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1.
Oncología (Ecuador) ; 31(3): 251-259, 30-diciembre-2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352471

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La neoplasia de células dendríticas plasmocitoides blásticas (NCDPB) es una patología agresiva y representa menos del 1% de neoplasias hematológicas, se caracteriza por lesiones cutáneas nodulares violáceas sin evidencia de adenopatías en la mayoría de casos. Estudios observacionales demuestran que el Protocolo de quimioterapia Hyper-CVAD y la consolidación con tras-plante de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas se han asociado con una mayor supervivencia general. Caso Clínico: mujer de 82 años con antecedentes de Diabetes Mellitus tipo con cinco meses de lesiones hiperpigmentadas, elevadas, induradas, violáceas no dolorosas en mejilla, brazos, tórax anterior y posterior y piernas. Evolución: En citometría de flujo se determinó un fenotipo compatible con células patológicas (5.86%) con CD123++, HLADR+++, NG2++, CD56+++, CD4++, que sugiere una NCDPB. La biopsia de médula ósea presentó infiltración. PET CT posterior a terapia corticoide: no evidencia enfermedad tumoral macroscópica metabólicamente activa. Se inicia tratamiento con Dexametasona, con lo que las lesiones cutáneas disminuyeron en un 80%. Se inició Quimioterapia Protocolo CHOP like, ha recibido 6 ciclos hasta octubre del 2021, actualmente en remisión completa. Conclusión: En el presente caso el curso clínico de la NCDPB no fue agresivo hasta el momento del cierre del caso presentando disminución del 80% de las lesiones.


Introduction: blast plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasia (BPDCN) is an aggressive pathology and represents less than 1% of hematological neoplasms, it is characterized by violaceous nodular skin lesions without evidence of adenopathy in most cases. Observational studies show that the Hyper-CVAD chemotherapy protocol and consolidation with transplantation of hematopoietic progenitor cells have been associated with greater overall survival. Clinical case: a 82-year-old woman with a history of type Diabetes Mellitus with five months of hyperpigmented, raised, indurated, non-painful violaceous lesions on the cheek, arms, anterior and posterior thorax and legs. Evolution: Flow cytometry determined a phenotype compatible with pathological cells (5.86%) with CD123 ++, HLADR +++, NG2 ++, CD56 +++, CD4 ++, which suggests a BPDCN. The bone marrow biopsy showed infiltration. PET CT after corticosteroid therapy: there is no evidence of metabolically active macroscopic tumor disease. Dexamethasone treatment was started, with which skin lesions decreased by 80%. The CHOP-like Chemotherapy Protocol was started, she has received 6 cycles until October 2021, currently in complete remission. Conclusion: In the present case, the clinical course of NCDPB was not aggressive until the moment of closure of the case, presenting a decrease of 80% of the lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Case Reports , Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous , Dendritic Cell Sarcoma, Interdigitating , Dendritic Cells , Lymphoma
2.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(1): 76-81, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152788

ABSTRACT

Abstract Plasmacytoid dendritic cells are part of the dendritic cells family and are a relevant link between innate and adaptive immunity. They are the most potent producers of type 1 interferon, generating antiviral response, stimulating macrophages and dendritic cells and inducing activation and migration of natural killer cells. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells also exert a role as antigen-presenting cells, promote T-lymphocyte responses, immunoregulation, plasma cells differentiation and antibody secretion. Even though plasmacytoid dendritic cells are not usually present in normal skin, their presence is detected in healing processes, viral infections, and inflammatory, autoimmune, and neoplastic diseases. In recent years, the presence of plasmacytoid dendritic cells in several dermatological diseases has been described, enhancing their potential role in the pathogenesis of such conditions. Future studies on the role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells in dermatology may lead to new therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
Humans , Interferon Type I , Dermatology , Dendritic Cells , T-Lymphocytes , Immunity, Innate
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(9): e11062, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249335

