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1.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e254081, 2023. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1440799

ABSTRACT

Este artigo pretende conhecer como a rede de cuidados em saúde tem se operacionalizado a partir da percepção de familiares de crianças com demanda de cuidado em saúde mental (SM). Foram realizados dois grupos focais, um com familiares da Atenção Básica (AB) e outro com familiares do Centro de Atenção Psicossocial Infantojuvenil (CAPSij), totalizando 15 participantes. Seguiu-se com a análise lexical do tipo classificação hierárquica descendente, com o auxílio do software R Interface, a fim de análises multidimensionais de textos e questionários (IRaMuTeQ), resultando em cinco classes: A Pílula Mágica; Forças e Fraquezas dos serviços; Procurando por ajuda; Aceitando o diagnóstico da criança e Onde procurei ajuda. Os resultados apontam para dificuldades presentes na AB em identificar e manejar situações de Saúde Mental Infantojuvenil (SMIJ), por meio de uma lógica ainda medicalizante. Ressalta-se que a escola é apresentada como lugar de destaque na produção da demanda por cuidado e a família ainda é pouco convocada à construção das ações. Conclui-se, então, que avanços ainda são necessários para operacionalização de um cuidado pautado nas diretrizes da política de SMIJ.(AU)


This article aims to know how the healthcare network has been operationalized from the perception of family members of children with demand for mental health care (MH). Two focus groups were held, one with family members from Primary Care (PC) and the other with family members from the Child Psychosocial Care Center (CAPSij), totaling 15 participants. A lexical analysis of the descending hierarchical classification type was performed with the help of the software R Interface for multidimensional analyzes of texts and questionnaires (IRAMUTEQ), resulting in five classes: The Magic Pill; Strengths and Weaknesses of services; Looking for help; Accepting the child's diagnosis; and Where did I look for help. The results point to difficulties present in PC in identifying and managing situations of mental health in children and adolescents (MHCA), with a medicalization logic. Note that the school is presented as a prominent place in producing the demand for care, and the family is still not very much involved in the actions. It is, thus, concluded that advances are still needed for operationalization of care guided by MHCA policy guidelines.(AU)


Este artículo tuvo por objetivo conocer cómo opera una red asistencial a partir de la percepción de familiares de niños con demanda de atención en salud mental (SM). Se realizaron dos grupos focales, uno con familiares de Atención Primaria (AP) y otro con familiares del Centro de Atención Psicosocial Infantojuvenil (CAPSij), totalizando 15 participantes. Se realizó análisis léxico del tipo clasificación jerárquica descendente con la ayuda del software Interface de R pour les Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionnaires (IRAMUTEQ), lo que resultó en cinco clases: "La píldora mágica"; "Fortalezas y debilidades de los servicios"; "En busca de ayuda"; "Aceptar el diagnóstico del niño" y "¿Dónde busqué ayuda?". Los resultados apuntan las dificultades presentes en AP para identificar y manejar situaciones de salud mental infantojuvenil (SMIJ) mediante una lógica aún medicalizante. La escuela tiene un lugar destacado en la producción de la demanda de cuidados y la familia aún no está muy involucrada en la construcción de acciones. Se concluye que se necesitan avances para ofertar una atención guiada por lineamientos de la política del SMIJ.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Child , Adolescent , Intersectoral Collaboration , Mental Health Assistance , Health Policy , Anxiety Disorders , Parents , Patient Escort Service , Pediatrics , Play and Playthings , Play Therapy , Prejudice , Professional-Family Relations , Professional-Patient Relations , Proprioception , Psychoanalysis , Psychology , Psychomotor Disorders , Psychotherapy , Psychotic Disorders , Referral and Consultation , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Self Care , Autistic Disorder , Social Alienation , Social Environment , Social Isolation , Social Support , Socialization , Pathological Conditions, Signs and Symptoms , Therapeutics , Violence , Mainstreaming, Education , Shyness , Neurosciences , Adaptation, Psychological , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Health Centers , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Comorbidity , Child Advocacy , Child Behavior Disorders , Child Care , Child Development , Developmental Disabilities , Child Language , Occupational Therapy , Cognition , Communication Disorders , Neurobehavioral Manifestations , Stereotypic Movement Disorder , Behavioral Disciplines and Activities , Disabled Children , Affect , Crying , Aggression , Dermatitis, Contact , Diagnosis , Dissociative Disorders , Dyslexia , Echolalia , Education , Education of Intellectually Disabled , Education, Special , Emotions , Family Conflict , Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences , Medication Adherence , Apathy , Acceptance and Commitment Therapy , Emotional Adjustment , Literacy , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Autism Spectrum Disorder , Orientation, Spatial , Applied Behavior Analysis , Cognitive Remediation , Emotion-Focused Therapy , Pediatricians , Data Analysis , Sadness , Psychological Distress , Social Interaction , Health Services Accessibility , Human Rights , Hyperkinesis , Intelligence , Interpersonal Relations , Anger , Language Disorders , Learning , Learning Disabilities , Loneliness , Malpractice , Mental Disorders , Intellectual Disability , Nervous System Diseases , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
2.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e250265, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1422421

ABSTRACT

Esta pesquisa qualitativa objetivou compreender, fenomenologicamente, a experiência vivida por psicoterapeutas e crianças no acontecer clínico da ludoterapia humanista. Foram realizados 26 encontros dialógicos individuais com nove psicoterapeutas e sete crianças, registrados pela pesquisadora na forma de Narrativas Compreensivas que incluíram suas impressões impactadas subjetivamente pelas falas e expressões corporais dos participantes. A análise fenomenológica culminou com a escrita de uma Narrativa Síntese. Os resultados indicam que a relação psicoterapêutica é percebida como: facilitadora do crescimento psicológico da criança; intensificadora do fluxo de mudanças ao dinamizar os processos pessoais infantis; geradora de motivação na criança para a relação interpessoal, a partir do envolvimento subjetivo do terapeuta; potencializadora da tomada de consciência com base na corporeidade; propiciadora da integração de experiências por meio do brincar; reveladora das singularidades individuais, catalisando o desenvolvimento; e, por fim, benéfica à atualização de significados e sentidos da experiência pessoal e relacional. Evidenciou-se, entre os psicoterapeutas, uma concepção da ludoterapia humanista que prioriza a compreensão dirigida ao estilo próprio de cada cliente em relação aos modos de sentir e expressar-se no mundo e à estruturação do processo psicoterapêutico a partir do relacionamento com a criança. Concluiu-se, assim, que a experiência desse tipo de relação interpessoal facilita a constituição na criança de singularidades que imprimem um sentido existencial próprio ao seu mundo de relações e historicidade. A relevância do processo psicoterapêutico para o crescimento psicológico da criança apresentou-se também pelo seu caráter psicoprofilático, reverberado no encadeamento de processos associados à experiência pessoal dela.(AU)


This qualitative research aimed to understand, phenomenologically, the lived experience of psychotherapists and children in the clinical event of humanistic play therapy. A total of 26 individual dialogical encounters were held with nine psychotherapists and seven children, registered in the form of Comprehensive Narratives by the researcher, which included her subjectively impacted impressions about the participants' speeches and body expressions. The phenomenological analysis culminated in a Synthesis Narrative. The results demonstrate that the psychotherapeutic relationship is perceived as: facilitating the child's psychological growth; intensifying the flow of change by streamlining children's personal processes; generating motivation for the child to get involved with interpersonal relationship, based on the subjective involvement of the therapist; potentiating awareness raising based on the corporeality; enabling the integration of experiences by playing; revealing the uniqueness, catalyzing development; and, finally, benefiting the updating of meanings and senses of personal and relational experience. A conception of humanistic play therapy became evident among the psychotherapists, which prioritizes the understanding directed to the own way of each client regarding how to feel and express themselves in the world and the structuring of the psychotherapeutic process based on the relationship with the child. Thus, it was concluded that the experience of this interpersonal relationship facilitates the constitution in the child of singularities that bring their own existential meaning to their world of relationships and historicity. The relevance of the psychotherapeutic process for the child's psychological growth was also shown by the psycho-prophylactic character reverberated in the processes associated with the child's personal experience.(AU)


