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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(2): e202310094, abr. 2024. tab, fig
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1532934

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La asociación entre los marcadores lipídicos en la infancia/adolescencia y la incidencia de eventos clínicos cardiovasculares en la adultez está poco explorada en la literatura. El objetivo de esta revisión sistemática fue analizar la evidencia disponible sobre este tema. Población y métodos. Esta revisión sistemática se realizó de acuerdo con las guías PRISMA. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica para detectar los estudios que evaluaron la asociación entre los niveles lipídicos en la edad pediátrica y la incidencia de eventos cardiovasculares en la edad adulta. No hubo restricciones idiomáticas ni geográficas en la búsqueda. Resultados. En total, cinco estudios observacionales (todas cohortes prospectivas) que incluyeron 43 540 pacientes fueron identificados y considerados elegibles para este estudio. Cuatro estudios evaluaron el nivel de triglicéridos; todos reportaron una asociación significativa entre este marcador en la edad pediátrica y los eventos cardiovasculares en la adultez. Un estudio reportó la misma asociación con el nivel de colesterol total, mientras que otro evidenció el valor predictivo de la lipoproteína (a) para el mismo desenlace clínico. Un solo estudio evaluó el colesterol asociado a lipoproteínas de alta densidad (C-HDL), sin encontrar una relación con el punto final de interés. El análisis del colesterol asociado a lipoproteínas de baja densidad (C-LDL) arrojó resultados contradictorios, aunque la asociación fue significativa en los estudios con un tamaño muestral más grande y con un mayor número de eventos durante el seguimiento. Conclusión. Los datos de esta revisión sugieren que las alteraciones de los marcadores lipídicos en la infancia y la adolescencia se asocian con un mayor riesgo cardiovascular en la adultez temprana y media.


Introduction. The association between lipid markers in childhood/adolescence and the incidence of clinical cardiovascular events in adulthood has been little explored in the bibliography. The objective of this systematic review was to analyze available evidence on this topic. Population and methods. This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. A comprehensive bibliographic search was done to find studies assessing the association between lipid levels in childhood and the incidence of cardiovascular events in adulthood. There were no language or geographic restrictions. Results. A total of 5 observational studies (all prospective cohorts) including 43 540 patients were identified and considered eligible for this study. Four studies assessed triglyceride levels; all reported a significant association between this lipid marker in childhood and cardiovascular events in adulthood. A study reported the same association with total cholesterol level, while another showed the predictive value of lipoprotein (a) for the same clinical outcome. Only one study assessed high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), but it did not find an association with the endpoint of interest. The analysis of lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) showed contradictory results, although the association was significant in the studies with a larger sample size and a higher number of events during follow-up. Conclusion. According to this review, alterations in lipid markers in childhood and adolescence are associated with a higher cardiovascular risk in early and middle adulthood.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cholesterol , Triglycerides , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Observational Studies as Topic , Cholesterol, HDL , Cholesterol, LDL
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(2): 214-228, mar. 2024. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1552134

ABSTRACT

Cancer cells modify lipid metabolism to proliferate, Passiflora edulis ( P. edulis ) fruit juice (ZuFru) has antitumor activity, but whether a mechanism is through modulation of cell lipids is unknown. T o establish if ZuFru modifies cholesterol and triglycerides in SW480 and SW620. ZuFru composition was studied by phytochemical march; antiproliferative activity by sulforhodamine B, cholesterol , and triglycerides by Folch method. Z ufru contains anthocyanins, flavonoids, alkaloids , and tannins. Cell lines showed differences in their growth rate ( p =0.049). At 39.6 µg/m L of ZuFru, cell viability was decreased: SW480 (45.6%) and SW620 (45.1%). In SW480, cholesterol (44.6%) and triglycerides (46.5%) decreased; In SW620, cholesterol decreased 14.8% and triglycerides increased 7%, with significant differences for both lines. A ntiproliferative activity of ZuFru could be associated with the inhibition of intracellular biosynthesis of cholesterol and triglycerides in SW480. Action mechanisms need to be further investigated.


Las células cancerosas modifican el metabolismo lipídico para proliferar; el zumo de fruta (ZuFru) de Passiflora edulis ( P. edulis ) tiene activida d antitumoral, sin embargo, se desconoce si se involucran los lípidos celulares. E stablecer si ZuFru modifica colesterol y triglicéridos en células SW480 y SW620. C omposición del ZuFru, actividad antiproliferativa, colesterol y triglicéridos. Se encontraro n antocianinas, flavonoides, alcaloides y taninos. Las líneas celulares mostraron diferencias en su tasa de crecimiento ( p =0 . 049); ZuFru 39,6 µg/ml se disminuyó la viabilidad celular; SW480 (45,6%) y SW620 (45,1%); en SW480 colesterol (44,6%) y triglicérid os (46,5%) en SW620, colesterol (14,8%) y los triglicéridos aumentaron 7%, con diferencias significativas para ambas líneas. La actividad antiproliferativa del ZuFru podría estar asociada a la inhibición de la biosíntesis intracelular de colesterol y de tr iglicéridos en SW480, pero no en SW620. Estos mecanismos de acción deben ser fuertemente investigados.


