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1.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 58: 03, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1536766

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES To evaluate the performance of geneXpert MTB/Rif versus conventional methods (bacilloscopy and culture) in the diagnosis of tuberculosis in a Central Public Health Laboratory (LACEN, Tocantins), Northern Brazil. METHODS Retrospective study, with information from 1,973 suspected cases of tuberculosis from patients treated from January 2015 to December 2020. RESULTS From the culture (reference standard), the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of the geneXpert MTB/Rif were 100%, 97%, 74%, 100%, and 97%, respectively, against 85%, 98%, 80%, 98%, and 97% of bacilloscopy. CONCLUSIONS The geneXpert MTB/Rif performed similarly to culture and better than bacilloscopy. Although positive cases with negative culture should be evaluated with caution, its routine use is important for the early detection of tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tuberculosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Mycobacterium tuberculosis
2.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1552136

ABSTRACT

A COVID-19 é uma doença respiratória aguda provocada pela infecção do vírus SARS-CoV-2, que pode causar uma grave insuficiência respiratória hipoxêmica, complicações e mortes, principalmente na população com condições crônicas de saúde. Os mecanismos pelos quais a obesidade pode aumentar a gravidade da COVID-19 incluem mecanismos físicos, inflamação crônica e uma função imunológica prejudicada. Além disso, o índice de massa corporal elevado é um fator de risco para várias condições médicas que têm sido sugeridas para aumentar o risco de gravidade da COVID-19. Objetivo: analisar a associação entre o índice de massa corporal e desfechos clínicos dos casos confirmados de COVID-19. Metodologia: Estudo transversal, com coleta de dados de prontuários, conduzido de março de 2020 a dezembro 2021. Foram analisados os registros de prontuários, exames bioquímicos e de imagem de pacientes internados com COVID-19 em três hospitais da cidade de Francisco Beltrão (PR). As variáveis analisadas foram o diagnóstico nutricional, idade, sexo, necessidade de internação em UTI, comorbidades, dias de hospitalização, complicações, exames laboratoriais e desfecho. Os critérios para inclusão no estudo foram, pacientes hospitalizados com diagnóstico para COVID-19, com presença de diagnóstico nutricional relatado. Resultados: No ano de 2020 foram analisados 292 prontuários e no ano de 2021 foram 860 prontuários. Destes, somente 413 possuíam diagnóstico nutricional, sendo assim incluídos no presente estudo. Foram classificados como peso normal 78 (18,9%), com sobrepeso 153 (37%)e como obeso 182 (44,1%) participantes. A maior prevalência de obesidade foi encontrada no sexo feminino (52,5%), portadores de diabetes (27,6%), pacientes com estado geral comprometido (67,9%), que apresentaram complicações pulmonares (54,5%) e arritmias (23%). A média de idade encontrada em pacientes com obesidade foi mais jovem (55,54) em comparação com os classificados com sobrepeso (59,08) e normal (62,51). Observou-se que quanto maior o IMC menor foram os valores encontrados para idade (rho = -0,190), leucócitos (rho = -0,109), ureia (rho = -0,145) e D-dímero (rho = -0,155). Conclusão: Este estudo fornece evidências de que o sobrepeso e/ou obesidade então associadas a um pior quadro clínico durante a internação dos pacientes com COVID-19. Em relação a frequência de óbito, não houve diferença estatística em relação ao diagnóstico nutricional.


COVID-19 is an acute respiratory disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus infection, which can cause severe hypoxemic respiratory failure, complications, and deaths, especially in the population with chronic health conditions. The mechanisms by which obesity may increase the severity of COVID-19 include physical mechanisms, chronic inflammation, and impaired immune function. In addition, high body mass index is a risk factor for several medical conditions that have been suggested to increase the risk of COVID-19 severity. Objective: to analyze the association between body mass index and clinical outcomes of confirmed cases of COVID-19. Methodology: Cross-sectional study, with data collection from medical records, conducted from March 2020 to December 2021. The records of medical records, biochemical and imaging tests of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in three hospitals in the city of Francisco Beltrão (PR) were analyzed. The variables analyzed were nutritional diagnosis, age, gender, need for ICU admission, comorbidities, days of hospitalization, complications, laboratory tests and outcome. The inclusion criteria for the study were, hospitalized patients with diagnosis for COVID-19, with presence of nutritional diagnosis reported. Results: In the year 2020, 292 medical records were analyzed and in the year 2021 there were 860 medical records. Of these, only 413 had nutritional diagnosis, thus being included in this study. Were classified as normal weight 78 (18.9%), overweight 153 (37%), and obese 182 (44.1%) participants. The highest prevalence of obesity was found in females (52.5%), patients with diabetes (27.6%), patients with impaired general condition (67.9%), who presented pulmonary complications (54.5%) and arrhythmias (23%). The mean age found in obese patients was younger (55.54) compared to those classified as overweight (59.08) and normal (62.51). It was observed that the higher the BMI the lower were the values found for age (rho = -0.190), leukocytes (rho = -0.109), urea (rho = -0.145) and D-dimer (rho = -0.155). Conclusion: This study provides evidence that overweight and/or obesity then associated with a worse clinical picture during hospitalization of patients with COVID-19. Regarding the frequency of death, there was no statistical difference in relation to nutritional diagnosis.


