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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e219912, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1254429

ABSTRACT

Aim: Evaluation of the reliability of 3D computed tomography (3D-CT) in the diagnosis of mandibular fractures. Methods: A cross-sectional, quantitative and qualitative study was carried out, through the application of a questionnaire for 70 professionals in the area of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Radiology. 3D-CT images of mandibular fractures were delivered to the interviewees along with a questionnaire. Participants answered about the number of traces, the region and the type of fracture. The correct diagnosis, that is, the expected answer, was based on the reports of a specialist in oral and maxillofacial radiology after viewing the images in the axial, sagittal and coronal sections. The resulting data from the interviewees was compared with the expected answer and then, the data was analyzed statistically. Results: In the sample 56.9% were between 22 and 30 years old, 52.8% were oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMF), 34.7% were residents in OMF surgery and 12.5% OMF radiologists. Each professional answered 15 questions (related to five patients) and 50.8% of the total of these was answered correctly. Specialists in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Traumatology correctly answered 53.9%. Interviewees with experience between 6 and 10 years correctly answered 58.2%. In identifying fracture traces, 46.1% of the questions were answered correctly. In terms of location, 5.6% of interviewees answered wrongly while 14.2% answered wrongly regarding classification. Conclusion: 3D computed tomography did not prove to be a reliable image for diagnosing mandibular fractures when used alone. This made necessary an association with axial, sagittal and coronal tomographic sections


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Diagnostic Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Surveys and Questionnaires , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Mandibular Fractures
2.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(4): 411-418, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341164

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bone and soft tissue sarcomas consist of a heterogeneous group of malignant tumors of mesenchymal origin that can affect patients from any age. The precise staging of these lesions determines the best therapeutic strategies and prognosis estimates. Two staging systems are the most frequently used: the system proposed by the University of Florida group, led by Dr. William F. Enneking (1980) and adopted by the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS), and the system developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) (1977), currently in its 8th edition (2017). This paper updates the reader on the staging of bone and soft tissue sarcomas affecting the musculoskeletal system.


Resumo Os sarcomas ósseos e das partes moles consistem em grupo heterogêneo de neoplasias malignas de origem mesenquimal que podem ocorrer em qualquer faixa etária. O estadiamento preciso destas lesões determina as melhores estratégias terapêuticas e estimativas de prognóstico. Dois sistemas de estadiamento são os mais frequentemente empregados no manejo destas neoplasias: o sistema proposto pelo grupo da Universidade da Flórida, liderado pelo Dr. William F. Enneking (1980), adotado pela Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) e o sistema desenvolvido pela American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) (1977) que se encontra em sua 8a edição (2017). O presente artigo busca atualizar o leitor a respeito do estadiamento dos sarcomas ósseos e das partes moles que acometem o sistema musculoesquelético.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pathology, Surgical , Sarcoma , Diagnostic Imaging , Neoplasms, Bone Tissue , Neoplasm Staging , Neoplasms, Connective Tissue
3.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 41(1): 15-20, mar. 2021. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178270

ABSTRACT

Introducción: los estudios por imágenes (EPI) son de gran ayuda para el diagnóstico clínico, pero su uso irracional puede ocasionar daños. Objetivos: relevar las percepciones y expectativas sobre estudios por imágenes pediátricos en un grupo de padres de niños sanos. Evaluar los datos obtenidos en relación con el registro de EPI solicitados por Guardia durante el mismo período. Materiales y métodos: estudio exploratorio, descriptivo, cuali-cuantitativo mediante una encuesta en una muestra por conveniencia en un centro pediátrico ambulatorio, a lo largo de dos meses. Análisis retrospectivo de solicitud de EPI en el registro informatizado de historias clínicas de Guardia durante el mismo período. Resultados: respondieron 243 padres. El 93,4% refirió conocer métodos de EPI (la radiografía[Rx] fue el más conocido). Se había realizado al menos un EPI al 83,4% de los niños en los últimos doce meses. El estudio fue explicado en forma clara en el 96,4% de los casos. Un 47,7% de los padres refirieron conocer las consecuencias del uso repetitivo de EPI. El 81,6% acordó con que "ante cualquier traumatismo se debe realizar Rx para descartar fractura". Más del 60% consideró que debe realizarse Rx de tórax a todo niño con tos sin fiebre o con fiebre de más de dos días y 55% solicitarían Rx de senos paranasales si el niño elimina mocos verdes. El 49,8% opinó que los médicos piden EPI de menos (por falta de recursos, para trabajar menos o para ahorrar dinero). Durante el período estudiado se solicitó una radiografía al 5% de los pacientes que consultaron por Guardia; no se encontró justificación para solicitar el estudio en el 29% de los casos. Conclusión: un gran porcentaje de padres conoce los EPI; sin embargo, desconocen los riesgos asociados a su uso. Existen errores de concepto que generan expectativas desmedidas con respecto a la indicación de Rx. Se informó un exceso en las solicitudes de EPI por Guardia. Los padres consideran que los médicos solicitan EPI de menos. (AU)


