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1.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(4): e3971, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289617

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El aceite esencial de Minthostachys mollis ha demostrado poseer importantes propiedades antimicrobianas. Objetivo: Caracterizar químicamente las fracciones obtenidas del aceite esencial de Minthostachys mollis y evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana sobre Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus faecalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis y Candida albicans. Material y Métodos: Las fracciones de éter de petróleo, diclorometano y metanol del AE de M. mollis fueron caracterizadas químicamente por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Las repeticiones del ensayo antimicrobiano se calcularon con el programa EPIDAT v.4.2. La actividad antimicrobiana se realizó por el método de difusión de disco y se calculó la concentración mínima inhibitoria por el método de microdilución. Los datos fueron analizados empleando la prueba ANOVA (p=0,05). Resultados: Los principales constituyentes de las fracciones de éter de petróleo, diclorometano y metanol fueron cis-Menthone (39,8 por ciento, thymol (31,2 por ciento) y α-Terpineol (43,6 por ciento), respectivamente. Todas las cepas fueron sensibles a las tres fracciones, aunque C. albicans fue la cepa más sensible, registrando halos de inhibición de 14,73±0,57 mm para la fracción de metanol, 20,91±0,55 mm para éter de petróleo y 20,38±0,58 mm para diclorometano, se encontraron diferencias significativas cuando se compararon frente a Clorhexidina al 0,12 por ciento y Nistatina (p<0,05). Las concentraciones mínimas inhibitorias de las fracciones variaron de 0,2 a 3,2 µg/mL. Conclusiones: Los principales constituyentes de las fracciones de éter de petróleo, diclorometano y metanol fueron cis-Menthone, thymol y α-Terpineol. Las fracciones de éter de petróleo y diclorometano fueron altamente efectivas para inhibir el crecimiento de S. mutans, L. acidophilus, E. faecalis, P. gingivalis y C. albicans(AU)


Introduction: The essential oil of Minthostachys mollis has demonstrated to have important antimicrobial properties. Objective: To chemically characterize the fractions obtained from the essential oil of Minthostachys mollis and to evaluate the antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus faecalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Candida albicans. Material and Methods: The petroleum ether, dichloromethane and methanol fractions of the AE of M. mollis were chemically characterized by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The repetitions of the antimicrobial test were calculated using the EPIDAT v.4.2 program. The antimicrobial activity was performed by the disk diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration was calculated by the microdilution method. The data were analyzed using the ANOVA test (p=0.05). Results: The main constituents of the petroleum ether, dichloromethane and methanol fractions were cis-Menthone (39,8 percent), thymol (31,2 percent)) and α-Terpineol (43,6 percent)), respectively. All strains were sensitive to the three fractions, although C. albicans was the most sensitive strain, registering inhibition halos of 14,73±0.57 mm for the methanol fraction, 20,91±0.55 mm for petroleum ether and 20.38±0.58 mm for dichloromethane, finding significant differences when compared to 0,12 percent) Chlorhexidine and Nystatin (p<0,05). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the fractions ranged from 0,2 to 3,2 µg/mL. Conclusions: The main constituents of the petroleum ether, dichloromethane and methanol fractions were cis-Menthone, thymol and α-Terpineol. The petroleum ether and dichloromethane fractions were highly effective in inhibiting the growth of S. mutans, L. acidophilus, E. faecalis, P. gingivalis, and Calbicans(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Enterococcus faecalis , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Lactobacillus acidophilus , Analysis of Variance , Chromatography, Gas
2.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(4): e3901, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289616

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Uno de los derivados de los clorofenoles más utilizado en Estomatología, lo constituye el p-clorofenol (4-clorofenol), empleado como agente antibacteriano en la desinfección del conducto radicular durante el tratamiento pulporradicular. Son escasos los reportes científicos sobre sus efectos en la musculatura lisa vascular arterial y la regulación del flujo sanguíneo local. Objetivo: Determinar el efecto del 4-clorofenol sobre el músculo liso vascular de aorta abdominal de ratas Wistar. Material y Métodos: Se realizó una investigación experimental preclínica, utilizando 30 anillos de aorta abdominal (porción superior) obtenidos de ratas Wistar adultas. Las preparaciones de unos 5 mm se colocaron en baño de órganos, registrándose la tensión desarrollada por el músculo liso vascular tras la adición de 4-clorofenol en diferentes concentraciones y durante diferentes intervalos de tiempo. Resultados: El 4-clorofenol, tras la preactivación del musculo liso vascular de anillos de aorta abdominal, indujo relajación del vaso, la que se incrementó durante todo el tiempo de estudio y al aumento de la concentración del medicamento. Existieron diferencias significativas entre los valores de tensión promedios registrados en los diferentes intervalos de tiempo con los de la tensión base inicial. Conclusiones: El p-clorofenol indujo in vitro, relajación del músculo liso vascular de aorta abdominal de ratas Wistar(AU)


Introduction: In Dentistry, p-chlorophenol (4-chlorophenol) is one of the most widely used derivatives of chlorophenols. It is used as an antibacterial agent in root canal disinfection during pulp-radicular treatment. There are few scientific reports on its effects on vascular smooth musculature and the regulation of local blood flow. Objective: To determine the effect of 4-chlorophenol on vascular smooth muscle of abdominal aorta from Wistar rats. Material and Methods: A preclinical experimental research was carried out using 30 abdominal aortic rings (upper portion) obtained from adult Wistar rats. The preparations of about 5 mm were placed in an organ bath, recording the tension developed by the vascular smooth muscle after the addition of 4-chlorophenol at different concentrations and during different time intervals. Results: The results demonstrate that 4-Chlorophenol induced vasorelaxation after the preactivation of the vascular smooth muscle of the abdominal aortic rings, which increased during the entire study time and with increased drug concentration. There were significant differences among average tension values registered at different intervals of time in relation to the initial base tension. Conclusions: It is concluded that in vitro, p-chlorophenol induced relaxation of abdominal aorta vascular smooth muscle in Wistar rats(AU)


Subject(s)
Rats , Oral Medicine , Dentistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , In Vitro Techniques , Chlorophenols/therapeutic use , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Rats, Wistar
3.
Rev. med. vet. zoot ; 68(2): 150-169, mayo-ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1352100

