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1.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e254483, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1440795

ABSTRACT

Compreender as estratégias de resolução de conflitos utilizadas por adolescentes na relação com seus pais é fundamental para entender como ocorre seu desenvolvimento saudável. Este artigo investigou a resolução de conflitos de adolescentes em situações de confronto entre o seu domínio pessoal e o controle parental. 36 adolescentes com idades entre 15 e 17 anos, divididos igualmente conforme o sexo, responderam a uma entrevista semiestruturada, que continha quatro situações de conflito hipotéticas. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de conteúdo semântica e a testes não paramétricos. Os resultados foram categorizados em sete estratégias: Assunção de culpa, Submissão, Mentira, Hostilidade, Diálogo/Explicação, Negociação e Outra. A forma predominante de resolução utilizada foi o Diálogo/Explicação, considerada como uma forma recorrente de defender o domínio pessoal. Foram encontradas diferenças em relação ao sexo dos participantes e à situação hipotética. Por fim, os resultados são discutidos em termos de grau de autonomia e tipo de defesa do domínio pessoal.(AU)


Understanding the conflict resolution strategies used by adolescents in their relationship with their parents is fundamental to understanding how their healthy development occurs. This article investigated the resolution of conflicts by adolescents in confrontation situations between their personal domain and parental control. A total of 36 adolescents, aged 15 to 17 years, divided equally according to sex, answered a semi-structured interview that contained four hypothetical conflict situations. Data were subjected to semantic content analysis and non-parametric tests. The results were categorized into seven strategies: Assumption of Guilt, Submission, Lie, Hostility, Dialogue/Explanation, Negotiation, and Other. The predominant form of resolution used was Dialogue/Explanation, considered a recurrent form of defense of the personal domain. Differences were found depending on the participants' gender and the hypothetical situation. Finally, the results are discussed regarding the degree of autonomy and type of defense of the personal domain.(AU)


Enterarse de las estrategias de resolución de conflictos que los adolescentes utilizan en la relación con sus padres es fundamental para comprender cómo ocurre el desarrollo saludable de los adolescentes. A partir de una entrevista semiestructurada, presentamos cuatro situaciones hipotéticas de conflicto que fueron analizadas y respondidas por 36 adolescentes de entre 15 y 17 años, divididos según el género. Los datos se sometieron a un análisis de contenido semántico y a pruebas no paramétricas. Los resultados se categorizaron en siete estrategias de resolución de conflictos: Asunción de culpa, Sumisión, Mentira, Hostilidad, Diálogo/Explicación, Negociación y Otros. La forma de resolución más utilizada fue Diálogo/Explicación, y esta categoría fue una forma de defensa del dominio personal. Asimismo, se encontraron diferencias en función del género de los participantes y conforme la situación hipotética. Los resultados se discuten en términos de grado de autonomía y tipo de defensa del dominio personal.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adolescent , Negotiating , Family Conflict , Anxiety , Orientation , Parent-Child Relations , Personal Satisfaction , Personality , Personality Development , Primary Health Care , Psychology , Psychology, Social , Psychosexual Development , Psychotherapy , Public Policy , Quality of Life , Role , Sex , Authoritarianism , Social Behavior Disorders , Social Change , Social Dominance , Social Environment , Socialization , Stereotyping , Stress, Psychological , Avoidance Learning , Taboo , Temperament , Temperance , Violence , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Career Choice , Attitude , Child Advocacy , Child Welfare , Choice Behavior , Mental Health , Puberty , Adolescent Behavior , Parenting , Intergenerational Relations , Codependency, Psychological , Interview , Communication , Comprehensive Health Care , Privacy , Adult , Sexuality , Conduct Disorder , Feedback, Psychological , Disclosure , Dangerous Behavior , Principle-Based Ethics , Decision Making , Harm Reduction , Moral Development , Dissent and Disputes , Trust , Friends , Adolescent Development , Sexual Development , Dominance-Subordination , Education , Educational Status , Ego , Emotions , Escape Reaction , Fear , Emotional Intelligence , Sense of Coherence , Forgiveness , Protective Factors , Social Norms , Emotional Adjustment , Underage Drinking , Peer Influence , Conservative Treatment , Perfectionism , Cell Phone Use , Incivility , Self-Management , Ethnocentrism , Freedom , Frustration , Psychological Distress , Social Integration , Empowerment , Transtheoretical Model , Disinformation , Social Cohesion , Citizenship , Gestalt Therapy , Family Support , Psychological Well-Being , Guilt , Happiness , Hormones , Hostility , Human Development , Human Rights , Identity Crisis , Individuation , Juvenile Delinquency , Anger , Leisure Activities , Life Change Events , Loneliness , Love , Deception , Morals , Narcissism , Object Attachment
2.
Rev. psicol. (Fortaleza, Online) ; 13(1): 169-171, 01/01/2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1358002

