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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009361

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To determine the karyotype of a patient with mosaicism complex structural aberration of chromosome 18.@*METHODS@#A male patient with a 2-year history of infertility presented at the Center of Reproductive Medicine of the Third Hospital of Peking University in October 2019 was selected as the study subject. Clinical data of the patient was collected. Peripheral blood sample was taken for chromosomal karyotyping, copy number variation (CNV) analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay. Semen sample was taken for single sperm CNV analysis.@*RESULTS@#The patient was found to have a karyotype of mos 47,XY,del(18)(q21q23),+r(18)(q21q23)[84]/46,XY,del(18)(q21q23)[9]/48,XY,del(18)(q21q23),+r(18)(q21q23)×2[6]/47,XY,del(18)(q21q23),+r(18)(q21q23×2)[1].ish 47,XY,del(18)(q21q23),+r(18)(q21q23)[84]/46,XY,del(18)(q21q23)[9]/48,XY,del(18)(q21q23),+r(18)(q21q23)×2[6]/47,XY,del(18)(q21q23),+r(18)(q21q23×2)[1]del(18)(q21q23)(D18Z1+,18p+,18q+,WCP18+),r(18)(q21q23)(WCP18+),r(18)(q21q23×2)(WCP18+). No pathogenic CNV was identified. Sequencing of 20 single sperms showed that 1 sperm was normal, 1 had yielded no result, 9 had harbored del(18q), 7 had harbored dup(18q)×2, and 2 had harbored dup(18q)×3. The dup/del fragments had both spanned approximately 33 Mb.@*CONCLUSION@#It is rare for carriers of complex structural and numerical abnormalities of chromosome 18 to have a normal phenotype. Based on the accurate cytogenetic and molecular analyses and the single sperm CNV analysis, the influence of the aberrant karyotype on the gametogenesis may be evaluated.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Mosaicism , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18/genetics , DNA Copy Number Variations , Semen , Karyotype
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009355

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis of two children with unexplained psychomotor developmental delay and facial dysmorphisms suggestive of Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS).@*METHODS@#A boy and a girl suspected for CSS at the 980th Hospital of the People's Liberation Army Joint Service Support Force respectively in July 2019 and January 2021, and seven members from their families, were selected as the study subjects. Clinical data and family history of the children were collected, and detailed physical examination was carried out, in addition with laboratory and related auxiliary examinations. Potential variants and copy number variations (CNVs) were detected by whole exome sequencing (WES) and copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq).@*RESULTS@#Child 1, an 8-month-old female, had featured microcephaly, atrial septal defect, curving of fifth finger/toe, and low limb muscle tone. Child 2 was a 2.5-year-old male with language delay, social impairment, dense hair but no curving of the fifth fingers. Genetic testing revealed that child 1 had loss of heterozygosity for exons 8 to 21 of the ARID1B gene, which was unreported previously. Family verification showed that both of her parents were of the wild type. Based on the guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) and American Society of Molecular Pathology (AMP), the variant was rated as pathogenic (PVS1+PS2+PM2-supporting). Child 2 was found to harbor a heterozygous c.4263-6 (IVS17) T>G variant of the ARID1B gene. Transcriptome sequencing confirmed that the variant can affect the normal splicing, resulting in retention of a 5 bp sequence in intron 17. Family verification showed that both of his parents were of the wild type. Based on the guidelines from the ACMG, the variant was rated as pathogenic (PS2+PM2-supporting+PP3+PS3).@*CONCLUSION@#WES and RNA-seq have confirmed the diagnosis of CSS in both children. Discovery of the novel variants has expanded the spectrum of pathogenic mutations underlying CSS, and provided a basis for the genetic counseling.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Abnormalities, Multiple/diagnosis , DNA Copy Number Variations , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Intellectual Disability/diagnosis , Micrognathism/genetics , Mutation , Transcription Factors/genetics
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009347

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the effectiveness and feasibility of carrier detection for Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) by using digital PCR assay.@*METHODS@#Peripheral blood samples were collected from 214 pregnant women who were routinely screened for SMA carriers, of which 204 were randomly selected samples and 10 were samples with known copy numbers of SMN1 exons 7 and 8. Samples with known copy numbers of SMN1 exons 7 and 8 were randomly mixed into the experiment to validate the performance of the digital PCR assay.@*RESULTS@#The copy numbers of SMN1 exons 7 and 8 and SMN2 exons 7 and 8 in peripheral blood samples were detected by digital PCR assay. The results of SMN1 exons 7 and 8 were compared with those of the quantitative PCR method to assess the reliability and clinical performance of the digital PCR assay. Among the 204 random samples, digital PCR has detected five samples with simultaneous heterozygous deletion of SMN1 exons 7 and 8, three samples with heterozygous deletion of SMN1 exon 8 only, and 196 samples with no deletion of SMN1 exons 7 and 8. Ten samples with known SMN1 exons 7 and 8 copy numbers were detected with the expected values. The digital PCR test results were fully consistent with that of the quantitative PCR.@*CONCLUSION@#The results of digital PCR for the detection of copy number variation of SMN1 exons 7 and 8 were consistent with qPCR. Digital PCR assay was able to clearly distinguish the copy number of the target genes, therefore can be used for SMA carrier screening. Moreover, it can also detect copy number of SMN2 exons 7 and 8, which can provide more information for genetic counseling.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , DNA Copy Number Variations , Reproducibility of Results , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Survival of Motor Neuron 1 Protein/genetics
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009345