Subject(s)
Anticarcinogenic Agents , Passiflora , Passifloraceae/metabolism , Triglycerides/physiology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cholesterol/physiology , Fruit
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010117

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM@#Remnant cholesterol (remnant-C) mediates the progression of major adverse cardiovascular events. It is unclear whether remnant-C, and particularly cumulative exposure to remnant-C, is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aimed to explore whether remnant-C, not only baseline but cumulative exposure, can be used to independently evaluate the risk of NAFLD.@*METHODS@#This study included 1 cohort totaling 21,958 subjects without NAFLD at baseline who underwent at least 2 repeated health checkups and 1 sub-cohort totaling 2,649 subjects restricted to those individuals with at least 4 examinations and no history of NAFLD until Exam 3. Cumulative remnant-C was calculated as a timeweighted model for each examination multiplied by the time between the 2 examinations divided the whole duration. Cox regression models were performed to estimate the association between baseline and cumulative exposure to remnant-C and incident NAFLD.@*RESULTS@#After multivariable adjustment, compared with the quintile 1 of baseline remnant-C, individuals with higher quintiles demonstrated significantly higher risks for NAFLD (hazard ratio [HR] 1.48, 95%CI 1.31-1.67 for quintile 2; HR 2.07, 95%CI 1.85-2.33 for quintile 3; HR 2.55, 95%CI 2.27-2.88 for quintile 4). Similarly, high cumulative remnant-C quintiles were significantly associated with higher risks for NAFLD (HR 3.43, 95%CI 1.95-6.05 for quintile 2; HR 4.25, 95%CI 2.44-7.40 for quintile 3; HR 6.29, 95%CI 3.59-10.99 for quintile 4), compared with the quintile 1.@*CONCLUSION@#Elevated levels of baseline and cumulative remnant-C were independently associated with incident NAFLD. Monitoring immediate levels and longitudinal trends of remnant-C may need to be emphasized in adults as part of NAFLD prevention strategy.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Cohort Studies , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/etiology , Cholesterol , Proportional Hazards Models , Risk Factors
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253084, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345551

ABSTRACT

Abstract Repeatedly frying process of dietary edible oil has a potential role in the generation of free radicals. Therefore, questions have always been raised as to whether, there is an efficient and economical method to reduce the harmful effects of repeated use of frying edible oil. Since hibiscus has been stated to have a wide variety of therapeutic effects, it was important to investigate its properties against harmful effects of free radicals. The current study aspires to find out whether irradiated powder of hibiscus has a protective role against adverse effects of repeated use of frying edible oil. Thirty-five adult male albino rats were equally assigned into five groups. First group"G1" was fed with normal diet as control group, meanwhile, group"G2" the diet mixed with fresh oil, "G3" diet mixed with repeatedly frying oil only, "G4" diet mixed with frying oil treated with hibiscus and "G5" diet mixed with frying oil treated with irradiated hibiscus. Feeding duration was six weeks. Fatty acid analyses of oil as well as peroxide values were determined. Blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical analyses as well as histological study. Repeatedly heated cooked oil has significant increases in peroxide value, acid value, free fatty acid and both conjugated diene and triene compared with repeatedly frying oil treated with hibiscus. Also there are significant increases in cholesterol and triglyceride and impaired in liver functions in "G3"compared with others. In addition, relative to the hibiscus groups, there is a substantial reduction in oxygen consumption in "G3". Both hibiscus as well as irradiated hibiscus attract attention in order to play a vital and economical role against harmful effects of frequent use of frying edible oil on some biological functions but, irradiated hibiscus was more effective.


Resumo O processo de fritura repetida de óleo comestível da dieta tem papel potencial na geração de radicais livres que podem ter efeitos prejudiciais em algumas funções biológicas. Portanto, sempre se questionou se existe uma maneira eficiente e econômica de prevenir ou pelo menos reduzir os efeitos nocivos do uso repetido de óleo comestível para fritar. Como o hibisco tem ampla variedade de efeitos terapêuticos, foi importante investigar suas propriedades como agente antioxidante contra os efeitos nocivos dos radicais livres. O presente estudo pretende descobrir se o pó irradiado de hibisco tem papel protetor contra os efeitos adversos do uso repetido de óleo comestível para fritar. Trinta e cinco ratos albinos machos adultos foram divididos igualmente em cinco grupos. O primeiro grupo "G1" foi alimentado com dieta normal como grupo controle, enquanto o grupo "G2" dieta misturada com óleo fresco, dieta "G3" misturada com óleo de fritura repetida, dieta "G4" misturada com óleo de fritura tratada com hibisco e dieta "G5" misturada com óleo de fritura tratada com hibisco irradiado. A duração da alimentação foi de seis semanas. Foram determinadas as análises de ácidos graxos de óleo, bem como os valores de peróxidos. Amostras de sangue e fígado foram coletadas para análises bioquímicas e estudo histológico. O óleo cozido repetidamente aquecido tem aumentos significativos no valor de peróxido, valor de ácido, ácido graxo livre e dieno e trieno conjugados em comparação com óleo de fritura repetidamente tratado com hibisco. Também há aumentos significativos no colesterol e triglicérides e comprometimento das funções hepáticas no "G3" em comparação com outros. Além disso, em relação aos grupos de hibiscos, há uma redução substancial no consumo de oxigênio no "G3". Tanto o hibisco como o hibisco irradiado chamam atenção por desempenhar papel vital e econômico contra os efeitos nocivos do uso frequente de óleo comestível para fritar em algumas funções biológicas, mas o hibisco irradiado foi mais eficaz.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Hibiscus , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Cholesterol , Cooking , Hot Temperature
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009884