COVID-19 es una enfermedad respiratoria aguda causada por la infección por el virus SARS-CoV-2, que puede provocar insuficiencia respiratoria hipoxémica grave, complicaciones y muertes, especialmente en poblaciones con enfermedades crónicas. Los mecanismos por los cuales la obesidad puede aumentar la gravedad de la COVID-19 incluyen mecanismos físicos, inflamación crónica y función inmune deteriorada. Además, un índice de masa corporal alto es un factor de riesgo para varias afecciones médicas que, según se ha sugerido, aumentan el riesgo de gravedad del COVID-19. Objetivo: analizar la asociación entre el índice de masa corporal y los resultados clínicos de casos confirmados de COVID-19. Metodología: Estudio transversal, con recolección de datos de historias clínicas, realizado de marzo de 2020 a diciembre de 2021. Se analizaron historias clínicas, exámenes bioquímicos y de imagen de pacientes hospitalizados con COVID-19 en tres hospitales de la ciudad de Francisco Beltrão (PR). Las variables analizadas fueron diagnóstico nutricional, edad, sexo, necesidad de ingreso a UCI, comorbilidades, días de internación, complicaciones, exámenes de laboratorio y evolución. Los criterios de inclusión en el estudio fueron pacientes hospitalizados con diagnóstico de COVID-19, con presencia de diagnóstico nutricional informado. Resultados: En 2020 se analizaron 292 historias clínicas y en 2021 se analizaron 860 historias clínicas. De ellos, sólo 413 tenían diagnóstico nutricional, por lo que fueron incluidos en el presente estudio. 78 (18,9%) participantes fueron clasificados como normopeso, 153 (37%) como sobrepeso y 182 (44,1%) como obesidad. La mayor prevalencia de obesidad se encontró en el sexo femenino (52,5%), pacientes con diabetes (27,6%), pacientes con estado general comprometido (67,9%), quienes presentaron complicaciones pulmonares (54,5%) y arritmias (23%). La edad promedio encontrada en los pacientes con obesidad fue menor (55,54) en comparación con los clasificados como con sobrepeso (59,08) y normales (62,51). Se observó que a mayor IMC, menores son los valores encontrados para edad (rho = -0,190), leucocitos (rho = -0,109), urea (rho = -0,145) y dímero D (rho = -0,155). Conclusión: Este estudio proporciona evidencia de que el sobrepeso y/u obesidad se asocia con una peor condición clínica durante la hospitalización de pacientes con COVID-19. En cuanto a la frecuencia de muerte, no hubo diferencia estadística en relación al diagnóstico nutricional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Body Mass Index , Retrospective Studies , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Nutrition Assessment , Medical Records/statistics & numerical data , Overweight , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization , Obesity
3.
Rev. bras. saúde ocup ; 49: edsmsubj4, 2024. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559635

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: analisar uma experiência clínica de acompanhamento psicológico individual, fundamentado na Clínica da Atividade, como possibilidade de intervenção em saúde mental e trabalho. Métodos: a experiência foi relatada e discutida a partir da análise de registros dos atendimentos realizados entre paciente e psicóloga. Resultados e discussão: foram realizadas nove sessões referenciadas por princípios teórico-metodológicos da Clínica da Atividade. Os resultados enfatizaram três pontos de caráter clínico e desenvolvimental para a paciente: ampliação da compreensão e do senso crítico sobre as determinantes do seu trabalho; produção de movimentos simultâneos de afetação e instrumentalização do pensamento e da ação; bem-estar ou diminuição do mal-estar psíquico conectados à ampliação do poder de agir via desenvolvimento da atividade própria de trabalho. Conclusão: a experiência mostrou-se interessante para atendimento a demandas de saúde mental da paciente no caso analisado, desenvolvendo a atividade de trabalho concatenada ao desenvolvimento da saúde psicológica. Identificou-se possível ligação entre a queixa apresentada em saúde mental e a situação de trabalho vivida. Indica-se discutir tal composição metodológica para outros casos específicos, como em reabilitação profissional. O relato contribui para a discussão sobre abordagens clínicas no campo de saúde mental e trabalho.