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La leche de vaca es un componente importante en la dieta humana y uno de sus aportes nutricionales es la fracción lipídica formada por diversos ácidos grasos, entre ellos, el ácido linoleico (AL) de familia omega-6 y el ácido alfa-linolénico (AAL) de familia omega-3, ambos constituyentes estructurales de membranas de tejidos celulares y reguladores metabólicos. Por su importancia, el objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la concentración de ácidos grasos omega-3 (alfa-linolénico) y omega-6 (linoleico) mediante cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC-MS), en relación con la influencia de los factores región (Costa, Sierra y Amazonia) y época (lluviosa y seca) sobre la concentración de dichos ácidos. Se trabajó con 30 centros de acopio y se recolectó según el protocolo LCL-INS-01. El análisis composicional se realizó bajo el método ISO 9622-IDF 141/2013 /LCL-PE-01 y el análisis del perfil lipídico mediante GC-MS. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron concentraciones (%) promedio de 2,72 y 0,06 para AL y AAL, respectivamente, en el perfil lipídico. En cuanto al factor región, Costa presentó 2,07%, Sierra 3,03% y Amazonía 3,06%, por lo que se evidenció alta diferencia significativa (p ≤ 0,01) para el AL, mientras que el AAL no mostró variación. En el factor época, el AL presentó 2,63% en época seca y 3,03% en época lluviosa, y el AAL 0,14 y 0,06%, respectivamente. Los resultados permitieron concluir que el factor región influye en la concentración del AL, pero no en el AAL, y el factor época no es influyente en la concentración del AL ni en la del AAL.


ABSTRACT Cow's milk is an important component in human diet and one of its nutritional contributions is the lipid fraction formed by various fatty acids, including linoleic acid (AL) of the omega-6 family and alpha-linolenic acid (AAL) of the omega-3 family, both structural constituents of cell tissue, membranes, and metabolic regulators. Due to its importance, the purpose of this research was to determine the concentration of omega-3 (alpha-linolenic) and omega-6 (linoleic) fatty acids present in bovine milk, by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS), establishing a relation between the influence of the region (Costa, Sierra and Amazonia) and the season (rainy and dry), and the concentration of these acids. 30 collection centers were analyzed and collected, according to the LCL-INS-01 protocol. The compositional analysis was carried out under the method ISO 9622-IDF 141/2013 /LCL-PE-01, and the analysis of the lipid profile was made by GC-MS. The results obtained show average concentrations (%) of 2,72 and 0,06 for AL and AAL respectively on the lipid profile. Regarding the region factor, Costa presented 2,07%, Sierra 3,03% and Amazonia 3,06%, showing significant difference (p ≤ 0,01) in AL, while the AAL showed no variation. With reference to the season factor, AL showed 2,63% in the dry season and 3,03% in the rainy season, and AAL 0,14 and 0,06% respectively. The results allowed to conclude that the region factor influences AL concentration but does not influence in AAL, and the season factor is not influential neither on AL nor on AAL concentration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Fatty Acids , Chromatography , Chromatography, Gas , Milk , Ecuador
4.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(2): e1104, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347458

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las plantas medicinales han demostrado poseer propiedades antibacterianas para el control de la periodontitis. Objetivo: Determinar la actividad antibacteriana frente a Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 de un gel experimental compuesto por aceite esencial de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio experimental in vitro. Se empleó el programa EPi InfoTM para el cálculo de las repeticiones. El aceite esencial se obtuvo por el método de arrastre de vapor; se identificó su composición química por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Se evaluó la concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI) y concentración mínima bactericida (CMB). Se realizó un ensayo de difusión en Agar para medir los halos de inhibición del gel experimental al 4,46 por ciento frente a P. gingivalis, la comparación con clorhexidina al 0,12 por ciento se evaluó con la prueba U de Mann-Whitney. Se adoptó un nivel de significancia del 5 por ciento . Resultados: Se identificaron 11 constituyentes en el aceite esencial, los principales componentes químicos fueron 3-heptadecene, (Z)- (36,13 por ciento ), 1-tridecene (14,7 por ciento ) y 1,8-cineole (9,72 por ciento ). La CMI del aceite esencial fue 36,195 mg/mL y la CMB fue 39,114 mg/mL. Los halos de inhibición del gel experimental de P. gingivalis fueron 25,533 mm ± 0,960. mm. Se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas frente a clorhexidina al 0,12 por ciento (23,282 ± 0,345) (p < 0,05). Conclusiones: El gel experimental al 4,46 por ciento compuesto por aceite esencial de Eucalyptus globulus Labill presentó una actividad antibacteriana importante frente a Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277(AU)


Introduction: Medicinal plants have proved to have antibacterial properties for the control of periodontitis. Objective: Determine the antibacterial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 of an experimental gel composed of essential Eucalyptus globulus Labill oil. Methods: An in vitro experimental study was conducted. The software EPi InfoTM was used to estimate the repetitions. The essential oil was obtained by steam entrainment, and its chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography / mass spectrometry. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were also evaluated. An agar diffusion test was performed to measure the inhibition haloes of the 4.46 percent experimental gel against P. gingivalis. Comparison with 0.12 percent chlorhexidine was evaluated with the Mann-Whitney U test. A 5 percent significance level was adopted. Results: A total 11 constituents were identified in the essential oil. The main chemical components were 3-Heptadecene, (Z)- (36.13 percent), 1-Tridecene (14.7 percentand 1,8-cineole (9.72 percent). MIC of the essential oil was 36.195 mg/ml, whereas MBC was 39.114 mg/ml. The inhibition haloes of the experimental P. gingivalis gel were 25.533 mm ± 0.960 mm. Statistically significant differences were observed versus 0.12 percent chlorhexidine (23.282 ± 0.345) (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The 4.46 percent experimental gel composed of Eucalyptus globulus Labill essential oil displayed considerable antibacterial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Periodontitis , Oils, Volatile , Chlorhexidine , Mass Spectrometry/methods , In Vitro Techniques , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 244-259, may. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342818

ABSTRACT

Essential oils from the leaves and stems of Croton adenocalyx, C. grewioides, C. heliotropiifoliusand C. blanchetianus obtained through hydrodistillation were analyzed by GC-MS. We then investigated the lethal and sublethal effects of the Croton oils and 15 major constituents against Tetranychus urticae. ß-Caryophyllene was the major component in the leaf and stem oils from C. heliotropiifolius and C. adenocalyx. Spathulenol and (E)-anethole were the major constituents identified in the leaf and stem oils of C. blanchetianus and C. grewioides, respectively. The oil with the greatest lethal and sublethal effects was those from C. adenocalyx. Among the constituents ß-caryophyllene and spatulenol were the most toxic to the mite, where as eugenol and methyl eugenol were the most repellent. The toxicity and repellency of the Croton oils, particularly the oils from C. adenocalyx, demonstrate that these oils constitute a promising alternative to synthetic acaricides for use in the control of T. urticae.


