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1.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 60: e23717, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1557201

ABSTRACT

Constipation is a disorder of the gastrointestinal (GI) and some of the main etiological mechanisms are directly related to changes in GI physiology. The capacity to carry out paired assessments and measure GI parameters under the influence of constipation is a relevant point in selecting a suitable methodology. We aimed to perform a non-invasive investigation of gastrointestinal motility in constipated rats using the alternating current biosusceptometry system (ACB). The animals were split into two groups: the pre-induction stage (CONTROL) and post-induction loperamide stage (LOP). We assessed GI motility parameters using the ACB system. Colon morphometric and immunohistochemical analyses were performed for biomarkers (C-kit) for interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). Our results showed a significant increase in gastrointestinal transit in the LOP group in addition to a reduction in the dominant frequency of gastric contraction and an arrhythmic profile. A change in colonic contractility profiles was observed, indicating colonic dysmotility in the LOP group. We found a reduction in the number of biomarkers for intestinal cells of Cajal (ICC) in the LOP group. The ACB system can evaluate transit irregularities and their degrees of severity, while also supporting research into novel, safer, and more efficient treatments for constipation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Gastrointestinal Tract/abnormalities , Gastrointestinal Motility , Loperamide/adverse effects , Constipation/chemically induced , Interstitial Cells of Cajal/classification
2.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(3): 159-165, July-sept. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521149

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Distension of the rectum wall and subsequent momentary relaxation of the internal anal sphincter (IAS) trigger a reflex called the rectoanal inhibitory reflex (RAIR). This same rectal distension causes a reflex contraction of the external anal sphincter (EAS), responsible for conscious continence called rectoanal excitatory reflex (RAER). This set of reflexes are named sampling reflex. Objectives: The sampling reflex is necessary to initiate defecation or flatulence. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sampling reflex and its practical applicability as a manometric marker of the main defecation disorders. Methodology: This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) items. The development method consisted of searching for articles in the research platforms BVS, PubMed, Cochrane Library, SciELO and ScienceDirect and for the selection of articles the Rayyan Platform was used. The articles resulting from the search strategies were added to the platform and five collaborators were invited for the blind selection. Finally, 6 articles were included in the final review. Results: An intact sampling reflex allows the individual to facilitate discrimination between flatus and stool and to choose whether to discharge or retain rectal contents. On the other hand, an impaired sampling reflex can predispose an individual to incontinence. Therefore, it was observed that patients with defecation disorders had an impaired sampling reflex, since it was found that constipated patients have incomplete opening of the IAS, lower amplitude of RAIR and increase of RAER. Most incontinent patients present a failure in the recruitment of the EAS, a decrease in the RAER and an increase in the RAIR, in duration and amplitude. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Anal Canal/physiopathology , Fecal Incontinence/diagnosis , Reflex , Constipation , Manometry
3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(2): e202202598, abr. 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1418445

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Habitualmente, durante la manometría anorrectal, en lo correspondiente al reflejo rectoanal inhibitorio (RRAI) solo se pesquisa su presencia o ausencia. Estudios han reportado que su análisis detallado puede brindar datos de interés. Nuestra hipótesis es que la medición del RRAI puede dar información para reconocer causas orgánicas (médula anclada, lipoma, etc.) en pacientes en los que previamente se consideró como de causa funcional. Objetivos. Comparar la duración del reflejo rectoanal inhibitorio en la manometría anorrectal de pacientes con constipación funcional refractaria (CFR) y mielomeningocele (MMC). Población y métodos. Estudio observacional, transversal, analítico (2004-2019). Pacientes constipados crónicos con incontinencia fecal funcional y orgánica (mielomeningocele). Se les realizó manometría anorrectal con sistema de perfusión de agua y se midió la duración del RRAI con diferentes volúmenes (20, 40 y 60 cc). Grupo 1 (G1): 81 CFR. Grupo 2 (G2): 54 MMC. Se excluyeron pacientes con retraso madurativo, esfínter anal complaciente, agenesia sacra y aquellos no colaboradores. Resultados. Se incluyeron 135 sujetos (62 varones). La mediana de edad fue G1:9,57 años; G2: 9,63 años. Duración promedio G1 vs. G2 con 20 cc: 8,89 vs. 15,21 segundos; con 40 cc: 11.41 vs. 21,12 segundos; con 60 cc: 14,15 vs. 26,02 segundos. La diferencia de duración del RRAI entre ambos grupos con diferentes volúmenes fue estadísticamente significativa (p = 0,0001). Conclusión. La duración del RRAI aumenta a mayor volumen de insuflación del balón en ambas poblaciones. Pacientes con MMC tuvieron mayor duración del RRAI que aquellos con CFR. En los pacientes con RRAI prolongado, debe descartarse lesión medular.