ABSTRACT

This report presents a case of a male infant, aged 32 days, who was admitted to the hospital due to 2 days of bloody stools and 1 day of fever. Upon admission, venous blood samples were collected, which appeared pink. Blood biochemistry tests revealed elevated levels of triglycerides and total cholesterol. The familial whole genome sequencing revealed a compound heterozygous variation in the LPL gene, with one variation inherited from the father and the other from the mother. The patient was diagnosed with lipoprotein lipase deficiency-related hyperlipoproteinemia. Acute symptoms including bloody stools, fever, and bloody ascites led to the consideration of acute pancreatitis, and the treatment involved fasting, plasma exchange, and whole blood exchange. Following the definitive diagnosis based on the genetic results, the patient was given a low-fat diet and received treatment with fat-soluble vitamins and trace elements, as well as adjustments to the feeding plan. After a 4-week hospitalization, the patient's condition improved and he was discharged. Follow-up showed a decrease in triglycerides and total cholesterol levels. At the age of 1 year, the patient's growth and psychomotor development were normal. This article emphasizes the multidisciplinary diagnosis and treatment of familial hyperlipoproteinemia presenting with symptoms suggestive of acute pancreatitis, including bloody ascites, in the neonatal period.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Male , Acute Disease , Ascites , Cholesterol , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type I/genetics , Hyperlipoproteinemias , Lipoprotein Lipase/genetics , Pancreatitis , Triglycerides
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009857

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the clinical characteristics, pathological features, treatment regimen, and prognosis of children with lupus nephritis (LN) and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), as well as the treatment outcome of these children and the clinical and pathological differences between LN children with TMA and those without TMA.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was conducted on 12 children with LN and TMA (TMA group) who were admitted to the Department of Nephrology, Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, from December 2010 to December 2021. Twenty-four LN children without TMA who underwent renal biopsy during the same period were included as the non-TMA group. The two groups were compared in terms of clinical manifestations, laboratory examination results, and pathological results.@*RESULTS@#Among the 12 children with TMA, 8 (67%) had hypertension and 3 (25%) progressed to stage 5 chronic kidney disease. Compared with the non-TMA group, the TMA group had more severe tubulointerstitial damage, a higher Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) score at onset, and higher cholesterol levels (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the percentage of crescent bodies and the levels of hemoglobin and platelets (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#There is a higher proportion of individuals with hypertension among the children with LN and TMA, as well as more severe tubulointerstitial damage. These children have a higher SLEDAI score and a higher cholesterol level.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Lupus Nephritis/complications , Kidney/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/therapy , Prognosis , Hypertension/complications , Cholesterol , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009444

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effects of long noncoding RNA H19 on lipid accumulation of macrophages under high fat stress and its mechanism. Methods Human THP-1 cells-derived macrophages were incubated with ox-LDL, and the effects of H19 siRNA intervention on lipid accumulation was observed. The THP-1 cells were divided into control group (conventional culture), ox-LDL group, siRNA negative control (NC siRNA) combined with ox-LDL treatment group, and H19 siRNA combined with ox-LDL treatment group. Oil red O staining was used to determine the lipid accumulation in cells, and cholesterol concentration was analyzed by enzymatic method; ATP assay kit for detecting celluar ATP content; colorimetry was used to detect the levels of oxidative stress indicators and ELISA was used to detect the levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in the cell supernatant. Western blot analysis was used to detect the protein expression of ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and nuclear factor κB p-p65 (NF-κB p-p65). Results Knockdown H19 significantly inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation, decreased total cholesterol (TC) and cholesterol ester (CE) content, and decreased CE/TC ratio. Knockdown H19 significantly alleviated cell damage including an increase in ATP content, a decrease in oxidative stress levels and a decrease in MCP-1 levels, which caused by high-fat stress. H19 siRNA upregulated expression of ABCA1, PPARα and PGC-1α in THP-1 derived macrophages, downregulated NF-κB signal pathway. Conclusion Knockdown H19 upregulates PGC-1α expression in THP-1 cells and downregulates NF-κB pathway, which promotes cholesterol reverse transport, reduces inflammatory reaction and inhibits lipid accumulation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenosine Triphosphate , Cholesterol , NF-kappa B , PPAR alpha , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , THP-1 Cells , Macrophages/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008869

