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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(2): 131-138, abril 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1152134

ABSTRACT

A 11 años del primer brote de dengue en Buenos Aires, el 20 de marzo de 2020, mientras se iniciaba la cuarentena obligatoria por COVID-19, dengue pasó a ser la causa más común de consulta por fiebre. La nueva ola de casos de dengue ya se encontraba entre las predicciones de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud en función del aumento en la región de las Américas que se venía presentando desde el año anterior. La llegada del SARS-CoV-2 a principios de marzo, sumada al brote de dengue que ya estaba en curso, resultó en un nuevo desafío para el sistema de salud, mientras comenzaba un paradigma con planes de adaptación a la nueva infección pandémica en el país. La superposición de infecciones con potencial epidémico, como dengue, recuerda la importancia de no desatender otras enfermedades endémicas, emergentes y reemergentes a la sombra del nuevo fenómeno epidemiológico


Eleven years after the first dengue outbreak in Buenos Aires, on March 20, 2020, while the mandatory quarantine for COVID-19 began dengue became the most common cause of fever consultation. The new wave of dengue cases was already among the predictions of the Pan American Health Organization based on the increase in the region of the Americas that had been occurring since the previous year. The arrival of SARS-CoV-2 at the beginning of March, added to the dengue outbreak that was already underway, made a new challenge for the health system while a new paradigm was initiated with adaptation plans to the new pandemic infection in the country. The overlapping of infections with epidemic potential such as dengue recalls the importance of not neglecting other endemic, emerging and re-emerging diseases in the shadow of the new epidemiological phenomenon.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dengue/epidemiology , Pediatrics , Arboviruses , Argentina/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections , Aedes , Coinfection
2.
Rev. Saúde Pública Paraná (Online) ; 4(1): 108-118, abr. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SESA-PR | ID: biblio-1281242

ABSTRACT

O objetivo desse estudo foi investigar as características e consequências clínicas da infecção pelo coronavírus em pessoas com HIV. Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura, que utilizou de publicações das bases PubMed e MedLine. A captura se deu com a articulação dos descritores "covid-19" OR "corona vírus disease" OR "sars-cov-2 AND HIV patient AND clinical outcomes". Ainda como critérios de inclusão, artigos disponíveis em texto completo, independente do ano ou idioma de publicação, totalizando11 manuscritos que compuseram a análise. Todos os artigos foram publicados em língua inglesa, no ano de 2020. O quadro clínico apresentado pelos pacientes coinfectados por Covid-19 e HIV não demonstrou diferenças se comparado a pacientes sem HIV. Observou-se que outras comorbidades influenciaram nas consequências da evolução clínica dos pacientes, independente da coinfecção com HIV. Dessa forma, os resultados apresentaram discrepâncias, não tornando possível evidenciar o agravamento clínico da Covid-19 pela presença do HIV. (AU)


The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics and clinical consequences of coronavirus infection in people with HIV. This is an integrative literature review, which used publications from the PubMed and MedLine databases. The capture occurred with the articulation of the descriptors "covid-19" OR "corona virus disease" OR "sars-cov-2 AND HIV patient AND clinical outcomes". Still as inclusion criteria, articles available in full text, regardless of year or language of publication, totaling 11 manuscripts that made up the analysis. All articles were published in English in 2020. The clinical picture presented by patients co-infected with Covid-19 and HIV did not show any differences when compared to patients without HIV. It was observed that other comorbidities influenced the consequences of the clinical evolution of patients, regardless of coinfection with HIV. Thus, the results showed discrepancies, making it impossible to show the clinical worsening of Covid-19 due to the presence of HIV. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV , Coronavirus Infections , Coinfection , Literature
3.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 73(1): e376, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280322

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La fascioliasis es causada por el trematodo Fasciola hepatica que afecta a animales herbívoros, omnívoros y al humano. Los niños de edad escolar son los más afectados y el órgano más dañado es el hígado. Este parásito requiere de reservorio y huésped intermediario para completar su ciclo biológico. Objetivo: Determinar la asociación de la fascioliasis con el estado nutricional y coinfección enteroparasitaria en niños. Métodos: La investigación se realizó entre septiembre de 2016 y abril de 2017 en el distrito de Santa María de Chicmo, región Apurímac. El estudio fue analítico de corte transversal. La población de niños de 6 a 16 años estuvo constituida por 2 172 individuos. El tamaño de muestra fue de 435 niños y se determinó mediante un muestreo simple al azar. Además, para que el muestreo fuera más eficiente se distribuyó el tamaño total de la muestra entre los estratos I.E. Primaria e I.E. Secundaria, para un resultado de 209 y 226 muestras, respectivamente. Sin embargo, se logró tomar 493 muestras coprológicas y serológicas repartidas proporcionalmente entre la totalidad de 23 instituciones educativas. Resultados: La prevalencia de fascioliasis fue de 5,3 por ciento (26/493; IC95 por ciento =3,2-7,4). Las instituciones educativas con mayor prevalencia fueron: Taramba con 17,2 por ciento (5/29; IC95 por ciento = 5,9-35,8), Libertadores de América con 16,1 por ciento (5/31; IC95 por ciento = 5,5-33,7), Mariano Melgar con 15 por ciento (3/20; IC95 por ciento = 3,2-37,9) y Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe con 10,8 por ciento (4/37; IC95 por ciento = 3-25,4). No se encontró asociación de fascioliasis con la valoración nutricional antropométrica ni con la coinfección enteroparasitaria en niños (p˃ 0,05). Conclusiones: La fascioliasis no estaría afectando el estado nutricional de los niños; asimismo, los signos clínicos, atribuidos a fascioliasis, corresponderían también a la alta presentación de parásitos entéricos(AU)