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the cause of inconsistency between the results of trisomy 7 by expanded non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT-PLUS) and trisomy 18 by prenatal diagnosis.@*METHODS@#A pregnant woman who received genetic counseling at Jiaozuo Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital on July 5, 2020 was selected as the study subject. NIPT-PLUS, systematic ultrasound and interventional prenatal testing were carried out. The middle segment and root of umbilical cord, center and edge of the maternal and fatal surface of the placenta were sampled for the validation by copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq).@*RESULTS@#The result of NIPT-PLUS indicated that the fetus has trisomy 7. Systematic ultrasound has shown multiple malformations including atrioventricular septal defect, horseshoe kidney, and rocker-bottom feet. However, QF-PCR, chromosomal karyotyping analysis, and CNV-seq of amniotic fluid samples all showed that the fetus was trisomy 18. Validation using multiple placental samples confirmed that the middle segment of the umbilical cord contains trisomy 18, the center of the placenta contained trisomy 7, and other placental sites were mosaicism for trisomy 7 and trisomy 18. Notably, the ratio of trisomy 18 became lower further away from the umbilical cord.@*CONCLUSION@#The false positive results of trisomy 7 and false negative trisomy 18 by NIPT-PLUS was probably due to the existence of placental mosaicism. Strict prenatal diagnosis is required needed aneuploidy is detected by NIPT-PLUS to exclude the influence of placental mosaicisms.


Subject(s)
Child , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Trisomy/genetics , Trisomy 18 Syndrome/genetics , Placenta , DNA Copy Number Variations , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods , Chromosome Disorders/genetics , Aneuploidy
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009344

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the results of prenatal diagnosis and outcome of pregnancy for women with a high risk for fetal aneuploidies.@*METHODS@#A total of 747 cases of prenatal diagnosis by amniocentesis due to high risks by non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) were selected from January 2015 to March 2022 in the Drum Tower Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing University Medical School. The amniotic fluid samples were subjected to chromosomal karyotyping and/or chromosomal microarray analysis. All cases were followed up by searching the birth information or telephone calls, and the results were recorded. 2 test or F test were used for comparing the difference between the groups.@*RESULTS@#Among the 747 pregnant women with a high risk by NIPT, 387 were true positives, and the overall positive predictive value (PPV) was 51.81%. The PPVs for trisomy 21 (T21), trisomy 18 (T18), trisomy 13 (T13) and sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCA) were 80.24% (199/248), 60% (48/80), 14% (7/50) and 38.97% (106/272), respectively. The PPV for T21 was significantly higher than T18 and T13 (χ2 = 85.216, P < 0.0001). The PPV for other chromosomal aneuploidies and copy number variations (CNVs) were 11.11% (5/45) and 40.74% (22/52), respectively. The PPV for increased X chromosomes was significantly higher than X chromosome decreases (64.29% vs. 22.22%, χ2 = 5.530, P < 0.05). The overall PPV for elder women (≥ 35 years old) was significantly higher than younger women (69.35% vs. 42.39%, χ2 = 49.440, P < 0.0001). For T21 and T18, the PPV of Z ≥ 10 group was significantly higher than that for 3 ≤ Z < 5 group or 5 ≤ Z < 10 group (P < 0.05). Among 52 cases with a high risk for CNVs, the PPV for the ≤ 5 Mb group was significantly higher than the 5 Mb < CNVs < 10 Mb or > 10 Mb groups (60% vs. 30%60% vs. 23.53%, P < 0.05). Among the 387 true positive cases, 322 had opted for induced labor, 53 had delivered with no abnormal growth and development, and 12 were lost during the follow-up.@*CONCLUSION@#The PPVs for common chromosomal aneuploidies are related to the age and Z value of the pregnant women, which were higher in the elder group and higher Z value group. In addition, the PPV is associated with high risk types. The PPV for T21 was higher than T18 and T13, and that for 45,X was lower than 47,XXX, 47,XYY or 47,XXY syndrome. NIPT therefore has relatively high PPVs for the identification of chromosomal CNVs.


