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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244435, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285619

ABSTRACT

Abstract Increasing trend in antimicrobial resistance and failure of chemically synthesized antibiotics lead to discover alternative methods for the treatment of bacterial infections. Various medicinal plants are in use traditionally and their active compounds can be further applied for treatment of bacterial diseases. This study was designed to determine the antibacterial activity of Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (pomegranate) peel extract against Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae)] and gram-positive bacterium [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. Methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel was prepared by Soxhlet apparatus method. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents from the extract were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The antibacterial activity of P. granatum L. peel extract was evaluated through agar well diffusion method. HPLC showed the range of phenolics (gallic acid, caffeic acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid) and flavonoid compounds. The chemical structures of flavonoid and phenolics found in the methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel have been reported for the first time. The methanolic peel extract (50 ul) of yellow P. granatum L. showed 26, 10, 10 and 9mm zones of inhibition (ZOI) against S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. The methanolic extract of red P. granatum L. (100 ul) showed 27, 8, 12 and 15 mm ZOI against Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. Highest ZOI was observed against Staph. aureus. Many of the bacteria studied in the present work may cause serious gastrointestinal infections, which can lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea in children. These infections can be life-threatening to young children and the elderly. There is an incentive to find alternative control measures, such as plant and herbal extracts, especially in lesser-developed countries where traditional antibiotics may not be readily available.


Resumo A tendência crescente na resistência antimicrobiana e na falha dos antibióticos sintetizados quimicamente leva à descoberta de métodos alternativos para o tratamento de infecções bacterianas. Várias plantas medicinais estão em uso tradicionalmente e seus compostos ativos podem ser posteriormente aplicados para o tratamento de doenças bacterianas. Este estudo foi desenhado para determinar a atividade antibacteriana do extrato de casca de Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (romã) contra Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) e Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae) ] e bactéria gram-positiva [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. O extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foi preparado pelo método do aparelho de Soxhlet. O conteúdo total de flavonoides e fenólicos do extrato foi determinado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC). A atividade antibacteriana do extrato da casca de P. granatum L. foi avaliada através do método de difusão em ágar. HPLC mostrou a gama de compostos fenólicos (ácido gálico, ácido cafeico, ácido benzoico, ácido cinâmico) e flavonoides. As estruturas químicas de flavonoides e fenólicos encontradas no extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foram relatadas pela primeira vez. O extrato metanólico da casca (50 ul) de P. granatum L. amarelo apresentou zonas de inibição (ZOI) de 26, 10, 10 e 9mm contra S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O extrato metanólico de P. granatum L. vermelho (100 ul) apresentou 27, 8, 12 e 15 mm IOI contra Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O ZOI mais alto foi observado contra Staph. aureus. Muitas das bactérias estudadas no presente trabalho podem causar infecções gastrointestinais graves, que podem levar à diarreia hemorrágica em crianças. Essas infecções podem ser fatais para crianças pequenas e idosos. Há um incentivo para encontrar medidas de controle alternativas, como extratos de plantas e ervas, especialmente em países menos desenvolvidos, onde os antibióticos tradicionais podem não estar prontamente disponíveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Aged , Pomegranate , Staphylococcus aureus , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Escherichia coli , Anti-Infective Agents
3.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(3): 343-351, mayo 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396913

ABSTRACT

Leaf and fruit decoctions of Schinus areira L. from northwest Argentina were investigated here. Phenolic compounds and organic acids were analyzed by HPLC. Antioxidant capacity and α-glucosidase inhibition were determined by using in vitro tests. The general toxicity was assessed against Artemia salina nauplii. Hyperoside and 3 O-caffeoylquinic acid in leaf decoctions; gallic acid and catechin in fruit decoction were the major phenolic compounds. Malic and citric acids were the main organic acid quantified in the leaf and fruit decoctions, respectively. Fruit decoction had a relatively important content of shikimic acid, precursor of Tamiflu. Leaf decoction presents a greater richness in bioactive compounds with antiradical activity against DPPH●, O2●-and ●NO radicals. S. areira leaves and fruits had α-glucosidase inhibitory activity comparable to hyperoside and acarbose. Fruit decoction was not eco-toxic; leaf decoction showed significant eco-toxic activity and could be chosen for the search of other bioactive compounds with pharmacological activity.