Introduction: ediatric radiologic exams (PRE) are of great value for clinicians. It's over or misuse can lead to irreparable damage that can be prevented. Objective: to describe perceptions and expectations for the use of PRE among healthy children`s parents in an ambulatory center. To analyze these results in relation to the report of PRE performed in the emergency room during the same period. Methods: observational, cross sectional, quali- quantitative study using a survey on a convenience sample conducted in an outpatient pediatric center over a two months period. Retrospective analysis of medical records to evaluate PRE requested on the ER during the 2 months of the study. Results: 243 parents completed the survey. 93,4% were familiar with PRE (X-rays being the most popular among them). 83,4% of children in our sample had at least one PRE in the past 12 months. The need and utility of the study had been explained to the parents clearly in 96,4% of cases. 47,7% of parents knew about the side effects associated with repetitive use of PRE. 81,6% agreed with the statement "in the event that a child should suffer any trauma, an X-Ray should be performed to look for fractures". Over 60% think a chest X ray has to be obtained if the child has fever for over 48 hours and 55% would expect an X ray to be performed whenever a child has green nasal discharge. 49,8% respondents think that doctors order less than necessary (for lack of resources, unwillingness to work in or to save money). The analysis of clinical reports showed that X-Rays were performed to 5% of children at the emergency clinic. Among them, we found no reason for the study in 29% of the cases. Conclusion: we found that parents were very familiar with PRE, however less than half our sample knew of the potential risks related to their use. There are considerable misconceptions among parents regarding X-Ray use. Parents considered that doctors order too little PRE. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Pediatrics/statistics & numerical data , Diagnostic Imaging/statistics & numerical data , Argentina , Radiation Injuries/etiology , Radiation, Ionizing , X-Rays , Diagnostic Imaging/adverse effects , Radiography/statistics & numerical data , Risk , Surveys and Questionnaires , Retrospective Studies
4.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(1): 103-106, mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287248

ABSTRACT

Resumen La incidencia de Tb osteoarticular es mucho menor que la pulmonar, representando 1-2% de los casos de Tuberculosis (Tb) y el 10% de los casos de Tb extrapulmonar, por lo que usualmente no es considerada para el diagnóstico diferencial de pacientes con enfermedad articular. Su diagnóstico es difícil y se basa en hallazgos clínicos, radiológicos, bacteriológicos e histológicos. Las lesiones extrapulmonares son paucibacilares y las muestras, en la mayoría de los casos, difíciles de obtener, por lo que el diagnóstico a menudo es simplemente presuntivo. La tuberculosis articular en etapas tempranas, presenta manifestaciones clínicas e imagenológicas inespecíficas. Esto puede facilitar la progresión de la enfermedad local, generando lesiones osteoarticulares graves y, finalmente, la destrucción articular. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 60 años, intervenida quirúrgicamente por presentar manifestaciones clínicas e imagenológicas compatibles con una ruptura del manguito rotador, y cuya evolución tórpida posoperatoria, llevó al diagnóstico bacteriológico de tuberculosis de húmero proximal.