Introduction: Fascioliasis is caused by the trematode Fasciola hepatica and affects herbivorous and omnivorous animals as well as humans. Schoolchildren are the most affected group, and the organ most commonly targeted is the liver. This parasite requires an intermediate reservoir and host to complete its biological cycle. Objective: Determine the association of fascioliasis to nutritional status and enteroparasite coinfection in children. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2016 to April 2017 in the district of Santa María de Chicmo, Apurímac Region. The child population aged 6-16 years was composed of 2 172 individuals. The sample size was 435 children, and it was determined by simple random sampling. Additionally, in order for the sampling to be more efficient, the total sample size was distributed between the strata Primary E.I. and Secondary E.I., for 209 and 226 samples, respectively. However, 493 coprological and serological samples were proportionally taken from the total 23 educational institutions. Results: Prevalence of fascioliasis was 5.3 percent (26/493; CI95 percent=3.2-7.4). The educational institutions with the highest prevalence were Taramba with 17.2 percent (5/29; CI95 percent= 5.9-35.8), Libertadores de América with 16.1 percent (5/31; CI95 percent= 5.5-33.7), Mariano Melgar with 15 percent (3/20; CI95 percent= 3.2-37.9) and Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe with 10.8 percent (4/37; CI95 percent= 3-25.4). No association was found between fascioliasis and nutritional anthropometric assessment or enteroparasite coinfection in children (p˃ 0.05). Conclusions: Fascioliasis was not found to affect the nutritional status of children. On the other hand, the clinical signs attributed to fascioliasis also correspond to the high presentation of enteric parasites(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Fascioliasis/complications , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/etiology , Fascioliasis/diet therapy , Coinfection/prevention & control
4.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 53(1): 15-20, 20210330. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290909

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Devido às mudanças do comportamento sexual, os casos de coinfecção entre HIV e sífilis vêm se tornando um desafio para saúde pública mundial. As compli- cações dessa coinfecção, como manifestações cutâneas e neurológicas, são causadas principalmente pelo diagnóstico tardio. Objetivo: Apontar as principais complicações no quadro clínico de coinfectados com HIV e sífilis e descrever os possíveis interferentes no diagnóstico. Métodos: O presente artigo trata-se de uma revisão literária integrativa que tem como base artigos publicados em Inglês e Português no período de 2009 a 2019, que relatam sobre coinfecção de HIV e sífilis. Discussão: Pacientes coinfectados com HIV e sífilis podem apresentar quadro clínico atípico, isso ocorre em decorrência das alterações no curso natural da sífilis. Durante o diagnóstico da sífilis, em indivíduos coinfectados com HIV, reações atípicas, como o efeito prozona, podem gerar quadros de falso-positivo e falso-negativo nos testes não treponêmicos. Essas variações podem retardar o diagnós- tico, causando complicações, como a neurosífilis. Conclusão: Por fim, os interferentes, como resultados falso-negativo e falso-positivo, no diagnóstico da sífilis, podem alterar o resultado dos exames laboratoriais. Além disso, a falta de um protocolo para diagnóstico contribui para os desafios na investigação da coinfecção.


Introduction: Changes in sexual behavior increase cases of co-infection between HIV and syphilis, and it is becoming a challenge for public health worldwide. Complications of this co-infection, such as cutaneous and neurological manifestations, are mainly caused by late diagnosis. Objective: to describe the main complications in the clinical picture of co-infected with HIV and syphilis and the possible interferences in the diagnosis. Methods: This article is an integrative literary review based on articles published in English and Portuguese from 2009 to 2019, which report on HIV and syphilis co-infection. Discussion: Patients co-infected with HIV and syphilis, may present atypical symptoms, this occurs due to changes in the natural course of syphilis. During the diagnosis of syphilis, in HIV-infected individuals, atypical reactions, such as the prozone effect, can generate false-positive and false-negative conditions in non-treponemal tests. These variations can delay the diagnosis, causing complications, such as neurosyphilis. Conclusion: However, the interfering, as false-negative and false-positive results, with the diagnosis of syphilis, can alter the results of laboratory test.


Subject(s)
AIDS Serodiagnosis , HIV Infections , HIV , Coinfection , Neurosyphilis
5.
San Salvador; MINSAL; ene. 22, 2021. 84 p. ilus, graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1178216

ABSTRACT

La presente guía unifica conocimientos sobre la enfermedad y criterios de diagnóstico, tratamiento de la TB y la coinfección TB-VIH, para aplicar las medidas de prevención de la TB dentro de los establecimientos del Sistema Nacional Integrado de Salud (SNIS)


This guide unifies knowledge about the disease and criteria for diagnosis, treatment of TB and TB-HIV coinfection, to apply TB prevention measures within of the establishments of the National Integrated Health System (SNIS)


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis , HIV , Guideline , Coinfection
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0759-2020, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155599

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) viruses are associated with a high global burden of disease, and coinfection is a frequently reported event. We aimed to compare the functioning and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients infected with HTLV-1, HIV, and HIV-HTLV-1. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients older than 18 years who had an HTLV-1 infection (Group A), HIV infection (Group B), or HIV-HTLV-1 coinfection (Group C). The functioning profiles were evaluated using handgrip strength, Berg balance scale (BBS), timed "up and go" (TUG) test, and 5-m walk test (m/s). We used the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0) questionnaire to measure disability. The HRQoL was evaluated using a 36-item short-form health survey. For data with parametric and non-parametric distribution, we used analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction and the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Dunn's pairwise tests with Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: We enrolled 68 patients in Group A, 39 in Group B, and 29 in Group C. The scores for handgrip strength, BBS, TUG test, all the WHODAS domains, and HRQoL were poorer for Groups A and C than for Group B. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to patients with HIV infection, those with HIV-HTLV-1 coinfection and HTLV-1 infection had poor functioning and HRQoL scores. HTLV-1 infection was associated with reduced functioning and HRQoL in patients with a single HTLV-1 infection and HIV-HTLV-1 coinfection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 , HTLV-I Infections/complications , HIV Infections/complications , Coinfection , Quality of Life , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hand Strength
7.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 13(Suplemento COVID-19): 1-8, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1247765

