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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012284

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the concordance and causes of different mismatch repair (MMR) and microsatellite instability (MSI) detection results in endometrial carcinoma (EC) molecular typing. Methods: A total of 214 EC patients diagnosed from January 2021 to April 2023 were selected at the Department of Pathology, Peking University Third Hospital. The immunohistochemistry (IHC) results of MMR protein were reviewed. Tumor specific somatic mutations, MMR germline mutations, microsatellite scores and tumor mutation burden (TMB) were detected by next-generation sequencing (NGS) with multi-gene panel. Methylation-specific PCR was used to detect the methylation status of MLH1 gene promoter in cases with deficient MLH1 protein expression. In cases with discrepant results between MMR-IHC and MSI-NGS, the MSI status was detected again by PCR (MSI-PCR), and the molecular typing was determined by combining the results of TMB and MLH1 gene promoter methylation. Results: (1) In this study, there were 22 cases of POLE gene mutation subtype, 55 cases of mismatch repair deficient (MMR-d) subtype, 29 cases of p53 abnormal subtype, and 108 cases of no specific molecular profile (NSMP). The median age at diagnosis of MMR-d subtype (54 years old) and the proportion of aggressive histological types (40.0%, 22/55) were higher than those of NSMP subtype [50 years old and 12.0% (13/108) respectively; all P<0.05]. (2) Among 214 patients, MMR-IHC test showed that 153 patients were mismatch repair proficient (MMR-p), 49 patients were MMR-d, and 12 patients were difficult to evaluate directly. MSI-NGS showed that 164 patients were microsatellite stable (MSS; equal to MMR-p), 48 patients were high microsatellite instability (MSI-H; equal to MMR-d), and 2 patients had no MSI-NGS results because the effective sequencing depth did not meet the quality control. The overall concordance between MMR-IHC and MSI-NGS was 94.3% (200/212). All the 12 discrepant cases were MMR-d or subclonal loss of MMR protein by IHC, but MSS by NGS. Among them, 10 cases were loss or subclonal loss of MLH1 and (or) PMS2 protein. Three discrepant cases were classified as POLE gene mutation subtype. In the remaining 9 cases, 5 cases and 3 cases were confirmed as MSI-H and low microsatellite instability (MSI-L) respectively by MSI-PCR, 6 cases were detected as MLH1 gene promoter methylation and 7 cases demonstrated high TMB (>10 mutations/Mb). These 9 cases were classified as MMR-d EC. (3) Lynch syndrome was diagnosed in 27.3% (15/55) of all 55 MMR-d EC cases, and the TMB of EC with MSH2 and (or) MSH6 protein loss or associated with Lynch syndrome [(71.0±26.2) and (71.5±20.1) mutations/Mb respectively] were significantly higher than those of EC with MLH1 and (or) PMS2 loss or sporadic MMR-d EC [(38.2±19.1) and (41.9±24.3) mutations/Mb respectively, all P<0.01]. The top 10 most frequently mutated genes in MMR-d EC were PTEN (85.5%, 47/55), ARID1A (80.0%, 44/55), PIK3CA (69.1%, 38/55), KMT2B (60.0%, 33/55), CTCF (45.5%, 25/55), RNF43 (40.0%, 22/55), KRAS (36.4%, 20/55), CREBBP (34.5%, 19/55), LRP1B (32.7%, 18/55) and BRCA2 (32.7%, 18/55). Concurrent PTEN, ARID1A and PIK3CA gene mutations were found in 50.9% (28/55) of MMR-d EC patients. Conclusions: The concordance of MMR-IHC and MSI-NGS in EC is relatively high.The discordance in a few MMR-d EC are mostly found in cases with MLH1 and (or) PMS2 protein loss or MMR protein subclonal staining caused by MLH1 gene promoter hypermethylation. In order to provide accurate molecular typing for EC patients, MLH1 gene methylation, MSI-PCR, MMR gene germline mutation and TMB should be combined to comprehensively evaluate MMR and MSI status.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Class I Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis/diagnosis , DNA Mismatch Repair/genetics , Endometrial Neoplasms/pathology , Microsatellite Instability , Mismatch Repair Endonuclease PMS2/genetics , Molecular Typing
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982027