Abstract The incidence of osteoarticular TB is much lower than that of the lung, representing 1-2% of TB cases and 10% of extrapulmonary TB cases, so it is often not considered for the differential diagnosis of patients with joint disease. Its diagnosis is difficult and is based on clinical, radiological, bacteriological and histological findings. Extrapulmonary lesions are paucibacillary and specimens, in most cases, difficult to obtain, so the diagnosis is often simply presumptive. Joint tuberculosis in early stages presents nonspecific clinical and imaging manifestations. This can lead to the progression of the local disease, generating severe osteoarticular lesions and, finally, joint destruction. We present the case of a 60-year-old patient who underwent surgery due to clinical and imaging manifestations compatible with a rotator cuff tear, and whose torpid postoperative evolution led to the bacteriological diagnosis of proximal humerus tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Tuberculosis , Humerus , Diagnostic Imaging , Rotator Cuff
5.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 37(1): 68-72, Ene-Jun 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1147883

ABSTRACT

Según datos de la OMS, la tuberculosis es una de las diez primeras causas de muerte en el mundo y es la primera causa de muerte por un agente infeccioso único. La incidencia de la tuberculosis ha disminuido por término medio un 1,5% anual desde el año 2000 sin embargo el impacto de la pandemia por el SARS-CoV-2 pudiera retardar el diagnóstico y tratamiento de nuevos casos de TB. Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 26 años de edad quien consulta por presentar fiebre de predominio vespertino, pérdida de peso y disfonía de 6 meses de evolución. Los BK y cultivos de esputo seriados resultaron negativos. Es referido al Servicio de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía Facial del Hospital Universitario Dr. Luis Gómez López donde se realiza una nasofibrolaringoscopía evidenciándose epiglotis con superficie de aspecto irregular que se extiende hasta aritenoides y zona interaritenoidea y bandas ventriculares edematizadas que no permiten visualizar repliegues vocales. Se realiza microcirugía laríngea para toma de biopsia reportando el estudio histopatológico proliferación de vasos neoformados, espacios intervasculares ocupados por macrófagos y linfocitos, presencia de múltiples lesiones nodulares formadas por macrófagos epiteloides rodeados por un halo de linfocitos y numerosas células gigantes de Langerhans. Se realiza el diagnóstico de tuberculosis laríngea y se inicia tratamiento antituberculoso(AU)


According to the WHO, tuberculosis represents one of the top ten causes of death worldwide and is the number one cause of death from a single infectious agent. The incidence of tuberculosis has decreased an average of 1.5% annually since the year 2000, however the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic could delay the diagnosis and treatment of new cases of TB. We report the case of a 26-year-old male who consulted for fever, weight loss and dysphonia with a duration of 6 months. BK and sputum cultures were negative for M. tuberculosis. The patient is referred to the Otorhinolaryngology and Facial Surgery Clinic of the Dr. Luis Gomez Lopez University Hospital where a nasofibrolaryngoscopy is performed showing an epiglottis with an irregular surface that extends to the arytenoids and interarytenoid zone and edematous ventricular bands that do not allow visualization of vocal folds. Laryngeal microsurgery is performed to obtain a biopsy sample. Histopathology reveals proliferation of newly formed vessels, intervascular spaces occupied by macrophages and lymphocytes, presence of multiple nodular lesions formed by epithelloid macrophages surrounded by a halo of lymphocytes and numerous giant Langerhans cells. Diagnosis of laryngeal tuberculosis is made and antituberculous treatment is initiated(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Signs and Symptoms , Diagnostic Imaging , Tuberculosis, Laryngeal/mortality , Tuberculosis, Laryngeal/drug therapy , Dysphonia , Fever
6.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(1): 155-160, 20210000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1150543