Abstract Objective: to analyze an individual psychological follow-up based on clinical activity analysis as a possible intervention in occupational and mental health. Methods: the experience was reported and discussed by analyzing records of psychological appointments from patient and psychologist interactions. Results and discussion: a total of nine sessions referenced by clinic of activity principles were performed. Results emphasized three main clinical and developmental points: broadening the understanding of one's working activity; production of simultaneous affectation movements and instrumentalizations of thoughts and actions; increased well-being and decreased psychic malaise by expanding the power of acting in developing work activities. Conclusion: this experience proved to be interesting for addressing the patient's mental health demands, developing the working activity associated with psychological health. A link was identified between complaints concerning mental health and the work situation. This linking should be considered in other specific cases, such as in professional rehabilitation. The report contributes to the debate about clinical approaches to mental health and working activity.


Subject(s)
Mental Health , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Mental Disorders
6.
Med. infant ; 30(2): 172-180, Junio 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1443724

ABSTRACT

Los intervalos de referencia (IR) dependen de la población y de las características metrológicas del procedimiento de medida utilizado. A pesar de las recomendaciones internacionales, son pocos los laboratorios que establecen sus propios IR para cada magnitud por la dificultad para conseguir voluntarios de referencia y el elevado costo económico asociado. La International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) acepta la adopción de IR bibliográficos o su cálculo por métodos indirectos dado su bajo costo y fácil obtención. Existen varias fuentes confiables de IR bibliográficos para el hemograma. No obstante, para el recuento plaquetario, es una práctica común de los laboratorios emplear el rango de valores de 150-450.109 /L independiente de la metodología utilizada y grupo etario. El objetivo de este trabajo fue revisar los IR bibliográficos disponibles para el recuento plaquetario y estimarlo empleando el método indirecto de Hoffmann a partir de nuestra población. Los métodos indirectos se basan en aplicar criterios de exclusión y cálculos matemáticos sobre los resultados de una base de datos de laboratorio. Nuestros IR para el recuento plaquetario se comparan con los bibliográficos, que han sido establecidos por técnicas de muestreo directo. Por este motivo y dado que no existen estudios poblacionales que lo avalen, sería apropiado reemplazar el rango de 150-450.109 / L. Estos límites podrían seguir empleándose como puntos de corte o niveles de decisión médica para definir, según la clínica y otros resultados de laboratorio, los pacientes que ameritan un seguimiento posterior (AU)


Reference ranges (RR) depend on the population and the metrological characteristics of the measurement procedure used. Despite international recommendations, few laboratories establish their own RRs for each magnitude because of the difficulty in obtaining reference volunteers and the associated high economic cost. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) accepts the use of literaturebased RRs or RRs calculated by indirect methods because of their low cost and easy collection. There are several reliable sources of literature-based RRs for the Cell Blood Count. However, for platelet count, it is common laboratory practice to use the range of 150-450,109 /L regardless of the methodology used and age group. The aim of this study was to review the available literature regarding RRs for platelet count and to establish it using the indirect Hoffmann method in our population. Indirect methods are based on applying exclusion criteria and mathematical calculations on the results of a laboratory database. Our RRs for platelet counts are compared with those in the literature, which have been established by direct sampling techniques. Therefore, and given that there are no population studies to support these findings, it would be appropriate to replace the 150-450,109 /L range. These limits may continue to be used as cut-off points or medical decision levels to define, according to clinical manifestations and other laboratory results, patients who warrant further follow-up (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Platelet Count/methods , Reference Standards , Reference Values , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Laboratories, Hospital
7.
Med. infant ; 30(2): 162-167, Junio 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1443681

