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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007911

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Anemia is a common public health concern in patients with type 2 diabetes worldwide. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of anemia among patients with diabetes.@*METHODS@#Electronic databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Sciences, and Google Scholar, were searched systematically for studies published between 2010 and 2021. After removing duplicates and inappropriate reports, the remaining manuscripts were reviewed and appraised using theNewcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) tool. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled estimates of the extracted data using Stata version 17. Heterogeneity of the studies was assessed using the Q statistic.@*RESULTS@#A total of 51 articles containing information on 26,485 patients with diabetes were included in this study. The articles were mainly from Asia (58.82%) and Africa (35.29%). The overall prevalence of anemia was 35.45% (95% CI: 30.30-40.76), with no evidence of heterogeneity by sex. Among the two continents with the highest number of studies, the prevalence of anemia in patients with diabetes was significantly higher in Asia [40.02; 95% CI: 32.72-47.54] compared to Africa [28.46; 95% CI: 21.90-35.50] ( P for heterogeneity = 0.029). Moreover, there has been an increasing trend in the prevalence of anemia in patients with diabetes over time, from [15.28; 95% CI: 9.83-22.21] in 2012 to [40.70; 95% CI: 10.21-75.93] in 2022.@*CONCLUSION@#Globally, approximately 4 in 10 patients with diabetes suffer from anemia. Therefore, routine anemia screening and control programs every 3 months might be useful in improving the quality of life of these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Prevalence , Quality of Life , Anemia/etiology , Asia/epidemiology
2.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 151(2): 206-221, feb. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1522069

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO) is a serious complication of infected ulcers in a diabetic patient. The identification of the infecting microorganisms is generally by culture, which causes a bias. Recently, metagenomics has been used for microbial identification. AIM: To systematically review the scientific literature related to DFO in the last 10 years to evaluate if culture and metagenomics are complementary. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To carry out the systematic review, PRISMA and Rayyan were used for the selection of studies, using three databases, using the keywords diabetes, osteomyelitis, culture and microbiome. Articles in English or Spanish were included, containing information related to bacterial identification in DFO. Characteristics of the technique, patients and frequency of bacterial appearance were collected. RESULTS: Twenty six articles were included, 19 used culture and 7 metagenomics. The patients were predominantly men (68%), with an average age of 61 years, 83% had type 2 diabetes and comorbidities, mainly vascular and neuropathy. The Families with the highest frequency of appearance using the culture technique were Enterobacteriaceae (29.3%) and Staphylococcaceae(28.3%) and with metagenomics Peptoniphilaceae (22.1%) and Staphylococcaceae (9.4%). Peptoniphilaceae were not identified in culture, although they were frequently identified by metagenomics. Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus, regularly identified by culture, was not identified using metagenomics. CONCLUSIONS: Comparing results, there is a certain complementarity between microbiological culture and sequencing to identify bacteria present in DFO.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Osteomyelitis/etiology , Osteomyelitis/microbiology , Diabetic Foot/complications , Diabetic Foot/diagnosis , Diabetic Foot/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Bacteria , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 86(1): 27-32, Jan.-Feb. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403483