Se investigaron decocciones de hojas y frutos de Schinus areira L. del noroeste de Argentina. Compuestos fenólicos y ácidos orgánicos se analizaron mediante HPLC. Capacidad antioxidante e inhibición de α-glucosidasa se determinaron in vitro. Se evaluó toxicidad general con Artemia salina. Los principales compuestos fenólicos fueron hiperósido y ácido 3 O-cafeoilquínico en hojas y ácido gálico y catequina en frutos. Los principales ácidos orgánicos cuantificados fueron málico en hojas y cítrico en frutos. Ácido shikímico, precursor del Tamiflu está presente en decocción de frutos con un contenido relativamente importante. La de hojas presenta una mayor riqueza en compuestos bioactivos con actividad antirradicalaria frente a DPPH●, O2●-y ●NO. Las hojas y frutos de S. areira tenían una actividad inhibidora de la α-glucosidasa comparable a la de hiperósido y acarbosa. La decocción de frutas no fue eco-tóxica, pero sí la de hojas que podría ser fuente de compuestos bioactivos con actividad farmacológica.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/chemistry , Anacardiaceae/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Organic Acids/analysis , Phenolic Compounds , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors , Fruit/chemistry
4.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(1): 41-50, ene. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370333

ABSTRACT

Solanum nudum Dunal (Solanaceae) is most commonly known andused by the population of the colombian Pacific coast as an antimalarial treatment. This article study into optimization and quantitative analysis of compounds steroidal over time of development of this species when grown in vitro and wild. A new steroidal compound named SN6 was elucidated by NMR and a new method of quantification of seven steroidal compounds (Diosgenone DONA and six steroids SNs) using HPLC-DAD-MS in extracts of cultures in vitroand wild was investigated. Biology activity of extracts was found to a range of antiplasmodial activity in FCB2 and NF-54 with inhibitory concentration (IC50) between (17.04 -100µg/mL) and cytotoxicity in U-937 of CC50 (7.18 -104.7µg/mL). This method creates the basis for the detection of seven sterols antiplasmodial present in extracts from S. nudum plant as a quality parameter in the control and expression of phytochemicals.


Solanum nudum Dunal (Solanaceae) es el más conocido y utilizado por la población de la costa del Pacífico colombiano como tratamiento antipalúdico. Este artículo estudia la optimización y el análisis cuantitativo de compuestos esteroides a lo largo del tiempo de desarrollo de esta especie cuando se cultiva in vitro y en forma silvestre. Un nuevo compuesto esteroideo llamado SN6 fue dilucidado por RMN y se investigó un nuevo método de cuantificación de siete compuestos esteroides (Diosgenone DONA y seis esteroides SN) usando HPLC-DAD-MS en extractos de cultivos in vitro y silvestres. La actividad biológica de los extractos se encontró en un rango de actividad antiplasmodial en FCB2 y NF-54 con concentración inhibitoria (IC50) entre (17.04 -100 µg/mL) y citotoxicidad en U-937 de CC50 (7.18 -104.7 µg/mL). Este método crea la base para la detección de siete esteroles antiplasmodiales presentes en extractos de planta de S. nudum como parámetro de calidad en el control y expresión de fitoquímicos.