Esta investigación cualitativa tuvo por objetivo comprender, fenomenológicamente, la experiencia vivida por psicoterapeutas y niños en ludoterapia de orientación humanista. La investigadora desarrolló 26 conversaciones dialógicas individuales con nueve psicoterapeutas y siete niños, registradas como narrativas comprensivas que incluyeron sus impresiones impactadas subjetivamente por los discursos y expresiones corporales de los participantes. El análisis fenomenológico culminó con una síntesis narrativa. Los resultados demuestran que la relación psicoterapéutica se percibe como facilitadora del crecimiento psicológico del niño; intensificadora del flujo de cambio, optimizando su procesos personales; generadora de motivación para que el niño se involucre en la relación interpersonal a partir del envolvimiento subjetivo del terapeuta; potenciadora de la toma de conciencia a partir de la corporeidad; propiciadora de la integración de las experiencias por medio del juego; reveladora de singularidades individuales al catalizar el desarrollo; y beneficiosa para actualizar los significados y sentidos de la experiencia personal e relacional. Entre los psicoterapeutas se hizo evidente una concepción de ludoterapia humanista que prima por comprender la forma propia del cliente de sentirse y expresarse y la estructuración del proceso psicoterapéutico a partir de la relación con el niño. Se concluyó que la vivencia de este tipo de relación facilita la constitución en el niño de singularidades que le aportan un sentido existencial a su mundo de relación e historicidad. La relevancia del proceso psicoterapéutico para el crecimiento psicológico también se mostró por su carácter psicoprofiláctico, que reverberó en la cadena de procesos asociados con la experiencia personal del niño.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Play Therapy , Psychological Phenomena , Psychology, Clinical , Individuality , Learning , Anxiety , Pediatrics , Personality , Art , Art Therapy , Problem Solving , Psychology , Psychology, Social , Psychomotor Agitation , Psychotherapy , Recreation , Attention , Schools , Self Care , Self Concept , Signs and Symptoms , Social Behavior , Sports , Therapeutics , Behavior Therapy , Acoustic Stimulation , Shyness , Bereavement , Caricatures as Topic , Divorce , Child , Child Behavior , Child Behavior Disorders , Child Development , Psychology, Child , Child Rearing , Child Health , Cognition , Domestic Violence , Communication Disorders , Cognitive Science , Life , Behavioral Disciplines and Activities , Drawing , Juvenile Literature , Creativity , Affect , Disaster Vulnerability , Sensory Art Therapies , Trust , Qualitative Research , Aggression , Depression , Growth and Development , Dyslexia , Education , Emotions , Empathy , Engraving and Engravings , Ethics , Centers of Connivance and Leisure , Family Relations , Resilience, Psychological , Social Theory , Adverse Childhood Experiences , Family Separation , Respect , Interpersonal Psychotherapy , Psychological Distress , Psychosocial Functioning , Gestalt Therapy , Diversity, Equity, Inclusion , Coping Skills , Human Development , Humanism , Identification, Psychological , Acculturation , Interpersonal Relations , Language Disorders , Learning Disabilities , Music Therapy , Person-Centered Psychotherapy , Object Attachment
3.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e244202, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431126

ABSTRACT

O objeto de estudo deste trabalho é a atuação de psicólogas(os) no campo da educação básica. Tivemos como objetivo investigar as práticas de atuação e os desafios enfrentados pelas(os) psicólogas(os) que trabalham na educação em Boa Vista (RR), com intuito de conhecer a inserção desses profissionais no sistema educacional. Trata-se de pesquisa qualitativa, orientada pelo referencial teórico-metodológico da Psicologia Escolar Crítica. Realizamos o processo de levantamento dos dados entre os meses de março e abril de 2018, por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas, audiogravadas e transcritas. Encontramos 21 psicólogas e um psicólogo trabalhando em instituições educacionais e de ensino na cidade; a maioria atuava na educação básica; metade dos entrevistados ingressou por concurso público e a outra metade era contratada e comissionada; poucos(as) foram contratados(as) como psicólogos(as) escolares. Para a análise, selecionamos dez psicólogas(os) com mais tempo no cargo. Quanto às práticas de atuação, identificamos que 60% atuavam na modalidade clínica e 40% na modalidade clínica e institucional. Como desafios, encontramos melhoria das condições de trabalho; estabelecimento de relações hierárquicas e a dificuldade de fazer compreender as especificidades desse campo de trabalho; necessidade na melhoria das condições para formação continuada; atuação da(o) psicóloga(o) escolar enquanto ação institucional. Diante do exposto, compreendemos ser necessária uma mudança de paradigma na atuação das(os) psicólogas(os) que trabalham na educação na região, e a apropriação das discussões da área, principalmente, aquelas apresentadas pela Psicologia Escolar Crítica, vez que esta contribui para uma atuação que leve em conta os determinantes sociais, políticos, culturais e pedagógicos que constituem o processo de escolarização.(AU)


This work has as object of study the role of psychologists in the field of Basic Education. We aimed to investigate practices and challenges faced by psychologists who work in education in Boa Vista/RR, to know the insertion of these professionals in the educational system. This is a qualitative research, guided by the theoretical-methodological framework of Critical School Psychology. The data collection process was carried out between March and April 2018, with semi-structured, audio-recorded, and transcribed interviews. We found 21 female psychologists and one male psychologist working in educational institutions in the municipality; most worked in Basic Education; half of the interviewees had applied to work as government employee and the other half were hired and commissioned; few were hired as school psychologists. To carry out the analysis, we selected ten psychologists with more time in the position. Regarding the practices, we have identified that 60% worked in the clinical modality and 40% in the clinical and institutional modality. As challenges, we find the improvement in working conditions; the establishment of hierarchical relationships and the difficulty of making the specificities of this field of work understood; the need to improve conditions for continuing education; the practice of the school psychologist as institutional action. In view of the above, we understand that a paradigm shift in the performance of psychologists working in education in that region is necessary, and the appropriation of discussions in the area, especially those presented by Critical School Psychology, contributes to an action that considers social, political, cultural, and pedagogical determinants that constitute the schooling process.(AU)