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between subfoveal choroidal thickness and plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine level and the severity of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: A total of 68 cases, including 15 patients without diabetic retinopathy, 17 patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, 16 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and 20 healthy patients (control group), were enrolled in this study. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was measured manually using the enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography scanning program, and plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine level was measured using a commercial micro enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Results: The subfoveal choroidal thickness values and plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine levels were significantly different between the four groups (p<0.001 and p<0.001). The subfoveal choroidal thickness values were significantly lower in the proliferative diabetic retinopathy group than in the other three groups (no diabetic retinopathy, nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, and control groups; p<0.001, p=0.045, and p<0.001, respectively). The plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine levels were significantly higher in the proliferative diabetic retinopathy group than in the other three groups (p<0.001, p<0.04, and p<0.001, respectively). In addition, a significant negative correlation was also found between plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine level and subfoveal choroidal thickness (p<0.001, r=-0.479). Conclusion: Asymmetrical dimethylarginine is an important marker of endothelial dysfunction and endogenous endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. The severity of diabetic retinopathy was related to increased plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine level and reduced subfoveal choroidal thickness in type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic retinopathy.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a relação da espessura subfoveal da coroide e dos níveis plasmáticos de dimetil-arginina assimétrica com a gravidade da retinopatia diabética em pacientes com diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Métodos: Foram incluídos 68 casos, compreendendo 15 pacientes sem retinopatia diabética, 17 pacientes com retinopatia diabética não proliferativa, 16 pacientes com retinopatia diabética proliferativa, e 20 casos saudáveis (grupo de controle). A espessura subfoveal da coroide foi medida manualmente, usando o programa de varredura com tomografia computadorizada óptica com imagem profunda aprimorada, e os níveis plasmáticos de dimetil-arginina assimétrica foram medidos usando um kit microELISA comercial. Resultados: Os valores da espessura subfoveal da coroide e os níveis plasmáticos de dimetil-arginina assimétrica foram significativamente diferentes nos quatro grupos (p<0,001 para ambos os parâmetros). Os valores da espessura subfoveal da coroide foram significativamente menores no grupo com retinopatia diabética proliferativa do que nos outros três grupos (sem retinopatia diabética, retinopatia diabética não proliferativa e grupo de controle, com p<0,001, p=0,045 e p<0,001, respectivamente). Já os níveis plasmáticos de dimetil-arginina assimétrica foram significativamente maiores no grupo com retinopatia diabética proliferativa do que nos outros três grupos (p<0,001, p=0,04 e p<0,001, respectivamente). Além disso, também foi encontrada uma correlação negativa significativa entre os níveis plasmáticos de dimetil-arginina assimétrica e a espessura subfoveal da coroide (p<0,001, r=-0,479). Conclusão: A dimetil-arginina assimétrica é um importante marcador de disfunção endotelial e um inibidor endógeno da óxido nítrico sintase. Foi encontrada uma relação da gravidade da retinopatia diabética e de níveis elevados de dimetil-arginina assimétrica no plasma com a redução da espessura subfoveal da coroide em pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 com retinopatia diabética.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arginine , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Retinopathy , Arginine/blood , Arginine/analogs & derivatives , Case-Control Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetic Retinopathy/diagnosis
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010339

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#The intestinal microbial characteristics of patients with simple cerebral infarction (CI) and CI complicated with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (CI-T2DM) are still not clear. This study aims to analyze the differences in the variable characteristics of intestinal flora between patients simply with CI and CI-T2DM.@*METHODS@#This study retrospectively collected the patients who were admitted to the Affiliated Hospital of Putian University from September 2021 to September 2022. The patients were divided into a CI group (n=12) and a CI-T2DM group (n=12). Simultaneously, 12 healthy people were selected as a control group. Total DNA was extracted from feces specimens. Illumina Novaseq sequencing platform was used for metagenomic sequencing. The Knead Data software, Kraken2 software, and Bracken software were applied for sequencing analysis.@*RESULTS@#At phylum level, the average ratio of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria in the CI-T2DM group were 33.07%, 54.80%, and 7.00%, respectively. In the CI group, the ratios of each were 14.03%, 69.62%, and 11.13%, respectively, while in the control group, the ratios were 50.99%, 37.67%, and 5.24%, respectively. There was significant differences in the distribution of Firmicutes (F=6.130, P=0.011) among the 3 groups. At the family level, compared with the CI group, the relative abundance of Eubacteriaceae (t=8.062, P<0.001) in the CI-T2DM group was significantly increased, while Corynebacteriaceae (t=4.471, P<0.001), Methanobacteriaceae (t=3.406, P=0.003), and Pseudomonadaceae (t=2.352, P=0.028) were decreased significantly. At the genus level, compared with the CI group, there was a relative abundance of Cutibacterium (t=6.242, P<0.001), Eubacterium (t=8.448, P<0.001), and Blautia (t=3.442, P=0.002) in the CI-T2DM group which was significantly increased. In terms of Methanobrevibacter (t=3.466, P=0.002), Pyramidobacter (t=2.846, P=0.009) and Pseudomonas (t=2.352, P=0.028), their distributions were decreased significantly in the CI-T2DM group. At the species level, compared with the CI group, the relative abundance of Cutibacterium acnes (t=6.242, P<0.001) in the CI-T2DM group was significantly increased, while Pseudomonas aeruginosa (t=2.352, P=0.028) was decreased significantly. Still at the genus level, linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) analysis showed that the distributions of Pseudomonas and Blautia were determined to be the most significantly different between the CI-T2DM and the CI group. At the species level, the total number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the 3 groups was 1 491. There were 169, 221, and 192 kinds of OTUs unique to the CI-T2DM, CI, and control group, respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#From phylum level to species level, the composition of intestinal flora in the patients with CI-T2DM is different from those in the patients simply with CI. The change in the proportion of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteus compared with the healthy population is an important feature of intestinal flora imbalance in the patients with CI and with CI-T2DM. Attention should be paid to the differential distribution of Bacteroides monocytogenes and butyrate producing bacteria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Retrospective Studies , Bacteria/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982482