Subject(s)
Steroids/analysis , Solanum/chemistry , Antimalarials/chemistry , In Vitro Techniques , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Solanum/growth & development , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Phytochemicals , Antimalarials/pharmacology
5.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(1): 66-80, ene. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372378

ABSTRACT

Melastoma malabathricum (M. malabathricum) extracts have been reported to exert various pharmacological activities including antioxidants, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities. The objective of the present study was to determine the anticarcinogenic activity of its methanol extract (MEMM) against the azoxymethane (AOM)-induced early colon carcinogenesis in rats. Rats were randomly assigned to five groups (n=6) namely normal control, negative control, and treatment (50, 250 or 500 mg/kg of MEMM) groups. Colon tissues were harvested for histopathological analysis and endogenous antioxidant system determination. MEMM was also subjected to HPLC analysis. Findings showed that MEMM significantly (p<0.05) reversed the AOM-induced carcinogenicity by: i) reducing the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in colon tissues, and; ii) enhancing the endogenous antioxidant activity (catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase). Moreover, various phenolics has been identified in MEMM. In conclusion, MEMM exerts the in vivo anticarcinogenic activity via the activation of endogenous antioxidant system and synergistic action of phenolics.


Se ha informado que los extractos de Melastoma malabathricum (M. malabathricum) ejercen diversas actividades farmacológicas, incluidas actividades antioxidantes, antiinflamatorias y antiproliferativas. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la actividad anticancerígena de su extracto de metanol (MEMM) contra la carcinogénesis de colon temprana inducida por azoximetano (AOM) en ratas. Las ratas se asignaron al azar a cinco grupos (n=6), a saber, los grupos de control normal, control negativo y tratamiento (50, 250 o 500 mg/kg de MEMM). Tejidos de colon fueron recolectados para análisis histopatológico y determinación del sistema antioxidante endógeno. MEMM también se sometió a análisis de HPLC. Los hallazgos mostraron que MEMM invirtió significativamente (p<0.05) la carcinogenicidad inducida por AOM al: i) reducir la formación de focos de criptas aberrantes (ACF) en los tejidos del colon, y; ii) potenciar la actividad antioxidante endógena (catalasa, superóxido dismutasa y glutatión peroxidasa). Además, se han identificado varios fenólicos en MEMM. En conclusión, MEMM ejerce la actividad anticancerígena in vivo mediante la activación del sistema antioxidante endógeno y la acción sinérgica de los fenólicos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Anticarcinogenic Agents/administration & dosage , Colonic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Melastomataceae/chemistry , Organ Size/drug effects , Body Weight/drug effects , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Colon/pathology , Plant Leaves , Methanol , Phenolic Compounds , Aberrant Crypt Foci , Carcinogenesis/drug effects , Antioxidants
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e191086, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394042

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fluoroquinolones are an important class of antimicrobial agents to manage infectious diseases. However, knowledge about how host bile acids are modified by fluoroquinolones is limited. We investigated and compared the impact of fluoroquinolones on circulating bile acid profiles and gut microbiota from in vivo studies. We administered ciprofloxacin (100 mg/kg/day) or moxifloxacin (40 mg/kg/day) orally to male Wistar rats for seven days. Fifteen bile acids (BAs) from the serum and large intestine were quantified by HPLC-MS/MS. The diversity of gut microbiota after ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin treatment was analyzed using high-throughput, next-generation sequencing technology. The two fluoroquinolone-treated groups had different BA profiles. Ciprofloxacin significantly reduced the hydrophobicity index of the BA pool, reduced secondary BAs, and increased taurine-conjugated primary BAs in both the serum and large intestine as compared with moxifloxacin. Besides, ciprofloxacin treatment altered intestinal microbiota with a remarkable increase in Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, while moxifloxacin exerted no effect. What we found suggests that different fluoroquinolones have a distinct effect on the host BAs metabolism and intestinal bacteria, and therefore provide guidance on the selection of fluoroquinolones to treat infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Bile Acids and Salts , Comparative Study , Ciprofloxacin/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Moxifloxacin/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Intestine, Large/abnormalities , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e247102, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278491