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Al inicio de la pandemia, la Organización Mundial de la Salud alertó que la transmisión simultánea de dengue y la enfermedad por el nuevo coronavirus (COVID-19) en algunas regiones podría ocasionar casos de coinfección y agravamiento por la superposición de síntomas y la dificultad extra en el manejo. En julio de 2020, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud declaró el alerta epidemiológico por dengue en pandemia, y agregó, como posibles agravantes, la subnotificación, la demora en la consulta y la interrupción del control entomológico. Sin embargo, el impacto de la superposición de ambas enfermedades no está claro aún. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar las curvas de coinfección en distintos escenarios de coepidemia y se consideran los posibles efectos de la pandemia sobre la epidemiología del dengue. MÉTODOS: Se desarrolló un modelo matemático de coinfección, de tipo determinista, basado en modelos previos de ambas enfermedades. RESULTADOS: Para un dado brote de dengue, la fracción final de coinfectados depende del número reproductivo de la COVID-19. La curva de coinfectados depende de la superposición de las epidemias; el área de superposición permite estimar su fracción final. Una cuarentena que reduzca los casos de COVID-19 también reduciría la coinfección, y sería más efectiva cuanto más temprana. Si la cuarentena modifica la dinámica del dengue, el modelo predice el aumento y el adelantamiento de los casos, cuyo efecto sobre la curva de coinfectados depende de la dinámica de superposición. DISCUSIÓN: El modelo propuesto ofrece un primer abordaje para visibilizar la coinfección y comprender los mecanismos que podrían afectarla


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Dengue , Coinfection , Argentina
8.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(spe): e20210176, 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1284230

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: identificar as mudanças na rotina das pessoas vivendo com HIV decorrentes da pandemia da COVID-19. Método: pesquisa qualitativa, desenvolvida por meio de entrevista semiestruturada, junto à 46 pessoas vivendo com HIV atendidas em um serviço especializado em doenças infectocontagiosas do interior de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Os dados foram submetidos à análise lexicográfica, com auxílio do software IRaMuTeQ, pelos métodos de Estatística Textual Clássica, Nuvem de Palavras e Classificação Hierárquica Descendente. Resultados: foram identificadas distintas mudanças na rotina diária de pessoas vivendo com HIV decorrentes da pandemia da COVID-19, dentre elas, o uso de medidas preventivas, como a utilização de máscara e isolamento social, além de mudanças no ambiente de trabalho e de lazer, no convívio familiar, aspectos emocionais individuais e de tratamento. Conclusão e implicações para a prática: muitas mudanças e desafios de ordem física, biológica e psicossocial demonstraram serem vivenciados pelos participantes diante do cenário mundial pandêmico, decorrentes, principalmente, do isolamento social. Para tal, estratégias de enfrentamento tornam-se fundamentais no dia-a-dia das pessoas vivendo com HIV visando garantir a continuidade e tratamento ininterrupto, e a prevenção de uma sindêmia, mitigando, assim, as repercussões da COVID-19 na saúde destes indivíduos que pertencem ao grupo de risco


Objective: to identify the changes in the routine of people living with HIV resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: a qualitative research study, developed through a semi-structured interview, with 46 people living with HIV treated at a service specialized in infectious diseases in the inland of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The data were submitted to lexicographic analysis, with the aid of the IRaMuTeQ software, using the methods of Classical Textual Statistics, Word Cloud and Descending Hierarchical Classification. Results: distinct changes were identified in the daily routine of people living with HIV due to the COVID-19 pandemic, including the use of preventive measures, such as wearing a mask and social isolation, in addition to changes in the work and leisure environment, in family life, individual emotional aspects and treatment. Conclusion and implications for the practice: many changes, challenges of a physical, biological and psychosocial nature have been shown by the participants in the face of the global pandemic scenario, mainly resulting from social isolation. To this end, coping strategies become essential in the everyday lives of people living with HIV in order to guarantee continuity and uninterrupted treatment, and the prevention of a syndemic, thus mitigating the repercussions of COVID-19 on the health of the individuals who belong to the risk group


Objetivo: identificar los cambios en la rutina de las personas que viven con VIH como resultado de la pandemia de COVID-19. Método: investigación cualitativa, desarrollada a través de una entrevista semiestructurada, con 46 personas que viven con VIH atendidas en un servicio especializado en enfermedades infecciosas en el interior de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Los datos fueron sometidos a análisis lexicográfico, con la ayuda del software IRaMuTeQ, y utilización de los métodos de Estadística Textual Clásica, Nube de Palabras y Clasificación Jerárquica Descendente. Resultados: se identificaron distintos cambios en la rutina diaria de las personas que viven con VIH debido a la pandemia de COVID-19, incluido el uso de medidas preventivas, como la utilización de barbijo y aislamiento social, además de cambios en el entorno laboral y de ocio, en la vida familiar, en aspectos emocionales individuales y en el tratamiento. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica: muchos cambios y desafíos de naturaleza física, biológica y psicosocial han atravesado a los participantes ante el escenario de la pandemia global, principalmente debido al aislamiento social. Para ello, las estrategias de afrontamiento se vuelven imprescindibles en el día a día de las personas que viven con VIH a fin de garantizar la continuidad y el tratamiento ininterrumpido, y la prevención de una sindemia, con el objetivo de mitigar las repercusiones del COVID-19 en la salud de estos sujetos que pertenecen al grupo de riesgo


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , HIV Infections , HIV , COVID-19/prevention & control , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hand Disinfection , Qualitative Research , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Family Relations , Feeding Behavior , Coinfection/prevention & control , Teleworking , Physical Distancing , Masks
9.
S. Afr. med. j. (Online) ; 111(11): 1092-1097, 2021. Tables, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1344165

