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Indian J Gastroenterol ; 33(6): 530-6, 2014 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25316170


INTRODUCTION: Constipation may be primary or secondary. Pathophysiologic subtypes of primary constipation are dyssynergic defecation (DD), slow (STC), and normal transit constipation (NTC). Clinical subtypes are functional constipation (FC) and constipation predominant IBS (C-IBS). AIMS: The objectives of this paper are to study the clinical profile, categorize and compare various subtypes of primary constipation, and to assess the success of biofeedback therapy (BFT) in a non-randomized, uncontrolled open-label study among patients with DD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Consecutive constipation patients (April 2011 to December 2012) were evaluated. Patients <18 years and secondary constipation were excluded. FC and C-IBS were classified by Rome III module. All patients, after excluding secondary constipation, underwent anorectal manometry (ARM) with balloon expulsion test and colon transit study (CTS). Patients with DD were given BFT. RESULTS: Out of 128 patients, 23 %, 58 %, and 19 % had secondary constipation, FC, and C-IBS, respectively. Ninety-nine patients had primary constipation. Among those with primary constipation mean age was 53.5 (21-86) years, (77 % males). Forty-six, 15, and 40 had NTC, STC, and DD, respectively. Out of those with DD, 34 had paradoxical anal contraction and 6 had impaired rectal propulsion. FC and C-IBS were clinically and pathophysiologically similar except for abdominal pain. Patients with DD were more likely to have history of finger evacuation, straining, incomplete evacuation, sensation of anorectal obstruction than no DD. Sixty-nine percent of the patients with STC had ≤3 stools/week compared to 37 % with NTC (p-value 0.018). Thirty out of 40 (75 %) patients with DD underwent BFT but 20 completed ≥4 sessions. Seventy percent with ≥4 sessions had improved complete spontaneous bowel movements (CSBM). CONCLUSION: NTC was the most common subtype of primary constipation. Symptoms of finger evacuation, sensation of anorectal obstruction, incomplete evacuation, and straining were more prevalent in DD. ARM and CTS could easily identify patients with DD and STC.

Constipation/physiopathology , Defecation/physiology , Gastrointestinal Transit/physiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anal Canal/pathology , Biofeedback, Psychology , Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction , Constipation/classification , Constipation/therapy , Female , Humans , India , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/physiopathology , Male , Manometry/methods , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Rectum/pathology , Referral and Consultation , Young Adult
Colorectal Dis ; 10(5): 512-7, 2008 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18028470


OBJECTIVE: One surgical option to treat failure after restorative proctocolectomy (RPC) is indefinite diversion (ID) without excision of the pouch. The study aimed to assess the mucosal morphology of the pouch and ileoanal anastomosis (IAA) over time after ID with particular reference to inflammation, dysplasia and carcinoma. METHOD: Patients with ID were identified from the hospital's Ileal Pouch Database. Individuals were invited by mail to attend for flexible pouchoscopy and biopsy from the ileal pouch and immediately distal to the IAA. RESULTS: Of 1822 patients on the database, 28 had undergone ID. Of these, 20 patients (18 ulcerative colitis, one familial adenomatous polyposis, one pseudo-obstruction) of median age 42 (18-67) years took part. There were eight males. The median (range) intervals from diagnosis of primary disease, pouch surgery and ID to the time of study were 221 (63-410), 146 (31-314) and 44 (10-159) months respectively. One patient had dysplasia in the original resection specimen. Five patients developed type C changes in the pouch. Of these three were identified between RPC and ID, one developed between ID and the present assessment and one was identified for the first time at the present assessment. No case of dysplasia or cancer was found in any of the biopsies. Rectal mucosa was found in biopsies from the IAA in four patients (three stapled; one handsewn); this was inflamed in three patients. CONCLUSION: At a median follow-up of 12 years after RPC and 3.6 years after indefinite diversion no instance of dysplasia or carcinoma in the ileal reservoir or distal to the IAA was found in any of the 20 patients having ID. Type C changes occurred at some time in five (25%) patients, indicating the importance of continued follow up.

Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Proctocolectomy, Restorative , Adenomatous Polyposis Coli/surgery , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anastomosis, Surgical , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , Colitis, Ulcerative/surgery , Colonic Pouches/pathology , Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction/surgery , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Intestinal Neoplasms/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications , Prospective Studies , Reoperation , Time Factors , Treatment Failure
Am J Gastroenterol ; 97(12): 3118-22, 2002 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12492198


OBJECTIVE: Acute colonic pseudoobstruction (ACPO) most commonly develops after surgery, with narcotic administration, or in association with severe illness. Most cases resolve with conservative management. Colonoscopic decompression may be required in patients failing to respond to conservative treatment. Neostigmine has been proposed as an effective treatment for ACPO as an alternative to colonoscopic decompression. We sought to identify factors associated with spontaneous resolution of ACPO and to identify variables associated with a response to i.v. administration of neostigmine for the treatment of ACPO. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of Mayo Clinic's diagnostic index revealed all patients who developed ACPO between July, 1999 and September, 2001 at the Mayo Clinic Medical Center. We separately analyzed those patients who did not resolve ACPO with conservative management and to whom i.v. neostigmine was administered. Patient records were abstracted for demographic data, etiology of ACPO, management, and response to treatment. RESULTS: A total of 151 patients were identified with ACPO between July, 1999 and September, 2001; 117 patients (77%) had spontaneous resolution of symptoms. Of the 34 "nonresolvers," 18 patients received neostigmine, whereas 16 did not receive neostigmine. Of those 16 patients, 11 required colonoscopic decompression, two underwent surgery, and three died of underlying illness. "Spontaneous resolvers" were less likely to be taking narcotics (59% vs 74%, p = 0.08). Of the 16 nonresolvers who did not receive neostigmine, only one had a contraindication to neostigmine use. Of the 18 patients that who received neostigmine, 16 patients (89%) had prompt evacuation (<30 min) of flatus or stool. Sustained clinical response to neostigmine was noted in 11 of 18 (61%); the remaining seven patients (39%) required colonoscopic decompression or surgery for recurrent or persistent colonic dilation. Neostigmine-responders were more likely to be older (mean age, 76 yr vs 54 yr, p = 0.03), than nonresponders. Preneostigmine cecal diameter did not differ significantly between responders (median, 12 cm) and nonresponders (median, 13 cm), p = 0.9. Median time to resolution of ACPO in spontaneous resolvers was 4 days compared to 2 days in patients responding to neostigmine; p = 0.038. CONCLUSIONS: Most patients with ACPO respond to conservative treatment. Female gender and older age are associated with a response to neostigmine in those patients who do not respond to conservative management. Neostigmine appears to be under-used in patients with ACPO who do not have a true contraindication to its use.

Cholinesterase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction/drug therapy , Neostigmine/therapeutic use , Acute Disease , Aged , Aging/physiology , Female , Forecasting , Humans , Male , Sex Characteristics , Treatment Outcome