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El objetivo de este artículo fue reportar el caso de un paciente con antecedente de enfisema bulloso bilateral que le ocasionó un neumotórax persistente de difícil tratamiento. Caso clínico. Se trata de un paciente de 50 años de edad con diagnóstico de neumotórax asociado con un enfisema bulloso bilateral, en quien estaba contraindicado el tratamiento quirúrgico. El cuadro clínico comenzó con dolor en el hemitórax derecho y disnea, que se fue intensificando hasta el punto de no tolerar el decúbito. En la radiografía de tórax se observó colapso del pulmón derecho con múltiples bulas en ambos pulmones, por lo que se practicó una pleurotomía mínima alta derecha. La evolución del paciente no fue favorable por persistir el neumotórax, lo cual llevó al uso de un tratamiento alternativo. Discusión. En los pacientes con neumotórax persistente por enfisema bulloso bilateral sin indicación quirúrgica, el talco es una alternativa menos invasiva para lograr una sínfisis pleural con buenos resultados, método cuya utilidad se demuestra


Introduction. The aim of this report was to present the case of a patient with a history of bilateral bullous emphysema that causes a persistent pneumothorax that was difficult to treat. Clinical case. This is a 50-year-old patient diagnosed with pneumothorax associated with bilateral bullous emphysema, in whom surgical treatment being contraindicated. The clinical picture began with pain in the right hemithorax and dyspnea, which intensified to the point of not tolerating decubitus. In the chest X-ray, collapse of the right lung was observed with multiple bullae in both lungs, therefore a right upper minimum pleurotomy was performed. The patient's evolution was not favorable due to persisting pneumothorax, which led to the use of an alternative treatment. Discussion. In patients with persistent pneumothorax due to bilateral bullous emphysema without surgical indication, talc is a less invasive alternative to achieve a pleural symphysis with good results, a method whose utility is demonstrated


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumothorax , Diagnostic Imaging , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted , Lung Diseases
7.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 321-323, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878279

ABSTRACT

At present, preoperative assessment of rectal cancer stage mainly relies on imaging examination, and the results of imaging reading will directly determine the treatment. In order to alleviate the reading pressure of the radiologist and improve the efficiency and accuracy of imaging diagnosis, there are related studies on using artificial intelligence automatic recognition system to assist the imaging assessment of rectal cancer staging now. Colorectal Surgery Group, Chinese Society of Surgery of the Chinese Medical Association, along with Beihang University, proposed the expert's advice on the surgical clinical application of rectal cancer staging recognition system based on artificial intelligence platform, so as to guide the standard application of this technology and promote the automation and intelligence of imaging reading.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Diagnostic Imaging , Digestive System Surgical Procedures , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neoplasm Staging , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery
8.
Rev. Fac. Odontol. (B.Aires) ; 36(82): 49-55, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291932

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Mensurar los niveles de radiación de fuga y dispersión emanada a través de los blindajes y estructuras plomadas del tubo de rayos X de la unidad dental portátil NOMAD, controlando la retrodispersión con el uso del escudo protector de acrílico plomado adaptado en el extremo final del tubo localizador plomado. Se midieron las tasas de exposición dispersadas mediante un detector tipo Geiger-Müller y una cámara de ionización con respuesta en el rango de energías aportadas en diagnóstico por imágenes para la medición de la exposición directa y determinación posterior de las dosis. Se utilizó un fantomas diseñado para diagnóstico odontológico, sopesando la radiación en diferentes angulaciones de operación del equipo NOMAD, simulando los gestos posturales de odontólogos, radiólogos y sujetos a identificar. Se controlaron las tasas de exposición para determinar los valores de las dosis aportadas en las zonas significativas corporales más radiosensibles del operador del equipo. Se obtuvo como resultado que la retrodispersión en el cristalino del ojo del operador fue significativamente menor cuando el fantomas estaba acostado, mientras que a nivel de gónadas resultó más baja con el cuerpo sentado. La tasa de dosis máxima de radiación dispersa que impactó en los operadores fue de 350.8 micro Sieverts por hora (uSv/h) en la zona de gónadas, por cada radiografía tomada sin el uso del delantal de goma plomada, reduciéndose a 4.38 micro Sieverts por hora (uSv/h) al utilizarlo (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Radiography, Dental/methods , Technology, Dental , Dental Equipment , Forensic Dentistry , Patients , Argentina , Radiation Dosage , Radiation Protection , Scattering, Radiation , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Victims Identification , Radiation Exposure Control , Equipment Design
9.
Rev. bras. educ. méd ; 45(3): e160, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288309