Este trabajo tiene como objeto de estudio la actuación profesional de las(os) psicólogas(os) en la educación básica. Su objetivo es investigar las prácticas y retos que enfrentan las(os) psicólogas(os) que trabajan en la educación en Boa Vista, en Roraima (Brasil), con la intención de conocer la inserción de estos profesionales en el sistema educativo. Esta es una investigación cualitativa que se guía por el marco teórico-metodológico de la Psicología Escolar Crítica. Se recopilaron los datos entre los meses de marzo y abril de 2018, mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas, grabadas en audio y después transcritas. Las 21 psicólogas y un psicólogo trabajan en instituciones educativas de la ciudad; la mayoría trabajaba en la educación básica; la mitad de los entrevistados ingresaron mediante concurso público y la otra mitad era contratada y de puesto comisionado; pocos fueron contratados como psicólogos escolares. Para el análisis, se seleccionaron diez psicólogas(os) con más tiempo en el cargo. Con respecto a las prácticas, el 60% trabajaba en la modalidad clínica; y el 40%, en la modalidad clínica e institucional. Los retos son mejora de las condiciones laborales; establecimiento de relaciones jerárquicas y dificultad para comprender las especificidades de este campo de trabajo; necesidad de mejorar las condiciones para la educación continua; y actuación dela (del) psicóloga(o) escolar como acción institucional. En vista de lo anterior, es necesario el cambio de paradigma en la práctica profesional de las(os) psicólogas(os) que trabajan en la educación de la región y la apropiación de las discusiones del área, especialmente las presentadas por la Psicología Escolar Crítica, que contribuye a una acción que tiene en cuenta los determinantes sociales, políticos, culturales y pedagógicos que constituyen el proceso de escolarización.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Psychology, Educational , Schools , Education, Primary and Secondary , Pathology , Aptitude , Play and Playthings , Play Therapy , Prejudice , Psychology , Psychology, Applied , Psychology, Clinical , Psychomotor Performance , Public Policy , Quality of Life , Remedial Teaching , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , School Health Services , Autistic Disorder , Social Adjustment , Social Change , Social Environment , Social Isolation , Social Values , Socialization , Student Dropouts , Students , Pathological Conditions, Signs and Symptoms , Task Performance and Analysis , Thinking , Underachievement , Behavior , Mainstreaming, Education , Mentors , Adaptation, Psychological , Family , Child Advocacy , Developmental Disabilities , Child Guidance , Child Rearing , Mental Health , Child Health , Mental Competency , Public Sector , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Disabled Persons , Interview , Cognition , Communication , Communication Disorders , Problem-Based Learning , Community Participation , Behavioral Disciplines and Activities , Counseling , Creativity , Growth and Development , Dyslexia , Education of Intellectually Disabled , Education, Special , Educational Measurement , Educational Status , Projects , Ethics, Institutional , Information Technology , Faculty , Resilience, Psychological , Musculoskeletal and Neural Physiological Phenomena , Bullying , Medicalization , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Academic Failure , School Mental Health Services , Psychosocial Functioning , Social Vulnerability , Health Services Needs and Demand , Holistic Health , Human Development , Human Rights , Individuality , Intelligence , Interpersonal Relations , Learning , Learning Disabilities , Medical History Taking , Memory , Mental Disorders , Motivation
4.
Distúrb. comun ; 34(1): e53197, mar. 2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396366

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A terapia indireta é uma abordagem de intervenção terapêutica na qual se realizam orientações familiares e um treinamento dos cuidadores para que o entendimento da mesma seja ampliado. Este tipo de intervenção é relevante porque são os familiares as pessoas mais próximas das crianças, e, por meio das orientações, aprimoram o elo e a interação para o amadurecimento da comunicação funcional da criança. Objetivo: Analisar achados acerca dos benefícios da orientação familiar nas dificuldades comunicativas de crianças com diagnóstico de Transtorno do Espectro do Autismo. Estratégia de pesquisa: Levantamento na literatura publicada nas línguas inglesa, portuguesa e espanhola. Foram incluídos artigos originais publicados na íntegra no período de janeiro de 1999 a novembro de 2019, com grau de recomendação A, B e C e níveis de evidência 1, 2, 3 4, segundo o Oxford Centre. Resultados: Foram encontrados 934 artigos, 55 excluídos por duplicata e 31 foram selecionados para leitura na íntegra. Destes, 15 foram considerados para análise do estudo. Discussão: A terapia indireta, por meio da orientação familiar, no processo de reabilitação de crianças no espectro aponta que o trabalho de promoção do desenvolvimento das habilidades comunicativas de crianças com TEA promove ganhos na comunicação. Também, mostram que uma intervenção indireta aumenta a capacidade de reflexão e autocrítica dos cuidadores. Conclusão: O processo terapêutico indireto de crianças com diagnóstico de TEA, fornece mudanças positivas no processo de desenvolvimento de linguagem dessas crianças e existe uma relação direta e positiva entre orientação familiar e dificuldade comunicativa dessas crianças.


Introduction: Indirect therapy is a therapeutic intervention approach in which family orientations and training of caregivers are carried out so that their understanding is broadened. This type of intervention is relevant because family members are the people closest to the children, and, through the guidelines, they improve the link and the interaction for the maturation of the child's functional communication. Objective: To analyze findings about the benefits of familiar orientations, in the communicative difficulties of children diagnosed with ASD. Research strategy: Survey of national and international literature, published in English, Portuguese and Spanish. Original articles published in full from January 1999 to November 2019 were included, with degree of recommendation A, B and C and levels of evidence 1, 2, 3 4, according to the Oxford Center. Results: 934 articles were found, 55 excluded by duplicate and 31 were selected for reading in full. Of these, 15 were considered for analysis of the study. Discussion: Indirect therapy, through family guidance, in the process of rehabilitation of children on the spectrum points out that the work of promoting the development of the communicative skills of children with ASD promotes gains in communication. They also show that an indirect intervention increases the caregivers' capacity for reflection and self-criticism. Conclusion: The indirect therapeutic process of children diagnosed with ASD provides positive changes in the language development process of these children and there is a direct and positive relationship between family orientation and communicative difficulties in these children.


Introducción: La terapia indirecta es un enfoque terapéutico en el que se realizan orientaciones familiares y la formación de los cuidadores para ampliar su comprensión. Este tipo de intervención es relevante porque los familiares son las personas más cercanas a los niños y, a través de las pautas, mejoran el vínculo y la interacción para la maduración de la comunicación funcional del niño. Objetivo: Analizar los hallazgos sobre los beneficios de la orientación familiar en las dificultades comunicativas de los niños diagnosticados con TEA. Estrategia de investigación: Encuesta de literatura nacional e internacional, publicada en inglés, portugués y español. Se incluyeron artículos originales publicados íntegramente desde enero de 1999 hasta noviembre de 2019, con grado de recomendación A, B y C y niveles de evidencia 1, 2, 3 4, según el Centro de Oxford. Resultados: Se encontraron 934 artículos, 55 excluidos por duplicado y 31 seleccionados para lectura completa. De estos, 15 fueron considerados para el análisis del estudio. Discusión: La terapia indirecta, a través de la orientación familiar, en el proceso de rehabilitación de los niños en el espectro señala que el trabajo de promover el desarrollo de las habilidades comunicativas de los niños con TEA promueve ganancias en la comunicación. Conclusión: El proceso terapéutico indirecto de los niños diagnosticados con TEA proporciona cambios positivos en el proceso de desarrollo del lenguaje de estos niños y existe una relación directa y positiva entre la orientación familiar y las dificultades comunicativas en estos niños.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Communication Disorders/therapy , Autism Spectrum Disorder/therapy , Parent-Child Relations , Professional-Family Relations , Child Language , Language Therapy
5.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 10-29, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-988234

ABSTRACT

Objective@#As part of the thrust towards Universal Health Care, the Philippines has enhanced health insurance coverage for rehabilitation with recent introductions of benefits for disabilities in children, prostheses, and orthoses. The project aimed to develop a functionality-based framework to guide comprehensive benefits for rehabilitation services for adult Filipinos. @*Methods@#Scoping review was conducted to identify common rehabilitation conditions, frameworks for clinical assessment, and essential services for rehabilitation. Key informant interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with targeted rehabilitation service providers and experts to validate the information collected. A unified pathway of care and essential services for the provision of rehabilitation medicine services was developed through triangulation. The study was conducted from October 2018 to September 2019, with activities done in Metro Manila. @*Results@#The results summarized treatment pathways for four major disease categories: neurologic, musculoskeletal, chronic pain, and activities of daily living/ cardiopulmonary. Impairments were identified reflecting the principles from the International Classification of Function. Disabilities were categorized based on function: mobility, self-care, cognitive-behavioral, and communication. A unified care pathway was developed to harmonize rehabilitation assessment, management, and care. A framework to simplify financial coverage was likewise provided. The extent of management (e.g., duration of therapy) depends on the severity of the disability classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Based on this classification, essential management modalities included physiatry interventions, medications, and rehabilitation sessions, supported by outcomes evaluation.@*Conclusion@#A framework is proposed to guide the design and implementation of benefits and health insurance coverage. Awareness and application of this approach among rehabilitation practitioners and health facilities are essential steps for successful uptake and implementation of the upcoming expansion in PhilHealth coverage.