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Aged , Adult , DNA Copy Number Variations , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods , Down Syndrome/genetics , Aneuploidy , Trisomy 18 Syndrome/genetics , Trisomy 13 Syndrome/diagnosis , DNA , Trisomy/genetics
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250575, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350309

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cancer is a fatal malignancy and its increasing worldwide prevalence demands the discovery of more sensitive and reliable molecular biomarkers. To investigate the GINS1 expression level and its prognostic value in distinct human cancers using a series of multi-layered in silico approach may help to establish it as a potential shared diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of different cancer subtypes. The GINS1 mRNA, protein expression, and promoter methylation were analyzed using UALCAN and Human Protein Atlas (HPA), while mRNA expression was further validated via GENT2. The potential prognostic values of GINS1 were evaluated through KM plotter. Then, cBioPortal was utilized to examine the GINS1-related genetic mutations and copy number variations (CNVs), while pathway enrichment analysis was performed using DAVID. Moreover, a correlational analysis between GINS1 expression and CD8+ T immune cells and a the construction of gene-drug interaction network was performed using TIMER, CDT, and Cytoscape. The GINS1 was found down-regulated in a single subtypes of human cancer while commonly up-regulated in 23 different other subtypes. The up-regulation of GINS1 was significantly correlated with the poor overall survival (OS) of Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma (LIHC), Lung Adenocarcinoma (LUAD), and Kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC). The GINS1 was also found up-regulated in LIHC, LUAD, and KIRC patients of different clinicopathological features. Pathways enrichment analysis revealed the involvement of GINS1 in two diverse pathways, while few interesting correlations were also documented between GINS1 expression and its promoter methylation level, CD8+ T immune cells level, and CNVs. Moreover, we also predicted few drugs that could be used in the treatment of LIHC, LUAD, and KIRC by regulating the GINS1 expression. The expression profiling of GINS1 in the current study has suggested it a novel shared diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of LIHC, LUAD, and KIRC.


Resumo O câncer é uma doença maligna fatal e sua crescente prevalência mundial exige a descoberta de biomarcadores moleculares mais sensíveis e confiáveis. Investigar o nível de expressão de GINS1 e seu valor prognóstico em cânceres humanos distintos, usando uma série de abordagens in silico em várias camadas, pode ajudar a estabelecê-lo como um potencial biomarcador de diagnóstico e prognóstico compartilhado de diferentes subtipos de câncer. O mRNA de GINS1, a expressão da proteína e a metilação do promotor foram analisados ​​usando UALCAN e Human Protein Atlas (HPA), enquanto a expressão de mRNA foi posteriormente validada via GENT2. Os valores prognósticos potenciais de GINS1 foram avaliados por meio do plotter KM. Em seguida, o cBioPortal foi utilizado para examinar as mutações genéticas relacionadas ao GINS1 e as variações do número de cópias (CNVs), enquanto a análise de enriquecimento da via foi realizada usando DAVID. Além disso, uma análise correlacional entre a expressão de GINS1 e células imunes T CD8 + e a construção de uma rede de interação gene-droga foi realizada usando TIMER, CDT e Cytoscape. O GINS1 foi encontrado regulado negativamente em um único subtipo de câncer humano, enquanto comumente regulado positivamente em 23 outros subtipos diferentes. A regulação positiva de GINS1 foi significativamente correlacionada com a sobrevida global pobre (OS) de Carcinoma Hepatocelular de Fígado (LIHC), Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão (LUAD) e Carcinoma de Células Claras Renais de Rim (KIRC). O GINS1 também foi encontrado regulado positivamente em pacientes LIHC, LUAD e KIRC de diferentes características clínico-patológicas. A análise de enriquecimento de vias revelou o envolvimento de GINS1 em duas vias diversas, enquanto poucas correlações interessantes também foram documentadas entre a expressão de GINS1 e seu nível de metilação do promotor, nível de células imunes T CD8 + e CNVs. Além disso, também previmos poucos medicamentos que poderiam ser usados ​​no tratamento de LIHC, LUAD e KIRC, regulando a expressão de GINS1. O perfil de expressão de GINS1 no estudo atual sugeriu que é um novo biomarcador de diagnóstico e prognóstico compartilhado de LIHC, LUAD e KIRC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/genetics , Kidney Neoplasms/genetics , Liver Neoplasms , Prognosis , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Up-Regulation , DNA-Binding Proteins , DNA Copy Number Variations
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012285