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Introdução: A educação médica baseada em competências tem despertado interesse nas últimas décadas. A avaliação do educando constitui um de seus pilares centrais, devendo ser contínua, fundamentada em critérios claros e eminentemente formativa, sempre provendo feedback. A sistematização dos métodos de avaliação envolve variáveis como confiabilidade, validade, aceitabilidade, impacto educacional e custo. Na radiologia, a literatura carece de instrumentos específicos de avaliação, especialmente em programas de residência médica no Brasil. Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivos elaborar e implementar um instrumento avaliativo com caráter formativo para o Programa de Residência Médica em Radiologia e Diagnóstico por Imagem (PRM-RDI) do Hospital Universitário Onofre Lopes da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (Huol-UFRN), que englobe competências específicas e crie oportunidades para feedback nos cenários de prática. Método: Trata-se de um estudo de abordagem descritiva, exploratória e de intervenção, com três etapas. As duas primeiras consistiram em oficinas com médicos residentes e preceptores: uma para conceituação e compreensão da avaliação por competências e de técnicas de feedback, e outra para construção coletiva de um instrumento avaliativo adequado à radiologia, definindo as competências mais importantes a serem avaliadas. Na terceira etapa, os pesquisadores acompanharam a aplicação inicial do instrumento pelos preceptores. Resultado: As duas oficinas tiveram participação de três pesquisadores, 16 preceptores e cinco residentes. O instrumento de avaliação resultante contém inicialmente um cabeçalho para preenchimento de dados do residente e do avaliador, do local e exame realizado. Há ainda sete competências que devem ser avaliadas em relação ao esperado para o nível do residente e uma escala para conceito geral da avaliação, seguida de campos para comentários do preceptor e do residente. O instrumento foi aplicado 33 vezes nos cenários de prática, num período de seis meses. Conclusão: A realização de oficinas de capacitação para os preceptores, com a introdução de uma nova cultura de avaliação, foi fundamental para a construção e experiência inicial na aplicação do instrumento no referido programa. O instrumento apresentou viabilidade, baixo custo e teve boa aceitabilidade entre preceptores e residentes, servindo como marco inicial na busca por uma avaliação sistematizada na residência médica na área de radiologia.


Abstract: Introduction: There has been a growing interest in competency-based medical education over the past few decades. Student assessment is one of its central pillars, and should be continuous, based on clear and eminently formative criteria, and provide constant feedback. The systematization of assessment methods involves variables such as reliability, validity, acceptability, educational impact and cost. In Radiology, the literature lacks specific assessment instruments, especially in Medical Residency Programs in Brazil. Objective: Our aim was to develop and implement an assessment tool with a formative character for the Radiology program of the Onofre Lopes University Hospital of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, which encompasses specific skills and creates opportunities for feedback in practice scenarios. Method: The study has a descriptive, exploratory and interventionist approach, divided into three stages. The first two consisted of workshops with residents and preceptors, one to conceptualize and understand competency assessment and feedback techniques, and the other to collectively build an assessment tool appropriate for Radiology, defining the most important competencies to be assessed. In the third stage, the researchers monitored how the instrument was initially applied by the preceptors. Result: Both workshops were attended by the three researchers, sixteen preceptors and five residents. The resulting assessment instrument contains a header for resident and evaluator data, location and examination performed. Next, seven competencies that should be assessed in relation to what is expected for the resident's level, and an overall scale of the evaluation, followed by fields for comments by the preceptor and the resident. The instrument was applied 33 times in practice scenarios, over a six-month period. Conclusion: The execution of training workshops for preceptors, with the introduction of a new culture of assessment, was fundamental for the construction and initial experience in the application of the assessment tool in that program. This tool was found to be feasible, low cost and had good acceptability among preceptors and residents, serving as a starting point in the search for a systematic assessment in the Radiology residency program.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiology/education , Diagnostic Imaging , Surveys and Questionnaires , Internship and Residency , Clinical Competence , Competency-Based Education , Educational Measurement
10.
Braz. dent. sci ; 24(3): 1-7, 2021. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1281352