ABSTRACT

Abstract The current investigation was carried out to estimate the protective effect of aqueous extract of Cheatomorpha gracilis (AEC) against High fat Diet (HFD) induced liver damage in mice. The results of the in vitro study showed that AEC have higher antioxidant capacities in the DPPH and hydroxyl radical-scavenging assays. Indeed, many phenolic compounds (gallic acid, quercetin, naringenin, apigenin, kaempferol and rutin) were identified in the AEC. In the animal studies, during 6 weeks, HFD promoted oxidative stress with a rise level of malonaldehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls (PCOs) levels and a significant decrease of the antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Interestingly, the treatment with AEC (250 mg/kg body weight) significantly reduced the effects of HFD disorders on some plasmatic liver biomarkers (AST, ALT and ALP) in addition to, plasmatic proteins inflammatory biomarkers (α2 and β1 decreases / β2 and γ globulins increases). It can be suggest that supplementation of MECG displays high potential to quench free radicals and attenuates high fat diet promoted liver oxidative stress and related disturbances.


Resumo A presente investigação foi realizada para estimar o efeito protetor do extrato aquoso de Cheatomorpha gracilis (AEC) contra o dano hepático induzido por dieta rica em gordura (HFD) em camundongos. Os resultados do estudo in vitro mostraram que os AEC têm maiores capacidades antioxidantes nos ensaios DPPH e de eliminação de radicais hidroxila. De fato, muitos compostos fenólicos (ácido gálico, quercetina, naringenina, apigenina, kaempferol e rutina) foram identificados no AEC. Nos estudos em animais, durante 6 semanas, HFD promoveu estresse oxidativo com aumento do nível de malonaldeído (MDA), níveis de proteína carbonil (PCOs) e diminuição significativa das atividades de enzimas antioxidantes como superóxido dismutase, catalase e glutationa peroxidase. Curiosamente, o tratamento com AEC (250 mg / kg de peso corporal) reduziu significativamente os efeitos dos distúrbios de HFD em alguns biomarcadores hepáticos plasmáticos (AST, ALT e ALP), além de biomarcadores inflamatórios de proteínas plasmáticas (reduções α2 e β1 / β2 e γ aumenta as globulinas). Pode-se sugerir que a suplementação de MECG apresenta alto potencial para extinguir os radicais livres e atenua o estresse oxidativo do fígado promovido pela dieta rica em gordura e distúrbios relacionados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Oxidative Stress , Liver , Antioxidants/metabolism
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928189

ABSTRACT

With the ultra high performance liquid chromatography-quadruple-electrostatic field orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry(UHPLC-Q Exactive Orbitrap-MS)-based metabonomics technology, this study aims to analyze the effect of Chaiqin Ningshen Granules(CNG) on endogenous metabolites in insomnia rats of liver depression syndrome and explore the sleep-improving mechanism of this prescription. Parachlorophenylalanine(PCPA, ip) and chronic stimulation were combined to induce insomnia of liver depression pattern in rats, and the effect of CNG on the macroscopic signs, hemorheology, and neurotransmitters in the hippocampus of insomnia rats of liver depression syndrome was observed. After the administration, rat hippocampus was collected for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(LC-MS) analysis of the metabolomics. Principal component analysis(PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis(PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) were employed for analyzing the metabolites in rat hippocampus and screening potential biomarkers. MetPA was used to yield the related metabolic pathways and metabolic networks. The results show that the drugs can significantly improve the mental state, liver depression, and blood stasis of rats, significantly increase the content of 5-hydroxytryptamine(5-HT) and gamma aminobutyric acid(GABA) in hippocampus(except low-dose CNG), and significantly reduce the content of glucose(Glu)(except low-dose CNG). Among them, estazolam and high-dose CNG had better effect than others. Metabolomics analysis yielded 27 potential biomarkers related to insomnia. MetPA analysis showed 4 metabolic pathways of estazolam in intervening insomnia and 3 metabolic pathways of high-dose CNG in intervening insomnia, involving purine metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, histidine metabolism, and caffeine metabolism. CNG can alleviate insomnia by regulating endogenous differential metabolites and further related metabolic pathways. The result lays a basis for further elucidating the mechanism of CNG in improving sleep.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomarkers , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Estazolam , Hippocampus/metabolism , Metabolomics/methods , Rats , Sleep , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/drug therapy
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928185