Introduction. Usually, during anorectal manometry, only the presence or absence of rectoanal inhibitory reflex (RAIR) is investigated. Studies have reported that a detailed analysis may provide data of interest. Our hypothesis is that RAIR measurement may provide information to detect organic causes (tethered cord, lipoma, etc.) in patients in whom a functional cause had been previously considered. Objectives. To compare RAIR duration in anorectal manometry between patients with refractory functional constipation (RFC) and myelomeningocele (MMC). Population and methods. Observational, analytical, cross-sectional study (2004­2019). Patients with chronic constipation and functional and organic fecal incontinence (myelomeningocele). The anorectal manometry was performed with a water-perfused system, and the duration of RAIR was measured with different volumes (20, 40, and 60 cc). Group 1 (G1): 81 RFC. Group 2 (G2): 54 MMC. Patients with developmental delay, compliant anal sphincter, sacral agenesis and non-cooperative patients were excluded. Results. A total of 135 individuals were included (62 were male). Their median age was 9.57 years in G1 and 9.63 years in G2. Average duration in G1 versus G2 with 20 cc: 8.89 versus 15.21 seconds; 40 cc: 11.41 versus 21.12 seconds; 60 cc: 14.15 versus 26.02 seconds. The difference in RAIR duration with the varying volumes was statistically significant (p = 0.0001). Conclusion. RAIR duration was longer with increasing balloon inflation volumes in both populations. RAIR duration was longer in patients with MMC than in those with RFC. Spinal injury should be ruled out in patients with prolonged RAIR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Anal Canal/physiopathology , Rectum/physiopathology , Meningomyelocele/diagnosis , Meningomyelocele/epidemiology , Constipation/diagnosis , Constipation/epidemiology , Reflex/physiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Manometry/methods
4.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 26(4): e007069, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | BINACIS, UNISALUD, LILACS | ID: biblio-1526537

ABSTRACT

A partir del caso de una paciente con síndrome de intestino irritable a predominio de estreñimiento cuyos síntomas mejoraron con el consumo regular de kiwi, el médico de familia se planteó la pregunta de si el kiwi podría mejorar los síntomas asociados a constipación crónica en comparación con el tratamiento habitual. Tras realizar una búsqueda de estudios que analizaran los efectos del consumo de kiwi sobre el hábito intestinal, fueron seleccionados tres artículos que permiten concluir que el consumo de esta fruta tiene una eficacia superior al placebo y comparable al psyllium y las pasas de ciruela para mejorar los síntomas de personas con estreñimiento crónico. (AU)


Based on the case of a patient with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome whose symptoms improved with regular consumption of kiwi, the family doctor wondered if kiwi could improve symptoms associated with chronic constipation compared to usual treatment. After conducting a search for studies that analyzed the effects of kiwi consumption on intestinal habit, three articles were selected that allow us to conclude that the consumption of this fruit has an efficacy superior to placebo and comparable to psyllium and plum raisins to improve the symptoms of people with chronic constipation. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Constipation/diet therapy , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/diet therapy , Fruit , Psyllium/therapeutic use , Abdominal Pain/diet therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Constipation/diagnosis , Actinidia , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/diagnosis , Feces , Systematic Reviews as Topic
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010273

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the possible effects and mechanism of Zhizhu Decoction (ZZD) on the pathophysiology of slow transit constipation (STC).@*METHODS@#A total of 54 C57BL/6 mice was randomly divided into the following 6 groups by a random number table, including control, STC model (model), positive control, and low-, medium- and high-doses ZZD treatment groups (5, 10, 20 g/kg, namely L, M-, and H-ZZD, respectively), 9 mice in each group. Following 2-week treatment, intestinal transport rate (ITR) and fecal water content were determined, and blood and colon tissue samples were collected. Hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid-Schiff staining were performed to evaluate the morphology of colon tissues and calculate the number of goblet cells. To determine intestinal permeability, serum levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and mannose were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blot analysis was carried out to detect the expression levels of intestinal tight junction proteins zona-occludens-1 (ZO-1), claudin-1, occludin and recombinant mucin 2 (MUC2). The mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-22 were determined using reverse transcription-quantitative reverse transcription reaction. Colon indexes of oxidative stress were measured by ELISA, and protein expression levels of colon silent information regulator 1/forkhead box O transcription factor 1 (SIRT1/FoxO1) antioxidant signaling pathway were detected by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the model group, ITR and fecal moisture were significantly enhanced in STC mice in the M-ZZD and H-ZZD groups (P<0.01). Additionally, ZZD treatment notably increased the thickness of mucosal and muscular tissue, elevated the number of goblet cells in the colon of STC mice, reduced the secretion levels of LPS, LDL and mannose, and upregulated ZO-1, claudin-1, occludin and MUC2 expressions in the colon in a dose-dependent manner, compared with the model group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). In addition, ZZD significantly attenuated intestinal inflammation and oxidative stress and activated the SIRT1/FoxO1 signaling pathway (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#ZZD exhibited beneficial effects on the intestinal system of STC mice and alleviated intestinal inflammation and oxidative stress via activating SIRT1/FoxO1 antioxidant signaling pathway in the colon.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Sirtuin 1/genetics , Antioxidants , Occludin , Lipopolysaccharides , Claudin-1 , Mannose , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Constipation/drug therapy , Inflammation , Signal Transduction
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010129