ABSTRACT

Periodontitis is an infectious disease caused by an imbalance between the local microbiota and host immune response. Epidemiologically, periodontitis is closely related to the occurrence, development, and poor prognosis of T2D and is recognized as a potential risk factor for T2D. In recent years, increasing attention has been given to the role of the virulence factors produced by disorders of the subgingival microbiota in the pathological mechanism of T2D, including islet β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance (IR). However, the related mechanisms have not been well summarized. This review highlights periodontitis-derived virulence factors, reviews how these stimuli directly or indirectly regulate islet β-cell dysfunction. The mechanisms by which IR is induced in insulin-targeting tissues (the liver, visceral adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle) are explained, clarifying the influence of periodontitis on the occurrence and development of T2D. In addition, the positive effects of periodontal therapy on T2D are overviewed. Finally, the limitations and prospects of the current research are discussed. In summary, periodontitis is worthy of attention as a promoting factor of T2D. Understanding on the effect of disseminated periodontitis-derived virulence factors on the T2D-related tissues and cells may provide new treatment options for reducing the risk of T2D associated with periodontitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Periodontitis
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982342

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Diabetic kidney disease is one of the most serious complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), and it is a main cause for chronic kidney disease and end-stage kidney disease (ESRD). It is important to find out the factors that cause the progression of renal function. The study aims to explore the relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) trajectory and the progression of renal function in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).@*METHODS@#A total of 846 patients with T2DM, who were admitted to the Department of Nephrology and Endocrinology, the Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, from January 2009 to December 2021 and met the criteria of baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)≥60 mL/(min·1.73 m2), were selected as the research subjects. The SUA data of multiple measurements were collected and identified as different SUA trajectories by group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM). According to the SUA trajectories, the patients were divided into a low trajectory group (105 cases), a middle trajectory group (396 cases), a middle high trajectory group (278 cases), and a high trajectory group (67 cases). Cox regression analysis was used to examine the effect of SUA trajectory on the progression of renal function in patients with T2DM. Subgroup analysis was performed by sex, age, course of disease, body mass index (BMI) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c).@*RESULTS@#The median follow-up was 4.8 years. At the end of follow-up, 158 patients had different degrees of decline in renal function. After adjusting for multiple confounding factors by Cox regression analysis, the risks of eGFR<60 mL/(min·1.73 m2), eGFR reduction rate≥50%, serum creatinine (Scr) doubling and composite endpoint (eGFR reduction rate≥50%, Scr doubling or ESRD) in the high trajectory group were significantly higher than those in the low trajectory group, with HR of 3.84 (95% CI 1.83 to 8.05), 6.90 (95% CI 2.27 to 20.96), 6.29 (95% CI 2.03 to 19.52), and 8.04 (95% CI 2.68 to 24.18), respectively. There was no significant difference in the risk of ESRD among the above 4 groups (all P>0.05). Subgroup analysis showed that: compared with the low trajectory group, the risks of eGFR<60 mL/(min·1.73 m2) in patients with high trajectory in the subgroup of male, female, age<65 years, course of disease<10 years, BMI≥24 kg/m2 and HbA1c≥7% were increased (all P<0.05). The SUA trajectory had no interaction with sex, age, course of disease, BMI and HbA1c (all interactive P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The high SUA trajectory increases the risk for progression of renal function in patients with T2DM. Long-term longitudinal changes of SUA should be paid attention to.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Cohort Studies , Uric Acid , Glycated Hemoglobin , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Kidney/physiology , Risk Factors
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971369

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#The excretion of urinary vitamin D-binding protein (uVDBP) is related to the occurrence and development of early-stage renal damage in patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). This study aims to explore the significance of detecting uVDBP in T2DM patients and its relationship with renal tubules, and to provide a new direction for the early diagnosis of T2DM renal damage.@*METHODS@#A total of 105 patients with T2DM, who met the inclusion criteria, were included as a patient group, and recruited 30 individuals as a normal control group. The general information and blood and urine biochemical indicators of all subjects were collected; the levels of uVDBP, and a marker of tubular injury [urine kidney injury molecule 1 (uKIM-1), urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) and urine retinol-binding protein (uRBP)] were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results were corrected by urinary creatinine (Cr) to uVDBP/Cr, uKIM-1/Cr, uNGAL/Cr and uRBP/Cr. The Pearson's and Spearman's correlation tests were used to analyze the correlation between uVDBP/Cr and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and markers of tubular injury, and multivariate linear regression and receiver operating characteristic curve were used to analyze the correlation between uVDBP/Cr and UACR or eGFR.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the normal control group, the uVDBP/Cr level in the patient group was increased (P<0.05), and which was positively correlated with UACR (r=0.774, P<0.01), and negatively correlated with eGFR (r=-0.397, P<0.01). There were differences in the levels of uKIM-1/Cr, uNGAL/Cr, and uRBP/Cr between the 2 groups (all P<0.01). The uVDBP/Cr was positively correlated with uKIM-1/Cr (r=0.752, P<0.01), uNGAL/Cr (r=0.644, P<0.01) and uRBP/Cr (r=0.812, P<0.01). The sensitivity was 90.0% and the specificity was 82.9% (UACR>30 mg/g) for evaluation of uVDBP/Cr on T2DM patients with early-stage renal damage, while the sensitivity was 75.0% and the specificity was 72.6% for evaluation of eGFR on T2DM patients with early-stage renal damage.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The uVDBP/Cr can be used as a biomarker in early-stage renal damage in T2DM patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Creatinine , Vitamin D-Binding Protein/urine , Lipocalin-2/urine , Kidney/metabolism , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Biomarkers
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981050