ABSTRACT

Há mulheres na perversão? Essa pergunta serve de título para o livro de Lígia Furtado Mendonça (2018), a qual é resultado de seu percurso significativo de pesquisa acadêmica dedicada à temática das perversões. O livro trata das relações possíveis entre a estrutura perversa e o feminino, a partir da Psicanálise. Como afirma a própria autora, o seu objetivo é o de confrontar posições teóricas, não unânimes, que reservam a possibilidade da existência de uma estrutura perversa ao campo do masculino. Encontra-se dividido em sete capítulos que orbitam em torno de três tópicos: o primeiro dedica-se ao modo como a perversão era compreendida antes do surgimento da Psicanálise, e por seu entendimento propriamente freudiano e lacaniano. De forma mais específica, diríamos que o livro retoma a teorização acerca das perversões em Freud a partir de um marco teórico lacaniano, o qual serve à delimitação das concepções diferencias do feminino e do masculino a partir da lógica da sexuação e de sua consequente aplicação ao domínio das perversões.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Psychoanalytic Interpretation , Women/psychology , Conduct Disorder/psychology , Morale , Retrospective Moral Judgment
3.
Estud. Psicol. (Campinas, Online) ; 39: e200223, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1375428

ABSTRACT

The study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of sandplay therapy in the treatment of children with symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder and/or conduct disorder. The intervention consisted of twelve weekly sessions of sandplay therapy. The Child Behavior Checklist 6-18 was used to assess symptoms before and after the intervention. Participants were 41 children of both sexes, randomly divided into two groups. The control group remained on hold while experimental group 1 underwent the intervention. After three months, control group participants who still met the inclusion criteria were placed in experimental group 2. Results were analyzed statistically, in order to compare the control group and experimental group 1, as well as to assess the evolution of the total experimental group, which included experimental groups 1 and 2. Results pointed to the effectiveness of sandplay therapy in reducing symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder.


O estudo visou avaliar a efetividade da terapia de sandplay no tratamento de crianças com sintomas de Transtorno Opositivo-Desafiador e/ou Transtorno de Conduta. A intervenção consistiu de 12 sessões semanais de terapia de sandplay. O Child Behavior Checklist 6-18 foi o instrumento utilizado para avaliar os sintomas antes e após a intervenção. Participaram do estudo 41 crianças de ambos os sexos, divididas randomicamente em dois grupos. O grupo controle permaneceu em espera enquanto o grupo experimental 1 passava pela intervenção. Após três meses de intervenção, os participantes do grupo controle que ainda atendiam aos critérios de inclusão formaram o grupo experimental 2. Os resultados obtidos foram analisados estatisticamente, de modo a comparar o grupo controle e o grupo experimental 1 bem como avaliar a evolução do grupo experimental total, que incluiu os grupos experimentais 1 e 2. Os resultados indicam que a terapia de sandplay foi eficiente na redução dos sintomas dos transtornos em questão.


Subject(s)
Play Therapy , Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders , Conduct Disorder
4.
Rev. crim ; 64(2): 35-46, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1417776

ABSTRACT

El propósito principal de este estudio fue analizar la relación entre deseabilidad social (DS), el trastorno de conducta (TC) y el callo emocional (CE). En él participaron 150 adolescentes, entre los 13 y los 17 años (47% mujeres y 53% hombres), y se formaron dos grupos (con y sin probable TC). Se aplicó la escala de necesidad de aprobación social (ENAS), el cuestionario de detección del trastorno de conducta (CDTC), y el inventario de rasgos de insensibilidad emocional (IRIE). Se observó que el nivel de DS total resultó significativamente más bajo en el grupo con probable TC; también, una relación negativa baja entre la puntuación total del ENAS y las puntuaciones del CDTC, y negativas y moderadas con el IRIE. En conclusión se observó una relación negativa, aunque baja, entre la DS y el TC, y entre moderada y negativa con el CE. Las relaciones entre variables se modificaron en función de la edad y el género.


The main purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between social desirability (SD), conduct disorder (CD) and callous unemotional (CU).. A total of 150 adolescents between 13 and 17 years of age (47% female and 53% male) participated in the study, and two groups were formed (with and without probable CD). The Need for Social Approval Scale (ENAS), the Conduct Disorder Screening Questionnaire (CDTC), and the Emotional Insensitivity Trait Inventory (IRIE) were applied. It was observed that the level of total SD was significantly lower in the group with probable CT; also, a low negative relationship between the ENAS total score and the CDTC scores, and negative and moderate ones with the IRIE. In conclusion, a negative, albeit low, relationship was observed between SD and CT, and moderate to negative with CE. The relationships between variables were modified by age and gender.