ABSTRACT

Background. The availability of well and functional healthcare workers (HCWs) and support staff is pivotal to a country's ability to manage the COVID-19 pandemic effectively. While HCWs have been identified as being at increased risk for acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 infection, there is a paucity of data pertaining to South African (SA) HCW-related infection rates. Global and provincial disparities in these numbers necessitate local data in order to mitigate risks. Objectives. To ascertain the overall SARS-CoV-2 infection rates and outcomes among all hospital staff at three hospitals in the Tshwane district of Gauteng Province, SA, and further determine associations with the development of severe COVID-19 disease. Methods. This retrospective audit was conducted across three academic hospitals in the Tshwane district for the period 1 June - 31 August 2020. Deidentified data from occupational health and safety departments at each hospital were used to calculate infection rates. A more detailed analysis at one of the three hospitals included evaluation of demographics, work description, possible source of SARS-CoV-2 exposure (community or hospital), comorbidities and outcomes. Results. The period prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infections ranged from 6.1% to 15.4% between the three hospitals, with the average period prevalence being 11.1%. The highest incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infections was observed among administrative staff (2.8 cases per 1 000 staff days), followed by nursing staff (2.7 cases per 1 000 staff days). Medical doctors had the lowest incidence of 1.1 cases per 1 000 staff days. SARS-CoV-2 infections were categorised as either possibly community or possibly healthcare facility acquired for 26.6% and 73.4% of the infections, respectively. The administrative group had the highest proportion of possible community-acquired infections (41.8%), while doctors had the lowest (6.1%). The mean age of individuals with mild and severe disease was 41 years and 46.1 years, respectively (p=0.004). The presence of comorbidities was significantly associated with severity of disease (p=0.002). Conclusions. This study highlights that hospital staff, including administrative staff, are clearly at high risk for acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 infection during a surge.


Subject(s)
Administrative Personnel , Health Personnel , Coinfection , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , South Africa , Tertiary Care Centers
10.
The lancet ; 3(6)2021. map
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1253678

ABSTRACT

Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis, which are typically transmitted via respiratory droplets, are leading causes of invasive diseases, including bacteraemic pneumonia and meningitis, and of secondary infections subsequent to post-viral respiratory disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of invasive disease due to these pathogens during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods In this prospective analysis of surveillance data, laboratories in 26 countries and territories across six continents submitted data on cases of invasive disease due to S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis from Jan 1, 2018, to May, 31, 2020, as part of the Invasive Respiratory Infection Surveillance (IRIS) Initiative. Numbers of weekly cases in 2020 were compared with corresponding data for 2018 and 2019. Data for invasive disease due to Streptococcus agalactiae, a non-respiratory pathogen, were collected from nine laboratories for comparison. The stringency of COVID-19 containment measures was quantified using the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker. Changes in population movements were assessed using Google COVID-19 Community Mobility Reports. Interrupted time-series modelling quantified changes in the incidence of invasive disease due to S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis in 2020 relative to when containment measures were imposed. Findings 27 laboratories from 26 countries and territories submitted data to the IRIS Initiative for S pneumoniae (62 434 total cases), 24 laboratories from 24 countries submitted data for H influenzae (7796 total cases), and 21 laboratories from 21 countries submitted data for N meningitidis (5877 total cases). All countries and territories had experienced a significant and sustained reduction in invasive diseases due to S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis in early 2020 (Jan 1 to May 31, 2020), coinciding with the introduction of COVID-19 containment measures in each country. By contrast, no significant changes in the incidence of invasive S agalactiae infections were observed. Similar trends were observed across most countries and territories despite differing stringency in COVID-19 control policies. The incidence of reported S pneumoniae infections decreased by 68% at 4 weeks (incidence rate ratio 0·32 [95% CI 0·27­0·37]) and 82% at 8 weeks (0·18 [0·14­0·23]) following the week in which significant changes in population movements were recorded. Interpretation The introduction of COVID-19 containment policies and public information campaigns likely reduced transmission of S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis, leading to a significant reduction in life-threatening invasive diseases in many countries worldwide. Funding Wellcome Trust (UK), Robert Koch Institute (Germany), Federal Ministry of Health (Germany), Pfizer, Merck, Health Protection Surveillance Centre (Ireland), SpID-Net project (Ireland), European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (European Union), Horizon 2020 (European Commission), Ministry of Health (Poland), National Programme of Antibiotic Protection (Poland), Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Poland), Agencia de Salut Pública de Catalunya (Spain), Sant Joan de Deu Foundation (Spain), Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (Sweden), Swedish Research Council (Sweden), Region Stockholm (Sweden), Federal Office of Public Health of Switzerland (Switzerland), and French Public Health Agency (France).


Subject(s)
Residence Characteristics , Haemophilus influenzae , Education, Higher , Disease Prevention , Pandemics , Coinfection , Anti-Bacterial Agents
11.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 52(4): 346-351, 20201230. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223697

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Esse estudo consistiu em realizar levantamento retrospectivo da prevalência de tuberculose pulmonar e extrapulmonar em indivíduos com AIDS em uso de antirretrovirais da terceira linha. Métodos: Foram inclusos nesse estudo prontuários de trezentos pacientes acima de 18 anos de idade, compreendidos entre intervalos de diagnóstico do HIV. Resultados: Dezessete pacientes acima de cinco anos de diagnóstico, desenvolveram Tuberculose na forma pulmonar e extrapulmonar. No período de 5 a 15 anos 7% dos pacientes desenvolveram tuberculose pulmonar e um paciente neurotuberculose. Dos pacientes com tempo de diagnóstico superior a 15 anos, 7% apresentaram forma pulmonar, e dois casos de TB extrapulmonar (miliar e abdominal). As morbidades não infecciosas observadas foram Hiperlipidemia Mista 23,52%, Hipotireoidismo 11,76% e Psicose Orgânica 5,88%. Conclusão: Os resultados deste levantamento indicam redução dos casos de tuberculose em pacientes com AIDS neste município, fato que pode ser decorrente da adesão TARV e status imunológico.