ABSTRACT

Dendritic cells (DCs) play a crucial role as central orchestrators of immune system response in atherosclerosis initiation and progression. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is involved in the immune maturation of DCs, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We isolated mouse bone marrow progenitors and stimulated them with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin (IL)-4 to induce immature DCs. We then treated DCs with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) to induce maturation. LOX-1 siRNA was used to investigate the modulation of LOX-1 on the development of DCs and the underlying signal pathways. CD11c-positive DCs were successfully derived from mouse bone marrow progenitors. OxLDL promoted the expressions of DCs maturation markers and pro-inflammatory cytokines. OxLDL also upregulated LOX-1 expression and activated MAPK/NF-κB pathways. LOX-1 siRNA could attenuate the expression of MAPK/NF-κB pathways and inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, oxLDL induced the maturation of DCs via LOX-1-mediated MAPK/NF-κB pathway, which contributed to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Dendritic Cells , NF-kappa B , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Scavenger Receptors, Class E , Lipoproteins, LDL
4.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200560, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154882

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Anisakis simplex antigens present immunomodulatory properties by the induction of tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs) in mice. OBJECTIVES To study the capacity of DCs stimulated with A. simplex excretory-secretory (ES) or crude extract (CE) to generate Tregs. To investigate in vitro effects of antigens on the metabolic activity of splenocytes induced by LPS or CpG. METHODS Phenotypic and functional characterization of T cells co-cultured with A. simplex-pulsed DCs was performed by flow cytometry. Lymphocyte mitochondrial respiratory activity was estimated by the Alamar Blue® Assay. FINDINGS In C57BL/6J, CD4+CD25-Foxp3+ and CD8+CD25-Foxp3+ populations increased by CE-stimulated-DCs. In BALB/c, CE-stimulated-DCs caused the expansion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+IL-10+ and CD8+CD25+Foxp3+IL-10+. IFN-γ expression raised in BALB/c CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25- for CE and ES, respectively. ES-stimulated-DCs increased CD4+CD25+ Foxp3+ and CD8+CD25- Foxp3+ expression in T cells. The association of ES or CE with LPS produced the increase in splenocyte activity in C57BL/6J. The association of CE with CpG decreased the proliferation caused by CpG in C57BL/6J. MAIN CONCLUSIONS A. simplex increase the frequency of Tregs, which in turn produce IL-10 and IFN-γ. The host genetic base is essential in the development of anti-Anisakis immune responses (Th2, Th1, Treg).


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Anisakis , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Antigens/metabolism , Bone Marrow , Dendritic Cells , Forkhead Transcription Factors , Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit , Larva , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL
6.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(3): 307-313, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130882

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Clinical and histological features may overlap between lichen planopilaris-associated and discoid lupus erythematosus-associated scarring alopecia. Objectives: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the cutaneous infiltration of plasmacytoid dendritic cells and to compare their distribution pattern in discoid lupus erythematosus and lichen planopilaris. Methods: Twenty-four cases of discoid lupus erythematosus and 30 cases of lichen planopilaris were examined for immunostaining of the CD123 marker. The percentage and distribution pattern of plasmacytoid dendritic cells and the presence of the plasmacytoid dendritic cells clusters were evaluted in the samples. Results: The number of plasmacytoid dendritic cells was higher in the discoid lupus erythematosus specimens. Aggregations of 10 cells or more (large cluster) were observed in half of the discoid lupus erythematosus specimens and only 2 lichen planopilaris, with 50% sensitivity and 93% specificity for differentiating discoid lupus erythematosus from lichen planopilaris. Study limitations: Incidence and prevalence of discoid lupus erythematosus-associated scarring alopecia in the scalp are low, so the samples size of our study was small. Conclusions: We suggest that a plasmacytoid dendritic cells cluster of 10 cells or more is highly specific for distinguishing discoid lupus erythematosus from lichen planopilaris. It also appears that CD123 immunolabeling is valuable in both active and late stages of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Dendritic Cells/pathology , Lupus Erythematosus, Discoid/pathology , Interleukin-3 Receptor alpha Subunit/immunology , Lichen Planus/pathology , Reference Values , Staining and Labeling , Immunohistochemistry , Biomarkers , Retrospective Studies , Alopecia/pathology , Middle Aged
7.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(2): 144-149, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130851