O objetivo principal deste estudo foi analisar a relação entre a desejabilidade social (SD), desordem de conduta (CD) e calo emocional (EC). Envolveu 150 adolescentes de 13-17 anos (47% mulheres e 53% homens), e foram formados dois grupos (com e sem provável CD). Foram administradas a Escala de Aprovação Social (ENAS), o Questionário de Avaliação de Distúrbios de Conduta (CDTC) e o Inventário de Traços de Insensibilidade Emocional (IRIE). Foi observado que o nível de SD total era significativamente menor no grupo com provável CD; também, uma relação negativa baixa entre a pontuação total do ENAS e a pontuação do CDTC, e relações negativas e negativas moderadas com o IRIE. Em conclusão, houve uma relação negativa, embora baixa, entre SD e CT, e moderada a negativa com CE. As relações entre as variáveis foram modificadas por idade e sexo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Social Desirability , Conduct Disorder , Adolescent , Mexico
5.
Ciênc. cogn ; 26(2): 360-369, 31 dez. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353873

ABSTRACT

De acordo com variados estudos científicos, nas idades escolares os estudantes podem apresentar diferentes distúrbios comportamentais. Assim, este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar uma revisão da literatura sobre o Transtorno Opositivo Desafiador (TOD) e o Transtorno de Conduta (TC) de modo a favorecer o diagnóstico e intervenções escolares. Para isso, realizou-se busca por descritores no Portal da Capes e no Google Acadêmico em que foram selecionados trabalhos mais recentes escritos em português e inglês que continham no título dos manuscritos os termos da busca e os conteúdos destes foram divididos em categorias, tais como, fatores de causa/proteção; estratégias de trabalho com alunos acometidos de TOD e TC e a relação que os distúrbios podem apresentar com o cometimento de atos infracionais. Verificou-se que os autores abordam que ambos os distúrbios podem desenvolver-se pela influência do ambiente social das crianças e adolescentes, e que o professor pode exercer influência sobre o comportamento e rendimento escolar destes estudantes. O presente estudo contribui, portanto para a compreensão dos distúrbios a partir da exposição do debate de diversos autores o que pode auxiliar professores, alunos e pais no trabalho com pessoas acometidas de TOD e TC.


According to several scientific studies, at school age, students may have different behavioral disorders. Thus, this article aims to present a literature review on Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CT) to favourdiagnosis and school interventions. A search for descriptors in Capes Portal and Google Scholar was carried out, in which more recent works written in Portuguese and English that contained the search terms in the title of the manuscripts and their contents were divided into categories, such as causative/protective factors; work strategies with students suffering from ODD and CT, and the relationship that the disorders can present with infractions. We found that the authors state that both disorders can develop under the influence of the children's and adolescents' social environment and that the teacher can influence their behavior and academic performance. Therefore, the present study contributes to the understanding of disorders from the discussion of several authors' debates, which can help teachers, students, and parents work with people with ODD and CT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Mainstreaming, Education , Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders/psychology , School Teachers , Conduct Disorder/psychology , Crime
6.
Psicol. USP ; 32: e200178, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1340408

ABSTRACT

Resumos Segundo Winnicott, a tendência antissocial tem por etiologia uma deprivação que ocorre quando está se dando a fusão entre os elementos instintuais e motores. A desfusão desses elementos resulta num prejuízo no desenvolvimento criativo das relações objetais e na expressão da agressividade. A tendência antissocial se manifesta através de um transtorno no ambiente, por meio da mentira, do roubo e da destrutividade. Neste artigo, apresento um caso clínico em que surgiram comportamentos antissociais numa pessoa idosa e como se constituiu o setting terapêutico para seu tratamento. Por fim, o texto discute se a etapa da vida que se conhece por velhice, por se apresentar amiúde com decadência física e declínio instintual, não causaria nos indivíduos uma deprivação que se expressaria por meio de múltiplos transtornos, normalmente percebidos como manifestações da mera velhice e que, na verdade, poderiam ser mais bem entendidos como expressão de uma tendência antissocial.


Résumé Selon Winnicott, la tendance antisociale résulte d'une privation qui se produit au moment où s'opère la fusion entre les éléments instinctuels et moteurs. La défusion de ces éléments entraîne une perte dans le développement créatif des relations objectales et dans l'expression de l'agressivité. La tendance antisociale se manifeste par une perturbation de l'environnement, par le mensonge, le vol et la destruction. Cet article présente un cas clinique dans lequel des comportements antisociaux se sont apparu chez une personne âgée et comment s'est constitué le cadre thérapeutique de son traitement. Enfin, le texte propose une réflexion : cette étape de la vie, que l'on nomme vieillesse et qui se présente souvent comme une déchéance physique et un déclin instinctif, ne provoquerait-elle chez les individus une déprivation qui s'exprimerait par de multiples troubles, normalement perçus comme des manifestations de la simple vieillesse mais qui, en fait, pourraient être mieux compris comme l'expression d'une tendance antisociale ?