ABSTRACT

Metformin has robust glucose-lowering effects and multiple benefits beyond hypoglycemic effects. It can also be used in combination with various hypoglycemic drugs and is cost effective. In the absence of the strong indications of glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) or sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) for cardiorenal protection, metformin should be used as the first-line pharmacological treatment for newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and the basic drug for the combined treatment of hypoglycemic drugs. Metformin does not increase the risk of liver and kidney function damage, but patients with renal dysfunction should adjust the dosage of metformin based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) levels. Moreover, the correct use of metformin does not increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Because long-term use of metformin is associated with a decrease in vitamin B12 levels, patients with insufficient intake or absorption of vitamin B12 should be regularly monitored and appropriately supplemented with vitamin B12. In view of the new progress made in the basic and clinical research related to metformin, the consensus updating expert group updated the consensus on the basis of the Expert Consensus on the Clinical Application of Metformin (2018 Edition).


Subject(s)
Humans , Consensus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Hypoglycemic Agents , Metformin/therapeutic use , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use , China
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1967-1976, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980991

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Management of gastric leak after sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is challenging due to its unpredictable outcomes. We aimed to summarize the characteristics of SG leaks and analyze interventions and corresponding outcomes in a real-world setting.@*METHODS@#To retrospectively review of 15,721 SG procedures from 2010 to 2020 based on a national registry. A cumulative sum analysis was used to identify a fitting curve of gastric leak rate. The Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank tests were performed to calculate and compare the probabilities of relevant outcomes. The logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the predictors of acute leaks.@*RESULTS@#A total of 78 cases of SG leaks were collected with an incidence of 0.5% (78/15,721) from this registry (6 patients who had the primary SG in non-participating centers). After accumulating 260 cases in a bariatric surgery center, the leak rate decreased to a stably low value of under 1.17%. The significant differences presented in sex, waist circumference, and the proportion of hypoproteinemia and type 2 diabetes at baseline between patients with SG leak and the whole registry population ( P = 0.005, = 0.026, <0.001, and = 0.001, respectively). Moreover, 83.1% (59/71) of the leakage was near the esophagogastric junction region. Leakage healed in 64 (88.9%, 64/72) patients. The median healing time of acute and non-acute leaks was 5.93 months and 8.12 months, respectively. Acute leak (38/72, 52.8%) was the predominant type with a cumulative reoperation rate >50%, whereas the cumulative healing probability in the patients who required surgical treatment was significantly lower than those requring non-surgical treatment ( P = 0.013). Precise dissection in the His angle area was independently associated with a lower acute leak rate, whereas preservation ≥2 cm distance from the His angle area was an independent risk factor.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Male sex, elevated waist circumference, hypoproteinaemia, and type 2 diabetes are risk factors of gastric leaks after SG. Optimizing surgical techniques, including precise dissection of His angle area and preservation of smaller gastric fundus, should be suggested to prevent acute leaks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Obesity, Morbid , Anastomotic Leak/epidemiology , Gastrectomy/methods , Reoperation/methods , Registries , Laparoscopy/methods , Treatment Outcome
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1401-1409, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980967