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the report content, the methods and results of prenatal diagnosis of high risk of sex chromosome aneuploidy (SCA) in non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). Methods: A total of 227 single pregnancy pregnant women who received genetic counseling and invasive prenatal diagnosis at Drum Tower Hospital Affiliated to the Medical School of Nanjing University from January 2015 to April 2022 due to the high risk of SCA suggested by NIPT were collected. The methods and results of prenatal diagnosis were retrospectively analyzed, and the results of chromosome karyotype analysis and chromosome microarray analysis (CMA) were compared. The relationship between NIPT screening and invasive prenatal diagnosis was analyzed. Results: (1) Prenatal diagnosis methods for 277 SCA high risk pregnant women included 73 cases of karyotyping, 41 cases of CMA and 163 cases of karyotyping combined with CMA, of which one case conducted amniocentesis secondly for further fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) testing. Results of invasive prenatal diagnosis were normal in 166 cases (59.9%, 166/277), and the abnormal results including one case of 45,X (0.4%, 1/277), 18 cases of 47,XXX (6.5%, 18/277), 36 cases of 47,XXY (13.0%, 36/277), 20 cases of 47,XYY (7.2%, 20/277), 1 case of 48,XXXX (0.4%, 1/277), 20 cases of mosaic SCA (7.2%, 20/277), 5 cases of sex chromosome structural abnormality or large segment abnormality (1.8%, 5/277), and 10 cases of other abnormalities [3.6%, 10/277; including 9 cases of copy number variation (CNV) and 1 case of balanced translocation]. Positive predictive value (PPV) for SCA screening by NIPT was 34.7% (96/277). (2) Among the 163 cases tested by karyotyping combined with CMA, 11 cases (6.7%, 11/163) showed inconsistent results by both methods, including 5 cases of mosaic SCA, 1 case of additional balanced translocation detected by karyotyping and 5 cases of additional CNV detected by CMA. (3) NIPT screening reports included 149 cases of "sex chromosome aneuploidy"(53.8%, 149/277), 54 cases of "number of sex chromosome increased" (19.5%, 54/277), and 74 cases of "number of sex chromosome or X chromosome decreased" (26.7%, 74/277). The PPV of "number of sex chromosome increased" and "number of sex chromosome or X chromosome decreased" were 72.2% (39/54) and 18.9% (14/74), respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (χ2=34.56, P<0.01). Conclusions: NIPT could be served as an important prenatal screening technique of SCA, especially for trisomy and mosaicism, but the PPV is comparatively low. More information of NIPT such as the specific SCA or maternal SCA might help improving the confidence of genetic counseling and thus guide clinic management. Multi technology platforms including karyotyping, CMA and FISH could be considered in the diagnosis of high risk of SCA by NIPT.


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , DNA Copy Number Variations , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Aneuploidy , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods , Sex Chromosome Aberrations , Sex Chromosomes/genetics
8.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 889-906, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010805

ABSTRACT

Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an uncommon non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with poor prognosis. This study aimed to depict the genetic landscape of Chinese PCNSLs. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on 68 newly diagnosed Chinese PCNSL samples, whose genomic characteristics and clinicopathologic features were also analyzed. Structural variations were identified in all patients with a mean of 349, which did not significantly influence prognosis. Copy loss occurred in all samples, while gains were detected in 77.9% of the samples. The high level of copy number variations was significantly associated with poor progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). A total of 263 genes mutated in coding regions were identified, including 6 newly discovered genes (ROBO2, KMT2C, CXCR4, MYOM2, BCLAF1, and NRXN3) detected in ⩾ 10% of the cases. CD79B mutation was significantly associated with lower PFS, TMSB4X mutation and high expression of TMSB4X protein was associated with lower OS. A prognostic risk scoring system was also established for PCNSL, which included Karnofsky performance status and six mutated genes (BRD4, EBF1, BTG1, CCND3, STAG2, and TMSB4X). Collectively, this study comprehensively reveals the genomic landscape of newly diagnosed Chinese PCNSLs, thereby enriching the present understanding of the genetic mechanisms of PCNSL.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA Copy Number Variations , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/pathology , Transcription Factors/genetics , Prognosis , Lymphoma/genetics , Genomics , China , Central Nervous System/pathology , Bromodomain Containing Proteins , Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics
9.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1469-1480, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010613

ABSTRACT

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interactions and repetitive behaviors. Although hundreds of ASD risk genes, implicated in synaptic formation and transcriptional regulation, have been identified through human genetic studies, the East Asian ASD cohorts are still under-represented in genome-wide genetic studies. Here, we applied whole-exome sequencing to 369 ASD trios including probands and unaffected parents of Chinese origin. Using a joint-calling analytical pipeline based on GATK toolkits, we identified numerous de novo mutations including 55 high-impact variants and 165 moderate-impact variants, as well as de novo copy number variations containing known ASD-related genes. Importantly, combined with single-cell sequencing data from the developing human brain, we found that the expression of genes with de novo mutations was specifically enriched in the pre-, post-central gyrus (PRC, PC) and banks of the superior temporal (BST) regions in the human brain. By further analyzing the brain imaging data with ASD and healthy controls, we found that the gray volume of the right BST in ASD patients was significantly decreased compared to healthy controls, suggesting the potential structural deficits associated with ASD. Finally, we found a decrease in the seed-based functional connectivity between BST/PC/PRC and sensory areas, the insula, as well as the frontal lobes in ASD patients. This work indicated that combinatorial analysis with genome-wide screening, single-cell sequencing, and brain imaging data reveal the brain regions contributing to the etiology of ASD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autism Spectrum Disorder/metabolism , Autistic Disorder , Exome Sequencing , DNA Copy Number Variations , East Asian People , Brain/metabolism , Mutation/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007805