Subject(s)
Rehabilitation , Rehabilitation of Speech and Language Disorders , Neurobehavioral Manifestations , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Behavioral Symptoms , Communication Disorders , Insurance, Major Medical
6.
Rev. chil. fonoaudiol. (En línea) ; 21(1): 1-13, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437262

ABSTRACT

El bullying es un fenómeno definido como una forma de agresión intencional que incluye actos verbales, físicos o psicológicos que ocurren en una relación con otras personas de manera reiterada, sistemática y sostenida en el tiempo. La mayor parte de los estudios se concentran en el bullying y las consecuencias en población escolar normotípica, sin embargo, existe poca exploración en el bullying que es resultado de un trastorno comunicativo. Es por ello que la labor de los fonoaudiólogos insertos en ámbitos educativos no es clara en explicitar los lineamientos de acciones terapéuticas que favorezcan la prevención de este fenómeno. El propósito de esta investigación es conocer las principales concepciones que los fonoaudiólogos tienen sobre el bullying en personas con trastornos de la comunicación en edad escolar. Con este objetivo, se realizó una investigación con métodos cuantitativos y cualitativos, mediados por encuestas y entrevistas en profundidad respectivamente. Se encontró que más del 65% del bullying entre personas dentro de los establecimientos educacionales se relaciona con niños de entre 9 y 12 años de edad con trastornos de la comunicación. En cuanto a la autopercepción del rol fonoaudiológico en el tema de la prevención e/o intervención en temas de bullying, emergen los conceptos de favorecer los aspectos del lenguaje y/o del habla en los niños que tienen dificultad, la sensibilización de los actores involucrados, el refuerzo del autoestima y el trabajo en equipo interdisciplinario. Finalizando el tratamiento analítico de las entrevistas, se establece que la Fonoaudiología cumpliría un papel fundamental en el abordaje del bullying en poblaciones con trastornos de la comunicación, siendo el profesional que actúa directamente sobre la salud comunicativa.


Bullying is a phenomenon defined as a form of intentional aggression that includes verbal, physical or psychological acts that occur in a relationship with other people in a repeated, systematic and sustained manner over time. Most of the studies focus on bullying and its consequences in the normal school population, however, there is little exploration of bullying that is the result of a communication disorder. This is why the work of speech therapists inserted in educational settings is not clear in explaining the guidelines for therapeutic actions that favor the prevention of this phenomenon. The purpose of this research is to know the main conceptions that speech-language pathologists have about bullying in people with communication disorders at school age. With this objective, an investigation was carried out with quantitative and qualitative methods, mediated by surveys and in-depth interviews, respectively. It was found that more than 65% of bullying between people within educational establishments is related to children between 9 and 12 years of age with communication disorders. Regarding the self-perception of the speech-language pathology role in the issue of prevention and/or intervention in bullying issues, the concepts of favoring aspects of language and/or speech in children who have difficulty emerge, raising awareness of the actors involved, the reinforcement of self-esteem and interdisciplinary teamwork. Completing the analytical treatment of the interviews, it is established that speech therapy would play a fundamental role in addressing bullying in populations with communication disorders, being the professional who acts directly on communicative health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Communication Disorders , Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences , Bullying/prevention & control , Mainstreaming, Education , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Audiol., Commun. res ; 27: e2621, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383891

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Caracterizar o perfil epidemiológico de usuários encaminhados para atendimento fonoaudiológico no município de Canoas (RS). Métodos Estudo epidemiológico, transversal e descritivo. A pesquisa foi feita a partir de dados do Sistema Integrado de Gestão de Serviços de Saúde de Canoas (RS), com coleta da lista de espera para atendimento fonoaudiológico, sob controle da Diretoria de Regulação Municipal. Resultados a lista de espera contemplou 850 encaminhamentos para Fonoaudiologia, datando de 18/01/2018 até 27/08/2021. O maior número de encaminhamentos foi de crianças de 4 a 7 anos de idade, com 244 (28%), sendo 484 usuários do gênero masculino (56,9%), 702 brancos (82,6%) e encaminhados pela atenção primária (totalizando 76,2%). O tempo de espera na lista da regulação teve média de um ano e seis meses e variou com 186 usuários aguardando entre 7-12 meses (21,8%), 168 usuários aguardando entre 0,6 meses (19,7%) e 167 usuários aguardando entre 25-30 meses (19,6%). As queixas principais foram de linguagem e fala (60,2%). Conclusão Observou-se um represamento da demanda para atendimento fonoaudiológico pelo Sistema Único de Saúde em Canoas (RS), com baixa rotatividade e tempo de espera longo para reabilitação dos usuários, em sua maioria crianças. A partir deste estudo, espera-se auxiliar na identificação dessa demanda e, assim, possibilitar a criação de políticas públicas de habilitação ou reabilitação no município e melhorar o acesso da população ao atendimento especializado


ABSTRACT Purpose This research aimed to characterize the epidemiological profile of users referred to speech therapy in the city of Canoas/RS. Methods This is an epidemiological, cross-sectional and descriptive study. The research was based on data from the Canoas/RS. Integrated Health Services Management System (SIGSS), with collection of the waiting list for speech therapy, under the control of the Municipal Regulation Board. Results The waiting list included 850 referrals to Speech Therapy, dating from 01/18/2018 to 08/27/2021. The highest number of referrals was from children aged 4 to 7 years, with 244 (28%), 484 male users (56.9%), 702 white (82.6%) and referred by primary care (totaling 76, two%). The waiting time on the regulation list averaged 17.89 months (one year and six months) and varied with 186 users waiting between 7-12 months (21.8%), 168 users waiting between 0.6 months (19.7%) and 167 users waiting between 25-30 months (19.6%). The main complaints were language and speech (60.2%). Conclusion According to the data found, there was a damming of the demand for speech therapy care by the SUS in Canoas/RS., with low turnover and long waiting time for the rehabilitation of users, mostly children. This study is expected to help in the identification of this demand, and thus, enable the creation of public policies of habilitation or rehabilitation in the municipality and improve the population's access to specialized care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Health Profile , Communication Disorders/epidemiology , Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences , Health Policy , Unified Health System , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
8.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 32(1): 112-127, ene.-feb. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1412963

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Existen diferentes posturas en cuanto a la delimitación entre los trastornos del lenguaje y de la comunicación; sobre todo al acuñar las definiciones, sus limitantes y particularmente poder medir los pronósticos y diferentes procesos a lo largo del neurodesarrollo. El presente consenso busca unir las diferentes visiones de la región latinoamericana sobre los Trastornos del Desarrollo del Lenguaje (TDL) y Trastornos del Espectro Autista (TEA), homologar taxonomías y evolución a lo largo de los primeros años de vida. MÉTODO: Se realizó un estudio Delphi Modificado para llegar a un consenso sobre la definición más adecuada y diagnóstico temprano de los TDL y TEA. RESULTADOS: Un total de 34 profesionales de 11 países de la región aceptaron la invitación para participar en el consenso e incluyó a distintos especialistas a cargo del cuidado de estos pacientes. Se realizaron dos rondas de evaluación llegando a un acuerdo y consenso en todos los ítems. CONCLUSIONES: El término "Riesgo para Trastornos de la Comunicación y del Lenguaje" es creado para referirse a los niños que no caen en ninguna categoría diagnóstica en etapas tempranas del desarrollo. Consideramos que tanto el uso de este término como el del resto de los mismos, alcanzados por consenso, permitirá coincidir en distintos puntos para la caracterización del TDL y TEA, todo ello contribuirá a evaluar de forma más específica cuáles son las intervenciones adecuadas que mejoren el pronóstico y modifiquen las trayectorias del desarrollo de esta población en nuestra región.