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#There is still uncertainty regarding whether diabetes mellitus (DM) can adversely affect patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for carotid stenosis. The aim of the study was to assess the adverse impact of DM on patients with carotid stenosis treated by CEA.@*METHODS@#Eligible studies published between 1 January 2000 and 30 March 2023 were selected from the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, CENTRAL, and ClinicalTrials databases. The short-term and long-term outcomes of major adverse events (MAEs), death, stroke, the composite outcomes of death/stroke, and myocardial infarction (MI) were collected to calculate the pooled effect sizes (ESs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and prevalence of adverse outcomes. Subgroup analysis by asymptomatic/symptomatic carotid stenosis and insulin/noninsulin-dependent DM was performed.@*RESULTS@#A total of 19 studies (n = 122,003) were included. Regarding the short-term outcomes, DM was associated with increased risks of MAEs (ES = 1.52, 95% CI: [1.15-2.01], prevalence = 5.1%), death/stroke (ES = 1.61, 95% CI: [1.13-2.28], prevalence = 2.3%), stroke (ES = 1.55, 95% CI: [1.16-1.55], prevalence = 3.5%), death (ES = 1.70, 95% CI: [1.25-2.31], prevalence =1.2%), and MI (ES = 1.52, 95% CI: [1.15-2.01], prevalence = 1.4%). DM was associated with increased risks of long-term MAEs (ES = 1.24, 95% CI: [1.04-1.49], prevalence = 12.2%). In the subgroup analysis, DM was associated with an increased risk of short-term MAEs, death/stroke, stroke, and MI in asymptomatic patients undergoing CEA and with only short-term MAEs in the symptomatic patients. Both insulin- and noninsulin-dependent DM patients had an increased risk of short-term and long-term MAEs, and insulin-dependent DM was also associated with the short-term risk of death/stroke, death, and MI.@*CONCLUSIONS@#In patients with carotid stenosis treated by CEA, DM is associated with short-term and long-term MAEs. DM may have a greater impact on adverse outcomes in asymptomatic patients after CEA. Insulin-dependent DM may have a more significant impact on post-CEA adverse outcomes than noninsulin-dependent DM. Whether DM management could reduce the risk of adverse outcomes after CEA requires further investigation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Endarterectomy, Carotid/adverse effects , Carotid Stenosis/surgery , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Time Factors , Stents/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Stroke/complications , Insulin/therapeutic use , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Risk Assessment
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008157

ABSTRACT

As the incidence of diabetes mellitus is rapidly increasing worldwide,that of related complications,such as diabetic kidney disease(DKD),also increases,conferring a heavy economic burden on the patients,families,society,and government.Diabetes mellitus complicated with chronic kidney disease(CKD)includes DKD and the CKD caused by other reasons.Because of the insufficient knowledge about CKD,the assessment of diabetes mellitus complicated with CKD remains to be improved.The therapies for diabetes mellitus complicated with CKD focus on reducing the risk factors.In clinical practice,DKD may not be the CKD caused by diabetes.According to clinical criteria,some non-diabetic kidney disease may be misdiagnosed as DKD and not be treated accurately.This review summarizes the status quo and research progress in the assessment,diagnosis,and treatment of diabetes mellitus complicated with CKD and predicts the directions of future research in this field.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetic Nephropathies/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Risk Factors , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007838

ABSTRACT

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is one of the major chronic complications of diabetes and is associated with a heavy disease burden. Since the release of the National Guidelines for the Prevention and Control of Diabetes in Primary Care (2018), there has been continuous improvement in the basic public health services and basic medical services of the primary care setting and an expansion of the scope of work. Therefore, more detailed technical guidelines for the prevention and management of diabetes and its complications in primary care are needed. This guide aims to promote the standardization of DKD prevention and control in primary care, to assist primary care physicians with the prevention and control of DKD, and to ensure the comprehensive management of patients with DKD. The contents include the basic requirements for the management, overview, screening, diagnosis and staging, treatment, follow-up, and referral of patients with DKD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetic Nephropathies/prevention & control , Primary Health Care
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008844

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Xianglian Pills(XLP) on lipid metabolism in obese mice and explore the underlying mechanism based on network pharmacology and intestinal flora. Firstly, network pharmacology was used to predict the possible effect of XLP on obesity. Secondly, an obese mouse model induced by a high-fat diet was established to observe changes in mouse body weight, adiposity index, liver and adipose tissue pathology. Lipid profiles, liver and kidney function markers, insulin content, and the expression of recombinant uncoupling protein 1(UCP-1) and PR structural domain protein 16(PRDM16) were measured. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing technology was used to analyze the changes in the intestinal flora. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis showed that XLP mainly played a role in improving obesity by regulating lipolysis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and insulin resistance. The results of animal experiments showed that XLP significantly reduced body weight, adiposity, blood lipid levels, and serum insulin levels in obese mice, while enhancing the expression of UCP-1 and PRDM16 in adipose tissue without causing damage to the liver or kidneys. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing results showed that XLP decreased the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes(F/B) ratio at the phylum level, increased the relative abundance of Akkermansia and Bacteroides at the family and genus levels, and reduced the abundance of Allobaculum. Therefore, XLP can effectively improve lipid metabolism disorders in high-fat diet-induced obese mice, and the mechanism is related to the improvement of brown adipose function, the browning of white fat, the accelerated lipid metabolism, and the improvement of intestinal flora. However, its effect on promoting the conversion of white adipose to brown adipose still needs to be further studied.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Mice, Obese , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Network Pharmacology , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Obesity/genetics , Body Weight , Lipids , Insulin , Transcription Factors , Dyslipidemias/genetics , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Drugs, Chinese Herbal
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986004