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Anogenital warts are the leading sexually transmitted infection in patients seeking care at specialized clinics. They may display a vast array of forms, according to the interaction of the virus with the host's immunity. Cellular immunity is the epithelium's main form of defense against the virus, involving an active participation of the Langerhans cells and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α. Objective: To assess the epithelial immune response of anogenital warts in males, according to the number of lesions presented. Methods: This is a prospective, cross-sectional study carried out at the dermatology outpatient clinic in a tertiary hospital. We included male patients over 18 years of age without comorbidities who had anogenital condylomata and no previous treatments.In order to evaluate the local epithelial immunity, the lesions were quantified, then removed and employed in CD1a immunohistochemistry assays for assessing the morphometry and morphology of Langerhans cells; TNF-α; reaction was used for determining cytokine positivity in the epithelium. Results: 48 patients were included in the study. There was no statistically significant difference as to the number of Langerhans cells, in their morphology, or the presence of TNF-α. However, patients presenting with more Langerhans cells in the lesions had cells with a star-like and dendritic morphology, whereas in those with a lower cell count had cells with a rounded morphology and no dendrites (p < 0.001). Study limitations: Small number of patients analyzed. Conclusion: There was no difference in epithelial immunity between patients having few or many anogenital condyloma lesions as measured by the morphology and morphometry of Langerhans cells and TNF-α; positivity. Such an assessment employing immunity markers differing from the usual ones is expected to yield useful results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Anus Diseases/immunology , Condylomata Acuminata/immunology , Langerhans Cells/pathology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Genital Diseases, Male/immunology , Anus Diseases/pathology , Reference Values , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Condylomata Acuminata/pathology , Langerhans Cells/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology , Genital Diseases, Male/pathology
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(4): e9282, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089351

ABSTRACT

Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary disorder resulting from selective destruction of melanocytes. Emerging studies have suggested that T helper cell 17 (Th17) is potentially implicated in vitiligo development and progression. It was recently discovered that metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) can modulate Th17-mediated adaptive immunity. However, the influence of mGluR4 on melanogenesis of melanocytes has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, we primarily cultured mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) and then knocked down and over-expressed mGluR4 using transfection. Transduced BMDC were co-cultured with CD4+ T cells and the expression of Th17-related cytokines were measured. The morphology and melanogenesis of B16 cells were observed after being treated with co-culture medium of CD4+ T cells and transduced BMDC. We found that mGluR4 knockdown did not affect the co-stimulatory CD80 and CD86 upregulation after lipopolysaccharide stimulation but did increase the expression of Th17-related cytokines, and further down-regulated the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and the downstream genes, decreased melanin production, and destroyed the morphology of B16 cells. Conversely, over-expression of mGluR4 reduced the expression of CD80 and CD86, suppressed the production of Th17-related cytokines, increased the expression of MITF, and did not destroy the morphology of B16 cells. Our study confirmed that mGluR4 modulated the Th17 cell polarization and resulted in the alteration of melanogenesis and morphology of B16 cells. Collectively, these findings suggest mGluR4 might be a potent target involved in the immune pathogenesis of vitiligo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Vitiligo/immunology , Dendritic Cells/cytology , Bone Marrow Cells/cytology , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate/physiology , Th17 Cells/immunology , Vitiligo/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering/immunology , Th17 Cells/cytology , Flow Cytometry , Melanins/biosynthesis , Melanocytes/cytology , Mice, Inbred C57BL
9.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180379, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132267

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hippocampus is a part of the brain that has a major role in spatial learning and memory which can be affected by herbal extracts. Incense resin (Styrax benzoin) has been used by local communities to improve intelligence. However, there is no scientific evidence of the functions of Styrax benzoin for regulating hippocampal function. The aim of this study was intended to analyze and investigate the effect of incense resin on learning, memory, and dendrite complexity of mice. Three months old male Deutch Democratic Yokohama (DDY) mice were injected orally with graded doses of 100, 150, and 200 mg/kg of incense resin aqueous extract daily for 30 days. Spatial learning and memory performance levels were tested with Y-maze alternation, novel object recognition, and Morris water maze. The branches and maximum dendritic span in the dentate gyrus were observed by the Golgi-Cox staining. Overall, our results showed that incense resin extract increased learning and memory ability, and the number of dendrite branching in the dentate gyrus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Styrax/chemistry , Spatial Learning/drug effects , Memory/drug effects , Administration, Oral , Maze Learning/drug effects
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811060