Los aceites esenciales de las hojas y tallos de Croton adenocalyx, C. growioides, C. heliotropiifolius y C. blanchetianus obtenidos mediante hidrodestilación fueron analizados a través de GC-MS. Se investigaron los efectos letales y subletales de los aceites de Croton y 15 componentes principales contra Tetranychus urticae. El ß-cariofileno fue el componente principal en los aceites de hojas y tallos de C. heliotropiifolius y C. adenocalyx. El espatulenol y el (E)-anetol fueron los principales componentes identificados en los aceites de hojas y tallos de C. blanchetianus y C. growioides, respectivamente. El aceite con los mayores efectos letales y subletales fue el de C. adenocalyx. Entre los componentes, el ß-cariofileno y el espatulenol fueron los más tóxicos para el ácaro, mientras que el eugenol y el metil eugenol fueron los más repelentes. La toxicidad y la repelencia de los aceites de Croton, particularmente los aceites de C. adenocalyx, demuestran que estos aceites constituyen una alternativa prometedora respecto a los acaricidas sintéticos para uso en el control de T. urticae.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Croton/chemistry , Tetranychidae/drug effects , Acaricides/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Plant Leaves , Acaricides/chemistry
6.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(supl.1): e1450, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289473

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La Minthostachys mollises una planta aromática que crece en América Latina y produce aceites esenciales con acción antimicrobiana. Objetivo: Determinar la actividad del aceite esencial de Minthostachys mollis en diferentes concentraciones, comparado con doxiciclina y fluconazol frente a Porphyromonas gingivalis, Staphylococcus aureus y Candida albicans, a las 24, 48 y 72 horas. Métodos: Se realiza estudio experimental in vitro y longitudinal. Se prepararon 15 pocillos por subgrupo para evaluar el efecto inhibitorio de todas las concentraciones, dando un total de 360 pocillos. Por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas se identificaron los componentes químicos del aceite esencial. Se analizó el efecto inhibitorio por el método de difusión de Kirby-Bauer en Agar Columbia y Agar Muller Hinton. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante la prueba ANOVA y Tukey. Resultados: En el análisis químico se identificó principalmente pulegona (30,17 por ciento) y mentona (16,55 por ciento). Los halos de inhibición de Minthostachys mollis al 100 por ciento a las 24, 48 y 72 horas frente a la Porphyromonas gingivalis, midieron: 10,2 mm, 9,8 mm y 9,6 mm, respectivamente; frente al Staphylococcus aureus, midieron: 10,4 mm, 9,7 mm y 9,4 mm, respectivamente; y, por último, frente a Candida albicans midieron: 9,8 mm, 8,9 mm y 8,5 mm, respectivamente. Todas las concentraciones de Minthostachys mollis presentaron un efecto antimicrobiano significativamente menor que el fluconazol y la doxiciclina (p < 0,001). Conclusiones: El aceite esencial de Minthostachys mollis al 100 % presentó su mejor actividad inhibitoria frente al Staphylococcus aureus, la Porphyromonas gingivalis y la Candida albicans a las 24 horas. Sin embargo, este efecto antimicrobiano disminuye a medida que pasa el tiempo(AU)


Introduction: Minthostachys mollis is an aromatic plant species growing in Latin America which produces essential oils with antimicrobial activity. Objective: Determine the activity of essential oil from Minthostachys mollis at various concentrations as compared with doxycycline and fluconazole against Porphyromonas gingivalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans at 24, 48 and 72 hours. Methods: An in vitro experimental longitudinal study was conducted. Fifteen wells were prepared per subgroup to evaluate the inhibitory effect of all concentrations, for a sum total of 360 wells. Chemical components of the essential oil were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The inhibitory effect was analyzed with the Kirby-Bauer diffusion method in Mueller-Hinton and Columbia agar. Statistical analysis was based on ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results: Chemical analysis mainly found pulegone (30.17 percent) and menthone (16.55 percent). The inhibition halos of 100 percent Minthostachys mollis at 24, 48 and 72 hours against Porphyromonas gingivalis measured 10.2 mm, 9.8 mm and 9.6 mm, respectively, against Staphylococcus aureus they measured 10.4 mm, 9.7 mm and 9.4 mm, respectively, and against Candida albicans they measured 9.8 mm, 8.9 mm and 8.5 mm, respectively. The antimicrobial effect of Minthostachys mollis at all concentrations was significantly lower than that of fluconazole and doxycycline (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The essential oil from 100% Minthostachys mollis displayed its best inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Candida albicans at 24 hours. However, such antimicrobial effect decreases with the passing of time(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , In Vitro Techniques , Oils, Volatile , Fluconazole , Analysis of Variance , Chromatography, Gas , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Longitudinal Studies , Chemical Phenomena
7.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284447

ABSTRACT

This paper described the chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from the leaves and stem of Amomum rubidumLamxay & N. S. Lý, collected from Bidoup Nui Ba National Park, Lam Dong, Vietnam. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodisitllation method while antimicrobial activity was evaluetd by microdilution broth susceptibility assay. The main constituents of the leaf essential oil were identified as 1,8-cineole (37.7%), δ-3-carene (19.5%) and limonene (16.3%) while δ-3-carene (21.9%), limonene (17.8%) and ß-phellandrene (14.6%) dominated in the stem essentialoil. The leaf and stem essential oils displayed stronger inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with MIC of 25 µg/mLand 50 µg/mL respectively. The stem essential oil was active against Candida albicans (MIC, 50 µg/mL) while both essential oils inhibited the growth of Fusarium oxysporum (MIC 50 µg/mL). This is the first report on chemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of A. rubidum.