ABSTRACT

Angong Niuhuang Pills(AGNHP) are effective in clearing heat, removing the toxin, and eliminating phlegm for resuscitation. Clinically, it is widely used to treat various diseases such as febrile convulsion due to heat attacking pericardium, but its therapeutic effects on heart failure(HF) have not been well recognized. In this study, the profiles of differential metabolites regulated by AGNHP were identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). The underlying mechanism of AGNHP against HF was illustrated based on the integrated analysis of pharmacological data and metabolic molecular network. The HF model was induced by isoproterenol in mice. After oral administration of AGNHP for one week, cardiac functions in HF mice were evaluated by echocardiography, and serum samples of mice were collected for metabolomics analysis. Eight differential metabolites of AGNHP against HF were screened out through partial least square discriminant analysis(PLS-DA) and input into MetaboAnalyst for the analysis of metabolic pathways. Moreover, the critical metabolic pathways regulated by AGNHP were enriched according to the potential targets of major compounds in AGNHP. After AGNHP treatment, the recovered index of relative content of some metabolites underwent cross-scale fusion analysis with therapeutic efficacy data, followed by "compound-reaction-enzyme-gene" network analysis. It is inferred that the anti-HF effects of AGNHP may be attributed to the metabolism of arachidonic acid, amino acid, glycerophospholipid, and linoleic acid. The cross-scale polypharmacological analysis method developed in this study provides a new method to interpret scientific principles of AGNHP against HF with modern technologies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomarkers , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Metabolomics , Mice
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928177

ABSTRACT

Scutellaria baicalensis is a commonly used Chinese medicinal herb. In this study, we identified the germplasm resources of commercial S. baicalensis samples based on trnH-psbA, petA-psbJ, and ycf4-cemA sequences according to the available chloroplast genome sequencing results, and measured the content of baicalin by HPLC. Through the above means we determined the best DNA barcode that can be used to detect the germplasm resources and evaluate the quality of commercial S. baicalensis samples. A total of 104 samples were collected from 24 provinces, from which DNA was extracted for PCR amplification. The amplification efficiencies of trnH-psbA, petA-psbJ, and ycf4-cemA sequences were 100%, 59.62%, and 25.96%, respectively. The results of sequence analysis showed that 5, 4, and 2 haplotypes were identified based on trnH-psbA, petA-psbJ, and ycf4-cemA sequences, respectively. However, the sequences of haplotypes in commercial samples were different from that of the wild type, and the joint analysis of three fragments of S. baicalensis only identified 6 haplotypes. Furthermore, the phylogenetic analysis and genetic distance analysis indicated that trnH-psbA could be used to identify S. baicalensis from adulterants. The above analysis showed that trnH-psbA was the best fragment for identifying the germplasm resources of commercial S. baicalensis samples. We then analyzed the haplotypes(THap1-THap5) of commercial S. baicalensis samples based on trnH-psbA and found that THap2 was the main circulating haplotype of the commercial samples, accounting for 86.55% of the total samples, which indicated the scarce germplasm resources of commercial S. baicalensis samples. The content of baicalin in all the collected commercial S. baicalensis samples exceeded the standard in Chinese Pharmacopoeia and had significant differences(maximum of 12.21%) among samples, suggesting that the quality of commercial S. baicalensis samples varied considerably. However, there was no significant difference in baicalin content between different provinces or between different haplotypes. This study facilitates the establishment of the standard identification system for S. baicalensis, and can guide the commercial circulation and reasonable medication of S. baicalensis.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic/methods , DNA, Plant/genetics , Phylogeny , Scutellaria baicalensis/genetics
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928176