ABSTRACT

In recent years, advancements have been made in both basic and surgical research of slow-transit constipation (STC). However, compelling references for surgeons in the clinical practice of STC have been lacking, particularly on preoperative evaluation and the choice of surgical procedures. In order to further standardize the diagnosis, assessment and surgical management of STC, Chinese Medical Doctor Association Anorectal Doctor Branch and its Functional Diseases Committee selected relevant experts in the field of STC surgery in China to form the Editorial and Review Committee of the Expert Consensus on Diagnosis, Evaluation and Surgical Management of STC in China. By meticulously reviewing relevant literature from both domestic and international sources and integrating the clinical expertise of the panel of experts, the committee has formulated 20 recommendations. These recommendations aim to establish standardized processes for surgical diagnosis and treatment of STC, ultimately elevating the overall diagnostic and therapeutic standards for STC across China.


Subject(s)
Humans , Consensus , Gastrointestinal Transit , Constipation/surgery , Colectomy , China
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010127

ABSTRACT

Colonic and anorectal manometry includes anorectal manometry and colonic manometry. Anorectal manometry is a common method to evaluate anorectal function, which can objectively reflect the pathological and physiological abnormalities of outlet obstructive constipation and fecal incontinence, as well as the impact of anorectal surgery on continence. Colonic manometry is a new type of colon motility detection method developed in recent years. It can record the peristalsis and contraction of the whole colon through a pressure measuring catheter, which helps physicians further evaluate various colonic diseases. However, various factors such as testing equipment, operating standards, and evaluation parameters are difficult to unify. There is no consensus on the operation and interpretation of colorectal anal pressure measurement. Under the guidance of the Anorectal Branch of Chinese Medical Doctor Association, in collaboration with Clinical Guidelines Committee, Anorectal Branch of Chinese Medical Doctor Association, Anorectal motility disorders Committee , Colorectal Surgeons Branch of Chinese Medical Doctor Association, Colonic Branch of China international exchange and promotive association for medical and healthcare, Tianjin Union Medical Center is leading the organization of domestic experts in this field. Based on searching relevant literature and combining clinical experience at home and abroad, after multiple discussions, the "Chinese expert consensus on colonic and anorectal manometry" has been prepared. This consensus discusses the indications, contraindications, pre examination management and technical procedures, treatment of complications, and interpretation of examination reports for colonic and anorectal manometry , aiming to guide the standardized clinical practice of colonic and anorectal manometry.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rectum , Consensus , Constipation , Anal Canal , Rectal Diseases , Fecal Incontinence , Manometry/methods , Colorectal Neoplasms/complications
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009305

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a Chinese pedigree featuring congenital profound syndromic deafness and chronic constipation, and provide prenatal diagnosis for a high-risk fetus.@*METHODS@#Whole-exome sequencing was carried out to analyze the sequences of genes associated with hereditary deafness, and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was used to verify the candidate variant in the proband's parents and the fetus.@*RESULTS@#The proband was found to have harbored a heterozygous deletion of SOX10, a pathogenic gene associated with Waardenburg syndrome type 4C (WS4C). The same deletion was found in her mother (with profound syndromic deafness and chronic constipation) and the fetus, but not in her father with normal hearing. Based on the guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) and Association for Molecular Pathology (AMP), the SOX10 gene deletion was predicted to be a pathogenic variant (PVS1+PM2_Supporting+PP1+PP4).@*CONCLUSION@#The pedigree was diagnosed with WS4C, which has conformed to an autosomal dominant inheritance. Deletion of the entire SOX10 gene, as a loss-of-function variant, probably underlay its pathogenesis. Above finding has facilitated genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis for this family.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pedigree , Waardenburg Syndrome/genetics , East Asian People , Genetic Testing , Prenatal Diagnosis , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/genetics , Deafness/genetics , Mothers , Constipation/genetics , Mutation , SOXE Transcription Factors/genetics
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008752