ABSTRACT

After the promulgation of the first edition of expert consensus on the application of chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) technology in prenatal diagnosis in 2014, after 8 years of clinical and technical development, CMA technology has become a first-line diagnosis technology for fetal chromosome copy number deletion or duplication abnormalities, and is widely used in the field of prenatal diagnosis in China. However, with the development of the industry and the accumulation of experience in case diagnosis, the application of CMA technology in many important aspects of prenatal diagnosis, such as clinical diagnosis testimony, data analysis and genetic counseling before and after testing, needs to be further standardized and improved, so as to make the application of CMA technology more in line with clinical needs. The revision of the guideline was led by the National Prenatal Diagnostic Technical Expert Group, and several prenatal diagnostic institutions such as Peking Union Medical College Hospital were commissioned to write, discuss and revise the first draft, which was discussed and reviewed by all the experts of the National Prenatal Diagnostic Technical Expert Group, and was finally formed after extensive review and revision. This guideline is aimed at the important aspects of the application of CMA technology in prenatal diagnosis and clinical diagnosis, from the clinical application of evidence, test quality control, data analysis and interpretation, diagnosis report writing, genetic counseling before and after testing and other work specifications are elaborated and introduced in detail. It fully reflects the integrated experience, professional thinking and guidance of the current Chinese expert team on the prenatal diagnosis application of CMA technology. The compilation of the guideline for the application of CMA technology in prenatal diagnosis will strive to promote the standardization and advancement of prenatal diagnosis of fetal chromosome diseases in China.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Asian People , Chromosome Aberrations , Chromosome Deletion , Chromosome Duplication/genetics , DNA Copy Number Variations/genetics , Fetal Diseases/genetics , Genetic Counseling , Microarray Analysis , Prenatal Care , Prenatal Diagnosis , Practice Guidelines as Topic
11.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 105-122, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971612

ABSTRACT

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a highly malignant and heterogeneous brain tumor, contains various types of tumor and non-tumor cells. Whether GBM cells can trans-differentiate into non-neural cell types, including mural cells or endothelial cells (ECs), to support tumor growth and invasion remains controversial. Here we generated two genetic GBM models de novo in immunocompetent mouse brains, mimicking essential pathological and molecular features of human GBMs. Lineage-tracing and transplantation studies demonstrated that, although blood vessels in GBM brains underwent drastic remodeling, evidence of trans-differentiation of GBM cells into vascular cells was barely detected. Intriguingly, GBM cells could promiscuously express markers for mural cells during gliomagenesis. Furthermore, single-cell RNA sequencing showed that patterns of copy number variations (CNVs) of mural cells and ECs were distinct from those of GBM cells, indicating discrete origins of GBM cells and vascular components. Importantly, single-cell CNV analysis of human GBM specimens also suggested that GBM cells and vascular cells are likely separate lineages. Rather than expansion owing to trans-differentiation, vascular cell expanded by proliferation during tumorigenesis. Therefore, cross-lineage trans-differentiation of GBM cells is very unlikely to occur during gliomagenesis. Our findings advance understanding of cell lineage dynamics during gliomagenesis, and have implications for targeted treatment of GBMs.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Humans , Glioblastoma/pathology , Endothelial Cells/pathology , DNA Copy Number Variations , Brain/metabolism , Brain Neoplasms/pathology
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971418