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the volume of odontoid process of the second cervical vertebra on CBCT images can be used for sex estimation. Material and Methods: The volume of odontoid process on CBCT images of 138 subjects was measured. In addition, the patients were classified into five age groups. The comparisons between the groups in relation to sex and age were performed by using Mann-Whitney's test and Kruskal-Wallis' test, respectively. The ROC curve was used to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the volume to determine the sex. Results: No statistically significant difference was observed between age and volume. Males had significantly larger volumes than females. Values of volume equal to or greater than 1.254 mm3 have sensitivity of 68.2% and specificity of 68.1% to determine male sex. Conclusion: The volume of the odontoid process tends to be larger in males than in females and can be used as sex estimation (AU)


Introdução: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se o volume do processo odontóide da segunda vértebra cervical em imagens de TCFC pode ser usado para estimativa do sexo. Material e Métodos: O volume do processo odontóide em imagens CBCT de 138 indivíduos foi medido. Além disso, os pacientes foram classificados em cinco faixas etárias. As comparações entre os grupos em relação ao sexo e idade foram realizadas por meio dos testes de Mann-Whitney e Kruskal-Wallis, respectivamente. A curva ROC foi utilizada para avaliar a sensibilidade e especificidade do volume para determinar o sexo. Resultados: Não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significativa entre idade e volume. Os machos tiveram volumes significativamente maiores do que as fêmeas. Valores de volume igual ou superior a 1,254 mm3 apresentam sensibilidade de 68,2% e especificidade de 68,1% para determinação do sexo masculino. Conclusão: O volume do processo odontóide tende a ser maior no sexo masculino do que no feminino e pode ser usado como estimativa do sexo. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Diagnostic Imaging , Sex Determination Processes , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
11.
Med. interna (Caracas) ; 37(1): 26-30, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1253885

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad indiferenciada del tejido conectivo es una condición de etiología desconocida que comparte características clínicas, patológicas y de laboratorio de varias colagenosis, sin cumplir los criterios del Colegio Americano de Reumatología para el diagnóstico de una enfermedad reumática específica y muchos pacientes evolucionan a condiciones definidas a lo largo del tiempo tales como Lupus, Esclerosis sistémica progresiva, Enfermedad de Sjögren entre otros. Antecedentes: Linfoma Hodgkin diagnosticado desde 2012 para lo cual recibió múltiples esquemas de quimioterapia. Las muestras de ganglio y médula ósea se habían enviado al laboratorio de Inmunopatologia de la Universidad de Stanford y allí no se apreciaron hallazgos compatibles con enfermedad linfoproliferativa. Enfermedad actual: Mujer de 27 años de edad con cuadro clínico de 1 mes de evolución, caracterizado por edema blando en miembros inferiores acompañado de edema palpebral matutino; concomitantemente presenta aumento de temperatura intermitente sin patrón especifico y dolor osteomuscular generalizado con limitación para la deambulación. Se ingresa. Al examen físico, regulares condiciones clínicas. En la piel se aprecia engrosamiento cutáneo importante. Se realizó biopsia cutánea y los hallazgos fueron compatibles con Esclerosis Sistémica(AU)


Undifferentiated connective tissue disease is a condition of unknown etiology that shares clinical, pathological and laboratory characteristics of several collagenopathies that do not meet the criteria of the American College of Rheumatology for the diagnosis of a specific disease; a large number of patients evolve to conditions defined over time such as Lupus, Systemic Sclerosis, Sjogren's Disease, among others. Past history: Hodgkin lymphoma was diagnosed since 2012 for which she received multiple chemotherapy schemes. A gland biopsy was sent to the Stanford University, as well as a bone marrow sample, and lymphoma was discarded. Present history: this 27-year-old female consulted for edema in lower limbs present during one month, accompanied by eyelid edema in the mornings; also fever without a specific pattern, myalgias and arthralgias. On physical examination, the skin was thickened and limb edema was present. A skin biopsy was performed, and the findings were consistent with Systemic Sclerosis. The patient is receiving cyclophosphamide and Azathioprine and leading her normal life(AU)