ABSTRACT

This study analyzed the quality markers(Q-markers) of Yuquan Capsules(YQC) based on serum pharmacochemistry of Chinese medicine and detected the components and metabolites of YQC absorbed into the blood by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and UNIFI systems. As a result, 32 components of YQC were detected, including 17 prototype components and 15 metabolized components. Among them, 12 prototype components(ginsenoside Rh_2, genistein, formononetin, puerarin, daidzein, schizandrin A, schizandrin B, schizandrin C, schizandrol A, schizandrol B, gomisin D, and ononin) and 12 metabolized components(ginsenoside Rg_1, ginsenoside Rg_2, ginsenoside Rg_3, ginsenoside Ro, 3'-methoxypuerarin, daidzin, astragaloside Ⅱ, astragaloside Ⅳ, glycyrrhizic acid, liquiritigenin, isoliquiritin, and verbascoside) showed inhibitory effects and pharmacological activities against diabetes, and these 24 blood-entering components against diabetes were identified as Q-markers of YQC.


Subject(s)
Capsules , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Ginsenosides/analysis , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Serum/chemistry
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928175

ABSTRACT

This study aims to establish a method for analyzing the chemical constituents in Cistanches Herba by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) and quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry(HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS), and to reveal the pharmacological mechanism based on network pharmacology for mining the quality markers(Q-markers) of Cistanches Herba. The chemical constituents of Cistanche deserticola and C. tubulosa were analyzed via HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS. The potential targets and pathways of Cistanches Herba were predicted via SwissTargetPrediction and DAVID. The compound-target-pathway-pharmacological action-efficacy network was constructed via Cytoscape. A total of 47 chemical constituents were identified, involving 95 targets and 56 signaling pathways. We preliminarily elucidated the pharmacological mechanisms of echinacoside, acteoside, isoacteoside, cistanoside F, 2'-acetylacteoside, cistanoside A, campneoside Ⅱ, salidroside, tubuloside B, 6-deoxycatalpol, 8-epi-loganic acid, ajugol, bartsioside, geniposidic acid, and pinoresinol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and predicted them to be the Q-markers of Cistanches Herba. This study identified the chemical constituents of Cistanches Herba, explained the pharmacological mechanism of the traditional efficacy of Cistanches Herba based on network pharmacology, and introduced the core concept of Q-markers to improve the quality evaluation of Cistanches Herba.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Cistanche , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Network Pharmacology , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928174

ABSTRACT

The potential quality markers(Q-markers) of Polygoni Perfoliati Herba were studied based on analytic hierarchy process(AHP)-entropy weight method(EWM), network pharmacology, and spectrum-effect relationship analysis. The AHP-EWM was used for quantitative identification of the Q-markers. To be specific, AHP was applied for the weight analysis of the validity, testability, and specificity of the first-level indexes, and EWM for the analysis of the second-level indexes supported by literature and experimental data. Based on literature and network pharmacology, the validity analysis was to study the component-target-disease-efficacy network, and select the components with the strongest correlation with the efficacy of clearing heat and removing toxin, diuresis and alleviating edema, and relieving cough. For the testability analysis, the high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) and literature research were used to determine the 10 components in Polygoni Perfoliati Herba, and the fingerprints of Polygoni Perfoliati Herba were established at the same time. The specificity analysis was based on the statistics of the number of plants in which the components existed. Thereby, the 11 compounds: quercetin, oleanolic acid, ellagic acid, gallic acid, kaempferol, rutin, esculetin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, ursolic acid, protocatechuic acid, and ferulic acid, were identified as potential Q-markers. The 11 compounds were identified to have high anti-inflammatory activity, indicating that the 11 Q-markers may be the functional material basis. The result in this study is expected to serve as a reference for the quality control of Polygoni Perfoliati Herba.


Subject(s)
Analytic Hierarchy Process , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Entropy , Quercetin
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928173