INTRODUCTION: There are different points of view regarding the delimitation between language and communication disorders; especially when establishing the definitions, their limitations and above all being able to measure prognoses and different processes throughout neurodevelopment. The present consensus seeks to unify the different points of view of the Latin American region on Language Development Disorders (LDD) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), standardize the taxonomies and evolution throughout the first years of life. METHOD: A Modified Delphi study was carried out to reach a consensus on the most adequate definition and early diagnosis of TDL and ASD. RESULTS: A total of 34 professionals from 11 countries in the region accepted the invitation to participate in the consensus and included different specialists in charge of the care of these patients. Two rounds of evaluation were carried out, reaching an agreement and consensus on all items. CONCLUSIONS: The term "Risk for Communication and Language Disorders" is created to refer to children who do not fall into any diagnostic category in early stages of development. We consider that using this term as well as the rest of the terms reached by consensus in the present work will allow to match in different points for the characterization of TDL and ASD, this will contribute to a more specific evaluation regarding the appropriate interventions to improve prognosis and modify development trajectories of this population in our region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Autism Spectrum Disorder/diagnosis , Language Disorders/diagnosis , Risk , Delphi Technique , Communication Disorders/diagnosis , Consensus , Early Diagnosis
9.
Rev. CEFAC ; 23(1): e9120, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155320

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: to conduct a literature review on the therapeutic effects of photobiomodulation applicable to speech-language-hearing therapy. Methods: the databases searched were the Cochrane Library, Virtual Health Library, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) via PubMed, and Web of Science/ISI.The selected articles were original ones whose abstracts were available and that evaluated the therapeutic effect of photobiomodulation in situations related to speech-language-hearing practice. Results: the sample comprised 23 articles, most of them being indexed in PubMed. The fields of health with the largest number of publications were Physical Therapy and Medicine. The sample size ranged from1 to 99 people, aged 15 to 77 years, and the most applied wavelength was the infrared one. Most of the studies had positive photobiomodulation application results - although in a few publications the effects of this treatment modality were assessed in a combination with rehabilitation exercises. Conclusion: photobiomodulation benefits different disorders treated by speech-language-hearing therapists, however, there is a broad methodological diversity, lacking specific protocols for the ideal dosimetry for each disorder.


RESUMO Objetivo: realizar revisão de literatura sobre efeitos terapêuticos da fotobiomodulação aplicáveis à Fonoaudiologia. Métodos: foram utilizadas as bases de dados Biblioteca Cochrane, Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval Sistem online (Medline) via PuBmed e Web of Science/ISI. Foram selecionados artigos originais e com resumos disponíveis que avaliaram o efeito terapêutico da fotobiomodulação em situações relacionadas à prática fonoaudiológica. Resultados: a amostra consistiu em 23 artigos, a maioria indexada na PubMed. As áreas da Saúde com maior número de publicações foram Fisioterapia e Medicina. O tamanho das amostras variou de 1 a 99 indivíduos, faixas etárias entre 15 e 77 anos e o comprimento de onda mais aplicado foi o infravermelho. A maioria das pesquisas evidenciou resultados positivos da aplicação da fotobiomodulação, embora, em poucas publicações tenham sido avaliados os efeitos dessa modalidade de tratamento associados a exercícios de reabilitação. Conclusão: a fotobiomodulação traz benefícios em diferentes distúrbios tratados por fonoaudiólogos, no entanto, há grande diversidade metodológica e ausência de protocolos específicos da dosimetria ideal para cada distúrbio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Speech-Language Pathology , Communication Disorders/therapy , Low-Level Light Therapy/methods , Correction of Hearing Impairment , Stomatognathic System , Speech-Language Pathology/classification
10.
Rev. Hosp. Clin. Univ. Chile ; 32(1): 52-59, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151924

ABSTRACT

Communication is an essential part of our social participation and the need to know how to evaluate and deal with its alterations is essential when working with people with neurological pathologies such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Purpose: to carry out a bibliographic review and group information related to communication problems, describing useful instruments for timely evaluation in the different areas involved. Material and method: bibliographic review related to the subject. Results: People with MS can face differents communication problems (aphasia, dysarthria or cognitive communicative disorder), it is important to have the characterization of these disorders and with tools that specifically carry out a pertinent evaluation with common language among experts. Conclusions: considering the importance of communication, its disorders as a consequence of MS and the forms of evaluation are a priority when intervening with this population. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Communication Disorders , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Aphasia , Cognition Disorders , Dysarthria , Multiple Sclerosis/physiopathology
11.
Rev. Investig. Innov. Cienc. Salud ; 3(1): 4-21, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1392676

ABSTRACT

Objectives: 1. define the occurrence of work-related hearing problems and voice disorders among teachers that have contacted the Colombian National Board of Disability Assessment (NBDA) for follow-up; 2. identify individual associated factors of hearing problems and voice disorders among teachers; 3. assess the limitations and restrictions due to hearing problems and voice disorders among these participants. Methods: Retrospective study. The National Database of the Colombian NBDA was reviewed. Information on distributions of occupation, individual characteristics, and diagnosis code (ICD-10) was analyzed. Results: Communication disorders among teachers that have contacted the Colom-bian NBDA for follow-up included voice disorders, with a prevalence of 51%, and hearing problems, with a prevalence of 7%. Female teachers who have contacted the Colombian NBDA for follow-up were 4 times more likely to be identified as having voice disorders compared with their male colleagues. Conclusions: While teachers that have contacted the Colombian NBDA for fol-low-up have a high occurrence of voice disorders, hearing problems are more likely to be stated as a debilitating condition. One possible explanation is that teachers who contacted the Colombian NBDA for follow-up continued working even when many voice symptoms were evident, while hearing problems would prevent a teacher from interacting with students, thereby affecting the teaching-learning process soon-er. Nevertheless, with both voice and hearing problems, work performance and social interaction is affected, and, therefore, quality of life is reduced.


Objetivos: 1. definir la ocurrencia de problemas de audición y de voz relacionados con el trabajo de docentes que contactaron la Junta Nacional de Evaluación de la Discapacidad de Colombia (NBDA) para su seguimiento; 2. identificar los factores individuales asociados a los problemas de audición y voz entre los profesores; 3. eva-luar las limitaciones y restricciones debidas a problemas de audición y voz asociados al trabajo entre los participantes.Métodos: estudio retrospectivo. Se revisó la Base de Datos Nacional de la NBDA colombiana. Se analizó información sobre distribuciones de ocupación, característi-cas individuales y código de diagnóstico (CIE-10).Resultados: Los trastornos de comunicación entre los docentes que han contacta-do a la NBDA colombiana para seguimiento incluyeron problemas de la voz, con una prevalencia del 51%, y problemas de audición, con una prevalencia del 7%. Las pro-fesoras que se han puesto en contacto con la NBDA colombiana para el seguimiento tenían 4 veces más probabilidades de ser identificadas con trastornos de la voz en comparación con sus colegas masculinos.Conclusiones: Si bien los maestros que contactaron a la NBDA colombiana para el seguimiento tienen una alta incidencia de trastornos de la voz, es más probable que los problemas de audición se consideren una condición debilitante. Una posible ex-plicación es que los maestros que se comunicaron con la NBDA colombiana para el seguimiento continuaron trabajando incluso cuando muchos síntomas vocales eran evidentes, mientras que los problemas de audición evitarían que un maestro inte-ractuara con los estudiantes, afectando así el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Sin embargo, tanto con los problemas de voz como de audición, el desempeño laboral y la interacción social se ven afectados y, por lo tanto, la calidad de vida se reduce.


