (p=0,014). Conclusão: as puérperas na faixa etária de 12-16 anos apresentavam mais condições de vulnerabilidade socioeconômica, atenção menos adequada no pré-natal e parto, além de complicações neonatais de seus bebês, sinalizando a necessidade de atenção multiprofissional a essas adolescentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Pregnancy Complications , Pregnancy in Adolescence/statistics & numerical data , Risk-Taking , Risk Factors , Maternal Age , Health Vulnerability , Prenatal Care , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies , Postpartum Period
17.
Psico USF ; 26(3): 439-449, Jul.-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1351333

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to investigate executive functions (EFs) in older adults with Parkinson's disease (PD). It was a cross-sectional and comparative study, composed of 62 participants divided into PD group (n = 31; M age = 75.26; SD age = 7.26) and control group (n = 31; M age = 74.03; SD age = 6.95), aged 61 to 93 years, recruited for convenience in 5 cities in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The instruments used were a sociodemographic data questionnaire; MMSE; GDS-15; BIS-11; verbal fluency tasks (FAS and animals), DEX; WCST-64 and FDT. Descriptive analyzes and Student's t and Chi-square tests were used. The PD group had a lower performance in the WCST-64 and FDT tests compared to controls, indicating worse performance in tasks that required reasoning, cognitive flexibility and processing speed, in addition, showed difficulties in performing tasks that require EF (DEX). (AU)


O objetivo foi investigar as funções executivas (FE) em idosos com Doença de Parkinson (DP). Estudo transversal e comparativo, composto por 62 participantes, 50% do sexo feminino, recrutados por conveniência em cinco cidades do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, e divididos em dois grupos: com DP (n = 31; Midade = 75,26; DP idade = 7,26) e grupo controle (n = 31; M idade = 74,03; DP idade = 6,95), com idade entre 61 e 93 anos. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: questionário de dados sociodemográficos, MEEM; GDS-15; BIS-11; tarefas de fluência verbal (FAS e animais); DEX; WCST-64 e FDT. Foram utilizadas análises descritivas e os testes t de Student e Qui-quadrado. O grupo com DP teve desempenho inferior nos testes WCST-64 e FDT em comparação aos controles, indicando pior desempenho nas tarefas que exigiam raciocínio, flexibilidade cognitiva e velocidade de processamento, além disso, mostraram dificuldades ao realizar tarefas que demandam FE (DEX). (AU)


El objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar las funciones ejecutivas (FE) en ancianos con enfermedad de Parkinson (EP). Se trató de un estudio transversal y comparativo, compuesto por 62 participantes, 50% mujeres, reclutados por conveniencia en cinco ciudades de la provincia de Rio Grande do Sul, y divididos en dos grupos: con EP (n = 31; M edad = 75,26; DS edad = 7,26) y grupo control (n = 31; M edad = 74,03; DS edad = 6,95). Fueron usados cuestionarios de datos sociodemográficos, MEEM, GDS-15; BIS-11; tareas de fluencia verbal (FAS y animales), DEX; WCST-64 y FDT. Se realizaron análisis descriptivos, prueba t de Student y chi-cuadrado. El grupo EP tuvo un rendimiento más bajo en las pruebas WCST-64 y FDT en comparación con el grupo control, lo que indica un peor rendimiento en tareas que requerían razonamiento, flexibilidad cognitiva y velocidad de procesamiento, además, mostró dificultades para realizar tareas que demandan FE (DEX). (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Parkinson Disease/psychology , Executive Function , Socioeconomic Factors , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Wisconsin Card Sorting Test
18.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 7(3): 314-357, set. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1348342

ABSTRACT

Introdução:O uso de álcool e drogas é um problema crescente no Brasil e no mundo. Conhecer a epidemiologia dessa população nos serviços de atendimento aos usuários de substâncias psicoativas é um imperativo para melhor trata-los.Objetivo:descrever o perfil epidemiológico dos usuários de um Centro de Atenção Psicossocial Álcool e Drogas no Nordeste do Brasil. Metodologia:estudo descritivo, transversal, quantitativo. Por meio de planilha eletrônica, foram analisados os 281 prontuários de todas as pessoas maiores de 18 anos que utilizavam o serviço. Foi empregado o teste de qui-quadrado considerando o fator de p significativo menor ou igual a 0,05. O estudo foi aprovado eticamente.Resultados:homens, média de 42,06 anos, com nível fundamental de escolaridade e casados, formavam a maior parte da amostra. Foram estatisticamente relevantes: o maior consumo de álcool nos homens (p=0,03); maior escolaridade nos usuários de cocaína (p=0,013); maior tabagismo nos menos escolarizados (p=0,017); prole como proteção ao uso de cocaína (p=0,0006) e cannabis (p=0,0004); não ter filhos com menos uso de álcool (p=0,0015); uso precoce de cannabis (p=0,0002) e álcool (p=0,0065). Conclusões:perfis epidemiológicos em centros especializados podem nortear políticas públicas, na perspectiva de cuidado aos usuários de drogas (AU).