ABSTRACT

The differences in dryness between raw Aurantii Fructus Immaturus(AFI) and bran-fried products were investigated based on a slow-transit constipation(STC) model. Seventy healthy SPF-grade rats were randomly divided into a blank group(K), a positive drug group(Y), a model group(M), low-and high-dose raw AFI groups(SD and SG), and low-and high-dose bran-fried AFI groups(FD and FG). During the experiment, it was found that compared with the K group, the groups with drug treatment had little effect on the daily body weight of the STC rats. The first defecation time of black stool in the M group was significantly higher than that in the K group, and the 24-hour fecal output significantly decreased starting from the 13th day, indicating successful modeling. The SG group showed a significant increase in the first defecation time, fecal water content, urine output, and water intake than other groups with drug treatment. The FG group had the highest fecal output than other groups with drug treatment. The FD group had the highest salivary secretion than other groups with drug treatment. The levels of cAMP/cGMP, VIP, 5-HT, AQP1, and AQP5 were measured in each group with drug treatment, and the expression of c-Kit and SCF mRNA in gastric antrum tissue and AQP3 mRNA in the kidney and colon were detected by RT-PCR. The results showed that the SD and SG groups had a more significant impact on AQP1, AQP5, and other water channel indexes in STC rats than the FD and FG groups. The FD and FG groups had a more significant impact on c-Kit, SCF, VIP, 5-HT, and other gastrointestinal motility indicators than the SD and SG groups. This study, through in vitro biological observations, immunological detection, and gene expression analysis, found that raw AFI had strong dryness property, while bran-fried AFI could alleviate its dryness property.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Serotonin , Constipation/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , RNA, Messenger
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008723

ABSTRACT

Moringa oleifera leaves are known for their "Virechana"(purgative) effect in Ayurvedic medicine in India. This study compared the purgative effects and mechanisms of M. oleifera leaves with the reference Rhei Radix et Rhizoma to establish a foundation for the further application of M. oleifera leaves in traditional Chinese medicine(TCM). Using network pharmacology and molecular docking methods, this study identified the material basis, common targets, and signaling pathways through which Rhei Radix et Rhizoma and M. oleifera leaves exerted their purgative pharmacological effects. A low-fiber diet-induced constipation mouse model was established to measure fecal parameters and small intestinal propulsion rate, and histological changes in the colon were observed using HE staining. Relative expression levels of relevant genes and target proteins were assessed using RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The results showed that mapping the targets of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma and M. oleifera leaves onto the biological process network of constipation revealed close proximity, indicating that they may exert their therapeutic effects on constipation through similar biological processes. Molecular docking results indicated that compounds such as sennoside C and isoquercitrin could target serine/threonine protein kinases(AKT1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase 3(MAPK3), thereby affecting MAPK and calcium signaling pathways to promote defecation. Animal experiments demonstrated that both M. oleifera leaves and Rhei Radix et Rhizoma increased the number of fecal pellets and water content in constipated mice, improved small intestine motility, colon mucosal thickness, and muscle layer thickness, upregulated the gene expression levels of AKT1 and MAPK3 in the colon, and downregulated the expression of AQP3 protein. These findings suggest that M. oleifera leaves and Rhei Radix et Rhizoma share similarities in their therapeutic efficacy and mechanisms for treating constipation. Using Rhei Radix et Rhizoma as a reference can provide a better understanding of the characteristics of the "Virechana"(purgative) effect of M. oleifera leaves in TCM.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Cathartics , Moringa oleifera , Molecular Docking Simulation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Constipation
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971387