Subject(s)
Auditory Diseases, Central , Voice , Voice Disorders , Communication Disorders , Hearing Loss , Signs and Symptoms , Diagnosis , Disability Evaluation , Faculty , Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences/methods , Hearing Disorders/physiopathology
12.
CoDAS ; 33(3): e20200080, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286101

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Verificar a distribuição dos distúrbios fonoaudiológicos autorreferidos em relação ao sexo e à faixa etária em uma amostra representativa da população do sul do Brasil. Método Estudo transversal em adultos e idosos com base em um inquérito populacional domiciliar autodeclarado sobre Distúrbios da Comunicação Humana (DCH-POP). Foram realizadas entrevistas domiciliares padronizadas com a aplicação de um questionário com residentes da cidade de Porto Alegre entre 2012 e 2014. O desfecho estudado foi "distúrbios fonoaudiológicos", constituído a partir dos dados das variáveis: linguagem, motricidade orofacial, audição e equilíbrio. Foram realizadas análises de frequência absoluta e relativa. Razões de prevalência multivariáveis foram estimadas em análise ajustada pela Regressão de Poisson com variância robusta e respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95%. Resultados Dos 1246 indivíduos entrevistados, 918 participantes foram elegíveis para este estudo. A maioria é do sexo feminino (58,1%) e a idade média foi de 48,9 (±19,6) anos. O desfecho distúrbio fonoaudiológico foi encontrado em 364 (39,4%) indivíduos, sendo que a faixa etária mais acometida foi a de 60 anos ou mais (54,4%), apresentando maior prevalência no sexo masculino (58,9%), do que no feminino (51,9%). Na análise multivariável ajustada verifica-se que há razão de prevalência significativa apenas em indivíduos idosos com 60 anos ou mais (RP 1,84 IC95% 1,50-2,26). Conclusão Neste estudo não encontramos diferenças significativas entre os sexos na prevalência dos distúrbios fonoaudiológicos autorreferidos em adultos e idosos. Entretanto, pessoas mais velhas apresentam maior prevalência destes, especialmente aquelas com idade entre 60 anos ou mais.


ABSTRACT Purpose To verify the distribution of self-reported speech-language and hearing disorders and their association to sex and age in a representative sample of the population in southern Brazil. Methods Prevalence of speech-language and hearing disorders in elderly and younger adults according to sex and age: a population survey based on a household survey on Human Communication Disorders (DCH-POP Study). Standardized home interviews were conducted using a questionnaire with residents of the city of Porto Alegre between 2012 and 2014. The study outcome was self-reported "speech-language and hearing disorders", constituted from the variables: language, orofacial motricity, hearing, and balance. Analyses of absolute and relative frequencies were performed. Multivariable prevalence ratios were estimated in an adjusted analysis using Poisson Regression with robust variation and 95% confidence intervals. Results Of the 1246 individuals interviewed, 918 participants were eligible for this study. Most of them were female (58.1%), and the average age was 48.9 (± 19.6) years. The outcome of speech-language and hearing disorders was found in 364 (39.4%) individuals, and the most affected age group was 60 years old or more (54.4%), with a higher prevalence in men (58.9%) than in women (51.9%). The multivariate analysis showed a significant prevalence ratio only in elderly individuals aged 60 years or older (PR 1.84; 95% CI 1.50-2.26). Conclusion In this study, we did not find significant differences between sexes in the prevalence of self-reported speech-language and hearing disorders in elderly and younger adults. However, elderly and younger adults presented a higher prevalence of these disorders.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Speech , Communication Disorders , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Hearing Disorders/diagnosis , Hearing Disorders/epidemiology , Middle Aged
13.
CoDAS ; 33(4): e20200088, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286117

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Verificar a efetividade da intervenção fonoaudiológica grupal no comportamento comunicativo de indivíduos com diagnóstico de esquizofrenia. Método Trata-se de um estudo quase experimental, quantitativo analítico-exploratório. Foram incluídos usuários de um Centro de Atenção Psicossocial III (CAPS III) com diagnóstico de esquizofrenia, divididos em 2 grupos: Grupo Experimental (GE), compondo o Grupo de Intervenção Fonoaudiológica (GIF) e Grupo Controle (GC). O comportamento comunicativo foi avaliado através da Bateria MAC Breve. O GIF foi realizado em 2 sessões semanais, totalizando 24 sessões. Após esse período, os indivíduos foram reavaliados. A análise ocorreu por meio dos Testes não paramétricos de Mann Whitney e o Teste de Correlação de Pearson. Resultados Participaram 19 indivíduos, de ambos os sexos, com idade entre 19 e 59 anos, escolaridade mínima de 5 anos, sendo que 14 participaram do GE e 5 do GC. No GE, foi possível observar que houve melhora no comportamento comunicativo após a intervenção fonoaudiológica em todas as tarefas avaliadas, exceto na tarefa de Escrita. Já no GC, não foram observadas alterações significativas comparando a avaliação e a reavaliação após 12 semanas. Conclusão A intervenção fonoaudiológica grupal foi efetiva, utilizando a comunicação como instrumento de socialização e contribuindo para a melhoria das condições de vida de indivíduos com diagnóstico de esquizofrenia.


ABSTRACT Purpose To verify the effectiveness of the speech language intervention in the communicative behavior in group of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. Methods This is a semi-experimental, quantitative analytical-exploratory study. Users of a Psychosocial Care Center III (CAPS III) with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were included, divided into 2 groups: Experimental Group (EG), comprising the Speech Therapy Intervention Group (STIG) and Control Group (CG). The communicative behavior was evaluated through the Brief MAC Battery. The STIG was performed in 2 weekly sessions, during 12 weeks, totalizing 24 sessions. After this period, individuals were reassessed. Data were analyzed through Mann Whitney non-parametric Test, and Pearson's Correlation Test. Results A total of 19 individuals of both sexes participated, who are between 19 and 59 years old with a minimum schooling of 5 years, 14 participating in EG and 5 in CG. In the EG, it was possible to observe that there was improvement in the communicative behavior after the speech language intervention in all the tasks evaluated, except in the writing task. In CG, no significant changes were observed comparing evaluation and reevaluation after 12 weeks. Conclusion The speech-language intervention in group was effective as a socialization tool and contributing to the improvement of the living conditions of these people with schizophrenia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Schizophrenia/complications , Schizophrenia/therapy , Communication Disorders/etiology , Speech , Speech Therapy , Communication , Middle Aged
14.
CoDAS ; 33(5): e20200011, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286128

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Com o crescimento da população idosa, evidencia-se um aumento da incidência de doenças comuns a essa faixa etária, como as demências. Esforços para aprimorar a qualidade dos cuidados em saúde a esses pacientes, incluindo os cuidados fonoaudiológicos, têm crescido. Este estudo objetiva avaliar a efetividade e a aplicabilidade do aplicativo Talk Around It como estratégia complementar na terapia fonoaudiológica em um caso de distúrbio cognitivo da comunicação. O participante foi avaliado pré e pós-terapia fonoaudiológica por meio de protocolos padronizados de avaliação da linguagem. A terapia teve como foco principal a redução de anomias. O aplicativo Talk Around It foi selecionado como recurso terapêutico complementar para alcançar esse objetivo. Na avaliação pós-terapia observou-se melhora ou manutenção dos escores dos subtestes da Bateria Montreal-Toulouse de Avaliação da Linguagem-Brasil: Nomeação oral (substantivos, verbos e total), Fluência verbal semântica e ortográfica e Discurso narrativo oral (unidade de informação e cenas). A avaliação funcional das habilidades comunicativas não se modificou de modo consistente após a intervenção O recurso tecnológico empregado com estratégias terapêuticas convencionais, durante três meses, conduziu a melhoras da habilidade de acesso lexical no caso estudado. Seu uso na prática clínica em pacientes com demência em fase leve mostrou-se possível.