Objective: This study consisted of a retrospective survey of the prevalence of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis in individuals with AIDS using third-line antiretrovirals. Methods: We included in this study medical records of three handred patients over 18 years of age, comprised between intervals of HIV diagnosis. Results: Seventeen patients over five years of diagnosis developed pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Within 5 to 15 years 7% of the patients developed pulmonary tuberculosis and one patient neurotuberculosis. Of the patients with a diagnosis of more than 15 years, 7% had pulmonary form, and two cases of extrapulmonary TB (miliary and abdominal). The non-infectious morbidities observed were Mixed Hyperlipidemia 23.52%, Hypothyroidism 11.76% and Organic Psychosis 5.88%. Conclusion: The results of this survey indicate a reduction in tuberculosis cases in AIDS patients in this municipality, a fact that may be due to ART adherence and immunological status.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , HIV Infections , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Coinfection
12.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180395, Jan.-Dec. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1145145

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to know the challenges faced during tuberculosis coinfection treatment in people with HIV/AIDS (HIV/TB) in Huambo, Angola. Method: this is a qualitative convergent-care investigation carried out in the antituberculosis dispensary of the sanatorium hospital of Huambo, Angola. It included 18 people co-infected with HIV/TB and 11 health professionals. Data were collected from January to July 2016 through conversation interviews, participatory observation and a convergence group. In data analysis, conventional content analysis of Hsieh and Shannon was used. Results: the data originated two categories: challenges of HIV/TB coinfected people when facing the diseases and treatment adherence, and challenges due to intervening factors upon HIV/TB treatment adherence. Conclusions: people's conception about living with HIV/TB, associated with the intervening factors upon HIV/TB treatment adherence, results in late search for health services, non-adherence to treatment and worsening of diseases, thus posing as challenges to be overcome for better control of this double epidemic.


RESUMEN Objetivo: conocer los desafíos que enfrenta el tratamiento de la coinfección por tuberculosis en personas con VIH/SIDA (VIH/TB) en Huambo, Angola. Método: se trata de una investigación cualitativa, de tipo asistencial convergente, realizada en el dispensario antituberculoso del hospital sanatorio de Huambo, Angola. Contó con la participación de 18 personas coinfectadas con VIH/TB y 11 profesionales de la salud. Los datos se recolectaron de enero a julio de 2016 mediante entrevista conversacional, observación participativa y grupo de convergencia. El análisis de datos utilizó el análisis de contenido convencional de Hsieh y Shannon. Resultados: los datos dieron lugar a dos categorías: desafíos para las personas con VIH/TB frente a la enfermedad y la adherencia al tratamiento y desafíos frente a los factores involucrados en la adhesión al tratamiento del VIH/TB. Conclusiones: la concepción que tienen las personas de vivir con VIH/TB, asociada a los factores intervinientes en la adherencia al tratamiento VIH/TB, resulta en un retraso en la búsqueda de servicios de salud, la no adherencia al tratamiento y el agravamiento de las enfermedades, siendo desafíos a superar para un mejor control de esta doble epidemia.


RESUMO Objetivo: conhecer os desafios frente ao tratamento da coinfecção de tuberculose em pessoas com HIV/Aids (HIV/TB) em Huambo, Angola. Método: trata-se de uma investigação qualitativa, do tipo convergente assistencial, realizada no dispensário antituberculose do hospital sanatório do Huambo, Angola. Contou com a participação de 18 pessoas coinfectadas por HIV/TB e 11 profissionais de saúde. Os dados foram coletados no período de janeiro a julho de 2016 através de entrevista de conversação, observação participativa e grupo de convergência. Na análise dos dados utilizou-se a análise de conteúdo convencional de Hsieh e Shannon. Resultados: os dados originaram duas categorias: desafios das pessoas com HIV/TB frente às doenças e à adesão ao tratamento e desafios enfrentados diante dos fatores intervenientes na adesão ao tratamento da HIV/TB. Conclusões: a concepção que as pessoas têm sobre o viver com HIV/TB, associada aos fatores intervenientes na adesão ao tratamento da HIV/TB, resulta em busca tardia pelos serviços de saúde, não adesão ao tratamento e agravamento das doenças, sendo desafios a serem vencidos para melhor controle desta dupla epidemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Therapeutics , Tuberculosis , HIV , Medication Adherence , Coinfection
13.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 138(6): 498-504, Nov.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1145138

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The numbers of cases of arboviral diseases have increased in tropical and subtropical regions while the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic overwhelms healthcare systems worldwide. The clinical manifestations of arboviral diseases, especially dengue fever, can be very similar to COVID-19, and misdiagnoses are still a reality. In the meantime, outcomes for patients and healthcare systems in situations of possible syndemic have not yet been clarified. OBJECTIVE: We set out to conduct a systematic review to understand and summarize the evidence relating to clinical manifestations, disease severity and prognoses among patients coinfected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and arboviruses. METHODS: We conducted a rapid systematic review with meta-analysis, on prospective and retrospective cohorts, case-control studies and case series of patients with confirmed diagnoses of SARS-CoV-2 and arboviral infection. We followed the Cochrane Handbook recommendations. We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, LILACS, Scopus and Web of Science to identify published, ongoing and unpublished studies. We planned to extract data and assess the risk of bias and the certainty of evidence of the studies included, using the Quality in Prognosis Studies tool and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment. RESULTS: We were able to retrieve 2,407 citations using the search strategy, but none of the studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. CONCLUSION: The clinical presentations, disease severity and prognoses of patients coinfected with SARS-CoV-2 and arboviruses remain unclear. Further prospective studies are necessary in order to provide useful information for clinical decision-making processes. Protocol registration number in the PROSPERO database: CRD42020183460


Subject(s)
Humans , Arbovirus Infections/complications , Coinfection/virology , COVID-19/complications , Arboviruses , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Acta pediátr. hondu ; 11(1): 1151-1157, abr.- sept. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145423