ABSTRACT

La realización de pruebas de laboratorio en el lugar de atención del paciente (POCT) de equipos de gases en sangre representa un desafío continuo tanto para los usuarios como para el laboratorio. La vulnerabilidad al error y la amenaza del riesgo que rodea esta forma de trabajo obliga a establecer un sistema de trabajo robusto para la obtención de un "resultado confiable" cerca del paciente crítico. La formación de un grupo interdisciplinario, la capacitación de usuarios externos al laboratorio, el aseguramiento de la calidad analítica y la conectividad, son los cuatro pilares sobre los cuales se sostiene el éxito de esta nueva era de laboratorio clínico. Además es necesaria la reinvención de la imagen bioquímica, asumiendo un rol de líder, comunicador, asesor e integrado al sistema de salud (AU)


Point of care laboratory testing (POCT) with blood gas equipment is an ongoing challenge for both the users and the laboratory. The vulnerability to error and the threat of risk that surrounds this way of working necessitates the establishment of a robust working system to obtain "reliable results" for the critically ill patient. The creation of an interdisciplinary group, the training of external users, analytical quality assurance, and connectivity are the four pillars on which the success of this new era of clinical laboratories is based. It is also necessary to reinvent the biochemical image, assuming the role of leader, communicator, and advisor integrated into the health system (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Quality of Health Care , Blood Gas Analysis/instrumentation , Laboratories, Hospital/trends , Point-of-Care Systems/trends , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/trends , Critical Care , Point-of-Care Testing/standards , Inservice Training
8.
Med. infant ; 30(2): 217-222, Junio 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1444540

ABSTRACT

El monóxido de carbono es un gas altamente tóxico que se origina principalmente por la combustión incompleta de combustibles fósiles. La intoxicación presenta síntomas inespecíficos que solapan otras patologías y por lo tanto es indispensable la confirmación mediante la medición de la carboxihemoglobina en sangre. El laboratorio incorporó la determinación en el informe del estado ácido base a partir de octubre del 2018, debido a que previamente el médico debía solicitarla frente a la sospecha de una intoxicación. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar si esta medida implementada por el laboratorio contribuyó a mejorar el diagnóstico de intoxicación por CO, analizar las características de los pacientes con COHb mayor o igual a 5% y definir un valor de reporte inmediato para la COHb. El 46% de los casos con COHb mayor o igual a 5% no se relacionaban con una intoxicación y/o exposición a CO. De los casos de intoxicación se encontró que el 77% fueron diagnosticados a partir de la sospecha médica y un 23% por hallazgo del laboratorio. Se concluyó que es de mucha utilidad el rol del laboratorio en detectar aquellos casos que no fueron evidentes clínicamente. Existen ciertas patologías como las oncológicas o la enfermedad de Wilson donde se vieron valores elevados de COHb sin presentar intoxicación y se definió finalmente, como valor de reporte inmediato 7% para la COHb. (AU)


Carbon monoxide is a highly toxic gas that originates mainly from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. Intoxication causes nonspecific symptoms that overlap with other conditions and, therefore, confirmation by measuring blood carboxyhemoglobin is essential. The laboratory incorporated the measurement in the acid-base status report as of October 2018, as it was previously required to be requested by the physician in case of suspected intoxication. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether this measure implemented by the laboratory contributed to the improvement of the diagnosis of CO intoxication, to analyze the characteristics of patients with COHb greater than or equal to 5% and to define an immediate reporting value for COHb. Overall, 46% of the cases with COHb greater than or equal to 5% were not related to CO poisoning and/or exposure. Of the cases of intoxication, 77% were diagnosed based on medical suspicion and 23% on laboratory findings. It was concluded that the laboratory has a useful role in detecting cases that were not clinically evident. There are certain diseases including different types of cancer or Wilson's disease where elevated COHb values were seen without intoxication and finally, 7% for COHb was defined as the immediate reporting value (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Carboxyhemoglobin/analysis , Carbon Monoxide Poisoning/diagnosis , Carbon Monoxide Poisoning/blood , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/instrumentation , Inhalation Exposure/analysis , Retrospective Studies , Diagnosis, Differential
11.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(3): 245-250, jun. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515130