ABSTRACT With the aging of the population, there is an increase in the incidence of common diseases to this age group, such as dementias. Efforts to improve the quality of health care for these patients, including speech-language therapy, have grown. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and applicability of the Talk Around It as a complementary strategy in the language therapy of a patient with cognitive communication disorder. The participant was evaluated before and after speech therapy through standardized language assessment protocols. The main focus of therapy was the reduction of anomies. The Talk Around It application has been selected as a complementary therapeutic resource to achieve this goal. In the post-therapy evaluation improvement or maintenance of the Montreal-Toulouse Battery for Language Assessment-Brazil Battery subtests scores was observed: Oral naming (nouns, verbs and total), Semantic and Orthographic verbal fluency and Oral narrative discourse (information unit and scenes). Functional assessment of communicative skills has not changed consistently after the intervention. The technological resource used with conventional therapeutic strategies, during three months, led to improvements in the lexical access ability in the case studied. It use in clinical practice in patients with mild dementia has proved possible.


Subject(s)
Humans , Communication Disorders/therapy , Mobile Applications , Speech , Speech Therapy , Brazil , Cognition , Language Therapy
15.
CoDAS ; 33(2): e20200041, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249614

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o impacto da implementação do Picture Exchange Communication System - PECS na compreensão de instruções de crianças com Transtorno do Espectro do Autismo (TEA). Método Trata-se de estudo longitudinal. A amostra foi constituída por 20 crianças com TEA não verbais, sendo 15 meninos e 5 meninas, na faixa etária de 6 a 12 anos, avaliadas e diagnosticadas por equipe multidisciplinar, segundo os critérios do DSM-5. Para avaliação da compreensão de instruções foram aplicadas 8 instruções visuais e 8 instruções orais, em dois momentos do Programa de Implementação do PECS: no início das fases II e IV. O programa foi composto por 24 sessões de terapia fonoaudiológica individual com a presença do familiar e obedeceu às seis fases propostas originalmente pelo Manual de Treinamento do PECS. Resultados Houve aumento expressivo na compreensão de todas as instruções, na comparação entre os dois momentos do estudo; sendo que em seis das instruções orais (p=0,001) e cinco das instruções visuais (p=0,002), esse aumento foi estatisticamente significante. Conclusão Foi possível observar o impacto positivo do uso do PECS na compreensão de instruções tanto visuais quanto orais, mostrando que esse sistema não apenas fornece uma ferramenta de comunicação aumentativa ou alternativa para a criança se expressar, mas também promove melhora significativa na compreensão das informações contextuais.


ABSTRACT Purpose The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of the implementation of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) on the comprehension of instructions by children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Methods This is a longitudinal study (N° 0809/2018). The sample consisted of 20 children with nonverbal ASDs, 15 boys and 5 girls, aged 6 to 12 years, evaluated and diagnosed by a multidisciplinary team according to the DSM-5. For assessment of the comprehension of instructions, we used eight visual instructions and eight oral instructions, which were applied at two points in the PECS Implementation Program: early phases II and IV. The program consisted of 24 individual speech therapy sessions with the presence of a family member and followed the six phases originally proposed by the PECS Training Manual. Results There was an expressive increase in the comprehension of all instructions, in the comparison between the two moments of the study; and this increase was statistically significant in six of the oral instructions (p=0.001) and five of the visual ones (p=0.002). Conclusion It was possible to observe the positive impact of the use of PECS in the comprehension of both visual and oral instructions, showing that this system not only provides an augmentative or alternative communication tool for the children to express themselves but also promotes significant improvement in the understanding of contextual information.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Communication Aids for Disabled , Communication Disorders/diagnosis , Autism Spectrum Disorder , Longitudinal Studies , Communication , Comprehension
16.
Rev. chil. fonoaudiol. (En línea) ; 19: 1-9, nov. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1148401

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad COVID-19 fue declarada pandemia por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Su presentación más severa genera una condición que requiere tratamiento en unidades de cuidados intensivos, condición que al prolongarse en el tiempo requiere la implementación de una traqueostomía para facilitar la entrega de soporte ventilatorio invasivo. Si bien este dispositivo posee importantes ventajas que favorecen la recuperación y rehabilitación, también es cierto que genera diversas complicaciones en la comunicación de las personas, condición que se suma a los efectos propios del COVID-19 y la frecuente historia de intubación endotraqueal previa. El objetivo de este artículo es proveer orientaciones y herramientas clínicas para el tratamiento de la fonación para la comunicación en personas con traqueostomía y COVID-19. Se considera para ello las recomendaciones de la literatura existentes a la fecha, bajo un análisis pragmático y basado en nuestra experiencia de atender a más de 561 personas con esta condición. Se exponen las características de la comunicación en esta población, su tratamiento, consideraciones para el uso de técnicas específicas y orientaciones para la mejora de la calidad de vida. Siempre con un enfoque orientado al cuidado y protección de las/os usuarias/os y el equipo de salud, en particular fonoaudiólogas y fonoaudiólogos del país.


The COVID-19 disease was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. When most severe, it generates a condition that requires treatment in intensive care units, which, when extended in time, requires implementing of a tracheostomy to facilitate invasive ventilatory support. Although ventilatory support has important advantages that favor recovery and rehabilitation, it generates various complications for patients' communication, a condition that adds to the effects of COVID-19 and the frequent history of previous endotracheal intubation. The aim of this article is to provide guidance and clinical tools for the treatment of phonation to facilitate communication in people with tracheostomy and COVID-19. For this, the recommendations of the existing available literature are considered, under a pragmatic analysis and based on our experience of treating more than 561 infected patients. The characteristics of communication in this population, its treatment, considerations for the use of specific techniques and guidelines to improve quality of life are exposed. Always with an approach oriented to the care and protection of users and the health team, in particular speech-language pathologists in the country.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/surgery , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Voice Disorders/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/surgery , Communication Disorders/etiology , Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences/standards , Phonation , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/rehabilitation , Quality of Life , Hospital-Patient Relations , Voice Disorders/rehabilitation , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/rehabilitation , Communication , Communication Disorders/rehabilitation , Critical Care , Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences/methods , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Intubation, Intratracheal
18.
CoDAS ; 32(1): e20180306, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039627

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose Search for reliability and validity evidence for the Montreal Communication Evaluation Brief Battery (MEC B) for adults with right brain damage. Methods Three hundred twenty-four healthy adults and 26 adults with right brain damage, aged 19-75 years, with two or more years of education were evaluated with MEC B. The MEC B Battery contains nine tasks that aim to evaluate communicative abilities as discourse, prosody, lexical-semantic and pragmatic process. Two sources of reliability evidence were used: internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and interrater reliability. Construct validity was evaluated comparing the Montreal Communication Evaluation Battery (MEC), expanded version and MEC B tasks. Results Internal consistence was satisfactory and the interrater reliability was considered excellent, as were correlations between MEC Battery and MEC B Battery tasks. Conclusion The MEC B Battery showed satisfactory reliability and validity evidences. It can be used as outcome measure of intervention programs and assist speech therapists to plan rehabilitation programs.