Este artículo describe la composición química y la actividad antimicrobiana de aceites esenciales de las hojas y el tallo de Amomum rubidum Lamxay & N. S. Lý recolectados del Parque Nacional Bidoup Nui Ba, Lam Dong, Vietnam. Los aceites esenciales se obtuvieron mediante el método de hidrodisitilación, mientras que la actividad antimicrobiana se evaluó mediante un ensayo de susceptibilidad de caldo de microdilución. Los principales componentes del aceite esencial de la hoja se identificaron como 1,8-cineol (37,7%), δ-3-careno (19,5%) y limoneno (16,3%), mientras que δ-3-careno (21,9%), limoneno (17,8 %) y ß-felandreno (14,6%) dominaron en el aceite esencial del tallo. Los aceites esenciales de hoja y tallo mostraron una inhibición más fuerte de Pseudomonas aeruginosa con un MIC de 25 µg/mL y 50 µg/mL, respectivamente. El aceite esencial del tallo fue activo contra Candida albicans (MIC, 50 µg/mL) mientras que ambos aceites esenciales inhibieron el crecimiento de Fusarium oxysporum (MIC 50 µg/mL). Este es el primer informe sobre los componentes químicos y la actividad antimicrobiana de los aceites esenciales de A. rubidum.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Amomum/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Distillation , Chromatography, Gas , Plant Stems , Plant Leaves , Monoterpenes/analysis , Fusarium/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry
8.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(1): 61-70, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284444

ABSTRACT

Identification of the chemical compositionof essential oils is very important for ensuring the quality of finished herbal products. The objective of the study was to analyze the chemical components present in the essential oils of five Beilschmiediaspecies (i.e. B. kunstleri, B. maingayi, B. penangiana, B. madang, and B. glabra) by multivariate data analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) methods. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and fully characterized by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 108 chemical components were successfully identified from the essential oils of five Beilschmiediaspecies. The essential oils were characterized by high proportions of ß-caryophyllene (B.kunstleri), δ-cadinene (B. penangianaand B. madang), and ß-eudesmol (B. maingayiand B. glabra). Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) revealed that chemical similarity was highest for all samples, except for B. madang. The multivariate data analysis may be used for the identification and characterization of essential oils from different Beilschmiediaspecies that are to be used as raw materials of traditional herbal products.


La identificación de la composición química de los aceites esenciales es muy importante para garantizar la calidad de los productos herbales terminados. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar los componentes químicos presentes en los aceites esenciales de cinco especies de Beilschmiedia (B. kunstleri, B. maingayi, B. penangiana, B. madangy B. glabra) mediante análisis de datos multivariados utilizando los métodos de análisis de componente principal (PCA) y análisis de agrupamiento jerárquico (HCA). Los aceites esenciales se obtuvieron por hidrodestilación y se caracterizaron completamente por cromatografía de gases (GC) y cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (GC-MS). Se identificaron con éxito un total de 108 componentes químicos a partir de los aceites esenciales de las cinco especies de Beilschmiedia. Los aceites esenciales se caracterizaron por altas proporciones de ß-cariofileno (B. kunstleri), δ-cadineno (B. penangianay B. madang) y ß-eudesmol (B. maingayiy B. glabra). El análisis de componentes principales (PCA) y el análisis de conglomerados jerárquicos (HCA) revelaron que la similitud química fue más alta para todas las muestras, excepto para B. madang. El análisis de datos multivariados puede usarse para la identificación y caracterización de aceites esenciales de diferentes especies de Beilschmiedia que se utilizan como materias primas de productos herbales tradicionales.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Lauraceae/chemistry , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Cluster Analysis , Distillation , Multivariate Analysis , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Principal Component Analysis , Monoterpenes/analysis
9.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190730, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285554

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pyroligneous acid (PA) was obtained by condensation of the vapors produced in the thermal decomposition of culms residues from Guadua angustifolia Kunth (G. angustifolia) cultivated in Colombia, with and without previous preservation treatment with borax salts. Chemical characterization by GC-MS showed that PA extracts has high content of phenolic compounds. Mequinol, isocreosol, 4-ethylphenol, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxytoluene and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol were the most abundant substances, identified. The total phenolic content (TPC) and DPPH free radical scavenging activity, were investigated. TPC showed a concentration of 1.959 mg GA g-1±0.010 and 3.844 mg GA g-1±0.027 to PAC and PAS samples. These samples also exhibited high DPPH activity of 70.975%±0.921 and, 16.667%±0.298, respectively. The chemical composition, TPC and DPPH results indicate that the PA extracts obtained from G. angustifolia may be used as a raw material in the food industry as natural preservative, in medicine as alternative to antibiotics and in agriculture as insect repellent and foliar fertilizer.


Subject(s)
Mass Spectrometry , Bambusa/chemistry , Chromatography, Gas , Acetic Acid , Antioxidants/chemistry
10.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2021. 127 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379383

ABSTRACT

Estenose de Junção Ureteropélvica (JUP) é uma doença caracterizada pelo bloqueio do fluxo de urina da pelve renal (porção proximal do ureter no rim) ao ureter, tubo que liga o rim à bexiga. Essa formação congênita é uma das maiores causas de dilatação do rim (hidronefrose) em recém-nascidos e, em alguns casos, pode causar danos mais severos ao órgão. A hidronefrose causada pela estenose de JUP pode desaparecer espontaneamente sem perda da função renal, entretanto, é preciso um acompanhamento clínico. Por outro lado, em casos mais severos, onde a dilatação pode causar danos maiores ao rim, um tratamento cirúrgico se faz necessário. Embora existam métodos para o diagnóstico da estenose de JUP, como ultrassonografia, tomografia computadorizada, ressonância e cintilografia, é um grande desafio diferenciar os pacientes que requerem um tratamento cirúrgico e os que necessitam apenas de um acompanhamento convencional. A metabolômica global, que investiga de modo comparativo o conjunto de metabólitos de baixa massa molecular expressos em indivíduos em condições pré-selecionadas, tem o potencial de servir como ferramenta diagnóstica para os pacientes com estenose de JUP e, consequentemente, auxiliar na tomada de decisão entre um acompanhamento clínico ou tratamento cirúrgico. Assim sendo, no presente trabalho, três grupos de pacientes com estenose de JUP, pré-diagnosticados por métodos convencionais, foram investigados sob a perspectiva da metabolômica global, por meio de análises de urina, utilizando cromatografia gasosa e cromatografia líquida, ambas acoplada à espectrometria de massas (GC-MS e RPLC10 MS, respectivamente): pacientes que requerem tratamento cirúrgico (CIR), pacientes que requerem acompanhamento clínico (CLI), e indivíduos sãos (CON). Os resultados mostram que é possível encontrar metabólitos discriminantes entre todas as comparações (CON x CLI, CON x CIR e CLI x CIR); os metabólitos encontrados nas análises multivariada e univariada foram utilizados para construção da curva ROC, para confirmar a possibilidade de utilização desses compostos como biomarcadores. Foram observadas alterações em rotas metabólicas importantes para o bom funcionamento das funções renais, principalmente entre a comparação mais desafiadora (CLI x CIR), como o metabolismo da fenilalanina, da tirosina, da beta-alanina, dos aminoaçúcares e dos nucleotídeos. Há indícios de que o ciclo de Krebs também sofre alteração. Os resultados obtidos podem servir como ponto de partida para uma futura análise alvo e validação biológica


Ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) stenosis is a disease characterized by the interruption of the flow of urine from the renal pelvis (proximal part of ureter in the kidney) to the ureter, tube that links the kidney to bladder. That congenital formation is one of the main causes of kidney dilation (hydronephrosis) in newborns and, sometimes, can cause more serious damage to the organ. The hydronephrosis caused by UPJ stenosis can disappear spontaneously without compromising renal function, although a clinical follow-up is required. On the other hand, in more serious cases, when dilation can induce larger damage to the kidney, surgery intervention is necessary. Although there are methods to diagnose UPJ stenosis, such as ultrasound, computed tomography, resonance and scintigraphy, it is still a great challenge to distinguish patients that require surgery from those whose a clinical follow-up suffices. Global metabolomics, a method that investigates in a comparative manner the set of low molecular mass metabolites expressed by an individual in pre-selected conditions, has the potential to function as a diagnostic tool for patients with UPJ stenosis to support decisions about patient treatment, i.e., surgery versus clinical follow-up. In this work, three groups of UPJ stenosis patients were investigated with the aid of global metabolomics using urine analysis by gas chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS and RPLC-MS, respectively): one group consisted of UPJ stenosis patients requiring clinical follow-up (CLI), other group UPJ stenosis patients requiring surgery intervention (CIR) and a third group comprising healthy individuals, the control group (CON).12 The results show that it was possible to find discriminant metabolites among all pairwise comparisons (CON versus CLI, CON versus CIR and CLI versus CIR). The metabolites found by multivariate and univariate analyses were used to build ROC curves, to confirm whether it is possible to use them as biomarkers. Alterations in metabolic pathways that are important for the good maintenance of kidney functions were found, especially in the most challenged comparison (CLI versus CIR), such as the metabolism of phenylalanine, tyrosine, beta-alanine, amino acids and nucleotides. There are evidences that Krebs cycle was also impacted. The results obtained here can serve as a starting point to future targeted analysis and biological validation


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Child , Constriction, Pathologic/pathology , Metabolomics/classification , Phenylalanine/agonists , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Urinary Bladder/abnormalities , Biomarkers/chemistry , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/instrumentation , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Chromatography, Liquid/methods
11.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 40(4): 693-701, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142435

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción. El aceite del árbol de té es un aceite esencial reconocido por sus propiedades antimicrobianas. Objetivos. Evaluar la composición, características y efecto antimicrobiano del aceite al 2 % del árbol de té y su concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM) contra Cutibacterium acnes (Propionibacterium acnes). Materiales y métodos. Se evaluó el quimiotipo en tres lotes diferentes de este aceite mediante cromatografía de gases, así como su actividad antimicrobiana en concentración al 2 % v/v y la CIM contra C. acnes mediante ensayo de difusión en agar (guía M11-A8 CLSI). Resultados. Los lotes evaluados presentaron los quimiotipos ajustados a la norma ISO 4730, lo que indicó la alta calidad del producto. Los lotes contenían de 30 a 40 % de terpinen-4-ol, compuesto que favorece la actividad antimicrobiana, la cual presentó en todos los lotes un efecto dependiente de la concentración contra C. acnes, con una inhibición del crecimiento microbiano en concentración al 2 % v/v en todas las pruebas. La concentración inhibitoria mínima fue de 0,25 % v/v. La actividad antimicrobiana del aceite del árbol de té contra este microorganismo ya ha sido reportada con una concentración inhibitoria mínima entre 0,05 y 1,25 % v/v, rango que cobija la obtenida en este estudio. Conclusiones. Los resultados evidenciaron la gran calidad de este producto y su capacidad como agente antibacteriano contra C. acnes. Se deben hacer estudios con otros aislamientos del microorganismo provenientes de pacientes con acné vulgar para confirmar su actividad general y la de cada uno de sus componentes.


Abstract: Introduction: Tea tree oil is an essential oil recognized for its antimicrobial properties. Objective: To evaluate the composition, features, and antimicrobial effect at 2% v/v, and its minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Cutibacterium acnes (Propionibacterium acnes). Materials and methods: Three different batches of tea tree oil were evaluated. We characterized its chemotype by gas chromatography and its 2% v/v antimicrobial activity against C. acnes by agar diffusion assay (guide M11-A8 CLSI). Results: The three batches of oil had the chemotypes required by the ISO 4730 standard, which indicates that it is a high-quality product. Additionally, they had 30% to 40% of terpinen-4-ol, a compound that favors its antimicrobial activity. Antimicrobial activity against C. acnes for all batches had a concentration-dependent effect with microbial growth inhibitory activity in all assays at 2% v/v. The MIC obtained against C. acnes for all batches was 0.25% v/v. The antimicrobial activity of tea tree oil against this microorganism has been previously reported with a MIC between 0.05% and 1.25% v/v, a range that covers the one obtained in this study. Conclusion: These results show the high quality of the oil and its capacity as an antibacterial agent against C. acnes. New studies should be conducted to confirm its activity and that of its components in isolates of the microorganism from patients with acne vulgaris.


Subject(s)
Propionibacterium acnes , Tea Tree Oil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chromatography, Gas
12.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(2): 200-208, abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115489

ABSTRACT

ANTECEDENTES: Se desconoce el contenido de grasas saturada (GS) y trans (Gtrans) en panes sin etiqueta y sin vigilancia por entidad regulatoria de Colombia. PROPÓSITO: Comparar el contenido de GS y Gtrans en panes de algunas panaderías de Medellín con lo reglamentado: 0,5 g/50 g de pan, para ambos tipos de grasa según resolución 2508 de 2012 del Ministerio de Salud. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se muestrearon 45 panes de tres tipos (aliñado, leche y croissant) en tres niveles socioeconómicos (NSE) según ubicación de la panadería. Se cuantificó grasa total gravimétricamente y GS y Gtrans por cromatografía de gases. RESULTADOS: El porcentaje de GS y Gtrans con respecto a la grasa total extraíble fue 43,8% y 0,6% en pan aliñado, 37,4% y 0,6% en pan leche y 32,2% y 0,9% en pan croissant, sin diferencia significativa entre ellos (p= 0,155 y 0,184, respectivamente). CONCLUSIONES: Comparado con la resolución 2508, el contenido de GS fue mayor al límite establecido en resolución y el contenido de Gtrans fue menor en pan aliñado, leche o croissant. Los panes evaluados en las panaderías del NSE bajo contenían mayor Gtrans que los otros.