Introduction:The use of alcohol and drugs is a growing problem in Brazil and worldwide. Knowing the epidemiology of this population in services for users of psychoactive substances is an imperative to better treat them. Objective:to describe the epidemiological profile of users of a Psychosocial Care CenterAlcohol and Drugsin Northeastern Brazil. Methodology:descriptive, cross-sectional, quantitative study. Through an electronic spreadsheet, 281 medical records of people over 18 years of age who used the service were analyzed. The chi-square test was used considering the significant p factor less than or equal to 0.05. The study was ethically approved. Results:men, mean of 42.06 years, with basic education level and married, formed the majority of the sample. They were statistically relevant: the highest alcohol consumption in men (p = 0.03); higher education among cocaine users (p = 0.013); greater smoking in the less educated (p = 0.017); offspring as protection against the use of cocaine (p = 0.0006) and cannabis(p = 0.0004); not having children with less alcohol use (p = 0.0015); early use of cannabis (p = 0.0002) and alcohol (p = 0.0065). Conclusions:public policies expanding access to treatment for drug users are important solutions to this problem (AU).


Introducción: El uso de alcohol y drogas es un problema creciente en Brasil y en todo el mundo. Conocer la epidemiología de esta población en los servicios para usuarios de sustancias psicoactivas es un imperativo para tratarlos mejor.Objetivo: describir el perfil epidemiológico de los usuarios de un Centro de Atención PsicosocialAlcohol y Drogas en el noreste de Brasil.Metodología: estudio descriptivo, transversal, cuantitativo. Utilizando una hoja de cálculo electrónica, se analizaron los 281 registros de todas las personas mayores de 18 años que utilizaron el servicio. La prueba de chi-cuadrado se utilizó considerando el factor p significativo menor o igual a 0.05. El estudio fue aprobado éticamente.Resultados: hombres, promedio de 42.06 años, con nivel de educación básica y casados, formaron la mayoría de la muestra. Eran estadísticamente relevantes: el mayor consumo de alcohol en hombres (p = 0.03); educación superior entreusuarios de cocaína (p = 0.013); mayor tabaquismo en los menos educados (p = 0.017); descendencia como protección contra el uso de cocaína (p = 0,0006) y cannabis (p = 0,0004); no tener hijos con menos consumo de alcohol (p = 0.0015); uso temprano de cannabis (p = 0.0002) y alcohol (p = 0.0065).Conclusiones: los perfiles epidemiológicos en centros especializados pueden guiar las políticas públicas, desde la perspectiva de la atención a los consumidores de drogas (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Public Policy , Health Profile , Brazil/epidemiology , Mental Health , Substance-Related Disorders/pathology , Chi-Square Distribution , Medical Records , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Drug Users
19.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 7(3): 1-15, set. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1290801