RESUMO Objetivo Buscar evidências de validade e fidedignidade da Bateria Montreal de Avaliação da Comunicação Breve (MAC B) para adultos com lesão do hemisfério direito. Método Trezentos e vinte e quatro adultos saudáveis e 26 adultos com lesão cerebral direita, com idades de 19 a 75 anos, com dois ou mais anos de escolaridade, foram avaliados com a Bateria MAC B. Essa bateria contém nove tarefas que visam avaliar habilidades comunicativas, como: discurso prosódia; processo léxico-semântico e pragmática. Duas fontes de evidências de fidedignidade foram utilizadas, ou seja, a consistência interna (alfa de Cronbach) e a concordância entre avaliadores. A validade foi avaliada comparando as tarefas da Bateria MAC na versão expandida e da MAC B. Resultados Em relação à fidedignidade, a consistência interna foi satisfatória e as taxas de concordância entre os avaliadores foram consideradas excelentes, assim como as correlações entre as tarefas da Bateria MAC e Bateria MAC B. Conclusão A Bateria MAC B apresentou evidências de fidedignidade e validade satisfatórias, podendo ser usada como medida para resultado de programas de intervenção, e também auxiliar o fonoaudiólogo a planejar o programa de reabilitação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Brain Injuries/physiopathology , Communication Disorders/diagnosis , Neuropsychological Tests/statistics & numerical data , Speech Therapy/methods , Brazil , Case-Control Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Middle Aged
19.
CoDAS ; 32(6): e20190167, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133546

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Verificar os efeitos da intervenção fonoaudiológica com Comunicação Aumentativa e Alternativa (CAA) nos atos comunicativos em crianças com Transtorno do Espectro do Autismo (TEA). Método: Trata-se de uma pesquisa do tipo estudo de caso, com caráter longitudinal, sendo a amostra constituída por três sujeitos atendidos em uma Clínica Escola de Fonoaudiologia. Os dados primários foram obtidos a partir da observação de vídeos gravados de sessões de avaliação pré e pós intervenção da terapeuta com cada criança em atividades lúdicas, enquanto os dados secundários são advindos das entrevistas com os pais. A análise foi realizada baseada na prova de pragmática do Teste de Linguagem Infantil - ABFW, por meio observacional das gravações, com objetivo de identificar e quantificar os atos comunicativos. Resultados: Foi possível observar aumento de 51,47% na produção de atos comunicativos nos três sujeitos da pesquisa. Além disso, verificou-se que houve maior qualidade nos atos produzidos, com uso de componentes verbais mais presentes e diminuição dos atos que possuíam funções não-interpessoais, tais como os atos gestuais e vocais. Sendo assim, constatou-se uma evolução na linguagem funcional dos sujeitos. Conclusão: O uso da Comunicação Aumentativa e Alternativa na clínica fonoaudiológica mostra-se promissor e eficaz no que se refere à promoção do desenvolvimento das habilidades comunicacionais do indivíduo com TEA.


ABSTRACT Purpose: To verify the effects of the Speech-Language Intervention with Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) in communicative acts in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Method: This is a longitudinal case-study design involving three subjects attended in a Speech-Language Pathology (SLP) Clinic School. Primary data were obtained from the observation of recorded videos of pre and post-intervention therapist assessment sessions with each child in play activities, while secondary data come from interviews with parents. The analysis was performed based on the Pragmatic Test of the Infant Language Test - ABFW, through observational recordings, aiming to identify and quantify the communicative acts. Results: It was possible to observe a 51.47% increase in the production of communicative acts in the three research subjects. In addition, it was found that there was higher quality in the acts produced, using more present verbal components and decreased acts that had non-interpersonal functions, such as gestures and vocal acts. Thus, there was an evolution in the functional language of the subjects. Conclusion: The use of Augmentative and Alternative Communication in the SLP therapy clinic is promising and effective in promoting the development of communication skills of individuals with ASD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child , Speech-Language Pathology , Communication Aids for Disabled , Communication Disorders , Autism Spectrum Disorder , Communication , Language Tests
20.
Revista Areté ; 20(1): 29-37, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1354780

ABSTRACT

n el Síndrome de Enclaustramiento las manifestaciones clínicas son preponderantemente de orden motor, situación que requiere la intervención del Fonoaudiólogo, dado el compromiso comunicativo y de la biomecánica deglutoria. La disfagia en este síndrome está dada por la desconexión sensorio-motriz de las estructuras anatómicas de la deglución, alterando la secuencia neuromotora y sensitiva del proceso deglutorio debido a la desconexión pontina. El texto presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de 27 años quien es diagnosticada con Síndrome de Eclaustramiento posterior a accidente cerebrovascular de Arteria Basilar Derecha, acto que compromete sus habilidades motoras de forma generalizada. A partir de su diagnóstico y dadas las características multicéntricas de la deglución, se objetiva comenzar intervención fonoaudiológica oportuna, estableciendo como eje fundamental la secuencialidad de los procesos neurofisiológicos de la deglución; adoptando como estrategia el manejo de consistencias, fortaleciendo sensorial y motrizmente la deglución. Al intervenir las necesidades sensoriomotoras orales en pro de la alimentación, y usando como estrategias terapéuticas la modificación de consistencias, manejo de volumen, postura, aditamento para suministro de alimento y tiempos de ingesta, se minimizan los riesgos en el proceso de alimentación y se puedo llegar a mantener un estado nutricional y de hidratación óptimo para la recuperación física general, permitiendo el aumento de la ingesta en una proporción inicial de 30% vía oral - 70% vía enteral a un 100% incluyendo a la dieta el nivel 4-puré, según la IDDSI y desarrollando paralelamente procesos de interacción familiar, impactando su calidad de vida.


he clinical manifestations of Locked-In Syndrome are predominantly motor in order, a situation that requires the intervention of the speech therapist, given the communicative disorder and biomechanics of swallowing. The dysphagia in this syndrome is produced by the sensibly-motor disconnection of the anatomical structures of swallowing, altering the neuromotor and sensitive sequence of the swallowing process because of the pontine disconnection. The text presents the case of a 27-year-old female who is diagnosed with Locked-In Syndrome after suffering a cerebrovascular accident in the Basilar Right Artery, which compromises her motor skills. From her diagnosis and given the characteristics of swallowing, it is necessary to begin speech therapy intervention, focusing the sequences of the neurophysiological processes of swallowing; using as a strategy the management of consistency, strengthening sensory and motor swallowing. After intervening the oral sensory motor, improving nutrition, and using as therapeutic strategies the modification of consistency, volume, posture, food supply and intake times. The risks in the feeding process are minimized, the nutritional status and optimal hydration can be maintained for the overall physical recovery, allowing the increase of intake with an initial proportion of 30% orally - 70% through enteral to 100%, including the 4-Pureed level, according to the IDDSI and developing parallel processes of family interaction, impacting their quality of life.


Subject(s)
Deglutition Disorders , Communication Disorders , Locked-In Syndrome , Quality of Life , Speech , Speech Therapy , Syndrome , Therapeutics , Deglutition , Eating , Food , Language
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