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La histoplasmosis es una micosis sistémica que afecta a humanos, su agente Histoplasma capsulatum, hongo dimorfo, es ubicuo en la naturaleza. Frecuentemente se presenta como reactivación en personas con infección por VIH/SIDA, con manifestaciones polimórficas y diseminadas. Las lesiones mucocutáneas son una importante llave diagnóstica. Objetivo: Contribuir al conocimiento de esta patología a través del reporte de los diagnósticos de laboratorio de histoplasmosis realizados en Uruguay en los últimos 10 años. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, retrospectivo de las histoplasmosis diagnosticadas en el laboratorio de referencia de Micología de Facultad de Medicina y dos laboratorios clínicos. Se enrolaron los registros clínicos y analíticos asociados. Resultados: Fueron 69 los diagnósticos de histoplasmosis. Más de 80% correspondió a personas con infección por VIH/SIDA. El 62,3% del total presentó lesiones de piel y/o mucosas y en 58% el diagnóstico se realizó mediante el estudio de estas. El 62,3% de los diagnósticos se realizaron mediante la visualización al microscopio óptico de frotis coloreados. Conclusiones: La mayoría de las histoplasmosis se vinculan a la infección por VIH/SIDA. El estudio micológico de las lesiones de piel y/o de mucosas, es accesible, mínimamente invasivo, rápido y presenta una excelente performance diagnóstica.


Background: Histoplasmosis is a systemic mycosis that affects humans, its agent Histoplasma capsulatum, a dimorphic fungus, is ubiquitous in nature. It frequently presents as reactivation in people with HIV/AIDS infection, with polymorphic and disseminated manifestations. Mucocutaneous lesions are characteristic and an important diagnostic key. Aim: To contribute to the knowledge of this pathology through the report of histoplasmosis laboratory diagnosis made in Uruguay in the last 10 years. Methods: We conducted an observational, retrospective study of diagnosed histoplasmosis in the Mycology reference laboratory of the Faculty of Medicine and two clinical laboratories. Associated clinical and analytical records were obtained. Results: There were 69 histoplasmosis diagnoses. More than 80% corresponded to people with HIV/AIDS infection. 62.3% of the total presented skin and/or mucosal lesions and in 58% the diagnosis was made by studying them. 62.3% of the diagnoses were initially made by viewing colored smears under an optical microscope. Conclusions: Most histoplasmosis is linked to HIV/AIDS infection. Exposure to a high fungal load is a constant in cases of immunocompetent individuals. The mycological study of skin and/or mucosal lesions is accessible, minimally invasive, fast and has excellent diagnostic performance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Histoplasmosis/microbiology , Uruguay/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Histoplasma , Histoplasmosis/epidemiology
12.
Rev. méd. Maule ; 38(1): 35-43, jun. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1562331

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that affects all aspects of the life and family of the person who suffers from it. The SARS-COV-2 infection pandemic has generated an immense problem at the health system level, causing a significant overload and a complexity of the services to attend to the infection. The foregoing has led many people to lose their chronic controls and cannot take care of themselves properly. OBJECTIVES: To measure the impact of the SARS-COV2 pandemic on the control of diabetic patients at CESFAM Las Américas, Talca city. METHODS: Observational, descriptive/analytical study of the Cardiovascular Health Program at CESFAM Las Américas in the city of Talca, of type 2 diabetic patients, enrolled under control, evaluated between December 2019 and September 2021. Information cutoffs will be 12 months and 15 months RESULTS: In a comparative analysis, we found significant differences with an increase in the indicators BMI, Glycemia, HAb1c and Triglycerides during the time of the Pandemic. However, clinically modest.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , Signs and Symptoms , Blood Glucose/analysis , Demography , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Family Practice
13.
San Salvador; MINSAL; jun. 19, 2023. 83 p. ilus, graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | BISSAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1438494

ABSTRACT

El presente manual de procesos y procedimientos documenta las principales actividades de atención integral que se ofrecen al usuario interno y externo para el análisis clínico de muestras biológicas, como parte del proceso de atención en salud integral e integrada a la persona en el curso de vida, describe el sistema de operación de los servicios ofrecidos para el análisis clínico de estas muestras en los establecimientos de salud, mediante el enfoque por procesos, fomentando el desarrollo organizacional y el mejoramiento continuo para el cumplimiento de la misión institucional


This manual of processes and procedures documents the main comprehensive care activities offered to the internal and external user for the clinical analysis of biological samples, as part of the process of comprehensive and integrated health care for the person in the course of life, describes the system of operation of the services offered for the clinical analysis of these samples in health establishments, through the process approach, fostering organizational development and continuous improvement for the fulfilment of the institutional misión


Subject(s)
Humans , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Biological Specimen Banks , El Salvador
14.
ABCS health sci ; 48: e023207, 14 fev. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414627