ABSTRACT

Honduras reportó sus dos primeros casos de COVID-19 el 11 de marzo del 2020, actualmente reporta un total de 64, 352 casos confirmados con 2,006 fallecidos que estiman una tasa letalidad de 3.1%. La presencia de comorbilidades que debiliten el sistema inmune está asociado a un incremento en la severidad y mortalidad de la enfermedad, es por esto que se ha cuestionado si la infección por virus de inmunodeficiencia humana incrementa el riesgo de contagio y severidad del cuadro de la COVID-19 debido a la presencia de bajo recuento de células CD4. En Honduras para mayo del 2020 se registraron 38,291 casos de VIH acumulados de los cuales 2,086 corresponden a menores de 14 años. En el presente reporte se incluyeron 2 pacientes pediátricos con VIH coinfectados con COVID-19 tratados en el Hospital Nacional Dr. Mario Catarino Rivas (HNMCR) desde el inicio de la pandemia en marzo hasta septiembre del 2020. Ambos pacientes fueron hospitalizados por su estado clínico crítico y la necesidad de apoyo con oxígeno. Ambos pacientes recibían terapia antirretroviral, sin embargo, el paciente numero 2 presentaba mala adherencia y se encontraba con inmunosupresión severa y falleció 2 días posteriores a su ingreso hospitalario. En conclusión, una vez más sigue siendo importante la adherencia al tratamiento antirretroviral en los niños con VIH con el fin de lograr la indetectabilidad en su carga viral mejorando su estado inmunológico, y evitando las infecciones oportunistas asociadas al VIH, así como también respondiendo adecuadamente a cualquier otra enfermedad...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases/mortality , Coinfection/mortality
15.
MSphere ; 5(5): e00923-20, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1128430

ABSTRACT

Provirus mutations of human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1), mostly the lack of the 5= long terminal repeat (LTR) genomic region, have been described and associated with severe adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), non-sense point mutations with low proviral load, and Western blotting indeterminate results. Until now, no information concerning provirus mutations of HTLV-2 and its consequences, as well as those of HTLV-1/2 in HIV-coinfected individuals, had been described. Therefore, we searched for these mutations in provirus samples of 44 HIV/HTLV-1- and 25 HIV/HTLV-2-coinfected individuals. Using protocols well established for amplification and sequencing of segments of the LTR, env, and tax regions, we searched for defective type 1 particles that retain LTRs and lack internal sequences and type 2 particles that lack the 5=LTR region. In addition, using as references the prototypes ATK (HTLV-1) and Mo (HTLV-2), we searched for point mutations in the LTR and synonyms and nonsynonymous mutations and non-sense mutations in env and tax regions. Defective HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 provirus type 1 or 2 was detected in 31.8% of HIV/HTLV-1- and 32.0% of HIV/HTLV-2-coinfected individuals. Synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations were identified mostly in HTLV-2 and associated with lower levels of specific antibodies. No non-sense mutations that resulted in premature termination of Env and Tax proteins were detected. On the contrary, mutation in the stop codon of Tax2a produced a long protein characteristic of the HTLV-2c subtype. The clinical significance of these mutations in coinfected individuals remains to be defined, but they confirmed the lower sensitivity of serological and molecular diagnostic tests in HIV/HTLV-1/2 coinfections. IMPORTANCE HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are endemic to Brazil, and they have different effects in HIV/AIDS disease progression. HIV/HTLV-1 has been described as accelerating the progression to AIDS and death, while HIV/HTLV-2 slows the progression to AIDS. Provirus mutations of HTLV-1 were implicated in severe leukemia development and in problems in the diagnosis of HTLV-1; in contrast, provirus mutations of HTLV-2 had not been confirmed and associated with problems in HTLV-2 diagnosis or disease outcome. Nevertheless, data obtained here allowed us to recognize and understand the false-negative results in serologic and molecular tests applied for HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 diagnosis. Defective proviruses, as well as synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations, were associated with the diagnosis deficiencies. Additionally, since HIV-1 and HTLV-1 infect the same cells (CD4 positive), the production of HIV-1 pseudotypes with HTLV-1 envelope glycoprotein during HIV/HTLV-1 coinfection cannot be excluded. Defective provirus of HTLV-2 and Tax2c is speculated to influence progression to AIDS. (AU)


Subject(s)
Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 , Human T-lymphotropic virus 2 , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV , Proviruses , Coinfection , Mutation
16.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 49(3): e793, jul.-set. 2020. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144472

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los primeros informes de China sugirieron que la coinfección con otros patógenos en la COVID-19 era anómala, las últimas evidencias han demostrado que pueden aparecer otras infecciones, sobre todo en pacientes graves. Objetivo: Describir las infecciones bacterianas asociadas a la COVID-19, en pacientes de una unidad de cuidados intensivos. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en el período comprendido de marzo 24 a mayo 24 del año 2020, en la unidad de cuidados intensivos del Hospital Militar "Comandante Manuel Fajardo Rivero". La población de estudio estuvo constituida por 13 pacientes de 49 a 91 años, quienes permanecieron hospitalizados en esa sala, con diagnóstico confirmado, por la prueba de reacción en cadena de la transcriptasa inversa - polimerasa en tiempo real, para el SARS-CoV-2. Las variables de estudio fueron: edad, sexo, confección, antecedentes patológicos personales, estado al egreso, microorganismos aislados y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana. Resultados: El 61,5 por ciento de los pacientes fueron del sexo femenino, la edad media fue de 78,8 años, el 61,5 por ciento falleció y entre estos, el 44,4 por ciento presentó coinfección. El 66,7 por ciento y el 55,6 por ciento de los que padecían hipertensión arterial y cardiopatía isquémica respectivamente, desarrollaron una coinfección. La Escherichia coli fue el microorganismo que se aisló con mayor frecuencia. Conclusiones: En la serie estudiada predominaron las féminas, la mortalidad fue alta, se evidenció un porcentaje elevado de confección bacteriana y de comorbilidades. Más de la mitad de los pacientes falleció. Fueron las bacterias gramnegativas los microorganismos que más se aislaron. Los niveles de resistencia a los antimicrobianos fueron elevados(AU)