Subject(s)
Rheumatology , Scleroderma, Systemic/diagnosis , Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Diseases/physiopathology , Hematologic Diseases , Biopsy , Diagnostic Imaging
12.
Rev. Fundac. Juan Jose Carraro ; 24(44): 32-39, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223346

ABSTRACT

Los quistes odontogénicos se dividen en dos grupos principales de acuerdo a la patogénesis de la entidad. Uno de esos grupos incluye a los quistes radiculares de origen inflamatorio. Nuestra situación es una paciente de sexo femenino que a causa de un molar superior con tratamiento endodóntico la patología quística invadió la cavidad sinusal comprometiendo las estructuras vecinas y al realizar la exodoncia se generó una comunicación bucosinusal con infección de esa entidad patológica. El diagnostico de certeza se confirmó a través de la biopsia previa, y se la intervino bajo anestesia general para la extirpación total de la patología quística (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Odontogenic Cysts/surgery , Odontogenic Cysts/diagnostic imaging , Oroantral Fistula/etiology , Argentina , Surgical Flaps , Tooth Extraction , Biopsy/methods , Diagnostic Imaging , Decompression, Surgical , Oral Surgical Procedures , Dental Service, Hospital
13.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 31: 31408, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291383

ABSTRACT

A mastite é uma patologia relativamente frequente na mulher que amamenta. Surge maioritariamente nas primeiras seis semanas após o parto (prevalência entre 75-95% antes do bebé completar os três meses de vida), podendo, contudo, ocorrer ao longo de todo o período da amamentação. Apresenta-se clinicamente com mastalgia, eritema e edema mamário, linfonodomegalia axilar, febre, calafrios, mal-estar e prostração. Entretanto, o quadro clínico completo pode não estar presente em todos os casos. A técnica incorreta de amamentação provoca as microlesões mamáriasque são fatores associados à mastite, inicialmente, e esta quando não recebe tratamento adequado pode evoluirpara os abscessos mamários, que são caracterizados clinicamente por nodulação palpável ou não, flutuante, parcialmente circunscrita, geralmente no quadrante superior lateral da mama afetada. O microrganismo mais envolvido é o Staphylococcus aureus. O diagnóstico diferencial envolve principalmente outras causas não infecciosas de mastite, por exemplo a granulomatosa com reação a corpo estranho (piercing, implantes de silicone) e também malignidade. A ultrassonografia é um método bastante útil na investigação inicial daqueles quadros com suspeita de desenvolvimento de tal complicação e possibilita de maneira segura o tratamento minimamente invasivo e a obtenção de amostra para analise laboratorial. Isto permite a escolha de antibioticoterapia direcionada para os microorganismos causadores.


Mastitis is a relatively common condition in breastfeeding women. It appears mostly in the first six weeks after delivery (prevalence between 75-95% before the baby is three months old), however, it can occur throughout the entire period of breastfeeding. It may present clinically with mastalgia, erythema and breast edema, axillary lymph node enlargement, fever, chills, malaise and prostration. However, the complete clinical picture may not be present in all cases. The incorrect breastfeeding technique causes breast microlesions which are factors associated with mastitis, initially, and when it does not receive adequate treatment it can evolve for breast abscesses, which are characterized clinically by palpable or not, floating, partially circumscribed nodulation, usually in the upper lateral quadrant of the affected breast. The most involved microorganism is Staphylococcus aureus. The differential diagnosis mainly involves other non-infectious causes of mastitis, for example granulomatous with a foreign body reaction (piercing, silicone implants) and also malignancy. Ultrasonography is a very useful method in the initial investigation of those conditions suspected of developing such a complication, and it safely allows minimally invasive treatment and obtaining a sample for laboratory analysis. This allows the choice of antibiotic therapy directed at the causative microorganisms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Silicones , Breast Implants , Mastitis , Staphylococcus aureus , Wounds and Injuries , Breast Feeding , Diagnostic Imaging , Ultrasonography, Mammary , Infections , Inflammation , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
14.
J. afr. imag. méd ; 13(1): 36-45, 2021. Tables, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1342869