BACKGROUND: The content of saturated (GS) and trans (Gtrans) fats in unlabeled and breads that are not regulated by the Colombian government is unknown. PURPOSE: To compare the content of GS and Gtrans in breads of bakeries in Medellín with the following regulation: 0.5 g/50 g of bread, for both types of fat according to the 2012 Ministry of Health resolution #2508. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 45 breads of three types (seasoned, milk and croissant) were sampled at bakeries from three socioeconomic levels (NSE) according to the location. Total fat was quantified gravimetrically and GS and Gtrans by gas chromatography. RESULTS: The percentage of GS and Gtrans with respect to the total extractable fat was 43.8% and 0.6% in seasoned bread, 37.4% and 0.6% in milk bread and 32.2% and 0.9% in croissant bread, with no significant difference by bread type (p= 0.155 and 0.184, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: GS content of sampled breadswas greater than the limit established in the resolution. Gtrans content was lower in seasoned bread andmilk bread compared to croissant. The breads evaluated in the bakeries of lower NSE contained higher Gtrans than the others.


Subject(s)
Bread/analysis , Dietary Fats/analysis , Trans Fatty Acids/analysis , Fatty Acids/analysis , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Colombia , Flame Ionization/methods
13.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(2): 568-577, 01-03-2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146421

ABSTRACT

In the Myrtaceae family, the species Eugenia involucrata DC., popularly known as "cerejeira-do-mato", is traditionally used for the antidiarrheal and digestive action of its leaves. However, no studies were found in the literature regarding its antimicrobial and antioxidant potential. In this context, the objective of the present study was to determine the chemical composition by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate the antimicrobial activity by the broth microdilution technique and the antioxidant activity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazila (DPPH) method of the essential oil of E. involucrataleaves. GC-MS identified 28 compounds, all sesquiterpenes, corresponding to 89.41% of the essential oil. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was observed for all Gram-positive bacteria tested (Staplylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis,Bacillus subtilis and Staplylococcus aureus) and for yeast Candida albicans. The essential oil presented a reduction capacity of DPPH up to 66.81%, evidencing its antioxidant potential. It is suggested that the antimicrobial and antioxidant action of E. involucrata essential oil is related to the presence of the major compounds, elixene (26.53%), ß-caryophyllene (13.16%), α-copaene (8.41%) and germacrene D (7.17%).


Na família Myrtaceae, a espécieEugenia involucrata DC. popularmente denominada "cerejeira-do-mato" é conhecida tradicionalmente pela ação antidiarreica e digestiva de suas folhas. Contudo, na literatura não foram encontrados trabalhos referentes ao seu potencial antimicrobiano e antioxidante. Neste contexto, o objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a composição química por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas (CG-EM) e avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana pela técnica de microdiluição em caldo e a atividade antioxidante pelo método do 2,2-difenil-1-picril-hidrazila (DPPH) do óleo essencial das folhas de E. involucrata. A CG-EM identificou 28 compostos, todos sesquiterpenos, correspondendo a 89,41% do óleo essencial. A atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial foi observada para todas as bactérias Gram-positivas testadas (Staplylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis,Bacillus subtilise Staplylococcus aureus) e para a levedura Candida albicans. O óleo essencial apresentou capacidade redutora de radicais DPPH de até 66,81%, evidenciando sua potencialidade antioxidante. Sugere-se que a ação antimicrobiana e antioxidante do óleo essencial de E. involucrata esteja relacionada à presença dos compostos majoritários, elixeno (26,53%), ß-cariofileno (13,16%), -copaeno (8,41%) e germacreno D (7,17%).


Subject(s)
Myrtaceae , Eugenia , Anti-Infective Agents , Antioxidants , Mass Spectrometry , Bacillus , Bacteria , Biological Products , Candida albicans , Oils , Distillation , Chromatography, Gas , Enterococcus faecalis , Volatile Organic Compounds
14.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(1): 61-68, mar. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130580

ABSTRACT

El uso de bisfenol-A (BPA) a nivel de la industria global se ha venido incrementando en los ultimos anos, y fueron los mercados emergentes los impulsores de esta demanda creciente. Las aplicaciones de BPA en la industria de los alimentos y bebidas representan solo del 3 al 4% del consumo global de policarbonato, pero su uso esta siendo reexaminado debido a que se conocieron varios trabajos cientificos que indican la existencia de una relacion directa entre el BPA y los efectos adversos para la salud. La contaminacion de los alimentos y bebidas se produce por migracion del BPA desde los envases que los contienen (alimentos enlatados, vinos, etc.), y es la principal fuente de exposicion en el humano. Para evaluar dicha exposicion se desarrollo y valido un metodo analitico por cromatografia gaseosa acoplada a espectrometria de masa para la cuantificacion de BPA total en orina de mujeres embarazadas atendidas en el Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires en el ano 2013, con un limite de cuantificacion de 2,0 ng/mL y un limite de deteccion de 0,8 ng/mL. De las 149 muestras de orina analizadas, el 66,4% fueron cuantificables, con la mediana de BPA total de 4,8 ng/mL (4,3 ng/mg de creatinina) y la media geometrica de 4,8 ng/mL (4,7 ng/mg de creatinina).


The use of bisphenol-A (BPA) at the level of the global industry has been increasing in recent years, with emerging markets being the drivers of this growing demand. BPA applications in the food and beverage industry represent only 3 to 4% of the global consumption of polycarbonate, but its use is being reexamined because several scientific works were reported indicating the existence of a direct relationship between BPA and adverse effects on health. The contamination of food and beverages is produced by the migration of BPA from the containers that hold them (canned foods, wines, etc.) and it is the main source of exposure in humans. To evaluate this exposure, an analytical method was developed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry for the quantification of total BPA in urine of pregnant women treated at the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires in 2013, with a limit of quantification of 2.0 ng/mL and of detection of 0.8 ng/mL. Of the 149 urine samples analyzed, 66.4% were quantifiable, with a median total BPA of 4.8 ng/mL (4.3 ng/mg creatinine) and a geometric mean of 4.8 ng/mL (4.7 ng/mg creatinine).