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#With the rapid development of aging population, the number of elderly patients undergoing posterior lumbar spine surgery continues to increase. Lumbar spine surgery could cause moderate to severe postoperative pain, and the conventional opioid-based analgesia techniques have many side effects, which are barriers to the recovery after surgery of the elderly. Previous studies have demonstrated that erector spinae plane block (ESPB) could bring about favorable analgesia in spinal surgery. As far as the elderly are concerned, the analgesic and recovery effects of ESPB on posterior lumbar spine surgery are not completely clear. This study aims to observe the effects of bilateral ESPB on elderly patients undergoing posterior lumbar spine surgery, and to improve the anesthesia techniques.@*METHODS@#A total of 70 elderly patients of both sex, who were selected from May 2020 to November 2021, scheduled for elective posterior lumbar spine surgery, and in the age of 60-79 years, with American Society of Anesthesiologists class Ⅱ-Ⅲ, were divided into a ESPB group and a control (C) group using a random number table method, with 35 patients each. Before general anesthesia induction, 20 mL 0.4% ropivacaine was injected to the transverse process of L3 or L4 bilaterally in the ESPB group and only saline in the C group. The score of Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) indicating pain at rest and on movement within 48 h after operation, time of first patient control analgesia (PCA), cumulative consumptions of sufentanil within 48 hours, Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire (LSEQ) scores on the morning of day 1 and day 2 after operation, Quality of Recovery-15 (QoR-15) scores at 24 and 48 h after operation, full diet intake times, perioperative adverse reactions such as intraoperative hypotension, postoperative dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and constipation were compared between the 2 groups.@*RESULTS@#A total of 70 patients were enrolled and 62 subjects completed the study, including 32 in the ESPB group and 30 in the C group. Compared with the C group, the postoperative NRS scores at rest at 2, 4, 6, and 12 h and on movementat at 2, 4, and 6 h were lower, time of first PCA was later, sufentanil consumptions were significantly decreased during 0-12 h and 12-24 h after operation, LSEQ scores on the morning of day 1 and QoR-15 scores at 24 and 48 h after operation were higher, full diet intakes achieved earlier in the ESPB group (all P<0.05). There were no significant differences in the incidences of intraoperative hypotension, postoperative dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and constipation between the 2 groups (all P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Providing favorable analgesic effects with reduced opioids consumption, bilateral ESPB for posterior lumbar spine surgery in the elderly patients could also improve postoperative sleep quality, promote gastrointestinal functional restoration, and enhance recovery with few adverse reactions.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Sufentanil , Dizziness , Pain , Anesthesia, General , Constipation , Hypotension , Nerve Block , Pain, Postoperative , Analgesics, Opioid , Ultrasonography, Interventional
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969960

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the effect of acupuncture at Huiyin (CV 1) and oral administration of western medication in treatment of chronic severe functional constipation (CSFC).@*METHODS@#A total of 64 patients with CSFC were randomly divided into an acupuncture group (32 cases, 5 cases dropped off) and a western medication group (32 cases, 4 cases dropped off). Both groups were given routine basic treatment. The acupuncture group was treated by directly puncture of 20-30 mm at Huiyin (CV 1), once a day for the first 4 weeks, 5 times a week, once every other day for the next 4 weeks, 3 times a week, totally for 8 weeks. The western medication group was treated with 2 mg prucalopride succinate tablets orally before breakfast every day for 8 weeks. The average number of weekly spontaneous bowel movement (SBM) of the two groups were observed before treatment and 1-8 weeks into treatment. The constipation symptom score before and after treatment, and in follow-up of 1 month after treatment, as well as quality of life [patient assessment of constipation quality of life questionnaire (PAC-QOL) score and the proportion of patients of PAC-QOL score difference before and after treatment≥1] before and after treatment were compared in the two groups. The clinical effects of the two groups were evaluated after treatment and in follow-up.@*RESULTS@#Compared before treatment, the average number of weekly SBM in the two groups was increased 1-8 weeks into treatment (P<0.05). The average number of weekly SBM in the acupuncture group was less than that in the western medication group 1 week into treatment (P<0.05), and the average number of weekly SBM in the observation group was more than that in the western medication group 4-8 weeks into treatment (P<0.05). The scores of constipation symptom after treatment and in follow-up and scores of PAC-QOL after-treatment in the two groups were lower than those before treatment (P<0.05), and those in the acupuncture group were lower than the western medication group (P<0.05). The proportion of patients of PAC-QOL score difference before and after treatment≥1 in the acupuncture group was higher than that in the west medication group (P<0.05). The total effective rates after treatment and in follow-up in the acupuncture group were 81.5% (22/27) and 78.3% (18/23), respectively, which were better than 42.9% (12/28) and 43.5% (10/23) in the western medication group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture at Huiyin (CV 1) can effectively increase the number of spontaneous defecation in patients with CSFC, reduce constipation symptoms, improve the quality of life, and the effect after treatment and in follow-up is better than oral western medication.


Subject(s)
Humans , Quality of Life , Treatment Outcome , Acupuncture Points , Constipation/therapy , Acupuncture Therapy
14.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 550-560, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010965