ABSTRACT

Based on the previous research results of our group and literature research, the chemical components, mechanisms, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of Zingiberis Rhizoma Carbonisata were summarized to determine the quality markers(Q-markers) of Zingiberis Rhizoma Carbonisata and Zingiberis Rhizoma. Our research group has clarified the differential components of Zingiberis Rhizoma Carbonisata and Zingiberis Rhizoma, the meridian-warming hemostatic effect of Zingiberis Rhizoma Carbonisata, the related targets and pathways of the effect, the endogenous biomarkers of Zingiberis Rhizoma Carbonisata, and the hemodynamic processes of Zingiberis Rhizoma Carbonisata and Zingiberis Rhizoma. Moreover, based on high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry(HPLC-DAD-ESIMS), a method for determining the content of Q-mar-kers was established. In conclusion, the study finally determined that gingerone, 6-shogaol, and diacetyl-6-gingerol were the Q-mar-kers of Zingiberis Rhizoma Carbonisata decoction pieces, and 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, and 10-gingerol were Q-markers of Zingiberis Rhizoma decoction pieces. The result is expected to provide a reference for the establishment of quality standards for Zingiberis Rhizoma Carbonisata decoction pieces and Zingiberis Rhizoma decoction pieces.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Ginger , Mass Spectrometry , Plant Extracts , Rhizome/chemistry
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928172

ABSTRACT

Astragali Radix, a medicinal herb for invigorating Qi, has anti-aging, anti-tumor, immunoregulatory, blood sugar-and lipid-lowering, anti-fibrosis, anti-radiation and other pharmacological effects. This article reviewed the studies about the chemical components and pharmacological effects of Astragali Radix. According to the theory of quality markers(Q-markers) of Chinese medicinal materials, we predicted the Q-markers of Astragali Radix from traditional efficacy, chemical component validity, measurability, plant phylogeny, and pharmacokinetis. The results showed that total polysaccharides, flavonoids(e.g., calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, formononetin, calycosin, quercetin, and ononin), and saponins(e.g., astragalosides Ⅱ, Ⅲ, and Ⅳ) can be taken as the main Q-markers. This review lays a foundation for regulating the quality research and standard establishment of Astragali Radix, and benefits the control and quality supervision of the production process of Astragali Radix and its related products.


Subject(s)
Astragalus Plant , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Flavonoids , Plant Roots
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928170

ABSTRACT

Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, as common Chinese medicine, has been used for thousands of years in the treatment of inflammation and infectious diseases with definite efficacies. The complex composition of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos results in its extensive pharmacological effects, so the assessment of its quality by only a few index components is not comprehensive. Guided by the quality marker(Q-marker), the present study comprehensively analyzed and predicted the quality connotation of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos based on the chemical composition and component transfer, the phylogenetic relationship, chemical composition effectiveness, measurability, and specificity. Chlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acids A, B, and C, luteoloside, rutin, sweroside, and secoxyloganin were predicted as candidate Q-markers of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Flowers/chemistry , Lonicera/chemistry , Phylogeny , Quality Control
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928166

ABSTRACT

The present study analyzed the potential biomarkers of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) with lung-Qi deficiency syndrome by non-targeted metabolomics and explored the biological basis of this syndrome. Blood samples of 96 COPD patients with lung-Qi deficiency syndrome(COPD with lung-Qi deficiency syndrome group) and 106 healthy people(healthy control group) were collected, and the metabolic profiles of both groups were analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Multivariate statistical analysis and differential metabolite screening were carried out by using Progenesis QI and Simca-P. Metabolic pathways were constructed through the MetaboAnalyst. Seven potential biomarkers, such as L-cystathionine, protoporphyrinogen Ⅸ, and citalopram aldehyde, were identified. Compared with the results in the healthy control group, the content of citalopram aldehyde, N1-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide, and 11β,17β-dihydroxy-4-androsten-3-one was significantly up-regulated, while that of the other four compounds such as L-cystathionine, dihydrotestosterone, protoporphyrinogen Ⅸ, and D-urobilinogen was down-regulated. These potential biomarkers involved six metabolic pathways, including cysteine and methionine metabolism, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism, drug metabolism of cytochrome P450, steroid hormone biosynthesis, glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism, and nicotinate and nicotinamide meta-bolism. This study is expected to provide a certain scientific basis for the research on traditional Chinese medicine syndrome of COPD with lung-Qi deficiency syndrome from the molecular biology level.