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the mechanism of action of Scutellariae Radix-Coptidis Rhizoma(SR-CR) in intervening in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) in rats based on lipidomics. Thirty-six SD rats were divided into a control group, a model group, SR-CR groups of different doses, and a simvastatin group, with six rats in each group. Rats in the control group were fed on a normal diet, while those in the remaining groups were fed on a high-lipid diet. After four weeks of feeding, drug treatment was carried out and rats were sacrificed after 12 weeks. Serum liver function and lipid indexes were detected using kits, and the pathomorphology of liver tissues was evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining and oil red O staining. Changes in lipid levels in rats were detected using the LC-MS technique. Differential lipid metabolites were screened by multivariate statistical analysis, and lipid metabolic pathways were plotted. The changes in lipid-related protein levels were further verified by Western blot. The results showed that compared with the control group, the model group showed increased levels of alanine aminotransferase(ALT), aspartate aminotransferase(AST), total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-c)(P<0.01), and decreased levels of γ-glutamyl transferase(γ-GT) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-c)(P<0.01), which were significantly recovered by the intervention of SR-CR. HE staining and oil red O staining showed that different doses of SR-CR could reverse the steatosis in the rat liver in a dose-dependent manner. After lipidomics analysis, there were significant differences in lipid metabolism between the model group and the control group, with 54 lipids significantly altered, mainly including glycerolipids, phosphatidylcholine, and sphingolipids. After administration, 44 differential lipids tended to normal levels, which indicated that SR-CR groups of different doses significantly improved the lipid metabolism level in NAFLD rats. Western blot showed that SR-CR significantly decreased TG-synthesis enzyme 1(DGAT1), recombinant lipin 1(LPIN1), fatty acid synthase(FASN), acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1(ACC1), and increased the phosphorylation level of ACC1. These changes significantly decreased the synthesis of TG and increased the rate of its decomposition, which enhanced the level of lipid metabolism in the body and finally achieved the lipid-lowering effect. SR-CR can improve NAFLD by inhibiting the synthesis of fatty acids and TG.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Scutellaria baicalensis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Liver , Triglycerides/metabolism , Cholesterol , Diet, High-Fat , Azo Compounds
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008868

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the influence of Polygonati Rhizoma on the pyroptosis in the rat model of diabetic macroangiopathy via the NOD-like receptor thermal protein domain associated protein 3(NLRP3)/cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-1(caspase-1)/gasdermin D(GSDMD) pathway. The rat model of diabetes was established by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin(STZ) combined with a high-fat, high-sugar diet. The blood glucose meter, fully automated biochemical analyzer, hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot were employed to measure blood glucose levels, lipid levels, vascular thickness, inflammatory cytokine levels, and expression levels of pyroptosis-related proteins. The mechanism of pharmacological interventions against the injury in the context of diabetes was thus explored. The results demonstrated the successful establishment of the model of diabetes. Compared with the control group, the model group showed elevated levels of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol(TC), triglycerides(TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-c), lowered level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-c), thickened vascular intima, and elevated serum and aorta levels of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-1β(IL-1β) and interleukin-18(IL-18). Moreover, the model group showed increased NLRP3 inflammasomes and up-regulated levels of caspase-1 and GSDMD in aortic vascular cells. Polygonati Rhizoma intervention reduced blood glucose and lipid levels, inhibited vascular thickening, lowered the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-18 in the serum and aorta, attenuated NLRP3 inflammasome expression, and down-regulated the expression levels of caspase-1 and GSDMD, compared with the model group. In summary, Polygonati Rhizoma can slow down the progression of diabetic macroangiopathy by inhibiting pyroptosis and alleviating local vascular inflammation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Caspase 1/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , Interleukin-18 , Blood Glucose , Pyroptosis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Diabetes Complications , Vascular Diseases , Inflammasomes , Cholesterol , Lipids , Diabetes Mellitus
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008812

ABSTRACT

The approach combining disease, syndrome, and symptom was employed to investigate the characteristic changes of blood stasis syndrome in a rat model of steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head(SONFH) during disease onset and progression. Seventy-two male SD rats were randomized into a healthy control group and a model group. The rat model of SONFH was established by injection of lipopolysaccharide(LPS) in the tail vein at a dose of 20 μg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1) on days 1 and 2 and gluteal intramuscular injection of methylprednisolone sodium succinate(MPS) at a dose of 40 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1) on days 3-5, while the healthy control group received an equal volume of saline. The mechanical pain test, tongue color RGB technique, gait detection, open field test, and inclined plane test were employed to assess hip pain, tongue color, limping, joint activity, and lower limb strength, respectively, at different time points within 21 weeks of modeling. At weeks 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 21 after modeling, histopathological changes of the femoral head were observed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining and micro-CT scanning; four coagulation items were measured by rotational thromboelastometry; and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was employed to determine the levels of six blood lipids, vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF), endothelin-1(ET-1), nitric oxide(NO), tissue-type plasminogen activator(t-PA), plasminogen activator inhibitor factor-1(PAI-1), bone gla protein(BGP), alkaline phosphatase(ALP), receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB(RANKL), osteoprotegerin(OPG), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b(TRAP5b) in the serum, as well as the levels of 6-keto-prostaglandin 1α(6-keto-PGF1α) and thromboxane B2(TXB2) in the plasma. The results demonstrated that the pathological alterations in the SONFH rats were severer over time. The bone trabecular area ratio, adipocyte number, empty lacuna rate, bone mineral density(BMD), bone volume/tissue volume(BV/TV), trabecular thickness(Tb.Th), trabecular number(Tb.N), bone surface area/bone volume(BS/BV), and trabecular separation(Tb.Sp) all significantly increased or decreased over the modeling time after week 4. Compared with the healthy control group, the mechanical pain threshold, gait swing speed, stride, standing time, and walking cycle of SONFH rats changed significantly within 21 weeks after modeling, with the greatest difference observed 12 weeks after modeling. The time spent in the central zone, rearing score, and maximum tilt angle in the open field test of SONFH rats also changed significantly over the modeling time. Compared with the healthy control group, the R, G, and B values of the tongue color of the model rats decreased significantly, with the greatest difference observed 11 weeks after modeling. The levels of total cholesterol(TC), total triglycerides(TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol(LDL-C), and apoprotein B(ApoB) in the SONFH rats changed significantly 4 and 8 weeks after modeling. The levels of VEGF, ET-1, NO, t-PA, PAI-1, 6-keto-PGF1α, TXB2, four coagulation items, and TXB2/6-keto-PGF1α ratio in the serum of SONFH rats changed significantly 4-16 weeks after modeling, with the greatest differences observed 12 weeks after modeling. The levels of BGP, TRAP5b, RANKL, OPG, and RANKL/OPG ratio in the serum of SONFH rats changed significantly 8-21 weeks after modeling. During the entire onset and progression of SONFH in rats, the blood stasis syndrome characteristics such as hyperalgesia, tongue color darkening, gait abnormalities, platelet, vascular, and coagulation dysfunctions were observed, which gradually worsened and then gradually alleviated in the disease course(2-21 weeks), with the most notable differences occurred around 12 weeks after modeling.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Femur Head/pathology , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1/adverse effects , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Femur Head Necrosis/pathology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Steroids , Pain , Cholesterol
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008678