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Functional constipation (FC) is a common intestinal disease worldwide. Despite the presence of criteria such as Roman IV, there is no standardized diagnosis and treatment algorithm in Hong Kong that combines both Western and Chinese medicine approaches. This study integrates current effective and safe diagnosis and treatment methods for FC and provides a clear and scientific pathway for clinical professionals and patients.@*METHODS@#A systematic search of the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases was performed from their inception to June 30th, 2022, collecting the current evidence about the efficacious integrative management for FC. We organized a meeting of professionals in fields relevant to treatment and management of FC to develop a consensus agreement on clinical pathway process.@*RESULTS@#We developed a clinical pathway for the treatment of FC based on the most recent published guidelines and consultation with experts. This pathway includes a hierarchy of recommendations for every step of the clinical process, including clinical intake, diagnostic examination, recommended labs, diagnostic flowchart, and guidance for selection of therapeutic drugs.@*CONCLUSION@#This pathway establishes clinical standards for the diagnosis and treatment of FC using Chinese medicine and Western medicine; it will help to provide high-quality medical services in Hong Kong for patients with FC. Please cite this article as: Wei DJ, Li HJ, Lyu ZP, Lyu AP, Bian ZX, Zhong LL. A clinical pathway for integrative medicine in the treatment of functional constipation in Hong Kong, China. J Integr Med. 2023; 21(6): 550-560.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hong Kong , Integrative Medicine , Critical Pathways , China , Constipation/therapy
15.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 397-406, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982688

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Abnormalities in the gut microbiota and intestinal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels are implicated in the pathogenesis of functional constipation (FC). Electro-acupuncture (EA) has been shown to improve constipation-related symptoms and rebalance the gut microbiota. However, it is currently unknown whether the gut microbiota is a key mechanistic target for EA or how EA promotes gut motility by regulating the gut microbiota and SCFAs. Therefore, we assessed the effects of EA in FC mice and pseudo-germfree (PGF) mice to address these questions.@*METHODS@#Forty female Kunming mice were randomly separated into a normal control group (n = 8), an FC group (n = 8), an FC + EA group (n = 8), a PGF group (n = 8) and a PGF + EA group (n = 8). The FC group and FC + EA group were treated with diphenoxylate to establish the FC model; the PGF group and PGF + EA group were given an antibiotic cocktail to initiate the PGF model. After maintaining the model for 14 d, mice in the FC + EA and PGF + EA groups received EA stimulation at the ST25 and ST37 acupoints, once a day, 5 times per week, for 2 weeks. Fecal parameters and intestinal transit rate were calculated to assess the efficacy of EA on constipation and gastrointestinal motility. Colonic contents were used to quantify gut microbial diversity using 16S rRNA sequencing, and measure SCFA concentrations using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.@*RESULTS@#EA significantly shortened the first black stool defecation time (P < 0.05) and increased the intestinal transit rate (P < 0.01), and fecal pellet number (P < 0.05), wet weight (P < 0.05) and water content (P < 0.01) over 8 h, compared with the FC group, showing that EA promoted gut motility and alleviated constipation. However, EA treatment did not reverse slow-transit colonic motility in PGF mice (P > 0.05), demonstrating that the gut microbiota may play a mechanistic role in the EA treatment of constipation. In addition, EA treatment restored the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio and significantly increased butyric acid generation in FC mice (P < 0.05), most likely due to the upregulation of Staphylococcaceae microorganisms (P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#EA-mediated resolution of constipation occurs through rebalancing the gut microbiota and promoting butyric acid generation. Please cite this article as: Xu MM, Guo Y, Chen Y, Zhang W, Wang L, Li Y. Electro-acupuncture promotes gut motility and alleviates functional constipation by regulating gut microbiota and increasing butyric acid generation in mice. J Integr Med. 2023; Epub ahead of print.


Subject(s)
Mice , Female , Animals , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Butyric Acid/pharmacology , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Constipation/therapy , Acupuncture Therapy , Electroacupuncture/methods
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982299

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate autophagy-related mechanisms of electroacupuncture (EA) action in improving gastrointestinal motility in mice with functional constipation (FC).@*METHODS@#According to a random number table, the Kunming mice were divided into the normal control, FC and EA groups in Experiment I. The autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) was used to observe whether it antagonized the effects of EA in Experiment II. An FC model was established by diphenoxylate gavage. Then the mice were treated with EA stimulation at Tianshu (ST 25) and Shangjuxu (ST 37) acupoints. The first black stool defecation time, the number, weight, and water content of 8-h feces, and intestinal transit rate were used to assess intestinal transit. Colonic tissues underwent histopathological assessment, and the expressions of autophagy markers microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and Beclin-1 were detected by immunohistochemical staining. The expressions of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)-protein kinase B (AKT)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway members were investigated by Western blot and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The relationship between enteric glial cells (EGCs) and autophagy was observed by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, localization analysis, and electron microscopy.@*RESULTS@#EA treatment shortened the first black stool defecation time, increased the number, weight, and water content of 8-h feces, and improved the intestinal transit rate in FC mice (P<0.01). In terms of a putative autophagy mechanism, EA treatment promoted the expressions of LC3 and Beclin-1 proteins in the colonic tissue of FC mice (P<0.05), with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and LC3 significantly colocalized. Furthermore, EA promoted colonic autophagy in FC mice by inhibiting PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The positive effect of EA on intestinal motility in FC mice was blocked by 3-MA.@*CONCLUSION@#EA treatment can inhibit PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling in the colonic tissues of FC mice, thereby promoting EGCs autophagy to improve intestinal motility.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Electroacupuncture , Beclin-1 , Signal Transduction , Constipation/therapy , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Autophagy , Neuroglia/metabolism , Mammals/metabolism
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981593