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The pathological status of obesity can influence COVID-19 from its initial clinical presentation, therefore, the identification of clinical and laboratory parameters most affected in the presence of obesity can contribute to improving the treatment of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To identify the clinical, laboratory, and tomographic characteristics associated with obesity and BMI at t hospital admission in adult patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional observational study with a total of 315 participants with COVID-19 confirmed by rt-PCR. The participants were divided into non-Obese (n=203) and Obese (n=112). Physical examinations, laboratory tests, and computed tomography of the chest were performed during the first 2 days of hospitalization. RESULTS: Patients with obesity were younger, and they had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, higher frequency of alcoholism, fever, cough, and headache, higher ALT, LDH, and red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin, hematocrit, and percentage of lymphocytes. Also, they presented a lower value of leukocyte count and Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio (RNL). The parameters positively correlated with BMI were alcoholism, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fever, cough, sore throat, number of symptoms, ALT in men, LDH, magnesium, RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and percentage of lymphocytes. The parameters negatively correlated with the BMI were: age and RNL. CONCLUSION: Several parameters were associated with obesity at hospital admission, revealing better than expected results. However, these results should be interpreted with great caution, as there may be some influence of a phenomenon called the Obesity Paradox that can distort the severity and prognosis of the patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Patient Admission , Tomography , Biomarkers , Body Mass Index , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , COVID-19 , Obesity , Cross-Sectional Studies
15.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 57(1): 1-2, ene. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1441065

ABSTRACT

Los valores de corte de diagnóstico para las pruebas de laboratorio generalmente se han establecido en función de un rango de referencia obtenido de una población "sana". Sin embargo, puede haber circunstancias en las que se requiera modificar estos valores de corte para patologías específicas. Es el caso de la diabetes mellitus (DM), donde el riesgo de su desarrollo es un continuo que puede comenzar desde glucemias consideradas "normales". Si bien la interpretación de una prueba con resultados binarios es sencilla, la interpretación de una prueba con resultados continuos no es tan simple. Resulta difícil establecer un gold standard para el diagnóstico de condiciones como, por ejemplo, la hipertensión arterial y la hipercolesterolemia, que han cambiado constantemente en función de la evidencia concreta del beneficio de reducir sus valores en mayor o menor magnitud según la condición del paciente. Más difícil aún ha sido establecer un gold standard para el diagnóstico de la DM.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Diagnosis
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981822

ABSTRACT

21 hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD), the most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, is caused by defects in CYP21A2 gene, which encodes the cytochrome P450 oxidase (P450C21) involved in glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid synthesis. The diagnosis of 21-OHD is based on the comprehensive evaluation of clinical manifestation, biochemical alteration and molecular genetics results. Due to the complex structure of CYP21A2, special techniques are required to perform delicate analysis to avoid the interference of its pseudogene. Recently, the state-of-the-art diagnostic methods were applied to the clinic gradually, including the steroid hormone profiling and third generation sequencing. To standardize the laboratory diagnosis of 21-OHD, this consensus was drafted on the basis of the extensive knowledge, the updated progress and the published consensuses and guidelines worldwide by expert discussion organized by Rare Diseases Group of Pediatric Branch of Chinese Medical Association, Medical Genetics Branch of Chinese Medical Doctor Association, Birth Defect Prevention and Molecular Genetics Branch of China Maternal and Child Health Association. and Molecular Diagnosis Branch of Shanghai Medical Association.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/genetics , Steroid 21-Hydroxylase/genetics , Consensus , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Mutation
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969835

ABSTRACT

The laboratory diagnostic strategy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a process to accurately detect HIV patients through a combination of available HIV tests. Laboratory tests for HIV infection are mainly serological antibody and antigen testing and HIV RNA testing. With the update of testing reagents, the sensitivity and specificity have improved substantially and the window period of detection has shortened, but there is a risk of false positives. Various guidelines have recommended different diagnostic strategies for different target populations and different prevalence regions to guide patients to confirm the diagnosis and receive standardized antiretroviral therapy as early as possible. How to refer to the diagnostic strategies, reduce false positives and shorten the window period while increasing the detection rate is an urgent issue for laboratories to address. This article describes the characteristics and advantages and disadvantages of testing methods related to HIV infection from the perspective of laboratory diagnostic strategies, as well as the impact of the development of treatments on diagnostic strategies, in order to provide theoretical support for the practical application of HIV diagnostic strategies.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Quality Control
18.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 952023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1441833