Introduction: The first reports from China suggested that coinfection with other pathogens in COVID-19 was abnormal, the latest evidence has shown that other infections may appear, especially in severe patients. Objective: To describe the bacterial infections associated with COVID-19, in patients in an intensive care unit. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out in the period from March 24 to May 24, 2020, in the intensive care unit of the Military Hospital "Comandante Manuel Fajardo Rivero". The study population consisted of 13 patients from 49 to 91 years, those who remained hospitalized in that room, with a confirmed diagnosis, by the real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction test for SARS-CoV-2. The study variables were: age, sex, clothing, personal pathological history, status at discharge, isolated microorganisms and antimicrobial susceptibility. Results: 61.5 percent of the patients were female, the mean age was 78.8 years, 61.5 percent died, and among these, 44.4 percent had coinfection. 66.7 percent and 55.6 percent of those with high blood pressure and ischemic heart disease, respectively, developed a coinfection. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated microorganism. Conclusions: Females predominated in the series studied, mortality was high, a high percentage of bacterial preparation and comorbidities was evident. More than half of the patients died. Gram-negative bacteria were the microorganisms that were most isolated. Antimicrobial resistance levels were high(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Coronavirus Infections , Chain Reaction , Disease Susceptibility , Coinfection , Hospitals, Military , Anti-Infective Agents
17.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(8): 593-597, Aug. 2020. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1135667

ABSTRACT

Reproductive tests in cattle are of great economic importance, given the impact it can have on the production system and may be caused by agents. Neospora caninum and Bovine Viral Diarrhea virus (BVDV) are considered of great importance as reproductive and should be considered responsible for keeping animals persistently infected. The present study included 479 calf serum samples for export in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS). All samples were screened for BVDV by an ELISA antigen. BVDV antigen-positive ELISA samples were isolated from BVDV in cell culture. An indirect immunofluorescence (IFT) technique was used to detect anti-N. caninum antibodies. Of the 479 export-treated serum samples, 361 were positive for BVDV antigens by ELISA and/or viral isolation test (361/479-75.36%), and 109 IFT-positive samples for N. caninum (109/479-22.75%). Despite detection of antibodies anti-N. caninum did not differ statistically between naturally infected BVDV and non-BVDV infected animals suggesting that there is no interference of BVDV infection on infection or detection rate of animals with N. caninum, positive animals in viral isolation and high DO in BVDV-Ag ELISA. may present active disease and consequent immunosuppression, contributing to a potential reactivation of N. caninum.(AU)


Testes reprodutivos em bovinos são de grande importância econômica, dado o impacto que podem ter no sistema de produção e podem ser causados por agentes. O Neospora caninum e o vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina (BVDV) são considerados de grande importância como reprodutivos e devem ser considerados responsáveis por manter os animais persistentemente infectados. O presente estudo incluiu 479 amostras de soro de bezerro para exportação no estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS). Todas as amostras foram rastreadas para BVDV por um antígeno ELISA. As amostras de ELISA positivas para o antigénio BVDV foram isoladas a partir de BVDV em cultura de células. Uma técnica de imunofluorescência indireta (IFT) foi utilizada para detectar anticorpos anti-N caninum. Das 479 amostras de soro tratadas para exportação, 361 foram positivas para antígenos de BVDV por ELISA e/ou teste de isolamento viral (361/479-75,36%) e 109 amostras positivas para IFT para N. caninum (109/479-22,75%). Apesar da detecção de anticorpos anti-N. caninum não diferiu estatisticamente entre animais infectados naturalmente BVDV e não BVDV sugerindo que não há interferência da infecção pelo BVDV na infecção ou taxa de detecção de animais com N. caninum, animais positivos em isolamento viral e alta DO em BVDV-Ag ELISA, pode apresentar doença ativa e consequente imunossupressão, contribuindo para uma potencial reativação de N. caninum.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Coccidiosis/veterinary , Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral/isolation & purification , Neospora/isolation & purification , Coinfection/veterinary , Coinfection/epidemiology
18.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(3): 363-370, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126173

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: La inflamación asociada con la infección por Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) se relaciona con la pro gresión de las lesiones precancerosas gástricas. Las infecciones por helmintos podrían modular la respuesta proinflamatoria a la infección por H. pylori desde un perfil tipo LTCD4+ Th1 hacia una respuesta menos perjudicial tipo LTCD4+ Th2. Objetivo: Caracterizar la polarización de la respuesta inmune tipo LTCD4+ Th1/Th2 de pacientes coinfectados por H. pylori y helmintiasis procedentes de áreas de bajo riego para el desarrollo de cáncer gástrico. Pacientes y Método: Se analizaron 63 pacientes, 40 adultos y 23 niños infectados con H. pylori. La determinación de los perfiles séricos de las interleucinas asociadas con la polarización de la respuesta inmune tipo LTCD4+ Th1 (IL-1Β, INF-γ y TNF-α) y tipo LTCD4+ Th2 (IL-4, IL-10 e IL-13) se realizó con Análisis Multiplex (xMAP). La relación entre el estado de coinfección por helmintos en pacientes infectados con H. pylori y la polarización de la respuesta inmune mediada por LTCD4+ Th1 y LTCD4+ Th2, se estudió con un modelo de regresión logístico de efectos mixtos. Resultados: La frecuencia de helmintos fue similar en adultos (15%) y niños (17%). La polarización de la respuesta inmune fue más prevalente hacia el tipo LTCD4+ Th1. Los valores séricos de las interleucinas asociadas con la polarización de la respuesta inmune tipo LTCD4+ Th1 (IL-1 Β, INF-γ y TNF-α) y tipo LTCD4+ Th2 (IL-4, IL-10 e IL-13) fueron independientes del estado de infestación por helmintos. Conclusión: La prevalencia de infección por parasitismo intestinal fue alta y la polarización de la respuesta inmune fue predominantemente hacia un perfil tipo LTCD4 + Th1.