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the prevalence of pathogenic germline mutations of mismatch repair (MMR) genes in prostate cancer patients and its relationship with clinicopathological characteristics.@*METHODS@#Germline sequencing data of 855 prostate cancer patients admitted in Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center from 2018 to 2022 were retrospectively analyzed. The pathogenicity of mutations was assessed according to the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) standard guideline, Clinvar and Intervar databases. The clinicopathological characteristics and responses to castration treatment were compared among patients with MMR gene mutation (MMR+ group), patients with DNA damage repair (DDR) gene germline pathogenic mutation without MMR gene (DDR+MMR- group) and patients without DDR gene germline pathogenic mutation (DDR- group).@*RESULTS@#Thirteen (1.52%) MMR+ patients were identified in 855 prostate cancer patients, including 1 case with MLH1 gene mutation, 6 cases with MSH2 gene mutation, 4 cases with MSH6 gene mutation and 2 cases with PMS2 gene mutation. 105 (11.9%) patients were identified as DDR gene positive (except MMR gene), and 737 (86.2%) patients were DDR gene negative. Compared with DDR- group, MMR+ group had lower age of onset (P<0.05) and initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (P<0.01), while no significant differences were found between the two groups in Gleason score and TMN staging (both P>0.05). The median time to castration resistance was 8 months (95%CI: 6 months-not achieved), 16 months (95%CI: 12-32 months) and 24 months (95%CI: 21-27 months) for MMR+ group, DDR+MMR- group and DDR- group, respectively. The time to castration resistance in MMR+ group was significantly shorter than that in DDR+MMR- group and DDR- group (both P<0.01), while there was no significant difference between DDR+MMR- group and DDR- group (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#MMR gene mutation testing is recommended for prostate cancer patients with early onset, low initial PSA, metastasis or early resistance to castration therapy.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Prostate-Specific Antigen/genetics , Germ-Line Mutation , Retrospective Studies , DNA Mismatch Repair/genetics , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , China , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936064

ABSTRACT

Immunotherapy has become an important treatment option for microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) and mismatch repair deficient (dMMR) colorectal cancer. From late-line to first-line treatment, and even in neoadjuvant setting for early stage colorectal cancer, promising efficacy was observed with immunotherapy. In microsatellite stability (MSS) or mismatch repair proficient (pMMR) colorectal cancer, the researches of neoadjuvant immunotherapy have been conducted constantly. This paper focuses on the recent researches and progress of neoadjuvant immunotherapy for MSS or pMMR colorectal cancer. Neoadjuvant immunotherapy alone led to a good pathological response in a subset of patients. Studies of induction or consolidation immunotherapy before or after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy or concurrent immunotherapy during radiotherapy showed higher pathological complete remission (pCR) rates as compared to standard chemoradiotherapy. Studies on sequential dual immunotherapy after radiochemotherapy and targeted therapy combined with neoadjuvant immunotherapy are ongoing. At present, most of these are pilot studies with small sample size. More researches and long-term follow-up are needed to prove the efficacy of neoadjuvant immunotherapy in MSS or pMMR colorectal cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms/therapy , DNA Mismatch Repair/genetics , Immunotherapy , Microsatellite Repeats , Neoadjuvant Therapy
4.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 103-107, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935484

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the relationship between the expression of four mismatch repair proteins (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2) and NTRK genetic fusions in colorectal cancer. Methods: The paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of 830 cases of colorectal cancer were collected at the Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing University Medical School, China, from 2015 to 2019. Immunohistochemical and fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH) method were used respectively to detect the expression of mismatch repair proteins and the break-apart of NTRKs; and the relationship between the expression of mismatch repair proteins and the NTRK genetic fusions was analyzed. Results: The overall mismatch repair protein deficiency (dMMR) rate was 9.88% (82/830), the mismatch repair proteins proficiency (pMMR) rate was 90.12%(748/830). The total deficiency rate of MLH1 protein was 9.04% (75/830), hPMS2 protein deficiency rate was 9.04% (75/830), MSH2 protein deficiency rate was 2.53% (21/830), MSH6 protein deficiency rate was 4.10% (34/830), the deficiency rate of synchronous MLH1 and PMS2 were 8.67% (72/830) and the deficiency rate of synchronous MSH2 and MSH6 were 2.17% (18/830). The dMMR group was associated with tumor location, different histological subgroups, tumor differentiation, AJCC stage and N stage (P<0.05). There were six cases (7.32%) carrying NTRK fusion by FISH among the 82 cases of dMMR, but only seven cases (0.94%) carrying NTRK fusion among the 748 cases of PMMR. The NTRKs translocation by FISH in all 13 cases were further confirmed by next generation sequencing. Among the clinicopathological characteristics, only differentiation showed significant difference between NTRK fusion positive and negative groups (P<0.05). More importantly, NTRK fusion was enriched in dMMR group (7.32% vs. 0.94%). Conclusion: In dMMR colorectal cancer group, the prevalence of NTRK fusion is higher than that in pMMR group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , DNA Mismatch Repair/genetics , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Mismatch Repair Endonuclease PMS2/metabolism , MutL Protein Homolog 1/metabolism , MutS Homolog 2 Protein/metabolism
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880786