ABSTRACT

Bayesian network Meta-analysis was employed to compare the efficacy of different oral Chinese patent medicines in treating type 2 diabetes mellitus with angina pectoris of coronary heart disease. Randomized controlled trial(RCT) of oral Chinese patent medicines in treating type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with angina pectoris of coronary heart disease were retrieved from 8 Chinese and English databases including CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, SinoMed, EMbase, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science with the time interval from inception to November 2022. The BUGSnet package in R 4.2.1 was used to conduct Meta-analysis. A total of 45 RCTs were included, involving 4 727 patients and 7 oral Chinese patent medicines. Network Meta-analysis showed that the conventio-nal western medicine combined with Chinese patent medicines improved the outcome indicators. Shexiang Baoxin Pills + conventional western medicine had the best effect on reducing the incidence of adverse cardiovascular events, and Yixinshu Capsules + conventional western medicine on reducing the frequency and duration of angina pectoris. The conventional western medicine combined with oral Chinese patent medicines can reduce blood glucose indicators. Yindan Xinnaotong Soft Capsules + conventional western medicine had the best effect on reducing fasting blood glucose(FBG), 2 hours postprandial blood glucose(PBG), and glycosylated hemoglobin(HbA1c). The conventional western medicine combined with oral Chinese patent medicines can reduce blood lipid indicators. Yixinshu Capsules + conventional western medicine had the best effect on reducing total cholesterol(TC) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol(LDL-C), and Yindan Xinnaotong Soft Capsules + conventional western medicine on reducing triglyceride(TG). Current evidence suggests that the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with angina pectoris of coronary heart disease could reasonably choose oral Chinese patent medicines on the basis of routine antiplatelet, anticoagulant, hypoglycemic, and antihypertensive therapies, which could reduce the incidence of adverse cardiovascular events, alleviate the symptoms of angina pectoris, and reduce the glucose and lipid metabolism indicators. Shexiang Baoxin Pills + conventional treatment and Yixinshu Capsules + conventional western medicine have better effect on angina pectoris, Yindan Xinnaotong Soft Capsules + conventional western medicine on lowering blood glucose, and Yindan Xinnaotong Soft Capsules + conventional western medicine and Yixinshu Capsules + conventional western medicine on reducing blood lipid. Due to the lack of direct comparative results between Chinese patent medicines and other factors, high-quality studies remain to be carried out for further verification.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nonprescription Drugs , Network Meta-Analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Bayes Theorem , Blood Glucose , Angina Pectoris/drug therapy , Coronary Disease/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Capsules , Lipids , Cholesterol
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981392

ABSTRACT

Hepatic lipid deposition is one of the basic manifestations of obesity, and nowadays pharmacological treatment is the most important tool. Punicalagin(PU), a polyphenol derived from pomegranate peel, is a potential anti-obesity substance. In this study, 60 C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into a normal group and a model group. After establishing a model of simple obesity with a high-fat diet for 12 weeks, the successfully established rat models of obesity were then regrouped into a model group, an orlistat group, a PU low-dose group, a PU medium-dose group, and a PU high-dose group. The normal group was kept on routine diet and other groups continued to feed the high-fat diet. The body weight and food intake were measured and recorded weekly. After 8 weeks, the levels of the four lipids in the serum of each group of mice were determined by an automatic biochemical instrument. Oral glucose tole-rance and intraperitoneal insulin sensitivity were tested. Hemoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was applied to observe the hepatic and adipose tissues. The mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ(PPARγ) and C/EBPα were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(Q-PCR), and the mRNA and protein expression levels of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase(AMPK), anterior cingulate cortex(ACC), and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A(CPT1A) were determined by Western blot. Finally, the body mass, Lee's index, serum total glyceride(TG), serum total cholesterol(TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C) levels were significantly higher and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C) levels were significantly lower in the model group as compared with the normal group. The fat deposition in the liver was significantly increased. The mRNA expression levels of hepatic PPARγ and C/EBPα and the protein expression level of ACC were increased, while the mRNA and protein expression levels of CPT-1α(CPT1A) and AMPK were decreased. After PU treatment, the above indexes of obese mice were reversed. In conclusion, PU can decrease the body weight of obese mice and control their food intake. It also plays a role in the regulation of lipid metabolism and glycometabolism metabolism, which can significantly improve hepatic fat deposition. Mechanistically, PU may regulate liver lipid deposition in obese mice by down-regulating lipid synthesis and up-regulating lipolysis through activation of the AMPK/ACC pathway.