ABSTRACT

A 50-year-old man with a 15-year history of elevated blood glucose and an approximately 2-year history of diarrhea was admitted to the Peking Union Medical College Hospital. The initial diagnosis was type 2 diabetes. After repeated pancreatitis and pancreatoduodenectomy, severe pancreatic endocrine and exocrine dysfunction including alternating high and low blood glucose and fat diarrhea occurred. Tests for type 1 diabetes-related antibodies were all negative, C-peptide levels were substantially reduced, fat-soluble vitamin levels were reduced, and there was no obvious insulin resistance. Therefore, a diagnosis of pancreatic diabetes was clear. The patient was given small doses of insulin and supplementary pancreatin and micronutrients. Diarrhea was relieved and blood glucose was controlled. The purpose of this article is to raise clinicians' awareness of the possibility of pancreatic diabetes after pancreatitis or pancreatic surgery. Timely intervention and monitoring may reduce the occurrence of complications.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Pancreaticoduodenectomy/adverse effects , Pancreatitis, Chronic/complications , Malnutrition/complications
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009935

ABSTRACT

A 2-year-old boy was admitted to Shanghai Children's Medical Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine in Nov 30th, 2018, due to polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria accompanied with increased glucose levels for more than 2 weeks. He presented with symmetrical short stature [height 81 cm (-2.2 SD), weight 9.8 kg (-2.1 SD), body mass index 14.94 kg/m2 (P10-P15)], and with no special facial or physical features. Laboratory results showed that the glycated hemoglobin A1c was 14%, the fasting C-peptide was 0.3 ng/mL, and the islet autoantibodies were all negative. Oral glucose tolerance test showed significant increases in both fasting and postprandial glucose, but partial islet functions remained (post-load C-peptide increased 1.43 times compared to baseline). A heterozygous variant c.1366C>T (p.R456C) was detected in GATA6 gene, thereby the boy was diagnosed with a specific type of diabetes mellitus. The boy had congenital heart disease and suffered from transient hyperosmolar hyperglycemia after a patent ductus arteriosus surgery at 11 months of age. Insulin replacement therapy was prescribed, but without regular follow-up thereafter. The latest follow-up was about 3.5 years after the diagnosis of diabetes when the child was 5 years and 11 months old, with the fasting blood glucose of 6.0-10.0 mmol/L, and the 2 h postprandial glucose of 17.0-20.0 mmol/L.


Subject(s)
Male , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Infant , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Mutation, Missense , C-Peptide/genetics , China , Insulin/genetics , Glucose , Blood Glucose , GATA6 Transcription Factor/genetics
16.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 16(3): 87-90, 2023. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451975

ABSTRACT

La hipertrigliceridemia severa es una de las principales causas etiológicas de la pancreatitis aguda, donde la literatura internacional la posiciona como la tercera causa. Sus causas gatillantes, comorbilidades, severidad y evolución son importantes de conocer para evitar futuros episodios. En Chile, a nuestro entender, no tenemos literatura sobre esta asociación, por lo que presentamos datos de un hospital terciario, destacando 15 casos de pancreatitis aguda en 5 años de estudio, casi la mitad de ellos con antecedentes previos de hipertrigliceridemia, un porcentaje importante de los casos con cuadros graves y con complicaciones intrahospitalarias y que la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 fue la principal condición asociada a la hipertrigliceridemia severa.


Severe hypertriglyceridaemia is one of the main aetiological causes of acute pancreatitis, with international literature ranking it as the third leading cause. Its triggering causes, comorbidities, severity and evolution are important to know in order to avoid future episodes. In Chile, to our knowledge, we have no literature on this association, so we present data from a tertiary hospital, highlighting 15 cases of acute pancreatitis in 5 years of study, almost half of them with a previous history of hypertriglyceridaemia, a significant percentage of cases with severe symptoms and in-hospital complications, and that type 2 diabetes mellitus was the main condition associated with severe hypertriglyceridaemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Pancreatitis/etiology , Pancreatitis/epidemiology , Hypertriglyceridemia/complications , Tertiary Healthcare , Retrospective Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications
17.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1523833