ABSTRACT

Introdução:A maloclusão é considerada a segunda doença oral mais comum em crianças e jovens adultos. É importante saber identificar estas alterações de forma a permitir um adequado desenvolvimento da oclusão.O diagnóstico de um desenvolvimento anormal na dentição decídua é relevante para a prevenção e quando necessáriouma intervenção precoce. Objetivo:O objetivo deste estudo transversal foi avaliar a prevalênciade maloclusão em crianças com dentição decídua e relacionar com diferentes parâmetros.Metodologia:Observaram-se 300 crianças de ambos os sexos, com idades compreendidas entre os 3 e os 6 anos. A recolha de dados foi realizada a partir do exame clínico comkits de observação(espelho bucal básico descartável,sonda descartável, babador,luvas e sacos descartáveis), sob luz natural e na cadeira escolar, no Agrupamento de Escolas de Porto de Mós, Distrito Sanitário de Leiria. Analisaram-se as seguintes características: Tipo de arco de Baume, espaços primatas, diastemas, apinhamento, relação distal dos segundos molares decíduos, relação canina, sobremordida e sobressaliência, mordida anterior e posterior.Resultados:A prevalência de maloclusão registradafoi de 67,7%, verificando-se ser mais baixa aos seis anos, sem apresentar diferenças significativas em ambos os sexos. A sobressaliência foi a maloclusão mais prevalente (42,7%) nas crianças observadas, seguida da mordida aberta anterior (23,3%). Registrou-seumaelevada prevalência de maloclusão nas crianças com arco de Baume tipo II, sem diastemas ou espaços primatas, com apinhamento, degrau distal, classe II canina ou desvio da linha média para a direita.Conclusões:Verificou-se existir uma elevada prevalência de maloclusão nas crianças do agrupamento de escolas do Concelhode Porto de Mós, estando relacionada com diferentes parâmetros oclusais (AU).


Introduction:Malocclusion is considered a second mostcommon oral disease in children and young adults. It is important to know how to identify these changes in order to allow proper development of the occlusion.The diagnosis of anabnormal development in primary dentition is relevant for prevention and when necessary, early intervention.Objective:The aim of this cross sectional study was to evaluate the prevalence of malocclusion in children with deciduous dentition and relate this prevalence with sex, age and with different occlusal parameters.Methodology:300 children of both sexes, aged between 3 and 6 years were observed. Data collection was carried out from the clinical examination using observation kits, in schools, in the Group of schools of Porto de Mós, Health District of Leiria. The following characteristics were analyzed: Baume arc Type, spaces, diastemas, crowding, the deciduous second molars distal relation, canine relationship, Overbite and overjet, anterior and posterior bite.Results:The recorded prevalence of malocclusion was 67.7%, was lower at six years old, without any differences in both sexes. The overjet was the most prevalent malocclusion (42.7%) in the observed children. There was a high prevalence of malocclusion in children with type II Baume arch, without spaces or primate spaces, with distal step, canine class II or with the middle line shifted to the right.Conclusions:There there was a high prevalence of malocclusion in children of the schools in the municipality of Porto de Mós, and is related to the different occlusal parameters (AU).


Introducción: La maloclusión se considera la segunda enfermedad bucal más común en niños y adultos jóvenes. Es importanteidentificar estos cambios para llograr un adecuado desarrollo de la oclusión. El diagnóstico precoz deldesarrollo anormal en la dentición temporal es relevante para la prevención y cuando sea necesario una intervención temprana. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio transversal fue evaluar la prevalencia de maloclusión en niñoscon dentición temporal y relacionarla con diferentes parámetros. Metodología: Fueran observados 300 niños de ambos sexos, con edadesentre los 3 y los 6 años. La recogida de datos del examen clínico se realizó mediante kits de observación, en un entorno escolar, en el Grupo Escolar dePorto de Mós, Distrito Sanitariode Leiria. Se analizaron las siguientes características: tipo de arco de Baume, espaciosprimates, diastemas, apiñamientos, relación distal de los segundos molares deciduos, relación canina, sobremordida horizontal y vertical, mordida anterior y posterior. Resultados: La prevalencia de maloclusión registrada fue de 67,7%, la cual resultó ser menor a los seis años, sin mostrar diferencias significativas en ambos sexos. El overjet fue la maloclusión más prevalente (42,7%) en los niños observados, seguida de la mordida abierta anterior (23,3%). Hubo una alta prevalencia de maloclusión en niños con arco de Baume tipo II, sin diastemas ni espacios de primates, con apiñamiento, paso distal, canino clase II o desviación de la línea media hacia la derecha.Conclusiones: Se encontró que hayuna alta prevalencia de maloclusión en niños dela comunidad escolar del municipio de Porto de Mós, y que se relaciona,con diferentes parámetros oclusales (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Portugal/epidemiology , Tooth, Deciduous , Child , Malocclusion/prevention & control , Chi-Square Distribution , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Occlusion
20.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 7(3): 220-234, set. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1343609