Subject(s)
Rats , Mice , Animals , Mice, Obese , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Liver/metabolism , Obesity/genetics , Body Weight , Lipid Metabolism , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Lipids , Cholesterol
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981281

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the relationship between insulin resistance (IR) indexes and hyperuricemia (HUA) among the people with hypertension. Methods From July to August in 2018,hypertension screening was carried out in Wuyuan county,Jiangxi province,and the data were collected through questionnaire survey,physical measurement,and biochemical test.Logistic regression was performed to analyze the relationship between HUA and IR indexes including metabolic score for IR (METS-IR),triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index,TyG-body mass index (BMI),TyG-waist circumference (WC),visceral adiposity index (VAI),triglyceride (TG)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C),and lipid accumulation product (LAP).The penalty spline method was used for the curve fitting between IR indexes and HUA.The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was employed to reveal the correlation between each index and HUA. Results The 14 220 hypertension patients included 6 713 males and 7 507 females,with the average age of (63.8±9.4) years old,the average uric acid level of (418.9±120.6) mmol/L,and the HUA detection rate of 44.4%.The HUA group had higher proportions of males,current drinking,current smoking,diabetes,and using antihypertensive drugs,older age,higher diastolic blood pressure,WC,BMI,homocysteine,total cholesterol,TG,low-density lipoprotein cholesterol,blood urea nitrogen,creatinine,aspartate aminotransferase,alanine aminotransferase,total protein,albumin,total bilirubin,direct bilirubin, METS-IR, TyG, TyG-BMI, TyG-WC, VAI, TG/HDL-C, and LAP, and lower systolic blood pressure and HDL-C than the normal uric acid group (all P<0.05).Multivariate Logistic regression showed that METS-IR (OR=1.049,95%CI=1.038-1.060, P<0.001), TyG (OR=1.639,95%CI=1.496-1.797, P<0.001), TyG-BMI (OR=1.008,95%CI=1.006-1.010, P<0.001), TyG-WC (OR=1.003,95%CI=1.002-1.004, P<0.001), lnVAI (OR=1.850, 95%CI=1.735-1.973, P<0.001), ln(TG/HDL-C) (OR=1.862,95%CI=1.692-2.048, P<0.001),and lnLAP (OR=1.503,95%CI=1.401-1.613,P<0.001) were associated with the risk of HUA.Curve fitting indicated that METS-IR,TyG,TYG-BMI,TYG-WC,lnVAI,ln(TG/HDL-C),and lnLAP were positively correlated with HUA (all P<0.001),and the AUC of TyG index was higher than that of other IR indexes (all P<0.05). Conclusion Increased IR indexes,especially TyG,were associated with the risk of HUA among people with hypertension.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Insulin Resistance , Hyperuricemia , Uric Acid , Hypertension/complications , Glucose , Obesity, Abdominal/epidemiology , Triglycerides , Bilirubin , Cholesterol , Blood Glucose/metabolism
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981058

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Foreign studies have reported that coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with high baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) may have a good prognosis, which is called the "cholesterol paradox". This study aimed to examine whether the "cholesterol paradox" also exists in the Chinese population.@*METHODS@#A total of 2,056 patients who underwent the first percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) between 2014 and 2016 were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study and classified into two groups based on baseline LDL-C = 2.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL). The outcomes of interest included major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), all-cause mortality, recurrent nonfatal myocardial infarction, unexpected coronary revascularization, or any nonfatal stroke.@*RESULTS@#All-cause mortality occurred in 8 patients (0.7%) from the low-LDL-C group and 12 patients (2.4%) in the high-LDL-C group, with a significant difference between the two groups (adjusted hazard ratio: 4.030, 95% confidence interval: 1.088-14.934; P = 0.037). However, no significant differences existed for the risk of MACE or other secondary endpoints, such as unexpected revascularization, nor any nonfatal stroke in the two groups.@*CONCLUSION@#In this study, a high baseline LDL-C was not associated with a low risk of clinical outcomes in CAD patients undergoing first PCI, which suggested that the "cholesterol paradox" may be inapplicable to Chinese populations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cholesterol, LDL , Retrospective Studies , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Cholesterol , Cholesterol, HDL , Stroke/etiology , Treatment Outcome , Risk Factors
15.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 413-428, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981017

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic cancer has an insidious onset and lacks effective treatment methods, which is one of the tumors with the worst prognosis, so it is urgent to explore new treatment directions. Metabolic reprogramming is one of the important hallmarks of tumors. Pancreatic cancer cells in the harsh tumor microenvironment have comprehensively increased cholesterol metabolism in order to maintain strong metabolic needs, and cancer associated fibroblasts also provide cancer cells with a large amount of lipids. Cholesterol metabolism reprogramming involves the changes in the synthesis, uptake, esterification and metabolites of cholesterol, which are closely related to the proliferation, invasion, metastasis, drug resistance, and immunosuppression of pancreatic cancer. Inhibition of cholesterol metabolism has obvious anti-tumor effect. In this paper, the important effects and complexity of cholesterol metabolism in pancreatic cancer were comprehensively reviewed from perspectives of risk factors for pancreatic cancer, energy interaction between tumor-related cells, key targets of cholesterol metabolism and its targeted drugs. Cholesterol metabolism has a strict regulation and feedback mechanism, and the effect of single-target drugs in clinical application is not clear. Therefore, multi-target therapy of cholesterol metabolism is a new direction for pancreatic cancer treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pancreatic Neoplasms/pathology , Cholesterol/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment
16.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 317-327, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981008