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the clinical symptoms experienced by patients with thoracic spinal tumors and verify the associated symptoms that are predictive of a decline in muscle strength in the lower limbs. Methods A single-center, retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on in-patients diagnosed with epidural thoracic spinal tumors between January 2011 and May 2021. The study involved a review of electronic medical records and radiographs and the collection of clinical data. The differences in clinical manifestations between patients with constipation and those without constipation were analyzed. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors associated with a decline in muscle strength in the lower limbs.Results A total of 227 patients were enrolled, including 131 patients with constipation and 96 without constipation. The constipation group had a significantly higher proportion of patients who experienced difficulty walking or paralysis compared to those without constipation prior to surgery (83.2% vs. 17.7%, χ2 = 99.035,P < 0.001). Constipation (OR = 9.522, 95%CI: 4.150-21.849, P < 0.001) and urinary retention (OR = 14.490, 95%CI: 4.543-46.213, P < 0.001) were independent risk factors for muscle strength decline in the lower limbs. Conclusions The study observed that patients with thoracic spinal tumors who experienced constipation symptoms had a higher incidence of lower limb weakness. Moreover, the analysis revealed that constipation and urinary retention were independent risk factors associated with a preoperative decline in muscle strength of lower limbs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Constipation/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Lower Extremity , Muscle Strength , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Neoplasms , Urinary Retention
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986828

ABSTRACT

In recent years, colonic manometry has been gradually introduced into clinical practice. It helps clinicians to gain a better understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of colonic contractile activity in healthy adults and patients with colonic dysfunction. More and more patterns of colonic motility are being discovered with the help of colonic manometry. However, the clinical significance of these findings still needs to be further investigated. This review enhances our understanding of colonic motility and the current state of development and application of colonic manometry, as well as the limitations, future directions and potential of the technique in assessing the impact of treatment on colonic motility patterns, by analyzing and summarizing the literature related to colonic manometry.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Gastrointestinal Motility/physiology , Colon/physiology , Colonic Diseases , Manometry/methods , Clinical Relevance , Constipation
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986815

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of patients with small bowel tumors. Methods: This was a retrospective, observational study. We collected clinicopathological data of patients with primary jejunal or ileal tumors who had undergone small bowel resection in the Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University between January 2012 and September 2017. The inclusion criteria included: (1) older than 18 years; (2) had undergone small bowel resection; (3) primary location at jejunum or ileum; (4) postoperative pathological examination confirmed malignancy or malignant potential; and (5) complete clinicopathological and follow-up data. Patients with a history of previous or other concomitant malignancies and those who had undergone exploratory laparotomy with biopsy but no resection were excluded. The clinicopathological characteristics and prognoses of included patients were analyzed. Results: The study cohort comprised 220 patients with small bowel tumors, 136 of which were classified as gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), 47 as adenocarcinomas, and 35 as lymphomas. The median follow-up for all patient was 81.0 months (75.9-86.1). GISTs frequently manifested as gastrointestinal bleeding (61.0%, 83/136) and abdominal pain (38.2%, 52/136). In the patients with GISTs, the rates of lymph node and distant metastasis were 0.7% (1/136) and 11.8% (16/136), respectively. The median follow-up time was 81.0 (75.9-86.1) months. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate was 96.3%. Multivariate Cox regression-analysis results showed that distant metastasis was the only factor associated with OS of patients with GISTs (HR=23.639, 95% CI: 4.564-122.430, P<0.001). The main clinical manifestations of small bowel adenocarcinoma were abdominal pain (85.1%, 40/47), constipation/diarrhea (61.7%, 29/47), and weight loss (61.7%, 29/47). Rates of lymph node and distant metastasis in patients with small bowel adenocarcinoma were 53.2% (25/47) and 23.4% (11/47), respectively. The 3-year OS rate of patients with small bowel adenocarcinoma was 44.7%. Multivariate Cox regression-analysis results showed that distant metastasis (HR=4.018, 95%CI: 2.108-10.331, P<0.001) and adjuvant chemotherapy (HR=0.291, 95% CI: 0.140-0.609, P=0.001) were independently associated with OS of patients with small bowel adenocarcinoma. Small bowel lymphoma frequently manifested as abdominal pain (68.6%, 24/35) and constipation/diarrhea (31.4%, 11/35); 77.1% (27/35) of small bowel lymphomas were of B-cell origin. The 3-year OS rate of patients with small bowel lymphomas was 60.0%. T/NK cell lymphomas (HR= 6.598, 95% CI: 2.172-20.041, P<0.001) and adjuvant chemotherapy (HR=0.119, 95% CI: 0.015-0.925, P=0.042) were independently associated with OS of patients with small bowel lymphoma. Small bowel GISTs have a better prognosis than small intestinal adenocarcinomas (P<0.001) or lymphomas (P<0.001), and small bowel lymphomas have a better prognosis than small bowel adenocarcinomas (P=0.035). Conclusions: The clinical manifestations of small intestinal tumor are non-specific. Small bowel GISTs are relatively indolent and have a good prognosis, whereas adenocarcinomas and lymphomas (especially T/NK-cell lymphomas) are highly malignant and have a poor prognosis. Adjuvant chemotherapy would likely improve the prognosis of patients with small bowel adenocarcinomas or lymphomas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prognosis , Intestinal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Duodenal Neoplasms , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors , Lymphoma , Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Constipation , Abdominal Pain , Retrospective Studies
20.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1279-1286, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007473