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las cardiopatías congénitas son causa frecuente de insuficiencia cardíaca mientras las cardiopatías adquiridas resultan menos frecuentes. La expresión clínica difiere en gran manera de la población adulta y representa la emergencia cardiovascular más frecuente en pediatría. El diagnóstico es completamente clínico, y el tratamiento está encaminado a corregir la causa que la origina. Objetivo: Actualizar conceptos, fisiopatología, manifestaciones clínicas, y tratamiento de la insuficiencia cardíaca en pediatría. Métodos: Se revisaron las bases de datos Medline, PubMed, SciELO y plataforma Springerlink, disponibles desde Infomed; desde el año 2000 hasta 2020, en idioma español e inglés. Análisis y síntesis de la información: La insuficiencia cardíaca es un síndrome clínico resultado de disfunción ventricular, sobrecarga de presión o volumen, independiente o en combinación, que conlleva a signos y síntomas característicos. La identificación de su causa, el diagnóstico precoz y el tratamiento oportuno mejoraran el pronóstico de los pacientes aquejados. Conclusiones: La insuficiencia cardíaca en edad pediátrica representa una compleja afección de causas multifactoriales. El diagnóstico puede hacerse con el método clínico, complementándose con los diferentes exámenes. El tratamiento médico farmacológico o no, se encamina a tratar la causa, además de nuevas terapias en desarrollo prometedoras en el futuro(AU)


Introduction: Congenital heart disease is a frequent cause of heart failure while acquired heart disease is less frequent. The clinical expression differs greatly from the adult population and represents the most frequent cardiovascular emergency in pediatrics. Diagnosis is completely clinical and treatment is aimed at correcting the cause. Objective: To update concepts, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and treatment of heart failure in pediatrics. Methods: The databases Medline, PubMed, SciELO and Springerlink platform, available from Infomed, were reviewed from 2000 to 2020, in Spanish and English. Analysis and synthesis of the information: Heart failure is a clinical syndrome resulting from ventricular dysfunction, pressure or volume overload, independently or in combination, leading to characteristic signs and symptoms. Identification of its cause, early diagnosis and timely treatment improve the prognosis of afflicted patients. Conclusions: Heart failure in pediatric age represented a complex condition with multifactorial causes. The diagnosis can be made with the clinical method, complemented with different examinations. Pharmacological or non-pharmacological medical treatment is aimed at treating the cause, in addition to promising new therapies under development in the future(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Heart Defects, Congenital/etiology , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart Failure/therapy , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Serial Publications , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/instrumentation , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Heart Auscultation , Heart Failure/classification
19.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1526791

ABSTRACT

A hantavirose é uma zoonose de distribuição mundial que utiliza como vetores roedores, musaranhos, toupeiras e morcegos. Os sintomas da infecção pelo hantavírus assemelham-se aos de diversas doenças, por isso o diagnóstico laboratorial é crucial para o tratamento precoce. Objetivo: Realizar uma revisão da literatura sobre as características e diagnóstico laboratorial da hantavirose. Métodos: Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura com base no modelo PRISMA, com seleção de estudos nas bases de dados Portal de Periódicos da Capes, PubMed/Medline, SciELO, ScienceDirect e Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS). Foram empregados os descritores: hantavírus, diagnóstico laboratorial, exames e zoonose, em português e inglês, no período de 2015 a 2022, sendo selecionados 19 artigos científicos em atendimento aos critérios de inclusão. Resultados e Discussão: Diversas técnicas diagnósticas podem ser empregadas em casos de hantavirose, sendo a biologia molecular a mais empregada, conjuntamente com a imunologia. Há outros recursos utilizados para monitoramento e evolução da doença, como a bioquímica, a hematologia e a imagenologia. Para a ocorrência de hantavirose é necessário um ambiente propício, clima específico e contato com hospedeiro suscetível, podendo evoluir para quadros assintomáticos ou sintomáticos com complicações graves. Conclusão: O diagnóstico dessa doença é desafiador e requer investigação detalhada que inclua a sintomatologia do paciente, o histórico de exposição a animais reservatórios e os resultados de exames laboratoriais. Como desfechos negativos da hantavirose incluem-se a febre hemorrágica com síndrome renal, a síndrome pulmonar por hantavírus e o óbito