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC) on atherosclerosis progression in mice. A mouse model of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque was created in ApoE-/- mice by carotid artery tandem stenosis (TS) combined with a Western diet. Macrophotography, lipid profiles, and inflammatory markers were measured to evaluate the antiatherosclerotic effects of SPRC compared to atorvastatin as a control. Histopathological analysis was performed to assess the plaque stability. To explore the protective mechanism of SPRC, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured in vitro and challenged with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). Cell viability was determined with a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8). Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation and mRNA expression were detected by Western blot and RT-qPCR respectively. The results showed that the lesion area quantified by en face photographs of the aortic arch and carotid artery was significantly less, plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were reduced, plaque collagen content was increased and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was decreased in 80 mg/kg per day SPRC-treated mice compared with model mice. These findings support the role of SPRC in plaque stabilization. In vitro studies revealed that 100 μmol/L SPRC increased the cell viability and the phosphorylation level of eNOS after ox-LDL challenge. These results suggest that SPRC delays the progression of atherosclerosis and enhances plaque stability. The protective effect may be at least partially related to the increased phosphorylation of eNOS in endothelial cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Atherosclerosis , Cholesterol/metabolism , Cysteine/pharmacology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Lipoproteins, LDL/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/pathology
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970637

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of different Chinese medicine injections combined with conventional western medicine for stable angina pectoris. PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMbase, Web of Science, CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, and SinoMed were searched to collect randomized controlled trial(RCT) of Chinese medicine injection combined with conventio-nal western medicine in the treatment of stable angina pectoris from the inception of the databases to July 8, 2022. Two researchers independently screened the literature, extracted the data, and evaluated the risk of bias of the included studies. Stata 15.1 was used for network Meta-analysis. A total of 52 RCTs were included, involving 4 828 patients treated by 9 Chinese medicine injections(Danhong Injection, Salvia Miltiorrhiza Polyphenol Hydrochloride Injection, Tanshinone Sodium Ⅱ_A Sulfonate Injection, Salvia Miltiorrhiza Ligustrazine Injection, Dazhu Hongjingtian Injection, Puerarin Injection, Safflower Yellow Pigment Injection, Shenmai Injection and Xuesaitong Injection). The network Meta-analysis showed that:(1)in terms of improving the efficacy of angina pectoris, the surface under the cumulative ranking curve(SUCRA) followed the order of conventional western medicine combined with Salvia Miltiorrhiza Ligustrazine Injection>Tanshinone Sodium Ⅱ_A Sulfonate Injection>Danhong Injection>Salvia Miltiorrhiza Polyphenol Hydrochloride Injection>Xuesaitong Injection>Shenmai Injection>Puerarin Injection>Safflower Yellow Pigment Injection>Dazhu Hongjingtian Injection;(2)in terms of improving the efficacy of electrocardiogram(ECG), SUCRA followed the order of conventional western medicine combined with Salvia Miltiorrhiza Ligustrazine Injection>Puerarin Injection>Danhong Injection>Salvia Miltiorrhiza Polyphenol Hydrochloride Injection>Shenmai Injection>Xuesaitong Injection>Safflower Yellow Pigment Injection>Tanshinone Sodium Ⅱ_A Sulfonate Injection>Dazhu Hongjingtian Injection;(3)in terms of increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C), SUCRA followed the order of conventional western medicine combined with Danhong Injection>Shenmai Injection>Safflower Yellow Pigment Injection>Xuesaitong Injection>Tanshinone Sodium Ⅱ_A Sulfonate Injection>Dazhu Hongjingtian Injection;(4)in terms of lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C), SUCRA followed the order of conventional western medicine combined with Safflower Yellow Pigment Injection>Danhong Injection>Shenmai Injection>Tanshinone Sodium Ⅱ_A Sulfonate Injection>Dazhu Hongjingtian Injection>Xuesaitong Injection;(5)in terms of safety, the overall adverse reactions of Chinese medicine injection combined with conventional western medicine were less than those of the control group. Current evidence indicated that Chinese medicine injection combined with conventional western medicine could improve the curative effect of stable angina pectoris with higher safety. Limited by the number and quality of included studies, the above conclusion needed to be verified by more high-quality studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Angina, Stable/drug therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Network Meta-Analysis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Cholesterol
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970575