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Simple and reliable animal models of human diseases contribute to the understanding of disease pathogenesis as well as the development of therapeutic interventions. Although several murine models to mimic human asthma have been established, most of them require anesthesia, resulting in variability among test individuals, and do not mimic asthmatic responses accompanied by T-helper (Th) 17 and neutrophils. As dendritic cells (DCs) are known to play an important role in initiating and maintaining asthmatic inflammation, we developed an asthma model via adoptive transfer of allergen-loaded DCs.METHODS: Ovalbumin (OVA)-loaded bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) (OVA-BMDCs) were injected intravenously 3 times into non-anesthetized C57BL/6 mice after intraperitoneal OVA-sensitization.RESULTS: OVA-BMDC-transferred mice developed severe asthmatic immune responses when compared with mice receiving conventional OVA challenge intranasally. Notably, remarkable increases in systemic immunoglobulin (Ig) E and IgG1 responses, Th2/Th17-associated cytokines (interleukin [IL]-5, IL-13 and IL-17), Th2/Th17-skewed T-cell responses, and cellular components, including eosinophils, neutrophils, and goblet cells, were observed in the lungs of OVA-BMDC-transferred mice. Moreover, the asthmatic immune responses and severity of inflammation were correlated with the number of OVA-BMDCs transferred, indicating that the disease severity and asthma type may be adjusted according to the experimental purpose by this method. Furthermore, this model exhibited less variation among the test individuals than the conventional model. In addition, this DCs-based asthma model was partially resistant to steroid treatment.CONCLUSIONS: A reliable murine model of asthma by intravenous (i.v.) transfer of OVA-BMDCs was successfully established without anesthesia. This model more accurately reflects heterogeneous human asthma, exhibiting a robust Th2/Th17-skewed response and eosinophilic/neutrophilic infiltration with good reproducibility and low variation among individuals. This model will be useful for understanding the pathogenesis of asthma and would serve as an alternative tool for immunological studies on the function of DCs, T-cell responses and new drugs.


Subject(s)
Adoptive Transfer , Anesthesia , Animals , Asthma , Cytokines , Dendritic Cells , Eosinophils , Goblet Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulins , Inflammation , Interleukin-13 , Lung , Methods , Mice , Models, Animal , Neutrophils , Ovalbumin , Ovum , T-Lymphocytes
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787139

ABSTRACT

We previously demonstrated that Bordetella bronchiseptica (B. bronchiseptica) antigen (Ag) enhances the Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Ag-specific immune response. The focus of this study was whether acellular bacterin of B. bronchiseptica could be used as an adjuvant to increase antigen-presenting capability of dendritic cells (DCs) by increasing the level of activation. The metabolic activity of DCs was increased by B. bronchiseptica, similar to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Flow cytometry analysis revealed that B. bronchiseptica increases the expression of major histocompatibility complex class-2, cluster of differentiation (CD)40, CD54, and CD86 which are closely related to DC-mediated immune responses. B. bronchiseptica enhanced the production of cytokines related to adaptive immune responses. Furthermore, the survival rate of B. bronchiseptica-injected groups was 100% at 15 and 20 mg/kg doses, whereas that of LPS-injected groups was only 20%, 0% at 15 and 20 mg/kg doses respectively, and so B. bronchiseptica is likely to be safer than LPS. Taken together, these results indicate that B. bronchiseptica can be used as an adjuvant to enhance the antigen-presenting capability of DCs. B. bronchiseptica is a candidate for producing vaccines, especially in case of DC-mediating efficacy and safety demands. This study provides researchers and clinicians with valuable information regarding the usage of B. bronchiseptica as a safe bacteria-derived immunostimulating agent for developing efficient vaccines.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Vaccines , Bordetella bronchiseptica , Bordetella , Cytokines , Dendritic Cells , Flow Cytometry , Immunization , Major Histocompatibility Complex , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae , Survival Rate , Vaccines
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878349