ABSTRACT

Introdução:Grande parte dos idosos caracteriza a reabilitação com prótese total como satisfatória. Entretanto, algunsse mostram insatisfeitos devido a dificuldades com a adaptação, principalmente em relação a prótese total mandibular. Objetivo:Identificar a prevalência e os fatores associados ao não uso da prótese total inferior em idosos. Ademais, verificou-se o impacto do não uso dessa prótese na autopercepção de saúde bucal e na dificuldade de se alimentar. Método:Trata-se de um estudo de base populacional e transversal. Para a sua realização, foi utilizado a base de dados da última Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde realizada no Brasil. Inicialmente, o teste Qui-quadrado foi usado para a análise dos dados. Em seguida, uma análise multivariada do tipo regressão múltipla de Poisson foi realizada para o ajuste das razões de prevalência. Resultados:Participaram 4.582 idosos brasileiros, dos quais 27,1% não faziam uso da prótese total inferior. Onão uso da prótese esteve associada aos idosos mais velhos (p=0,001), aos sem instrução (p=0,001), aos que não possuem plano de saúde (p=0,019), aos que fumam (p=0,012) e aos que não realizavam higiene bucal todos os dias (p<0,001). O não uso da prótese total inferior impactou em uma pior autopercepção de saúde bucal (p=0,001) e em maiores dificuldades de se alimentar (p<0,001). Conclusões:Onão uso de prótese total inferior está associado a piores condições socioeconômicas e a um pior estilo de vida, fortemente ligado ao ato de fumar. Ademais, o não uso da prótese impacta negativamente na autopercepção de saúde bucal e na alimentação (AU).


Introduction:A large part of the elderly characterizes rehabilitation with total prosthesis as satisfactory. However, some are dissatisfied due to difficulties with adaptation, mainly in relation to total mandibular prosthesis.Objective:To identify the prevalence and factors associated with not using the lower denture in the elderly. In addition, the impact of not using this prosthesis on self-perceived oral health and the difficulty of eating was verified.Methods:This is a population-based and cross-sectional study. For its realization, the database of the last National Health Survey carried out in Brazil was used. Initially, the Chi-square test was used for data analysis. Then, a multivariate analysis using Poisson multiple regression was performed to adjust the prevalence ratios.Results:4,582 elderly Brazilians participated, of which 27.1% did not use the lower total prosthesis. Failure to use the prosthesis was associated with older elderly people (p=0.001), those without education (p=0.001), those who do not have health insurance (p=0.019), those who smoke (p=0.012) and those who they did not perform oral hygiene every day (p<0.001). Failure to use the lower denture impacted worse self-perceived oral health (p=0.001) and greater difficulties in eating (p<0.001). Conclusions:Failure to use a lower denture is associated with worse socioeconomic conditions and a worse lifestyle, strongly linked to smoking. In addition, the non-use of the prosthesis has a negative impact on self-perception of oral health and food (AU).


Introducción:Una gran parte de los ancianos caracteriza la rehabilitación con prótesis total como satisfactoria. Sin embargo, algunos están insatisfechos por dificultades de adaptación, principalmente en relación con la prótesis total mandibular.Objetivo:Identificar la prevalencia y los factoresasociados a la no utilización de la prótesis inferior en el anciano. Además, se verificó el impacto de no utilizar esta prótesis sobre la salud bucal autopercibida y la dificultad para comer. Método:Se trata de un estudio poblacional y transversal. Para su realización se utilizó la base de datos de la última Encuesta Nacional de Salud realizada en Brasil. Inicialmente, se utilizó la prueba de Chi-cuadrado para el análisis de datos. Luego, se realizó un análisis multivariado utilizando regresión múltiple de Poisson para ajustar las razones de prevalencia.Resultados:Participaron 4.582 ancianos brasileños, de los cuales el 27,1% no utilizó la prótesis total inferior. La falta de uso de la prótesis se asoció con ancianos (p=0,001), sin educación (p=0,001), sin seguro médico (p=0,019), con tabaquismo (p=0,012) y con los que no realizaban tratamiento oral. higiene todos los días (p<0,001). La no utilización de la dentadura inferior repercutió en una peor salud bucal autopercibida (p=0,001) y mayores dificultades para comer (p<0,001).Conclusiones:La no utilización de una dentadura inferior se asocia con peores condiciones socioeconómicas y un peor estilo de vida, fuertemente ligado al tabaquismo. Además, la no utilización de la prótesis tiene un impacto negativo en la autopercepción de la salud bucal y la alimentación (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , Aged , Oral Health , Denture, Complete , Denture, Complete, Lower , Mouth Rehabilitation/instrumentation , Oral Hygiene , Quality of Life , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Multivariate Analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Data Analysis
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