Hantavirus is a worldwide distributed zoonosis that uses rodents, shrews, moles and bats as vectors. The symptoms of hantavirus infection resemble those of many diseases, so laboratory diagnosis is crucial for early treatment. Objective: The present study aimed to conduct a literature review on the characteristics and laboratory diagnosis of hantavirus. Methods: This is an integrative literature review based on the PRISMA model, with a selection of studies in the Capes Portal de Periódicos, PubMed/Medline, SciELO, ScienceDirect and Virtual Health Library databases, using the descriptors: hantavirus, laboratory diagnosis, exams, and zoonosis, in portuguese and english, from 2015 to 2022, and nineteen scientific articles that met the inclusion criteria were selected. Results and Discussion: Several techniques can be used in cases of hantavirus, with molecular biology being the most evidenced along with immunology. There are other parameters that are used for monitoring and evolution of the disease, such as biochemistry, hematology, and imaging. For the hantavirus disease, an adequate environment, specific climate and contact with a susceptible host are necessary, which may lead to asymptomatic conditions or symptoms with more serious complications. Conclusion: The diagnosis of this disease is challenging and requires detailed investigation that includes the patient's symptoms, the history of exposure to reservoir animals and the results of laboratory tests. Negative outcomes of hantavirus infection include hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, and death


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hantavirus Infections/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Argentina , Switzerland , Turkey , United States , Belgium , Bolivia , Brazil , Canada , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Chile , China , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Kazakhstan , Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome
20.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(3): 1164-1172, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425449

ABSTRACT

O Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico (LES) é uma patologia crônica, de origem autoimune e inflamatória. As diversas manifestações clínicas existentes em pacientes acometidos pelo LES, sejam elas sistêmicas ou órgãos-alvo, possibilitam variados diagnósticos diferenciais. Dentre as manifestações clínicas que possibilitam estes diagnósticos está o acometimento cutâneo, com vasta variabilidade de apresentação. Da mesma forma, a sífilis também possui apresentação cutânea, tornando possível o diferencial de diagnóstico com outras patologias, inclusive o próprio LES. O presente estudo tem como objetivo relatar um caso de sífilis mimetizando lúpus eritematoso sistêmico, descrever o quadro clínico apresentado pelo paciente, bem como as ferramentas utilizadas para diagnóstico, e a posterior abordagem terapêutica. O caso relatado refere-se a um paciente de 29 anos, do sexo masculino, procedente de Campos Novos (SC), que apresentou um quadro clínico e laboratorial de lúpus-like induzido por uma infecção aguda de sífilis. A resolução completa de critérios inflamatórios de LES ocorreu após tratamento correto da doença infecciosa, com total melhora clínica e sorológica.


Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease. The various clinical manifestations in SLE patients, both systemic and in target organs, allow for various differential diagnoses. Among the clinical manifestations that aid in diagnosis are the cutaneous injuries, which have a wide range of presentations. Syphilis also has cutaneous manifestations, which aid in the differential diagnosis from other pathologies, including SLE. The present study aims to report a case of syphilis mimicking SLE, describe the clinical condition presented by the patient, the tools used for diagnosis, and the therapeutic approach. The case reported refers to a 29- year-old male patient from Campos Novos (SC), who showed a clinical and laboratory lupus-like condition induced by an acute syphilis infection. The full resolution of SLE inflammatory criteria occurred following appropriate treatment for the infectious disease, with complete clinical and serological improvement.


El lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES) es una enfermedad inflamatoria autoinmune crónica. Las diversas manifestaciones clínicas de los pacientes con LES, tanto sistémicas como en órganos diana, permiten realizar varios diagnósticos diferenciales. Entre las manifestaciones clínicas que ayudan al diagnóstico se encuentran las lesiones cutáneas, que tienen una amplia gama de presentaciones. La sífilis también tiene manifestaciones cutáneas, que ayudan al diagnóstico diferencial con otras patologías, incluido el LES. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo comunicar un caso de sífilis que simula un LES, describir el cuadro clínico presentado por la paciente, las herramientas utilizadas para el diagnóstico y el abordaje terapéutico. El caso relatado se refiere a un paciente masculino de 29 años, natural de Campos Novos (SC), que presentó un cuadro clínico y de laboratorio semejante al lupus, inducido por una infección aguda por sífilis. La resolución completa de los criterios inflamatorios del LES ocurrió tras el tratamiento adecuado de la enfermedad infecciosa, con mejoría clínica y serológica completa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Syphilis/diagnosis , Syphilis/pathology , Syphilis/therapy , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/pathology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/therapy , Skin Manifestations , Adaptation, Biological , Communicable Diseases/pathology , Communicable Diseases/therapy , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Case Reports as Topic , Infections/diagnosis
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