Subject(s)
Aldehydes , Biomarkers , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Citalopram , Cystathionine , Humans , Lung , Metabolomics/methods , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928154

ABSTRACT

This study aims to develop an HPLC-DAD method for simultaneous determination of 11 components(6 phenolic acids and 5 iridoids) in Lonicera japonica flowers(LjF) and leaves(LjL), and compare the content differences of LjF at different development stages, LjL at different maturity levels, and between LjF and LjL. One-way ANOVA, principal component analysis(PCA), and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) were employed to compare the content of the 11 components. The content of total phenolic acids, total iridoid glycosides, and total 11 components in LjF showed an overall downward trend with the development of flowers. The content of total phenolic acids, total iridoid glycosides, and total 11 components in young leaves were higher than those in mature leaves. The results of PCA showed that the samples at different flowering stages had distinguishable differences in component content. The VIP value of OPLS-DA showed that isochlorogenic acid A, chlorogenic acid, and secologanic acid were the main differential components of LjF at different development stages or LjL with different maturity levels. LjF and LjL have certain similarities in chemical composition while significant differences in component content. The content of total phenolic acids in young leaves was significantly higher than that in LjF at various development stages. The content of total iridoid glycosides in young leaves was similar to that in LjF before white flower bud stage. The total content of 11 components in young leaves was significantly higher than that in LjF at green flower bud stage, before and during completely white flower bud stage. LjL have great potential for development. Follow-up research on the pharmacodynamic equivalence of LjF and LjL(especially young leaves) should be carried out to speed up the development and application of LjL.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Flowers/chemistry , Iridoid Glycosides/analysis , Lonicera/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928153

ABSTRACT

An UPLC-Q-TOF-MS method was employed to characterize and classify the chemical components of the standard decoction of Yiguanjian, a classical famous recipe. Chromatographic separation was performed on an Acquity HSS T3(2.1 mm ×100 mm, 1.8 μm) column with a mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid water-0.1% formic acid acetonitrile using gradient elution. The flow rate was 0.4 mL·min~(-1) and the column temperature was 40 ℃. Mass spectrometry was performed on electrospray ionization source(ESI) with positive and negative ion scanning modes. The potential compounds were identified by comparing the reference compounds, analyzing the mass spectrometry data and matching the published articles on Masslynx 4.1 software and SciFinder database. Finally, a total of 113 compounds, including 11 amino acids, 19 terpenoids, 13 phthalides, 11 steroidal saponins, 10 coumarins, 9 alkaloids, 7 flavonoids, 8 phenylethanoid glycosides, 8 organic acids and 17 other categories were identified. The established method systematically and accurately characterized the chemical components in Yiguanjian, which could provide experimental evidences for the subsequent studies on the pharmacodynamical material basis and quality control of Yiguanjian.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Flavonoids/analysis , Formates , Glycosides/analysis , Prescriptions
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928152

ABSTRACT

Based on the combination of ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF) and Waters UNIFI software, the chemical constituents of the classic prescription Xiaochengqi Decoction were qualitatively analyzed and identified. The UPLC conditions are as follows: Acquity HSS T3 reverse phase column(2.1 mm ×100 mm, 1.8 μm), column temperature of 30 ℃, mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution(A)-acetonitrile(B), and flow rate of 0.3 mL·min~(-1). High-resolution MS data of Xiaochengqi Decoction were collected in ESI~(+/-) modes by Fast DDA. The structures of the chemical constituents were tentatively characterized or identified by UNIFI software according to the retention time of reference standards and characteristic fragment ions in MS profile, and literature data. A total of 233 components in Xiaochengqi Decoction were identified, with 93 from wine-processed Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, 104 from bran-processed Aurantii Fructus Immaturus, and 36 from ginger-processed Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex. These 233 components included anthraquinones, flavonoids, lignans, alkaloids, coumarins, and phenylethanoid glycosides. The result provided experimental evidence for the further study on establishment of quality standard and product development of the formula.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , DDT/analogs & derivatives , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Mass Spectrometry , Rhizome/chemistry , Software
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