ABSTRACT

Objective: To clarify the phenotypes of the newborns with SLC26A4 single-allele mutation in deafness genetic screening and second variant; to analyze the SLC26A4 genotype and hearing phenotype. Methods: 850 newborns born in Beijing from April 2015 to December 2019 were included and there were 468 males and 382 females. They received genetic deafness screening for 9 or 15 variants, with the result of SLC26A4 single-allele mutation. Firstly, three step deafness gene sequencing was adopted in this work, i.e., the first step was "SLC26A4 gene whole exons and splice sites" sequencing; the second step was "SLC26A4 gene promoter, FOXI1 gene and KCNJ10 gene whole exons" sequencing; and the third step was detection for "SLC26A4 gene copy number variation". Secondly, we collected the results of newborn hearing screening for all patients with the second mutation found in the three step test, and conducted audiological examinations, such as acoustic immittance, auditory brainstem response and auditory steady state response. Thirdly, for novel/VUS mutations, we searched the international deafness gene database or software, such as DVD, ClinVar and Mutation Taster, to predict the pathogenicity of mutations according to the ACMG guideline. Lastly, we analyzed the relationship between genotype and phenotype of newborns with SLC26A4 single allele mutation. Results: Among 850 cases, the median age of diagnosis was 4 months. In the first step, 850 cases were sequenced. A total of 32 cases (3.76%, 32/850) of a second variants were detected, including 18 cases (2.12%, 18/850) with identified pathogenic variants; 832 cases were sequenced and 8 cases of KCNJ10 gene missense variants were detected among the second step. No missense mutations in the FOXI1 gene and abnormal SLC26A4 gene promoter were detected; the third step sequencing results were all negative. Genotypes and hearing phenotypes included 18 cases combined with the second clear pathogenic variant, 16 cases (16/18) referred newborn hearing screening and 2 cases (2/18) passed in both ears; degree of hearing loss consisted of 18 profound ears (18/36), 13 severe ears (13/36) and 5 moderate ears (5/36); audiogram patterns comprised 17 high frequency drop ears (17/36), 14 flat ears (14/36), 3 undistinguished ears (3/36), and 2 U shaped ears (2/36); 11 cases underwent imaging examination, all of which were bilateral enlarged vestibular aqueduct. As for 22 cases of other genotypes, all passed neonatal hearing screening and the hearing diagnosis was normal, including 9 cases with VUS or possibly novel benign variants, 8 cases with KCNJ10 double gene heterozygous variants, and 5 cases with double heterozygous variants. Conclusions: The probability of individuals with SLC26A4 single-allele variant who merge with a second pathogenic variant is 2.12%, all of which are SNV, which can provide scientific basis for the genetic diagnosis and genetic counseling of SLC26A4 variants. Those who have merged with second pathogenic variant are all diagnosed with sensorineural hearing loss. Patients with KCNJ10 gene mutations do not manifest hearing loss during the infancy, suggesting the need for further follow-up.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Alleles , Deafness/genetics , DNA Copy Number Variations , Forkhead Transcription Factors/genetics , Genotype , Hearing Loss/genetics , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/genetics , Mutation , Phenotype , Sulfate Transporters/genetics , Vestibular Aqueduct , Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying/genetics
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971293

ABSTRACT

To summarize the clinical diagnosis and treatment process and genetic test results and characteristics of one child with Angelman syndrome (AS) complicated with oculocutaneous albinism type 2 (OCA2), and to review the literature. "Angelman syndrome" "P gene" and "Oculocutaneous albinism type 2" were used as keywords to search at CNKI, Wanfang, and PubMed databases (from creation to December 2019). Then all the patients were analyzed. The patient in this study was a girl aged 1 year. After birth, she was found to present as white body, yellow hair, and nystagmus. She could raise her head at the age of 2 months and turn over at the age of 7 months. The head circumference was 42 cm and she could not sit alone or speak at present. Trio-based exome sequencing revealed that the patient carried a homozygous mutation of c.168del (p.Gln58ArgfsTer44) in the P gene, and her father was heterozygous and her mother was wild-type. The detection of copy number variation showed deletion on the maternal chromosome at 15q11.2-13.1 region (P gene located in this region) in the patient. Until December 2019, a total of 4 cases in the 4 literature had been reported. Adding our case here, the 5 cases were summarized and found that all the cases showed white skin, golden hair, and shallow iris after birth. Comprehensive developmental delay was found around 6 months of age after birth, and the language remained undeveloped in 2 cases till follow-up into childhood. Seizures occurred in 4 patients. Two cases had ataxia. All the 5 cases had acquired microcephaly. Two cases had a family history of albinism. Electroencephalogram monitoring was completed in 3 cases and the results were abnormal. Genetic tests showed that all the 5 cases had deletion on maternal chromosome at 15q11-13 region. Four cases carried mutation of P gene on paternal chromosome. And 1 case was clinically diagnosed as OCA2 without P gene test. AS combined with OCA2 is relatively rare. OCA2 is easily diagnosed based on the obvious clinical manifestations after birth. When combined with clinical manifestations such as neurodevelopmental delay, it might indicate the possibility of AS that is hardly diagnosed clinically at an early stage. Genetic tests can reveal the cross-genetic phenomenon of AS and OCA2 and the complex of them can be eventually diagnosed.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant , Albinism, Oculocutaneous/genetics , DNA Copy Number Variations , Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics , Molecular Biology , Mutation
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971122