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a vaccine based on latent membrane protein 2 (LMP2) modified dendritic cells (DCs) that boosts specific responses of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) to LMP2 before and after intradermal injection in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).@*Methods@#DCs were derived from peripheral blood monocytes of patients with NPC. We prepared LMP2-DCs infected by recombinant adenovirus vector expressing LMP2 (rAd-LMP2). NPC patients were immunized with 2 × 10 @*Results@#We demonstrated that DCs derived from monocytes displayed typical DC morphologies; the expression of LMP2 in the LMP2-DCs vaccine was confirmed by immunocytochemical assay. Twenty-nine patients with NPC were enrolled in this clinical trial. The LMP2-DCs vaccine was well tolerated in all of the patients. Boosted responses to LMP2 peptide sub-pools were observed in 18 of the 29 patients with NPC. The follow-up data of 29 immunized patients from April, 2010 to April 2015 indicated a five-year survival rate of 94.4% in responders and 45.5% in non-responders.@*Conclusion@#In this pilot study, we demonstrated that the LMP2-DCs vaccine is safe and effective in patients with NPC. Specific CTLs responses to LMP2 play a certain role in controlling and preventing the recurrence and metastasis of NPC, which warrants further clinical testing.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Cancer Vaccines/therapeutic use , China , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunotherapy/methods , Injections, Intradermal , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma/therapy , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/therapy , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , Viral Matrix Proteins/therapeutic use , Young Adult
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828853

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the changes in the exosomes secreted by mouse dendritic cell line DC2.4 after infection with and to analyze the possible regulatory mechanisms underlying such changes.@*METHODS@#The exosomes were extracted by ultracentrifugation from DC2.4 cells at 28 h after infection with . The morphology of the exosomes was examined with transmission electron microscopy, and the exosome size and density were determined using a nanoparticle tracker. High-throughput sequencing was carried out to identify the differentially expressed small RNAs in the exosomes derived from the infected cells.@*RESULTS@# infection resulted in a significantly increased density of exosomes secreted by DC2.4 cells. Small RNA sequencing revealed that infection caused an increase in the number of miRNAs and piRNAs in the exosomes. The significantly up-regulated piRNAs after the infection included piR-mmu-159, piR-mmu-1526, piR-mmu-9082, piR-mmu-17405, and piR-mmu-25576.@*CONCLUSIONS@# infection causes accumulation and enrichment of exosomes secreted by DC2.4 cells with increased miRNAs and piRNAs in the exosomes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Line , Dendritic Cells , Exosomes , Mice , MicroRNAs , RNA, Small Interfering , Toxoplasma
14.
Braz. dent. j ; 30(6): 617-625, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055455