Abstract: Introduction: Inflammation associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is linked to the development of a gastric precancerous lesion. Helminth infections could influence the pro-inflam matory response to such infection from LTCD4+ Th1 to a less harmful LTCD4+ Th2 response. Ob jective: To characterize the polarization of the LTCD4+ Th2 immune response in co-infected pa tients with H. pylori and helminths from low-risk areas for developing gastric cancer. Patients and Method: We analyzed 63 patients infected by H. pylori (40 adults and 23 children). Through the Multiplex Analysis technology (xMAP), we determined the serum profiles of the interleukins asso ciated with the polarization of the immune response of LTCD4+ Th1 (IL-1Β, INF-γ, TNF-α) as well as the LTCD4+ Th2 (IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13). The ratio between helminths co-infection status in H. pylori-infected patients and the polarization of the immune response mediated by LTCD4+ Th1 and LTCD4+ Th2 was assessed using a Mixed Effects Logistic Regression Model. Results: The frequency of helminths was similar between adults (15%) and children (17%). The polarization of the immu ne response was more prevalent in LTCD4+ Th1. Serum values of interleukins associated with the immune response polarization of LTCD4+ Th1 (IL-1Β, INF-γ, and TNF-α) and LTCD4+ Th2 (IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13) were independent of helminths infection status. Conclusion: The prevalence of in testinal parasitic infection was high and the immune response polarization was mainly LTCD4 + Th1.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Helicobacter pylori/immunology , Helicobacter Infections/immunology , Th1-Th2 Balance , Coinfection/immunology , Helminthiasis/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Logistic Models , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Helicobacter Infections/pathology , Helicobacter Infections/blood , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/pathology , Coinfection/blood , Helminthiasis/diagnosis , Helminthiasis/pathology , Helminthiasis/blood
19.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 26(1): 28-37, ene.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1127001

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La infección genital por el Virus de Papiloma Humano (VPH) se ha asociado con el cáncer cérvicouterino (CCE) al provocar la aparición de lesiones precursoras de cáncer en la zona de transformación de la unión escamo-columnar del cuello uterino. Existen más de 100 tipos de VPH, clasificados en bajo riesgo oncogénico (VPH-BR) y alto riesgo oncogénico (VPH-AR). Estudios reportan la infección por genotipos de alto riesgo en el 100% de los CCE. En Venezuela, el 67,7% de los CCE, se relacionan con el genotipo de VPH-AR 16. Objetivo: Detectar la presencia de VPH en pacientes con cambios citológicos cervicouterino. Metodología: Se incluyeron 49 pacientes que presentaban cambios citológicos, se tomaron las muestras de la región endocervical y exocervical para la detección y genotipificación del virus mediante la técnica de Multiple PCR. Resultados: Las alteraciones citológicas presentes fueron Células Escamosas Atípicas (69,4%), Células Glandulares Atípicas (4,1%), Lesión Escamosa Intraepitelial de Bajo Grado (16,3%), y Lesión Escamosa Intraepitelial de Alto Grado (10,2%). La detección molecular demostró que 16,3% presentaba VPH, 62,5% correspondían a VPH-AR, 25% a VPH-BR, 12,5% al genotipo 16 y no se detectó el genotipo 18. Se reportó un solo caso de coinfección. Conclusiones: A diferencia de otros estudios, no se encontró una relación estadísticamente significativa entre la presencia del virus y la aparición de cambios citológicos cervicouterino en esta población. No obstante, se detectaron genotipos de alto riesgo oncogénico, lo que puede traducirse en una mayor incidencia de cáncer cervicouterino a futuro.


Abstract Introduction: Genital infection by the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) has been associated with cervical cancer (CC) since it causes the appearance of precursor cancer lesions in the transformation area of ​​the squamous-columnar junction of the cervix. There are more than 100 types of HPV that are classified as low oncogenic risk (LR-HPV) and high oncogenic risk (HR-HPV). Studies report that the infection by high-risk genotypes is present in 100% of CC. In Venezuela, 67.7% of CC is related to the HPV-16 genotype. Objective: This study seeks to detect the presence of HPV in patients with cervical cytological cell changes. Methodology : Forty-nine patients with cytological changes were studied. The endocervical and ectocervical areas were sampled to detect and genotype the virus by using the Multiplex PCR technique. Results: The cytological alterations presented were: Atypical Squamous Cells (69.4%), Atypical Glandular Cells (4.1%), Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (16.3%) and High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (10.2%). Besides, the general molecular detection showed that 16.3% had HPV, 62.5% of it corresponded to HR-HPV, 25% to LR-HPV, and 12.5% ​​to genotype 16. The genotype 18 was not detected, and only one co-infection case was reported. Conclusions: Unlike other studies, a statistically significant relationship was not found between the virus presence and the appearance of cervical cytological cell changes in this population. However, genotypes with high oncogenic risk were detected, which may lead to a higher incidence of cervical cancer in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Papillomaviridae , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Cervix Uteri , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cell Biology , Reproductive Tract Infections , Atypical Squamous Cells of the Cervix , Gynecology , Venezuela , Human papillomavirus 16 , Coinfection , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions , Genitalia , Herpes Zoster
20.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(5): 618-625, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139346

ABSTRACT

Background: Tuberculosis (TB)/HIV coinfection has a high mortality rate. Aim: To describe socio-epidemiological characteristics of tuberculosis (TB)-HIV coinfection, and aspects associated with its prevalence, from 2005 to 2018. Material and Methods: Analysis of the registry of the tuberculosis control and elimination program of three public health services of metropolitan Santiago. The variables considered were: TB/HIV coinfection, age, sex, location of tuberculosis, bacteriological confirmation, incarceration, commune of residence, country of origin and effectiveness of the tuberculosis therapy. Results: We analyzed 7507 TB cases, of whom 12% corresponded to cases of coinfection. The number of coinfections doubled in the last 6 years. In 2018, 45% of coinfection cases occurred in migrants. Of the total cases evaluated, 53% were successfully treated and 28% died. Conclusions: The remarkable increase in TB/HIV coinfection, urgently demands new prevention and control strategies, aimed at the most vulnerable groups.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cities/epidemiology
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