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic power of SARC-F and SARC-CalF as screening tools for sarcopenia risk in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: This cross-sectional study of 128 patients was conducted at the endocrinology outpatient clinic of a hospital in Recife, Brazil between July 2022 and February 2023. Sarcopenia was diagnosed according to original and updated European Consensus criteria for older adults. Muscle mass was assessed with electrical bioimpedance, muscle strength was assessed with a handgrip test, and physical performance was assessed with gait speed. Sarcopenia risk was assessed using the SARC-F and SARC-CalF instruments. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, receiver operating characteristic curve, and area under the curve were analyzed to determine the best diagnostic performance. Results: According to the original and updated versions of the European Consensus criteria, the prevalence of sarcopenia was 25.00% and 10.90%, respectively. Sarcopenia risk was 17.20% according to the SARC-F and 23.40% according to the SARC-CalF. The sensitivity and specificity of the SARC-F ranged from 12.55% to 36.11% and 71.87% to 92.39%, respectively, while those of the SARC-CalF ranged from 47.22% to 85.71% and 82.46% to 88.89%, respectively. The area under the curve for the SARC-F and SARC-CalF varied between 0.51 and 0.71 and 0.67 and 0.86, respectively. Conclusions: The SARC-CalF had better diagnostic performance for all analyzed diagnostic criteria. Adding calf circumference to the SARC-F was an effective screening method for sarcopenia risk in the study population


Objetivo: Avaliar o poder diagnóstico do SARC-F e SARC-CalF como ferramentas de rastreamento para o risco de sarcopenia em idosos com diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Metodologia: Estudo transversal com 128 pacientes desenvolvido no ambulatório de endocrinologia de um hospital do Recife entre julho de 2022 e fevereiro de 2023. A sarcopenia foi diagnosticada de acordo com os critérios do Consenso Europeu para sarcopenia em pessoas idosas e sua versão atualizada. Foi realizada bioimpedância elétrica para avaliar a massa muscular, teste de preensão palmar para a força muscular e teste de velocidade de marcha para a performance física. O risco para sarcopenia foi avaliado por meio do SARC-F e SARC-CalF. Realizou-se análise de sensibilidade, especificidade, valores preditivos positivos e negativos, curva Característica de Operação do Receptor (ROC) e área sob a curva (AUC) para determinar a melhor performance diagnóstica. Resultados: A prevalência de sarcopenia foi de 25,00% de acordo com a primeira versão do Consenso Europeu e 10,90% considerando a versão atualizada. O risco para sarcopenia foi de 17,20% (SARC-F) e 23,40% (SARC-CalF). A sensibilidade do SARC-F variou entre 12,55 e 36,11%, e a espec ificidade entre 71,87 e 92,39%, enquanto o SARC-CalF apresentou sensibilidade entre 47,22 e 85,71% e especificidade entre 82,46 e 88,89%. A AUC do SARC-F variou entre 0,51 e 0,71, enquanto o SARC-CalF ficou entre 0,67 e 0,86. Conclusões: O SARC-CalF apresentou melhor performance diagnóstica quando comparado a todos os critérios diagnósticos analisados. A adição da circunferência da panturrilha é um método eficaz para o rastreamento do risco de sarcopenia na população do estudo


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Sarcopenia/etiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors
18.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(12): 1647-1654, dic. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515395

ABSTRACT

Heart failure (HF) is a global health problem. There is a strong association h between HF and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), with an increasing prevalence of patients having both conditions concomitantly. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (ISGLT2) significantly reduce cardiovascular events, including cardiovascular death. In this article we will focus on the current evidence about the effectiveness of these medications in adults with heart failure with reduced or preserved ejection fraction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Sodium/metabolism , Stroke Volume , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Glucose
19.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 13: 1-7, dez. 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1413710

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar a qualidade de vida de idosos com diabetes mellitus tipo 2 durante a Pandemia do novo coronavírus. Métodos: Estudo quantitativo, transversal e descritivo com 27 idosos diabéticos atendidos em um hospital universitário durante a Pandemia. Utilizou-se na coleta de dados três instrumentos: perfil sociodemográfico, condições clínicas sobre o novo coronavírus e Diabetes mellitus e Avaliação de Diabetes 39 (D-39) para avaliar a qualidade de vida. Para a análise dos dados foram utilizadas as estatísticas descritivas (frequência e percentual). Resultados: A maioria dos entrevistados são idosas com idade entre 60 a 64 anos, viúvos, baixa escolaridade, aposentados entre 1 a 10 anos de diagnóstico utilizando antiglicemiantes como forma de tratamento. Os idosos consideram sua qualidade de vida boa. Dentre àqueles que se contaminaram com o novo coronavírus foi evidenciado que não houve descontinuidade do tratamento para a Diabetes, entretanto, uma minoria relatou alguma sequela do novo coronavirus (febre, fraqueza muscular e apetite diminuído). A Sobrecarga funcional e o Funcionamento sexual foram as dimensões mais afetadas com todos os itens impactados negativamente. Conclusão: Os resultados apontam boa qualidade de vida dos idosos diabéticos apesar das dimensões Sobrecarga funcional e Funcionamento sexual afetadas negativamente sugerindo maior atenção dos profissionais de saúde. (AU)