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to determine if the distribution of Langerhans cells (LC) and interstitial dendritic cells (IDC) is altered in AIDS-associated oral Kaposi's sarcoma when compared to HIV-negative highly vascular oral lesions. Fifty-one cases of AIDS-associated oral Kaposi's sarcoma and 20 of highly vascular oral lesions were retrospectively retrieved. All cases of Kaposi's sarcoma were confirmed with immunoreactions against CD34 and HHV-8. Clinical data regarding sex, age and lesions location were obtained from pathology reports. Immunohistochemistry against CD207 (immature dendritic cells) and CD83 (mature dendritic cells) were done. LC were in the epithelium and IDC in the stroma. CD207+ cells predominated in the epithelium of the lesions, whereas CD83+ cells predominated in their stromal compartment. Kaposi's sarcoma had a lower CD207+ immature LC count (p=0.02) and an increased CD207+ IDC than highly vascular oral lesions (p<0.001). Moreover, Kaposi's sarcoma also showed an increased number of mature CD83+ IDC than highly vascular oral lesions (p<0.001). There were significant alterations in the distribution of LC and IDC in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma when compared to HIV-negative vascular oral lesions, suggesting that changes in their concentrations may play a role in the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar se a distribuição das células de Langerhans (CL) e das células dendríticas intersticiais (CDI) está alterada no sarcoma de Kaposi oral associado à AIDS quando comparado às lesões orais altamente vasculares HIV-negativas. 51 casos de sarcoma de Kaposi oral associado à AIDS e 20 de lesões orais altamente vasculares foram recuperados retrospectivamente. Todos os casos de sarcoma de Kaposi foram confirmados pela positividade para os anticorpos CD34 e HHV-8. Dados clínicos sobre sexo, idade e localização das lesões foram obtidos dos laudos histopatológicos. Foram realizadas imunoistoquímica contra CD207 (células dendríticas imaturas) e CD83 (células dendríticas maduras). As CL estavam presentes no epitélio enquanto as CDI estavam presentes no estroma. As células CD207+ predominaram no epitélio das lesões, enquanto as células CD83+ predominaram no estroma. O sarcoma de Kaposi teve uma contagem mais baixa de CD imaturas CD207+ (p = 0,02) e número aumentado de CDC CD207+ do que lesões orais altamente vasculares (p<0,001). Além disso, o sarcoma de Kaposi também mostrou um número aumentado de CDI CD83+ maduras do que lesões orais altamente vasculares (p<0,001). Houve alterações significativas na distribuição de CL e CDI no sarcoma de Kaposi associado à AIDS quando comparado às lesões orais vasculares HIV-negativas, sugerindo que alterações na distribuição das mesmas podem desempenhar um papel na patogênese do sarcoma de Kaposi.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sarcoma, Kaposi , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Herpesvirus 8, Human , Dendritic Cells , Retrospective Studies
15.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(6): 747-750, Nov.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054880

ABSTRACT

Abstract Melanoacanthoma is a rare variant of seborrheic keratosis, which is notable for dark pigmentation and fast radial growth, making it difficult to distinguish from melanoma. Histologically, it is characterized by proliferation of keratinocytes and dendritic melanocytes. The authors report a scalp lesion, fast growing, suspected by dermoscopy and confocal microscopy examination, with dendritic cells distributed throughout the lesion. Based on these findings, it was not possible to classify this lesion as clearly benign, so it was excised. Histopathologic evaluation and immunostain were consistent with melanoacanthoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Scalp Dermatoses/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Keratosis, Seborrheic/pathology , Acanthoma/pathology , Dendritic Cells/pathology , Microscopy, Confocal/methods , Dermoscopy , Melanocytes/pathology
16.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 23(2): 145-153, maio-ago. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-996728

ABSTRACT

A coqueluche é uma doença infecciosa aguda, transmissível, com predileção pelo trato respiratório, caracterizada por paroxismos de tosse seca e considerada uma importante causa de morbidade e mortalidade infantil. A resposta imunológica humoral e celular do hospedeiro promove a contenção da infecção, pois essas respostas se caracterizam como importantes linhas de defesa durante a infecção e colonização da bactéria. Dessa forma, esta revisão bibliográfica procurou descrever os mecanismos mais eficazes de resposta imune contra Bordetella pertussis e abordar os mecanismos de evasão utilizados pelo patógeno.


Pertussis is a transmissible infectious disease with a predilection for the respiratory tract characterized by paroxysms of dry cough. It is considered an important cause of child morbidity and mortality. The humoral and cellular immune responses of the host promote the containment of the infection, and these responses are characterized as important lines of defense during infection and colonization of the bacterium. Thus, this literature review sought to describe the most effective immune response mechanisms against Bordetella pertussis and to address the avoidance mechanisms used by the pathogen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bordetella pertussis , Whooping Cough , Bacteria , Dendritic Cells , Vaccines , Mortality , Cough/diagnosis , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Immunity, Cellular , Macrophages , Neutrophils , Noxae
17.
VozAndes ; 30(2): 43-47, 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1050606