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinicopathological features and types of genic mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) in colorectal cancer (CRC).@*METHODS@#Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression of MMR proteins in 1394 patients with CRC, and PCR-capillary electrophoresis (PCR-CE) was used to detect microsatellite instability (MSI) in 106 cases of defective MMR (dMMR), 46 cases of proficient MMR (pMMR) with heterogeneous expression and 147 randomly selected cases of pMMR. The relationship between the expressions of MMR proteins and the clinicopathological features of the patients was evaluated. The consistency between the results of immunohistochemistry and PCR-CE was assessed.@*RESULTS@#Immunohistochemical staining showed an incidence of dMMR of 7.6% in the patients. The main type of dMMR was co-deletion of MLH1 and PMS2, accounting for 55.7% of the total dMMR cases. The deletion of MMR proteins was significantly correlated with the patients' age, tumor location, tumor size, gross type, histological type, degree of differentiation, lymph node status and TNM stage (@*CONCLUSIONS@#The main type of dMMR is co-deletion of MLH1 and PMS2 in patients with colorectal cancer. dMMR colorectal cancer has typical clinicopathological features and a lower incidence in China than in Western countries. The results of immunohistochemistry and PCR-CE are highly consistent for detecting dMMR in colorectal cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , China , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , DNA Mismatch Repair/genetics , Microsatellite Instability
6.
Rev. gastroenterol. Perú ; 38(3): 265-279, jul.-set. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014094

ABSTRACT

Esta revisión tiene como objetivo dar a conocer los aspectos genéticos, clínicos y diagnósticos del síndrome de Lynch, además de brindar la información más relevante acerca de la asesoría genética en estos pacientes y las recomendaciones actuales para su seguimiento.


This review aims to present the genetic, clinical and diagnostic aspects of Lynch syndrome, as well as providing the most relevant information about genetic counseling in these patients and the current recommendations for their surveillance.


Subject(s)
History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis , Algorithms , Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary/diagnosis , DNA, Neoplasm/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis/history , Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis/pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor , Risk , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Risk Assessment , Genetic Heterogeneity , Penetrance , Diagnosis, Differential , Genes, Neoplasm , Microsatellite Instability , DNA Mismatch Repair/genetics , Genetic Association Studies , Genetic Counseling , Models, Genetic
7.
Indian J Hum Genet ; 2014 Apr-Jun ; 20 (2): 192-194
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-156660

ABSTRACT

Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome caused by homozygous mutations in mismatch repair genes. This is characterized by the childhood onset of brain tumors, colorectal cancers, cutaneous manifestations of neurofibromatosis‑1 like café au lait spots, hematological malignancies, and occasionally other rare malignancies. Here, we would like to present a family in which the sibling had glioblastoma, and the present case had acute lymphoblastic lymphoma and colorectal cancer. We would like to present this case because of its rarity and would add to literature.