Objective: To assess the quality of life of elderly people with type 2 diabetes mellitus during the new coronavirus pandemic. Methods: Quantitative, cross-sectional and descriptive study with 27 elderly diabetics treated at a university hospital during the pandemic. Three instruments were used for data collection: sociodemographic profile, clinical conditions on new coronavirus and Diabetes mellitus and Diabetes Assessment 39 (D-39) to assess quality of life. For data analysis, descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage) were used. Results: Most respondents are elderly aged between 60 and 64 years old, widowed, with low education, retired between 1 and 10 years of diagnosis and used antiglycemic agents as a form of treatment. Elderly people consider their quality of life to be good. Among those infected with the new coronavirus, it was shown that there was no discontinuation of treatment for Diabetes, however, a minority reported some sequelae of new coronavirus (fever, muscle weakness and decreased appetite). Functional overload and Sexual functioning were the most affected dimensions, with all items negatively impacted. Conclusion: The results indicate good quality of life for elderly diabetics despite the dimensions Functional overload and Sexual functioning negatively affected, suggesting greater attention from health professionals. (AU)


Objetivo: Evaluar la calidad de vida de los ancianos con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 durante la pandemia del nuevo coronavirus. Métodos: Estudio cuantitativo, transversal y descriptivo con 27 ancianos diabéticos atendidos en un hospital universitario durante la pandemia. Para la recolección de datos se utilizaron tres instrumentos: perfil sociodemográfico, condiciones clínicas sobre nuevo coronavirus y Diabetes mellitus y Diabetes Assessment 39 (D-39) para evaluar la calidad de vida. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó estadística descriptiva (frecuencia y porcentaje). Resultados: La mayoría de los encuestados son ancianos de entre 60 y 64 años, viudos, con baja escolaridad, jubilados entre 1 y 10 años del diagnóstico y que utilizan agentes antiglucémicos como forma de tratamiento. Las personas mayores consideran que su calidad de vida es buena. Entre los infectados con el nuevo coronavirus, se demostró que no se suspendió el tratamiento para la diabetes, sin embargo, una minoría informó algunas secuelas del nuevo coronavirus (fiebre, debilidad muscular y disminución del apetito). La sobrecarga funcional y el funcionamiento sexual fueron las dimensiones más afectadas, con todos los ítems afectados negativamente. Conclusión: Los resultados indican una buena calidad de vida de los ancianos diabéticos a pesar de las dimensiones Sobrecarga funcional y Funcionamiento sexual negativamente afectadas, lo que sugiere una mayor atención por parte de los profesionales de la salud. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Quality of Life , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , COVID-19 , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Comprehensive Health Care , Sociodemographic Factors
20.
Rev. med. Chile ; 150(7): 912-918, jul. 2022. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot amputation is a public health challenge due to the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Although there are many health indicators aimed at the management and control of T2D and its complications, amputations persist. Aim: To evaluate the association between diabetic foot amputation index and indicators of care and management of T2D in primary care centers of the eastern section of Santiago, Chile. MATERIAL AND MATHODS: We conducted a mixed ecological study and included information from the Monthly Statistical report of different public health centers from 2014 to 2018. We also analyzed the hospital discharge records from an individual tertiary public health center. The annual index for diabetic foot amputation per 100,000 diabetic patients was used as a response variable. The diabetic compensation percentage was calculated as the proportion of adults with a glycosylated hemoglobin below 7% or the proportion of older people with a value below 8%. The diabetic decompensation percentage was calculated as the proportion of people with a glycosylated hemoglobin over 9%. RESULTS: A high variability in demographic and management indicators was observed between communes and centers in the study period. Bivariate analysis showed a significant correlation between the amputation index, decompensation, and insulin use. In a regression analysis, the amputation index was significantly associated with the diabetic compensation percentage (β = -3.5; p < 0.05) and a high decompensation percentage (β = 12.3; p < 0.005). Conclusions: The diabetic foot amputation index was associated with diabetic compensation and decompensation indicators.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Aged , Diabetic Foot/surgery , Diabetic Foot/complications , Diabetic Foot/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Glycated Hemoglobin , Chile/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Amputation, Surgical
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