ABSTRACT

Based on transcriptome sequencing technology, the mouse model of prediabetes treated with Huangjing Qianshi Decoction was sequenced to explore the possible mechanism of treating prediabetes. First of all, transcriptome sequencing was performed on the normal BKS-DB mouse group, the prediabetic model group, and the Huangjing Qianshi Decoction treatment group(treatment group) to obtain differentially expressed genes in the skeletal muscle samples of mice. The serum biochemical indexes were detected in each group to screen out the core genes of Huangjing Qianshi Decoction in prediabetes. Gene Ontology(GO) database and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) database were used to conduct signaling pathway enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(RT-qPCR) was used to verify them. The results showed that the levels of fasting blood glucose(FBG), fasting insulin(FINS), insulin resistance index(HOMA-IR), total cholesterol(TC), triglycerides(TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C) in the mouse model were significantly decreased after treatment with Huangjing Qianshi Decoction. In the results of differential gene screening, there were 1 666 differentially expressed genes in the model group as compared with the normal group, and there were 971 differentially expressed genes in the treatment group as compared with the model group. Among them, interleukin-6(IL-6) and NR3C2 genes, which were closely related to the regulation of insulin resis-tance function, were significantly up-regulated between the model group and the normal group, and vascular endothelial growth factor A(VEGFA) genes were significantly down-regulated between the model group and the normal group. However, the expression results of IL-6, NR3C2, and VEGFA genes were adverse between the treatment group and the model group. GO functional enrichment analysis found that the biological process annotation mainly focused on cell synthesis, cycle, and metabolism; cell component annotation mainly focused on organelles and internal components; and molecular function annotation mainly focused on binding molecular functions. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis found that it involved the protein tyrosine kinase 6(PTK6) pathway, CD28-dependent phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B(PI3K/AKT) pathway, p53 pathway, etc. Therefore, Huangjing Qianshi Decoction can improve the state of prediabetes, and the mechanism may be related to cell cycle and apoptosis, PI3K/AKT pathway, p53 pathway, and other biological pathways regulated by IL-6, NR3C2, and VEGFA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Prediabetic State , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Interleukin-6 , Transcriptome , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 , Insulin , Cholesterol
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970445

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the level of serum uric acid in patients with diabetes insipidus (DI),summarize the clinical characteristics of central diabetes insipidus (CDI) patients with hyperuricemia (HUA),and analyze the factors affecting the level of serum uric acid in the patients with CDI. Methods The clinical data of DI patients admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2018 to 2021 were retrospectively analyzed.The patients were assigned into a child and adolescent group (≤ 18 years old) and an adult group (>18 years old) according to their ages.The demographic and biochemical data between two groups of patients with and without HUA were compared.Spearman correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to analyze the correlations between serum uric acid level and other factors. Results Among the 420 DI patients,411 patients had CDI (97.9%),including 189 patients with HUA (46.0%).Thirteen (6.9%) out of the 189 CDI patients with HUA presented the disappearance of thirst.The prevalence of HUA in children and adolescents was higher than that in adults (χ2=4.193,P=0.041).The level of serum uric acid in the CDI patients with HUA and disappearance of thirst was higher than those without disappearance of thirst (U=2.593,P=0.010).The multiple linear regression predicted serum creatinine (β=0.472,95%CI=2.451-4.381,P<0.001) and body mass index (β=0.387,95%CI=6.18-12.874,P<0.001) as the independent risk factors of serum uric acid level increment in children and adolescents,while serum creatinine (β=0.361,95%CI=1.016-1.785,P<0.001),body mass index (β=0.208,95%CI=2.321-6.702,P<0.001),triglyceride (β=0.268,95%CI=12.936-28.840,P<0.001),and total cholesterol (β=0.129,95%CI=2.708-22.250,P=0.013) were the independent risk factors in adults. Conclusions The patients with CDI were more likely to have HUA,and the prevalence of HUA in children and adolescents was higher than that in adults.Body mass index,serum creatinine,triglyceride,total cholesterol,and disappearance of thirst were the risk factors for the increased level of serum uric acid in CDI patients.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Humans , Uric Acid , Creatinine , Retrospective Studies , Diabetes Insipidus , Hyperuricemia , Triglycerides , Cholesterol , Diabetes Mellitus
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969902

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the relationship and consistency between indexes of different abnormal weight and dyslipidemia in adults in Beijing City. Methods: From August to December of 2017, 4 975 residents aged 18 to 79 years old in 5 districts of Beijing were randomly selected as subjects by using a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method. Questionnaire, physical examination and laboratory tests were conducted. The prevalence of overweight/obesity, high body fat rate, central obesity, and high waist-to-height ratio was calculated. Partial correlation was used to analyze the correlation of blood lipid with body mass index (BMI), body fat rate, waist circumference and waist-height ratio. Logistic regression analysis for complex sampling was used to analyze the relationship between indexes of different abnormal weight and dyslipidemia after controlling for relevant risk factors, including age, sex, smoking status, drinking, insufficiency intake of vegetable and fruit, physical inactivity. Kappa value was computed to analyze the consistency between indexes of different abnormal weight. Results: The weighted prevalence of dyslipidemia was 30.48%, and it was higher in men than that in women (40.16% vs. 20.52%, P<0.01). The weighted rate of overweight/obesity, high body fat rate, central obesity, and high waist-to-height ratio was 56.65%, 47.52%, 42.48% and 59.45%, respectively. BMI, body fat rate, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio were positively correlated with the level of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and negatively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Logistic regression analysis for complex sampling showed that the high body fat rate (OR=1.67, 95%CI: 1.35-2.07), overweight/obesity (OR=1.65, 95%CI: 1.26-2.14) and high waist-to-height ratio (OR=1.46, 95%CI: 1.09-1.96) were associated with dyslipidemias. Kappa values of high body fat rate with overweight/obesity, high waist-to-height ratio and central obesity were 0.65, 0.53 and 0.58, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusion: In 2017, the prevalence of dyslipidemia in adults in Beijing City is high, especially in men. Overweight/obesity, high body fat rate and high waist-to-height ratio are associated with dyslipidemia. The high body fat rate is most associated with dyslipidemia.


Subject(s)
Male , Adult , Humans , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Overweight/complications , Obesity, Abdominal/epidemiology , Beijing , Obesity/complications , Body Mass Index , Risk Factors , Cholesterol , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Waist Circumference
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