ABSTRACT

La Neoplasia de Células Dendríticas Plasmocitoides blásticas (Blastic Plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm ­ BPDCN) es una neoplasia hematológica rara, agresiva, de difícil diagnóstico y con alta mortalidad. Se describe el primer caso en el Ecuador de un paciente joven sin antecedentes patológicos relevantes, ingresado al servicio de Medicina Interna del Hospital Enrique Garcés por presentar máculas cutáneas, artralgias y mialgias, que se complica con derrame pleural tipo exudativo y mala mecánica respiratoria. Exámenes de extensión revelaron: Leucemia mieloide aguda de tipo M2, motivo por el cual fue referido a centro oncológico de referencia para completar estudio y manejo. Estudios citogenéticos y fenotípicos corroboraron el diagnóstico de BPDCN, se instauró tratamiento con protocolo Hyper-CVAD, sin embargo, el paciente presentó compromiso respiratorio, renal y hematológico que progresó a choque refractario y óbito. La naturaleza agresiva de esta rara leucemia es una limitante en el tiempo para instaurar un tratamiento dirigido, determinando en la mayoría de los casos una alta mortalidad


La Neoplasia de Células Dendríticas Plasmocitoides blásticas (Blastic Plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm ­ BPDCN) es una neoplasia hematológica rara, agresiva, de difícil diagnóstico y con alta mortalidad. Se describe el primer caso en el Ecuador de un paciente joven sin antecedentes patológicos relevantes, ingresado al servicio de Medicina Interna del Hospital Enrique Garcés por presentar máculas cutáneas, artralgias y mialgias, que se complica con derrame pleural tipo exudativo y mala mecánica respiratoria. Exámenes de extensión revelaron: Leucemia mieloide aguda de tipo M2, motivo por el cual fue referido a centro oncológico de referencia para completar estudio y manejo. Estudios citogenéticos y fenotípicos corroboraron el diagnóstico de BPDCN, se instauró tratamiento con protocolo Hyper-CVAD, sin embargo, el paciente presentó compromiso respiratorio, renal y hematológico que progresó a choque refractario y óbito. La naturaleza agresiva de esta rara leucemia es una limitante en el tiempo para instaurar un tratamiento dirigido, determinando en la mayoría de los casos una alta mortalidad


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Bone Marrow/immunology , Leukemia , Dendritic Cells , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Neoplasms
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190102, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012680

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Once in the pulmonary alveoli, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) enters into contact with alveolar macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). DCs represent the link between the innate and adaptive immune system owing to their capacity to be both a sentinel and an orchestrator of the antigen-specific immune responses against Mtb. The effect that the virulence of Mtb has on the interaction between the bacilli and human DCs has not been fully explored. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of Mtb virulence on human monocyte-derived DCs. METHODS We exposed human monocyte-derived DCs to Mtb clinical strains (isolated from an epidemiological Mtb diversity study in Mexico) bearing different degrees of virulence and evaluated the capacity of DCs to internalise the bacilli, control intracellular growth, engage cell death pathways, express markers for activation and antigen presentation, and expand to stimulate autologous CD4+ T cells proliferation. FINDINGS In the case of the hypervirulent Mtb strain (Phenotype 1, strain 9005186, lineage 3), we report that DCs internalise and neutralise intracellular growth of the bacilli, undergo low rates of apoptosis, and contribute poorly to T-cell expansion, as compared to the H37Rv reference strain. In the case of the hypovirulent Mtb strain (Phenotype 4, strain 9985449, lineage 4), although DCs internalise and preclude proliferation of the bacilli, the DCs also display a high level of apoptosis, massive levels of apoptosis that prevent them from maintaining autologous CD4+ T cells in a co-culture system, as compared to H37Rv. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that variability in virulence among Mtb clinical strains affects the capacity of DCs to respond to pathogenic challenge and mount an immune response against it, highlighting important parallels to studies previously done in mouse models.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dendritic Cells , T-Lymphocytes , Mycobacterium tuberculosis
19.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2019. xv, 113 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049507