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the molecular mechanism of the disease based on the clinical characterization and genetic mutation analysis in a family with hereditary spherocytosis.@*METHODS@#The proband with jaundice and anemia was referred to Yidu Central Hospital of Weifang in May 2021. Peripheral blood samples were collected from six members of the family. Second-generation sequencing was used to screen the pathological mutations, and the clinically significant variant sites were selected. Then the relevant databases were used to analyze the variant sites, and RT-qPCR was used to detect the relative mRNA levels of candidate gene. The structure and function of SPTB protein were analyzed by UniProt and SMART databases.@*RESULTS@#We infer that the SPTB gene copy number variation (CNV) deletion was co-segregated with the phenotype of the patients in this family based on the results of second-generation sequencing (about 700 target genes). The UCSC Genome Browser demonstrated that the deleted region was mainly located in exon2-3 of SPTB gene. The results of RT-qPCR showed that the relative SPTB mRNA levels of all patients were lower than the healthy control. UniProt and SMART databases analysis showed that SPTB protein without CH1 and CH2 domains could not bind to erythrocyte membrane actin.@*CONCLUSION@#The CNV deletion of SPTB gene may be the reason for the hereditary spherocytosis in this family.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA Copy Number Variations , East Asian People , Mutation , Pedigree , Spectrin/genetics , Spherocytosis, Hereditary/diagnosis
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970932

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To carry out genetic testing and prenatal diagnosis for a woman featuring moderate intellectual disability (ID).@*METHODS@#The patient had presented at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University on April 28, 2021. With informed consent, peripheral blood and amniotic fluid samples were collected for the extraction of genomic DNA. Pathogenic copy number variations (CNVs) were detected with CNV-seq, and single gene variants were detected by whole exome sequencing (WES) and Sanger sequencing. Candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing, and CNV-seq and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) were used to detect fetal CNVs.@*RESULTS@#The 23-year-old woman had moderate ID, sideway walking, and unstable holding. Ultrasonography at 18+3 weeks' gestation had revealed no fetal abnormality. No pathogenic CNV was detected in the woman by CNV-Seq, while WES revealed that she has harbored a heterozygous c.1675C>T (p.Arg559*) variant of the DLG4 gene, which was verified by Sanger sequencing. Based on guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, the variant was predicted to be likely pathogenic (PVS1+PM2_supporting). Sanger sequencing has confirmed that the fetus has inherited this variant, and CNV-Seq also revealed that that fetus has harbored a 0.1 Mb heterozygous deletion at Xp21.1, which has encompassed the DMD gene, and the result was verified by MLPA.@*CONCLUSION@#The heterozygous c.1675C>T variant of the DLG4 gene probably underlay the mental retardation in this woman, and her fetus was found to harbor the same variant in addition with deletion of the DMD gene, which may predispose to ID type 62.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Disks Large Homolog 4 Protein , DNA Copy Number Variations , Fetus , Genetic Testing , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Pregnant Women
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970928

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical phenotypes and genetic diagnosis of 2 sporadic cases for cleidocranial dysplasia.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of two cases of CCD admitted to the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University on December 16, 2021 and December 9, 2021 were analyzed retrospectively, and the whole exome sequencing (WES), chromosome microarray analysis and copy number variation sequencing were performed.@*RESULTS@#The main ultrasonographic findings of the fetus had included poorly calcified skull bones, budging of parieto-occipital area, compression and deformation of skull, and loss of nasal bone. The infant's clinical phenotypes included delayed closure of anterior fontanelle, recurrent respiratory tract infection, growth retardation, and clavicular hypoplasia. By WES analysis, the fetus was found to harbor a heterozygous c.911_914delinsTTT variant of the RUNX2 gene, whilst the infant was found to harbor a heterozygous c.1008delT variant of the RUNX2 gene. Both variants were verified by Sanger sequencing to have occurred de novo.@*CONCLUSION@#For sporadic cases featuring cleidocranial dysplasia, prenatal ultrasonography is particularly important. Hypoplastic clavicle, skull calcification and nasal bone absence are the main features. Diagnosis should also be suspected for infants featuring growth retardation, recurrent respiratory tract infections and clavicular dysplasia. The identification of the c.911_914delinsTTT and c.1008delT variants of the RUNX2 gene has facilitated genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis, and also expanded the mutational spectrum of the RUNX2 gene.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Cleidocranial Dysplasia/genetics , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit , DNA Copy Number Variations , Growth Disorders , Retrospective Studies
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970925