Resumen Según Winnicott, la tendencia antisocial tiene por etiología una deprivación, que ocurre cuando los elementos instintuales y motores se están fusionando. La escisión entre estos elementos tiene como resultado un perjuicio en el desarrollo creativo de las relaciones objetales y la expresión de agresividad. La tendencia antisocial se manifiesta como una perturbación en el entorno mediante la mentira, el robo y la destructividad. En este artículo se presenta un caso clínico en el que surgieron comportamientos antisociales en una persona mayor y cómo se constituyó el setting terapéutico. Por último, se discute si la etapa de la vida conocida como vejez, por su decadencia física y el deterioro instintual en general, no les causaría a los individuos una deprivación, la cual se expresaría en múltiples desórdenes de la vejez que podrían entenderse como la expresión de una tendencia antisocial.


Abstract According to Winnicott, antisocial tendency etiology is an experience of deprivation that occurs during the fusion between instinctual and motor elements. These elements defusion impairs creative development of object relations and leads to an expression of aggression. In this scenario, the antisocial tendency is expressed by an environmental disorder, through lies, stealing, and destructivity. This article presents a clinical case of antisocial behaviors in an older person, describing the therapeutic setting for the treatment of such condition. Considering that ageing often presents with physical decadence and instinctual decline, it also discusses the association between this life period and a deprivation expressed through multiple disorders that are usually understood as signs of mere senescence but could possibly signify the expression of an antisocial tendency.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aged/psychology , Conduct Disorder/etiology , Antisocial Personality Disorder/etiology , Psychotherapy
7.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 49(3): 162-169, jul.-set. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1149822

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: No son muchos los estudios sobre la prevalencia y los factores asociados (p. ej., uso de redes sociales) con los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (TCA) en Colombia. De particular interés son este tipo de estudios en población femenina que asiste regularmente a gimnasios. Métodos: El objetivo es analizar la relación entre el riesgo de TCA y el uso de redes sociales en 337 mujeres con edades entre los 15 y los 30 arios que llevaban más de 4 meses asistiendo regularmente a gimnasios de la ciudad de Medellín, mediante un estudio cuantitativo descriptivo de corte transversal. Resultados: Se identificaron 143 (47,5%) casos con riesgo de TCA. Se encontraron asociaciones estadísticamente significativas entre el riesgo de TCA y algunos aspectos del uso de redes sociales. Discusión: Se discute la posible asociación entre el TCA, el uso de redes sociales y ciertas características de personalidad y los estereotipos socioculturales de belleza. Conclusiones: Los hallazgos señalan una asociación entre el uso de redes sociales como modo de lograr la aprobación de la autoimagen, las actitudes alimentarias anómalas y la satisfacción corporal. Este comportamiento, sumado a otros factores de vulnerabilidad, puede aumentar el riesgo de que se inicie o se mantenga un TCA, particularmente en población que hace uso de gimnasios y centros para al acondicionamiento físico.


ABSTRACT Introduction: There are not many studies on prevalence and factors (use of social networks, for example) associated with eating disorders (ED) in Colombia. These types of studies in regular female gym-goers are of particular interest. Methods: The objective was to analyse the relationship between the risk of EDs and the use of social networks in 337 women between the ages of 15 and 30 who had been regularly going to the gym in the city of Medellín for four months or more. The type of study was quantitative, descriptive and cross-sectional. Results: A total of 143 (47.5%) cases with a risk of EDs were identified. Statistically significant associations were found between the risk of eating disorders and some aspects of the use of social networks. Discussion: The possible association between ED, the use of social networks and certain personality characteristics and sociocultural beauty stereotypes are discussed. Conclusions: The findings point to an association between the use of social networks as a way to achieve self-image approval, abnormal eating attitudes and body satisfaction. This behaviour, added to other vulnerability factors, may increase the risk for the initiation or maintenance of an ED, particularly in the population using gyms and physical conditioning centres.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Self Concept , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Conduct Disorder , Social Networking , Personal Satisfaction , Beauty , Attitude , Risk , Prevalence , Colombia , Eating , Ego , Physical Conditioning, Human
8.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 41(3): 292-296, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043529

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives To assess the sociodemographic, psychiatric and criminal profile of adolescent offenders complying with temporary custody for homicide/homicide attempt and to compare it to that of the population of adolescents in custody for other crimes. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on the review of the medical records of 74 juvenile offenders in temporary custody at socioeducational agency Fundação de Atendimento Sócio-Educativo do Rio Grande do Sul. For the analysis, variables that presented p < 0.2 were included in multivariate adjustment through logistic regression. Results The sample comprised males only, mostly with white skin color (55.6 vs. 57.9% for homicidal and non-homicidal, respectively) and with a high prevalence of school failure (77.8 vs. 91.2%). There was a high prevalence of family history of delinquency (88 vs. 81%). Only years of study and belonging or not to a criminal organization remained statistically significant in the multivariate model. Conclusion The results show that having fewer years of study and denying belonging to a criminal organization are predictive factors of homicidal behavior in adolescent offenders (both with statistical relevance). The other variables were not statistically significant for this outcome. The present study may serve as a basis for further research, which may improve our understanding of risk factors for juvenile homicide.