O uso de bisfenol-A (BPA) ao nivel da industria global foi aumentando nos ultimos anos, e foram os mercados emergentes que deram impulso a essa demanda crescente. As aplicacoes de BPA na industria de alimentos e bebidas representam apenas 3 a 4% do consumo global de policarbonato, mas seu uso esta sendo reexaminado visto que varios trabalhos cientificos indicando a existencia de uma relacao direta entre o BPA e os efeitos adversos na saude foram conhecidos. A contaminacao dos alimentos e bebidas e produzida pela migracao de BPA das embalagens que os contem (alimentos enlatados, vinhos, etc.) e e a principal fonte de exposicao em humanos. Para avaliar esta exposicao, foi desenvolvido e avaliado um metodo analitico por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas para a quantificacao do BPA total na urina de gestantes atendidas no Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires em 2013, com um limite de quantificacao de 2,0 ng/mL e um limite de deteccao de 0,8 ng/mL. Das 149 amostras de urina analisadas, 66,4% foram quantificaveis, com uma mediana de BPA total de 4,8 ng/mL (4,3 ng/mg de creatinina) e a media geometrica de 4,8 ng/mL (4,7 ng/mg de creatinina).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Urine , Pregnancy/urine , Endocrine Disruptors , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Toxicology/statistics & numerical data , Food Industry , Health , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Food and Beverages , Pregnant Women , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Food
15.
Article in English | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1145994

ABSTRACT

El presente estudio tiene como objetivo explorar las posibles aplicaciones de los extractos de corteza y hoja de Blepharocalyx cruckshanksii como agente citotóxico contra líneas celulares de cáncer in vitro ((MCF-7, PC-3 y HT-29) mediante el uso de ensayo de sulforhodamine B (SRB). El ensayo de citotoxicidad reveló que el extracto de acetato de etilo de la corteza exhibía una actividad anticancerígena marcada. El extracto activo se sometió a un reparto líquido-líquido usando hexano y acetato de etilo para obtener fracciones basadas en su polaridad. Sin embargo, la Fracción 4 (F4) fue identificado como el más efectivo de la serie al mostrar contra todas las líneas celulares de cáncer una citotoxicidad cercana a los agentes antineoplásicos ensayados. Luego, F4 se analizó por cromatografía de gasesespectrometría de masas (GC-MS) para identificar sus componentes principales y relacionar estos componentes con el efecto citotóxico. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron que la corteza de B. cruckshanksii tiene una excelente actividad citotóxica y amerita estudios adicionales para aislar nuevos compuestos para quimioterapia.


The present study aims to explore the potential applications of Blepharocalyx cruckshanksii bark and leaf extracts as a cytotoxic agent against in vitro cancer cell lines (MCF-7, PC-3 and HT-29) by using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. The cytotoxicity assay revealed that the ethyl acetate extract from the bark exhibited marked anticancer activity. The active extract was subjected to liquid-liquid partitioning by using hexane and ethyl acetate to obtain fractions based on their polarity. However, Fraction 4 (F4) was identified as the most effective of the series by displaying against all cancer cell lines a cytotoxicity close to antineoplastic agents assayed. Then, F4 was analyzed by gas chromatography­mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify their major components and to relate these components to the cytotoxic effect. The results obtained indicated that B. cruckshanksii bark have excellent cytotoxic activity and warrant further studies to isolate novel compounds for chemotherapeutic use.


Subject(s)
Humans , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Cytotoxins , Antineoplastic Agents , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts , Chile , Chromatography, Gas
16.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(4): 387-394, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1145997

ABSTRACT

Triatoma infestans (Klug) es el vector principal de la enfermedad de Chagas en Bolivia y los países vecinos. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la composición química del AE del laurel chileno, Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav.) Tul. (Monimiaceae) y evaluar su efecto repelente en ninfas del quinto estadio de T. infestans. La AE de L. sempervirens se obtuvo por hidrodestilación y se analizó por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (CG-EM). Sus componentes principales fueron cis-isosafrol (89.8%), ß-terpineno (3.9%), trans-ocimeno (2.7%) y metileugenol (2.2%). La repelencia se evaluó en un círculo de papel de filtro dividido en dos zonas iguales que se impregnaron con sustancias de prueba [AE o N,N-dietil-3-metilbenzamida (DEET) como control positivo] y acetona como control en blanco, respectivamente. Se analizaron varias concentraciones de sustancias de prueba entre 4.125 y 132 µg/cm2. El AE de L. sempervirens produjo una repelencia significativa a concentraciones iguales o superiores a 66.0 µg/cm2, mientras que DEET repelió a partir de 16.5 µg/cm2. Futuros trabajos serán orientados al estudio de las propiedades repelentes de cis-isosafrol solo y mezclado con ß-terpineno, trans-ocimeno y metileugenol en T. infestans.


Triatoma infestans (Klug) is the principal vector of Chagas disease in Bolivia and neighboring countries. The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition of the EO of the Chilean laurel, Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav.) Tul. (Monimiaceae) and to evaluate its repellent effect on fifth-instar nymphs of T. infestans. The EO from L. sempervirens was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Their main components were cis-isosafrole (89.8%), ß-terpinene (3.9%), trans-ocimene (2.7%) and methyleugenol (2.2%). Repellency was evaluated on a circle of filter paper divided into two equal zones which were impregnated with test substances [EO or N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) as positive control] and acetone as blank control, respectively. Several concentrations of test substances between 4.125 and 132 µg/cm2 were tested. The EO from L. sempervirens produced significant repellency at concentrations equal or above 66.0 µg/cm2, while DEET repelled starting at 16.5 µg/cm2. Future works will be oriented to the study of repellent properties of cis-isosafrole alone and mixed with ß-terpinene, trans-ocimene and methyleugenol on T. infestans.


Subject(s)
Chagas Disease , Lauraceae/chemistry , Triatoma , Bolivia , Chromatography, Gas
17.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(4): 408-419, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1145999

ABSTRACT

Este estudio tuvo como objetivo caracterizar las propiedades químicas, antioxidantes y antimicrobianas del aceite de pulpa de Mauritia flexuosa L. f. (Arecaceae). La identificación química se realizó por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Se caracterizaron las propiedades fisicoquímicas. La capacidad antioxidante se ha verificado eliminando los radicales libres, reduciendo y quelando el hierro. La actividad antimicrobiana se evaluó mediante la concentración inhibitoria mínima y la acción moduladora de los antibióticos. Los principales ácidos grasos identificados fueron ácido esteárico, ácido palmítico y ácido oleico. La acidez y el índice de saponificación están dentro de los límites establecidos por la Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria. El aceite mostró actividad antioxidante moderada y actividad antimicrobiana contra las cepas de Candida. También mostró efectos sinérgicos, especialmente acerca de cefotaxima contra Bacillus cereus. Los resultados sugieren el potencial de la especie como antioxidante y en terapia antimicrobiana.