ABSTRACT

O Toxoplasma gondii é um parasito intracelular obrigatório, capaz de infectar vários tipos de células nucleadas, sendo compartimentalizado no vacúolo parasitóforo. Uma vez no vacúolo, o parasita é capaz de induzir diversas alterações na célula hospedeira que visam sua sobrevivência, dentre elas, a indução da biogênese de corpúsculos lipídicos (CLs). CLs são organelas presentes em todos os tipos celulares, com várias funções como, armazenamento de lipídios, regulação do metabolismo lipídico, tráfego de membranas e controle da síntese e secreção de mediadores inflamatórios. Porém, até o momento, pouco se sabe a respeito da função dos CLs na infecção pelo T. gondii em células humanas. Neste trabalho investigamos a participação dos CLs durante a infecção de células dendríticas humanas (hDC) por T. gondii. Nossos dados mostraram na cinética de infecção em hDC, pico de infecção e replicação em 24 horas (30%), seguidos de queda em 48 horas (10%). A infecção promoveu aumento de CD83 e MHC II na membrana, além da produção de TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IP-10 e MIF. A análise da viabilidade do parasita intracelular mostrou que as hDC foram capazes de destruir os parasitos intracelulares (60%). A infecção levou à perda da viabilidade da célula hospedeira em 48 horas de infecção (50%), ao mesmo tempo em que induziu a maior biogênese de CLs nessas células (30CL/cél)


O aumento da taxa de infecção fez com que a biogênese de CLs e a perda da viabilidade das células hospedeiras ocorressem de forma mais precoce, já em 24 horas de infecção. Os tratamentos com o inibidor (C75) da enzima ácido graxo sintase (FAS) ou inibidor (A922500) da enzima diacilglicerol aciltransferase 1 (DGAT1) foram capazes de reduzir a biogênese de CLs (3 CL/cél) e diminuíram também o percentual de células infectadas e a taxa de replicação do parasito, fazendo com que ela ocorresse de forma mais lenta. O mesmo fenômeno pôde ser visto quando as células foram cultivadas em soro fetal bovino delipidado. Além disso, os tratamentos se mostraram protetivos para as células hospedeiras durante a infecção, mantendo sua viabilidade (~80%). O tratamento com o inibidor da DGAT1 ainda reduziu a presença de MHC I na membrana. A suplementação com ácido oleico em células tratadas com o inibdor da DGAT1, recuperou a taxa de infecção e, de forma parcial, auxiliou na replicação do parasita frente à ausência dos CLs. Em conclusão, nossos dados sugerem que os CLs possuem funções tanto como fonte de nutrientes para o T. gondii, quanto na modulação da resposta imune da hDC. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Toxoplasma , Dendritic Cells , Toxoplasmosis
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763148

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) as a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) presentation method for dendritic cell (DC) sensitization and evaluate its effect in combination with immunotherapy using an intratumoral injection of immature DCs (iDCs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: CT-26 colon carcinoma cell was used as a cancer cell line. Annexin V staining and phagocytosis assays were performed to determine the appropriate radiation dose and incubation time to generate TAAs. BALB/c mice were used for in vivo experiments. Cancer cells were injected into the right legs and left flanks to generate primary and metastatic tumors, respectively. The mice were subjected to radiation therapy (RT) alone, intradermal injection of electroporated DCs alone, or RT in combination with iDC intratumoral injection (RT/iDC). Tumor growth measurement and survival rate analysis were performed. Enzyme-linked immunospot and cytotoxicity assays were performed to observe the effect of different treatments on the immune system. RESULTS: Annexin V staining and phagocytosis assays showed that 15 Gy radiation dose and 48 hours of incubation was appropriate for subsequent experiments. Maximum DC sensitization and T-cell stimulation was observed with RT as compared to other TAA preparation methods. In vivo assays revealed statistically significant delay in the growth of both primary and metastatic tumors in the RT/iDC group. The overall survival rate was the highest in the RT/iDC group. CONCLUSION: The combination of SBRT and iDC vaccination may enhance treatment effects. Clinical trials and further studies are warranted in the future.


Subject(s)
Animals , Annexin A5 , Cell Line , Colon , Dendritic Cells , Immune System , Immunotherapy , Injections, Intradermal , Leg , Methods , Mice , Phagocytosis , Radiation Dosage , Radiosurgery , Survival Rate , T-Lymphocytes , Vaccination
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