Resumo Objetivos Avaliar o perfil sociodemográfico, psiquiátrico e criminal de adolescentes infratores que cumprem internação provisória por homicídio ou tentativa de homicídio e compará-los aos adolescentes privados de liberdade por outros atos infracionais. Métodos Este estudo transversal baseou-se na revisão dos prontuários médicos de 74 adolescentes infratores em internação provisória na Fundação de Atendimento Sócio-Educativo do Rio Grande do Sul. Para a análise, variáveis que apresentaram p <0,2 foram incluídas no ajuste multivariado por meio de regressão logística. Resultados A amostra foi composta apenas por homens, a maioria de pele branca (55,6 versus 57,9% para homicidas e não-homicidas, respectivamente) e com alta prevalência de reprovações escolares (77,8 vs. 91,2%). Houve alta prevalência de antecedentes familiares de delinquência (88 versus 81%). Apenas anos de estudo e pertencimento ou não a uma organização criminosa permaneceram estatisticamente significantes no modelo multivariado. Conclusão Os resultados mostram que ter menos anos de estudo e negar pertencer a uma organização criminosa foram fatores preditivos de comportamento homicida em adolescentes infratores (ambos com relevância estatística). As demais variáveis não foram estatisticamente significativas para esse desfecho. O presente estudo pode servir como base para futuras pesquisas, o que pode melhorar nossa compreensão dos fatores de risco para o homicídio juvenil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Criminals/psychology , Homicide/psychology , Social Control, Formal , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age of Onset , Conduct Disorder/psychology , Conduct Disorder/epidemiology , Criminals/legislation & jurisprudence , Criminals/statistics & numerical data , Homicide/legislation & jurisprudence , Homicide/statistics & numerical data , Juvenile Delinquency/legislation & jurisprudence , Juvenile Delinquency/psychology , Juvenile Delinquency/statistics & numerical data
9.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(4): 514-523, Jul.-Aug. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099328

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Identificar posibles cambios en la frecuencia de manifestaciones sindromáticas sugerentes de problemas de salud mental en población infantil mexicana empleando el Cuestionario Breve de Tamizaje y Diagnóstico (CBTD), a lo largo de 15 años. Material y métodos: Se analiza información de diferentes estudios en población general, escuelas y práctica médica. La estimación obtenida en la Ciudad de México fue utilizada como población de referencia para comparación. Resultados: Se apreciaron incrementos notables respecto a la prevalencia de síndromes como el déficit de atención e hiperactividad, y conducta oposicionista y explosiva, así como manifestaciones de ansiedad y depresivas. Estas últimas resultaron más frecuentes en la edad escolar tardía. Las alteraciones en el lenguaje y la epilepsia también mostraron incremento en diferentes grupos de edad. Conclusiones: Se discuten los hallazgos a la luz de estudios longitudinales en la literatura, así como de reportes de población adolescente en nuestro país.


Abstract: Objective: To identify possible changes in the frequency of psychopathological syndromes in Mexican children population over a 15-year period using the Brief Screening and Diagnostic Questionnaire (CBTD in Spanish). Materials and methods: Information gathered from different studies on the general population, schools and medical general practice are analyzed. Results from the Mexico City study were used as base rates for comparisons. Results: Higher prevalence of externalizing syndromes such as attention deficit and hyperactivity, oppositional and explosive conduct were very evident. Also, anxiety and depressive syndromes showed a notable increase. Prevalence of abnormal language and probable epilepsy were also increased on different age-groups. Conclusions: Findings are discussed in light of longitudinal reports in the literature as well as on reports in adolescent population in Mexico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Health , Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Health Priorities , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Prevalence , Health Surveys/methods , Sex Distribution , Conduct Disorder/epidemiology , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Language Disorders/epidemiology , Mexico/epidemiology
11.
Rev. cuba. med. gen. integr ; 34(4)oct.-dic. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1093464

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los diagnósticos de retraso mental leve y trastorno de conducta son eventos paranormativos con grandes posibilidades de repercusión familiar. La investigación que se realizó es novedosa pues no existen antecedentes de estudios en los que se comparen los resultados de ambas entidades diagnósticas. Se asumió como principal sustento teórico la propuesta que realizara Patricia Herrera Santí en su tesis doctoral de 2010, enriquecida junto a Idarmis González (2013). Objetivo: Determinar la repercusión familiar de los diagnósticos de retraso mental leve y trastorno de la conducta en el período comprendido entre octubre y noviembre de 2015. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de tipo descriptivo con un diseño de investigación no experimental y una metodología mixta o cuanti-cualitativa. La muestra estuvo conformada por 20 familias, dividida a su vez en dos submuestras de 10 familias cada una, la primera contaba entre sus miembros con un menor diagnosticado de retraso mental leve, y la segunda la integraban otras 10 familias con un miembro diagnosticado con trastorno de la conducta. Se aplicó el Instrumento de Repercusión Familiar y una entrevista semi-estructurada. Resultados: El nivel de repercusión general fue moderado en su mayoría en ambas categorías diagnósticas, predominando un sentido de la repercusión desfavorable y un impacto predisponente a la afectación de la salud familiar. Conclusiones: Los diagnósticos de retraso mental leve y trastorno de conducta repercutieron en las familias evaluadas, exigiendo en estas algunos cambios en su dinámica interna y modo de vida(AU)