This study aimed to characterize the chemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the pulp oil of Mauritia flexuosa L. f. (Arecaceae). Chemical identification was performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The physicochemical properties were characterized. Antioxidant capacity has been verified by eliminating of free radicals, reducing and chelation of iron. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the minimum inhibitory concentration and the modulatory action of antibiotics. The major fatty acids identified were stearic acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid. The acidity and the saponification index are within the limits established by the National Sanitary Surveillance Agency. The oil showed moderate antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity against Candida strains. It also showed synergistic effects, especially on cefotaxime against Bacillus cereus. The results suggest the potential of the species as an antioxidant and in antimicrobial therapy.


Subject(s)
Arecaceae/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents , Antioxidants , Mass Spectrometry , Candida , Chromatography, Gas
18.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190216, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132175

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the last years phytosterols, natural components of plants, have received more attention due to association of their consumption with reducing risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. There are several scientific studies about phytosterols in vegetable oils, but they are scarce in unconventional oils. The objective of this research was evaluating the content of phytosterols (β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol) in vegetable oils sold in São Paulo city, in Brazil. The analysis included cold alkaline saponification, derivatization with hexamethyldisilazane and trimethylchlorosilane reagents, and quantification by gas chromatography using flame ionization detection and internal standardization. The quality control parameters indicated that the method was suitable for analysis. Total sterols were between 272.3 mg kg-1 (coconut oil) to 6169.7 mg kg-1 (evening primrose oil). β-sitosterol was the component found in higher concentrations and evening primrose oil was the most representative in quantity of phytosterols.


Subject(s)
Phytosterols/analysis , Plant Oils/analysis , Sitosterols/analysis , Stigmasterol/analysis , Plant Oils/classification , Brazil , Chromatography, Gas , Flax , Carthamus tinctorius , Palm Oil/analysis
19.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284300

ABSTRACT

The chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oils derived from the leaves and rhizomes of Zingiber montanum (J. Koenig) Link ex. A. Dietr. were reported. The main compounds in the leaf oil were ß-pinene (13.8%), ß-phellandrene (11.3%) and α-pinene (7.3%) while the rhizome oil was dominated by sabinene (41.1%), terpinen-4-ol (22.7%) and (E)-nerolidol (14.3%). The minimum lethal concentration (larvicidal activity) LC50of the rhizome oil at 24 h against Aedes albopictus was 35.17 µg/mL, while LC50 values of 32.20 µg/mL and 31.12 µg/mL were obtained against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus respectively. At 48 h the oil displayed larvicidal action with LC50 values of 23.18 µg/mL, 25.58 µg/mL and 18.99 µg/mL respectively towards Ae. albopictus, Ae. Aegyptiand Cx. quinquefasciatus. The leaf oil did not exhibit significant mortality and larvicidal action. The results indicate the potential of rhizome essential oil of Z. montanumas a source of larvicidal agent.


En el presente trabajo se reportan la composición química y actividad larvicida de los aceites esenciales obtenidos de hojas y rizomas de Zingiber montanum (J. Koenig) Link ex. A. Dietr. Los principales compuestos en el aceite de hojas fueron ß-pineno (13.8%), ß-felandrene (11.3%) y α-pineno (7.3%); mientras que los más abundantes en el aceite de rizomas fueron sabineno (41.1%), terpinen-4-ol (22.7%) y (E)-nerolidol (14.3%). La concentración letal mínima (actividad larvicida) LC50 del aceite de riomas ante Aedes albopictus fue 35.17 µg/mL, mientras que los valores de LC50 de 32.20 µg/mL y 31.12 µg/mL fueron obtenidos ante Aedes aegyptiy Culex quinquefasciatus respectivamente. A las 48 horas, el aceite mostró acción larvicida con valores de LC50 de 23.18 µg/mL, 25.58 µg/mL y 18.99 µg/mL respectivamente, ante Ae. albopictus, Ae. Aegyptiand Cx. quinquefasciatus. El aceite de hojas no mostró mortalidad ni acción larvicida significativa. Los resultados indican el potencial del aceite esencial de rizomas de Z. montanum como una fuente de agentes larvicidas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pesticides/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Zingiberaceae/chemistry , Culicidae/drug effects , Pesticides/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Analysis of Variance , Chromatography, Gas , Aedes/drug effects , Culex/drug effects , Monoterpenes/analysis , Larvicides , Mosquito Vectors
20.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(5): 508-518, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283650

ABSTRACT

The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of the essential oil (EO) from Ocotea pulchella leaves as an alternative in the control of schistosomiasis. It was tested O. pulchella EO nanoformulation to assess its activity against adult Biomphalaria glabrata, their spawning and Schistossoma mansoni cercariae. Additionally, the EO chemical composition was investigated by gas-chromatography. Nanoemulsion were elaborated by the low energy method. The adult mollusks, their spawning and cercariae were placed in contact with nanoemulsion to calculate lethal concentrations. Myristicin, bicyclogermacrene and α-Pinene were the main substances in the EO. Nanoemulsion caused mortality of adult B. glabrata, its egg embryos and S. mansoni. These results suggest the use of this nanoemulsion as an alternative in the control of the schistosomiasis cycle.


El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el potencial de los aceites esenciales (AE) de las hojas de Ocotea pulchellacomo una alternativa en el control de esquistosomiasis. Se probó una nanoformulación de AE de O. pulchellapara evaluar su actividad ante adultos de Biomphalaria glabrata, sus huevos y cercarías de Schistossoma mansoni. La nanoemulsión fue elaborada por el método de baja energía. Los moluscos adultos, sus huevos y cercarías se colocaron en contacto con la nanoemulsión para calcular concentraciones letales. Los compuestos mayoritarios en el AE fueron miristicina, biciclogermacreno y α-pineno. La nanoemulsión causó mortalidad en adultos de B. glabrata, sus huevos y a S. mansoni. Los resultados sugieren el uso de esta nanoemulsión como una alternativa en el control del ciclo de esquistosomiasis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Schistosomiasis/prevention & control , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Ocotea/chemistry , Emulsions/administration & dosage , Mollusca/drug effects , Schistosoma mansoni/drug effects , Biomphalaria/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Pest Control, Biological , Chromatography, Gas , Sesquiterpenes, Germacrane/analysis , Dioxolanes/analysis , Emulsions/pharmacology , Cercaria/drug effects , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Allylbenzene Derivatives/analysis , Bicyclic Monoterpenes/analysis
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