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To explore the effect mechanism of electroacupuncture (EA) on functional constipation (FC) at the combined lower he-sea and front-mu points of large intestine based on enteric neuronal autophagy.@*METHODS@#A total of 40 SPF Kunming mice were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 8), i.e. a control group, a model group, an acupuncture group, a 3-methyl adenine (3-MA) group, and a 3-MA + acupuncture group. Except the control group, the FC model was established by gavage with compound diphenoxylate suspension for 14 days in the other 4 groups. After successful modeling, the mice of the acupuncture group and the 3-MA + acupuncture group received EA at bilateral "Tianshu" (ST 25) and "Shangjuxu" (ST 37), stimulated for 30 min with disperse-dense wave, 2 Hz/15 Hz of frequency, 1 mA of intensity. EA was delivered once daily. One course of treatment was composed of 5 days and 2 courses were needed, with an interval of 2 days. An intraperitoneal injection of 3-MA (15 mg/kg) was administered 30 min before EA in the mice of the 3-MA group and the 3-MA + acupuncture group, once daily. Before and after intervention, the time of the first black stool defecation and defecation behaviors in 6 h were observed in each group. After intervention, in every group, the small intestine propulsion rate was calculated, the colon tissue morphology was observed using HE staining, the ultrastructure of enteric neuronal autophagy was observed under transmission electron microscope, and the expressions of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), Beclin-1 and neuronal nuclear antigen protein (NeuN) in neurons of colonic muscularis were determined by immunohistochemistry.@*RESULTS@#Before intervention, when compared with those in the control group, the time of the first black stool defecation was prolonged (P<0.01, P<0.05), and numbers (P<0.01), wet weight (P<0.01, P<0.05) and water content (P<0.05, P<0.01) of stool in 6 h were reduced in the model, acupuncture, 3-MA and 3-MA + acupuncture groups. After intervention, compared with those in the control group, the time of the first black stool defecation was longer (P<0.05), and numbers (P<0.01), wet weight (P<0.01) and water content (P<0.01) of stool in 6 h were decreased in the model group. The time of the first black stool defecation was shortened (P<0.01), and numbers (P<0.01), wet weight (P<0.01) and water content (P<0.01) of stool in 6 h were increased in the acupuncture group when compared with those in the model group. The time of the first black stool defecation was extended (P<0.01), and numbers (P<0.01), wet weight (P<0.01) and water content (P<0.01) of stool in 6 h were declined in the 3-MA + acupuncture group in comparison with those in the acupuncture group. All layers of colon tissue were normal and intact in each group. When compared with the control group, the small intestine propulsion rate and the average optical density (OD) values of LC3, Beclin-1 and NeuN in neurons of colonic muscularis were decreased (P<0.01), and autophagosomes were dropped in the model group. In the acupuncture group, the small intestine propulsion rate and the average OD values of NeuN, LC3 and Beclin-1 in neurons of colonic muscularis increased (P<0.01,P<0.05), and autophagosomes were elevated when compared with those in the model group. The small intestine propulsion rate and the average OD values of NeuN, LC3 and Beclin-1 in neurons of colonic muscularis were dropped (P<0.05,P<0.01) in the 3-MA + acupuncture group in comparison with those in the acupuncture group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Electroacupuncture may promote enteric neuronal autophagy and increase the number of neurons so that the intestinal motility can be improved and constipation symptoms can be relieved in FC mice.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Electroacupuncture , Beclin-1 , Acupuncture Points , Constipation/therapy , Intestine, Small , Autophagy , Water
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