Introduction: The diagnoses of mild mental retardation and conduct disorder are paranormative events with great possibilities of family repercussion. The research conducted is novel because there are no previous studies comparing the results of both diagnostic entities. The proposal that Patricia Herrera Santí presents in her 2010 doctoral dissertation was assumed as the main theoretical support, enriched together with Idarmis González (2013). Objective: To determine the family repercussion of the diagnoses of mild mental retardation and conduct disorder in the period between October and November 2015. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out with a non-experimental research design and a mixed or quantitative-qualitative methodology. The sample consisted of 20 families, divided in turn into two subsamples of 10 families each, the first had among its members a minor diagnosed with mild mental retardation, while the second was composed of 10 other families with a member diagnosed with conduct disorder. The Family Repercussion Instrument and a semi-structured interview were applied. Results: The level of general repercussion was mostly moderate in both diagnostic categories, with a predominance of unfavorable repercussions and a predisposing repercussion on family health. Conclusions: The diagnoses of mild mental retardation and conduct disorder affected the families evaluated, demanding from these some changes in their internal dynamics and way of life(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Conduct Disorder/epidemiology , Family Relations , Intellectual Disability/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
12.
Aletheia ; 51(1/2): 44-51, jan.-dez. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-965963

ABSTRACT

O Transtorno de Déficit de Atenção e Hiperatividade (TDAH) é uma das comorbidades neuropsiquiátricas mais comuns entre crianças e adolescentes, e caracteriza-se por sintomas de desatenção, hiperatividade e impulsividade. O presente estudo tem por objetivo determinar a prevalência de TDAH em uma amostra de adolescentes na cidade de Caxias do Sul. Trata-se de um estudo transversal realizado com uma amostra de 272 escolares. Como instrumento para triagem do TDAH foi utilizada a versão brasileira do questionário Child Behavior Check List. A prevalência de TDAH foi de 3,7 %; nessa amostra também foi avaliada a prevalência do Transtorno de Conduta que foi de 6,2 %. O Transtorno de Conduta se mostrou mais prevalente em escolares com TDAH. (p=0,019). O presente estudo evidenciou que o TDAH é uma patologia comum entre os adolescentes, apresentando importante associação com Transtorno de Conduta.(AU)


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is considered one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders among children and adolescents and is characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. The present study aims to determine the prevalence of ADHD in a sample of adolescents in Caxias do Sul. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 272 students. The instrument used for screening ADHD was the Brazilian version of the questionnaire Child Behavior Checklist. The prevalence of ADHD was 3.7%; in this sample we also evaluated the prevalence of Conduct Disorder that was 6.2%. Conduct Disorder was more common in students with ADHD. (p = 0.019). The present study evidenced that ADHD is a common comorbidity in adolescents, presenting an important association with Conduct Disorder.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Adolescent , Conduct Disorder , Antisocial Personality Disorder
13.
Saúde Soc ; 27(2): 298-310, abr.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-962599

ABSTRACT

Resumo O artigo analisa a tendência crescente da multiplicação de diagnósticos psiquiátricos na infância, que encontra legitimidade no argumento que indica que se as patologias psiquiátricas da infância não forem devidamente tratadas, será altamente provável que, na vida adulta, surjam graves problemas psiquiátricos irreversíveis, assim como problemas associados à criminalidade e à delinquência. Analisa-se o exemplo do transtorno de oposição e desafio, conhecido como TOD, na medida em que, de acordo com o DSM-5, essa patologia supõe um alto risco para o desenvolvimento do transtorno de personalidade antissocial, patologia que apresenta conotações claramente jurídicas e criminológicas. Esses diagnósticos são analisados em perspectiva crítica a partir do conceito foucaultiano de "dispositivo de segurança".


Abstract The article analyzes the growing tendency to multiply psychiatric diagnoses in childhood, which finds legitimacy in the argument that, if childhood psychiatric disorders are not properly treated, it will be highly probable that in adult life there will be serious irreversible psychiatric problems, problems associated with crime and delinquency. The example of oppositional and defiant disorder, known as TOD, is analyzed insofar as, according to DSM-5, this pathology supposes a high risk for the development of antisocial personality disorder, a condition that presents clearly juridical connotations and criminological. These diagnoses are analyzed in a critical perspective from the Foucauldian concept of "safety device".