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the value of copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq) for revealing the genetic etiology of fetuses with isolated ventricular septal defect (VSD).@*METHODS@#From December 2017 to December 2020, 69 fetuses with isolated VSD were identified at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University. Meanwhile, 839 similar prenatal cases were selected from public databases including Wanfang data, Wanfang Medicine, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) by using keywords such as "Ventricular septal defect", "Copy number variation", and "Prenatal". A total of 908 fetuses with isolated VSD were analyzed. CNV-seq was carried out for 69 fetuses.@*RESULTS@#Among the 908 fetuses, 33 (3.63%) were found to harbor pathogenic CNVs, which included 11 chromosomal aneuploidies (1.21%) and 22 pathogenic CNVs (2.42%). The pathogenic CNVs have involved 12 genetic syndromes, with those known to involve the heart development including 5 cases of 22q11.21 deletion syndrome, 2 cases of 4q terminal deletion syndrome, and 1 case of 9q subtelomere deletion syndrome. The outcome of pregnancies for 15 fetuses with pathogenic CNVs was known, of which 12 were terminated, and 3 had spontaneous closure of the ventricular septum after birth, but 1 of them had other abnormalities.@*CONCLUSION@#Fetuses with isolated VSD have a relatively high risk for chromosomal abnormalities, for which CNV-seq should be recommended.


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Humans , DNA Copy Number Variations , Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular/genetics , 22q11 Deletion Syndrome , Fetus
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970924

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the value of copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq) for the diagnosis of children with intellectual disability (ID), developmental delay (DD), and autistic spectrum disorder (ASD).@*METHODS@#Forty patients with ID/DD/ASD referred to Nanshan Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital from September 2018 to January 2022 were enrolled. G-banded karyotyping analysis was carried out for the patients. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples and subjected to CNV-Seq analysis to detect chromosome copy number variations (CNVs) in such patients. ClinVar, DECIPHER, OMIM and other database were searched for data annotation.@*RESULTS@#Among the 40 patients (including 30 males and 10 females), 16, 15 and 6 were diagnosed with ID, DD and ASD, respectively. One patient had combined symptoms of ID and DD, whilst the remaining two had combined ID and ASD. Four patients were found with abnormal karyotypes, including 47,XY,+mar, 46,XY,inv(8)(p11.2q21.2), 46,XX,del(5)(p14) and 46,XX[76]/46,X,dup(X)(p21.1q12). Chromosome polymorphism was also found in two other patients. CNV-seq analysis has detected 32 CNVs in 20 patients (50.0%, 20/40). Pathogenic CNVs were found in 10 patients (25.0%), 15 CNVs of uncertain clinical significance were found in 12 patients (30.0%), and 7 likely benign CNVs were found in 4 patients (10.0%).@*CONCLUSION@#Chromosome CNVs play an important role in the pathogenesis of ID/DD/ASD. CNV-seq can detect chromosomal abnormalities including microdeletions and microduplications, which could provide a powerful tool for revealing the genetic etiology of ID/DD/ASD patients.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Child , Male , Humans , Female , DNA Copy Number Variations , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics , Developmental Disabilities/genetics , Abnormal Karyotype
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970912

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a child with facial dysmorphism and multiple malformations.@*METHODS@#The child, born at 34+6 weeks' gestation due to premature rupture of amniotic membrane, dichorionic diamniotic twinning and gestational diabetes, was subjected to chromosomal karyotyping analysis and copy number variations sequencing (CNV-seq).@*RESULTS@#The child was found to have facial dysmorphism, hypospadia, cryptorchidism and hypotonia. He was found to have a 46,XY,del(3)(p26) karyotype in addition with a 9.80 Mb deletion (chr3: 60 000-9 860 000) encompassing 33 protein coding genes.@*CONCLUSION@#The 3p26.3p25.3 deletion probably underlay the multiple malformations in this child. Continuous follow-up is required to improve his quality of life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Chromosome Deletion , DNA Copy Number Variations , Quality of Life , Abnormalities, Multiple/genetics , Phenotype
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970911

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic characteristics of a fetus with a high risk by maternal serum screening during the second trimester.@*METHODS@#Genetic counseling was provided to the pregnant woman on March 22, 2020 at Henan Provincial People's Hospital. G-banded chromosomal karyotyping and array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) were carried out on the amniotic fluid sample and peripheral blood samples from the couple.@*RESULTS@#The fetus and the pregnant woman were respectively found to have a 46,XX,der(6)t(6;14)(q27;q31.2) and 46,XX,t(6;14)(q27;q31.2) karyotype, whilst the husband was found to have a normal karyotype. aCGH analysis has identified a 6.64 Mb deletion at 6q26q27 and a 19.98 Mb duplication at 14q31.3q32.33 in the fetus, both of which were predicted to be pathogenic copy number variations. No copy number variation was found in the couple.@*CONCLUSION@#The unbalanced chromosome abnormalities in the fetus have probably derived from the balanced translocation carried by the pregnant woman. aCGH can help to determine the types of fetal chromosome abnormalities and site of chromosomal breakage, which may facilitate the prediction of fetal outcome and choice for subsequent pregnancies.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Comparative Genomic Hybridization , DNA Copy Number Variations , Translocation, Genetic , Chromosome Aberrations , Fetus , Prenatal Diagnosis
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