Subject(s)
Child , /diagnosis , DNA Mismatch Repair/genetics , Humans , Lynch Syndrome II/diagnosis , Lynch Syndrome II/genetics , Male
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110120

ABSTRACT

Estrogen has anti-colorectal cancer effects which are thought to be mediated by mismatch repair gene (MMR) activity. Estrogen receptor (ER) expression is associated with microRNA (miRNA) expression in ER-positive tumors. However, studies of direct link between estrogen (especially estradiol E2), miRNA expression, and MMR in colorectal cancer (CRC) have not been done. In this study, we first evaluated the effects of estradiol (E2) and its antagonist ICI182,780 on the expression of miRNAs (miR-31, miR-155 and miR-135b) using COLO205, SW480 and MCF-7 cell lines, followed by examining the association of tissue miRNA expression and serum E2 levels using samples collected from 18 colorectal cancer patients. E2 inhibited the expressions of miRNAs in COLO205 cells, which could be reversed by E2 antagonist ICI 182.780. The expression of miR-135b was inversely correlated with serum E2 level and ER-beta mRNA expression in CRC patients' cancer tissues. There were significant correlations between serum E2 level and expression of ER-beta, miR-135b, and MMR in colon cancer tissue. This study suggests that the effects of estrogen on MMR function may be related to regulating miRNA expression via ER-beta, which may be the basis for the anti-cancer effect in colorectal cells.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , DNA Mismatch Repair/genetics , Estradiol/analogs & derivatives , Estrogen Antagonists/pharmacology , Estrogen Receptor beta/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , MicroRNAs/genetics , MutS Homolog 2 Protein/genetics , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , RNA, Messenger/biosynthesis
9.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135751

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: DNA mismatch repair gene (MMR) abnormalities are seen in 95 per cent of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and 10-15 per cent of sporadic colorectal cancers. There are no data on MMR abnormalities in Malaysian colorectal cancer patients. This study was aimed to determine the frequency of abnormal MMR gene protein expression in colorectal carcinoma in Northern Peninsular Malaysia using immunohistochemistry. Methods: Clinicopathological information was obtained from 148 patients’ records who underwent bowel resection for colorectal cancer (CRC) at the three hospitals in Malaysia. Immunohistochemistry for MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 proteins were performed on paraffin embedded tissue containing carcinoma. Results: A total of 148 subjects and 150 colorectal carcinomas of sporadic and hereditary types were assessed. Three patients had synchronous tumours. Twenty eight cancers (18.6%) from 26 subjects (17.6%) had absent immunohistochemical expression of any one of the MMR gene proteins. This comprised absent MLH1 only – 3 cancers, absent MSH2 only – 3, absent MSH6 only – 2, absent PMS2 only – 3, absent MLH1 and PMS2 – 14, absent MSH2 and MSH6 – 2 and absent MLH1, MSH6 and PMS2 – 1. There was significant association between abnormal MMR gene protein expression and proximal colon cancers, mucinous, signet ring and poorly differentiated morphology. Interpretation & conclusions: Cancers with abnormal MMR gene expression were associated with microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) phenotype. About 15 per cent demonstrated absent MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 protein expression in isolation or in combination with other MMR genes, which often predicts a germline mutation, synonymous with a diagnosis of HNPCC. This appears to be high frequency compared to reported data.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Adenosine Triphosphatases/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis/pathology , DNA Mismatch Repair/genetics , DNA Repair Enzymes/metabolism , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Female , Gene Expression/genetics , Germ-Line Mutation/genetics , Immunohistochemistry , Malaysia , Male , Microsatellite Instability , Middle Aged , MutS DNA Mismatch-Binding Protein/metabolism , MutS Homolog 2 Protein/metabolism , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism , Retrospective Studies
10.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 70(1): 31-36, feb. 2010. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-633714

ABSTRACT

El cáncer colorrectal hereditario no poliposo (CCHNP) se relaciona con mutaciones en los genes reparadores de ADN (MLH1, MSH2 y MSH6). La mayoría de estas alteraciones son familia-específicas y su detección suele requerir la secuenciación completa de los genes relacionados. Se detectó una mutación puntual (2269-2270insT) en el último codón del gen MLH1 en familias de un área del norte de Italia (Reggio Emilia) y su origen se considera debido a un efecto fundador. En este trabajo presentamos una familia mendocina con CCHNP portadora de la misma mutación, cuyos ancestros eran oriundos de Reggio Emilia. Para la detección de la mutación se diseñó una estrategia basada en PCR y posterior corte enzimático. La mutación fue hallada en tres integrantes de la familia estudiada, dos de los cuales no presentaban sintomatología clínica. Estos pacientes fueron seguidos preventivamente mediante colonoscopias. La metodología utilizada en nuestro laboratorio fue específica y sensible para la detección de una mutación previamente registrada y permitió realizar el diagnóstico genético molecular en el país, evitando el envío de muestras al extranjero. Es de importancia destacar que el diagnóstico genético pre-sintomático de cáncer hereditario, enfocado desde un grupo multidisciplinario de profesionales, permite un mejor seguimiento y apoyo a las familias afectadas.


Hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) has been related to mutations in the DNA mismatch repair genes (MLH1, MSH2 y MSH6). Mutation detection analysis requires the complete sequencing of these genes, given the high frequency of family-specific alterations. A point mutation (2269- 2270insT) in the last codon of the MLH1 gene has been detected in families from a northern region of Italy (Reggio Emilia).Given that this alteration was registered only in people from this region, it has been considered a founder mutation. In this work, we present an Argentine HNPCC family whose ancestors were natives from the Reggio Emilia, Italy, and who were carriers for this mutation. In order to detect the genetic alteration, a PCR was developed followed by a restriction enzyme incubation assay. The mutation was detected in 3 family members, two of them without clinical symptoms. The PCR/restriction enzyme methodology has been sensitive and specific for the detection of this mutation. It has allowed the performance of a pre-symptomatic genetic diagnosis in the Argentine HNPCC family, avoiding sending samples abroad. It is worth mentioning that pre-symptomatic diagnosis of hereditary cancers allows enhanced surveillance and support for the affected families when it is performed by a multidisciplinary group.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis/genetics , DNA Mismatch Repair/genetics , Founder Effect , Point Mutation/genetics , Alleles , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , DNA Mutational Analysis , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Pedigree , Sequence Analysis, DNA
11.
São Paulo med. j ; 127(1): 46-51, Jan. 2009. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-513105

ABSTRACT

Lynch syndrome represents 1-7 percent of all cases of colorectal cancer and is an autosomal-dominant inherited cancer predisposition syndrome caused by germline mutations in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) mismatch repair genes. Since the discovery of the major human genes with DNA mismatch repair function, mutations in five of them have been correlated with susceptibility to Lynch syndrome: mutS homolog 2 (MSH2); mutL homolog 1 (MLH1); mutS homolog 6 (MSH6); postmeiotic segregation increased 2 (PMS2); and postmeiotic segregation increased 1 (PMS1). It has been proposed that one additional mismatch repair gene, mutL homolog 3 (MLH3), also plays a role in Lynch syndrome predisposition, but the clinical significance of mutations in this gene is less clear. According to the InSiGHT database (International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumors), approximately 500 different LS-associated mismatch repair gene mutations are known, primarily involving MLH1 (50 percent) and MSH2 (40 percent), while others account for 10 percent. Much progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of Lynch Syndrome. Molecular characterization will be the most accurate way of defining Lynch syndrome and will provide predictive information of greater accuracy regarding the risks of colon and extracolonic cancer and enable optimal cancer surveillance regimens.


A síndrome de Lynch representa de 1-7 por cento de todos os casos de câncer colorretal. É uma síndrome de herança autossômica dominante que predispõe ao câncer e é causada por mutações nos genes de reparo de ácido desoxirribonucléico (DNA). Desde a descoberta dos principais genes com função de reparo de DNA, mutações nos genes MSH2, MLH1, MSH6, PMS2 e PMS1 estão relacionadas com a susceptibilidade à síndrome de Lynch. Outro gene, MLH3, tem sido proposto como tendo papel na predisposição à síndrome de Lynch, porém mutações de significância clínica nesse gene não são claras. De acordo com o banco de dados InSiGHT (International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumors), aproximadamente 500 diferentes mutações associadas à síndrome de Lynch são conhecidas, envolvendo primeiramente MLH1 (50 por cento), MSH2 (40 por cento) e outros (10 por cento). Grandes progressos têm ocorrido para nosso entendimento das bases moleculares da síndrome de Lynch. A caracterização molecular será a forma mais precisa para definirmos a síndrome de Lynch e irá fornecer informações preditivas mais precisas sobre o risco de câncer colorretal e extra-colônico, além de permitir regimes otimizados de manejo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis/genetics , DNA Mismatch Repair/genetics , Germ-Line Mutation/genetics
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