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Violence , Child Health , Juvenile Delinquency , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/therapy , Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders , Conduct Disorder , Criminal Behavior
14.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 40(1): 78-82, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899403

ABSTRACT

Objective: Most studies on conduct disorder (CD) have focused on male adolescents, disregarding analysis of this psychopathology in women. The purpose of this study was to identify differences in empathy and theory of mind (ToM) in a group of adolescent women with CD and a control group. Method: Thirty-six adolescent women were selected from an initial sample of 239 adolescents (CD group = 18, control group = 18). Empathy and ToM were evaluated through objective instruments. Mean comparisons and multivariate analysis were performed to ascertain differences between cases and controls and to propose a prediction model based on clinical status. Results: Significant differences in empathic abilities and ToM were found between the groups. The model that differentiated both groups was composed of eye-reading ability, perspective taking, and personal distress. Conclusion: These findings are consistent with previous studies. Capacity to take the other's perspective and the recognition of emotions in the face are protective factors against CD in women.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Conduct Disorder/psychology , Empathy , Theory of Mind , Case-Control Studies , Conduct Disorder/physiopathology , Neuropsychological Tests
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716303

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Externalizing disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder, as well as depression are common comorbidities in alcohol use disorder (AUD). The current study focused on the temporal relationship between the onsets of these disorders and AUD, and investigated the serial multiple mediator model of externalizing disorders (e.g., ADHD) and depression on AUD. METHODS: We analyzed the mediated effects of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale motor (BIS_M) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) on Korean version of the Alcohol Dependence Scale (ADS_K) using the multiple-step multiple mediation procedure regression analysis. In addition, we comparatively analyzed different clinical characteristics in relation to conduct problems. RESULTS: The multiple-step multiple mediation procedure found the serial multiple mediated effects of the BIS_M and the BDI on the relationship between the ASRS and the ADS_K. Also, the group with conduct problem was significantly high in ADHD symptoms, depression, anxiety, impulsivity, legal problems and alcohol-related problems, compared to the group without conduct problems. CONCLUSION: To sum up, the results of this study show that ADHD symptoms in childhood could exert significant effects on the severity of AUD in adulthood, and both disorders might be mediated by the externalizing disorders characterized by the core feature of motor impulsivity, and depression serially. Thus, the treatment of preceding disorders in accordance with developmental stages is an overarching clinical component for preventing the subsequent development of AUD and for its treatment.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Alcoholism , Antisocial Personality Disorder , Anxiety , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Comorbidity , Conduct Disorder , Depression , Impulsive Behavior , Negotiating
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010434

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#As one of the most popular designs used in genetic research, family-based design has been well recognized for its advantages, such as robustness against population stratification and admixture. With vast amounts of genetic data collected from family-based studies, there is a great interest in studying the role of genetic markers from the aspect of risk prediction. This study aims to develop a new statistical approach for family-based risk prediction analysis with an improved prediction accuracy compared with existing methods based on family history.@*METHODS@#In this study, we propose an ensemble-based likelihood ratio (ELR) approach, Fam-ELR, for family-based genomic risk prediction. Fam-ELR incorporates a clustered receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve method to consider correlations among family samples, and uses a computationally efficient tree-assembling procedure for variable selection and model building.@*RESULTS@#Through simulations, Fam-ELR shows its robustness in various underlying disease models and pedigree structures, and attains better performance than two existing family-based risk prediction methods. In a real-data application to a family-based genome-wide dataset of conduct disorder, Fam-ELR demonstrates its ability to integrate potential risk predictors and interactions into the model for improved accuracy, especially on a genome-wide level.@*CONCLUSIONS@#By comparing existing approaches, such as genetic risk-score approach, Fam-ELR has the capacity of incorporating genetic variants with small or moderate marginal effects and their interactions into an improved risk prediction model. Therefore, it is a robust and useful approach for high-dimensional family-based risk prediction, especially on complex disease with unknown or less known disease etiology.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Area Under Curve , Computer Simulation , Conduct Disorder/physiopathology , Family Health , Genetic Markers , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genetic Variation , Genome, Human , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genomics , Likelihood Functions , Models, Genetic , Odds Ratio , Pedigree , ROC Curve , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739452

ABSTRACT

Raynaud's phenomenon is a recurrent vasospastic condition with reducing in peripheral blood flow due to cold, or emotional stress. White, blue and red discolorations occur during the attacks. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors, psychostimulants, and aripiprazole are reported to be related with Raynaud's phenomenon. Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic drug with dopaminergic and serotonergic effects. In children and adolescents, risperidone is used for bipolar disorder, tic disorders, conduct disorder, schizophrenia, symptoms of irritability and self-mutilation. Here we report a case of Raynaud's phenomenon associated with risperidone in a 12-year-old boy. Raynaud's phenomenon occurred two weeks after starting risperidone and disappeared after stopping risperidone.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Humans , Male , Aripiprazole , Bipolar Disorder , Conduct Disorder , Risperidone , Schizophrenia , Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors , Stress, Psychological , Tic Disorders
18.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 39(3): 267-270, July-Sept. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899349

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the unique contribution of narcissism and impulsivity, in addition to callous-unemotional (CU) traits, in explaining concurrent prosocial and antisocial behavior. Method: Two hundred and forty-nine schoolchildren (53% female; age 9-12 years) completed the self-report Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD). Two statistical models were tested, predicting conduct problems (CP) and prosocial behavior (PB). In the first one, CU traits and gender were entered into the equation. The second model added narcissism and impulsivity. Results: Gender, narcissism and impulsivity, but not CU, were statistically significant predictors of CP in the second model (F3,226 = 45.07, p < 0.001, R2 = 43.7%; betas: gender = -0.20, narcissism = 0.29, impulsivity = 0.36, CU = 0.06). PB was significantly predicted by all domains except gender (F3,226 = 42.57, p < 0.001, R2 = 42.4%; betas: gender = 0.08, narcissism = -0.16, impulsivity = -0.23, CU = -0.41). Conclusion: Our results confirmed that CU traits refer to a distinct manifestation of psychopathy in youth, but we also found that narcissism and impulsivity are equally important when predicting CP. Previous reports of sex differences on APSD and SDQ domains were also corroborated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Child Behavior Disorders/psychology , Health Surveys , Conduct Disorder/psychology , Antisocial Personality Disorder/psychology , Sex Factors , Impulsive Behavior , London/epidemiology , Narcissism , Antisocial Personality Disorder/epidemiology
19.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 23(1): 13-16, ene.-jun. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-902065

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Existe la hipótesis de que las emociones participan del proceso cognitivo de la toma de decisiones guiando la conducta y dotando a la experiencia de una cualidad positiva o negativa que permite la adaptación del individuo al medio social. Método: La muestra estuvo conformada por 81 menores de edad (48 que cumplían con uno o dos criterios del DSM-IV y 33 sin alteraciones de comportamiento). Se utilizó la Escala Muldimensional de la Conducta, el SNAP IV y el Check list para TDC como instrumentos de tamizaje para su selección, posteriormente se realizó la evaluación con la versión computarizada de la IGT (Iowa Gambling Task). Resultados: Se dan diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre el grupo estudio y de comparación para la selección de las barajas desventajosas B durante la ejecución de la tarea. Los menores en riesgo presentaron un desempeño menor para la prueba general de toma de decisiones. Discusión: Los resultados indican la presencia de alteraciones en los procesos de toma de decisiones de los menores que presentan uno o dos criterios clínicos para desarrollar el TDC.


Introduction: There is a hypothesis that proposes that emotions take part in the cognitive process related to decision-making behavior; such processes provide experience of a positive or negative quality that allows the adaptation of a human being to a social background. Methods: There were 81 minors participants (48 qualified with one or two standards of DSM-IV and 33 without conduct disorders). We used Multidimensional Scale of Conduct, SNAP IV, and checklist for CD as screening instruments for its selection, and later we performed the assessment with the online version of IGT (Iowa Gambling Task). Results: A statistically significant difference was present between study and control groups in the selection of unfavorable decks of cards. Those children affected by behavioral disorders presented lower results in the general decision-making test. Conclusions: Results suggest the presence of disorders in decision-making in minors that present one or two clinical criteria to develop CD. This could be due to difficulties in contingency processing for unfavorable decisions, which prevented them from generating somatic states based on the possible future consequences.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Conduct Disorder , Decision Making , Risk Factors , Minors , Emotions
20.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 817-824, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44341

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with a high rate of comorbid disorders. We aimed to investigate the medical and psychiatric comorbidities of Korean children and adolescents with ADHD. METHODS: Data were obtained from Korean National Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service-National Patient Sample (HI-RA-NPS) for 2011. We included 2,140 (mean age, 10.9±3.1 years; boys, 1,710) and 219,410 (non-ADHD; mean age, 12.4±3.7 years; boys, 113,704) children and adolescents with and without ADHD, respectively. We compared medical and psychiatric comorbidities between the groups, and performed weighted logistic regression analyses to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Most medical comorbidities were more likely in patients with ADHD and included nervous system disease (OR, 2.59; 95% CI, 2.52–2.66); endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic disease (OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 2.04–2.15); and congenital malformations, deformations, and chromosomal abnormalities (OR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.90–2.11). Oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder were more prevalent in patients with ADHD (OR, 81.88; 95% CI, 79.00–84.86), followed by learning (OR, 75.61; 95% CI, 69.69–82.04), and depressive disorders (OR, 55.76; 95% CI, 54.44–57.11). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that Korean children and adolescents with ADHD are more likely to suffer medical and psychiatric comorbidities than those without ADHD.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Humans , Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders , Chromosome Aberrations , Comorbidity , Conduct Disorder , Depressive Disorder , Learning , Logistic Models , Metabolic Diseases , National Health Programs , Nervous System Diseases , Odds Ratio
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