ABSTRACT

Objectif: Evaluer les doses délivrées aux patients adultes lors des examens TDM en vue de l'établissement des niveaux de référence diagnostiques tomodensitométriques au Togo.Matériel et méthodes: Etude transversale réalisée du 6 Mars au 30 Juillet 2018 dans 5 structures sanitaires disposant d'une unité tomodensitométrique au Togo ayant inclus les TDM cranio-encéphaliques, abdomino-pelviennes, thoraciques, thoraco-abdomino-pelviennes, rachidiennes cervicales et lombaires des patients d'au moins 15 ans.Résultats: Les 1155 TDM adultes inclus étaient dominées par les TDM cranio-encéphaliques et abdomino-pelviens avec respectivement 34,2% et 15,15%. La sex-ratio était de 1,42. Les appareils de marque GE dans 80%, étaient de 6 et 16 barrettes et 60% installés 2010. L'IDSvol de la TDM cérébrale était le plus élevé par rapport à l'IDSvol des autres types d'examen. La dispersion des PDL par acquisition et pour un examen complet inter et intra structure sanitaire était significative. Les NRD (75e percentile du PDL) par acquisition était de 1199,14mGy.cm (cérébral non traumatique), 1596,45mGy.cm (cérébral-traumatique), 635,63mGy.cm (cervical), 401,98mGy.cm (thorax), 594,42mGy.cm (abdomino-pelvien), 675,73mGy.cm (thoraco-abdomino-pelvien) et 681,35mGy.cm (lombaire). Les doses efficaces moyennes associées auxdifférents types d'examens étaient comprises entre 2-3mSv pour l'exposition de la tête et le cou et de 24mSv pour la TDM abdomino-pelvienne.


Objective: To evaluate the doses delivered to adult patients during CT scans in order to establish CT-scans diagnostic reference levels (DRL) in Togo.Material and methods: Cross-sectional study carried out from 6 March to 30 July 2018 in 5 health facilities with a CT-scans unit in Togo that included cranio-encephalic, abdominal-pelvic, thoracic, thoraco-abdominal-pelvic, cervical and lumbar spines CT-scans in patients at least 15 years of age. Results: The 1155 adult CT-scans included were dominated by cranio-encephalic and abdominal-pelvic CTs with 34.2% and 15.15% respectively. The sex-ratio was 1.42. GE brand devices in 80%, were 6 and 16 bars and 60% installed 2010. The brain CT IDSvol was the highest compared to the CTDIvol of other types of exams. The dispersion of the DLP by acquisition and for a complete inter and intra-structure examination was significant. DRLs (75th percentile of DLP) per acquisition were 1199.14mGy.cm (non-traumatic cerebral), 1596.45mGy.cm (traumatic cerebral), 635.63mGy.cm (cervical), 401.98mGy.cm (thorax),594.42mGy.cm (abdominal-pelvic), 675.73mGy.cm (thoracic-abdominal-pelvic) and 681.35mGy.cm (lumbar). The average effective doses associated with the different types of exams ranged from 2-3mSv for head and neck exposure and 24mSv for abdominal-pelvic CT. Conclusion : The high dispersion of dose delivered during CT-scan in Togo requires a process of homogenization of procedures and optimization from DRLs thus determined.(abdominal-pelvic), 675.73mGy.cm (thoracic-abdominal-pelvic) and 681.35mGy.cm (lumbar). The average effective doses associated with the different types of exams ranged from 2-3mSv for head and neck exposure and 24mSv for abdominal-pelvic CT.Conclusion: The high dispersion of dose delivered during CT-scan in Togo requires a process of homogenization of procedures and optimization from DRLs thus determined.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Diagnostic Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Craniocerebral Trauma , Togo
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879947

ABSTRACT

Neuroendocrine tumors are a type of heterogeneous tumors originating from neuroendocrine cells derived from the neural crest,which can secrete a variety of amines and peptide hormones.Based on different molecular biomarkers,histologic types and differentiation degrees,individualized nuclear imaging can provide information for the early diagnosis,clinical staging,treatment guidance,and detection of the recurrence and metastasis of neuroendocrine tumor. In this paper,we review the development and application of nuclear medicine molecular imaging probes such as glucose analogs,somatostatin analogues,amine precursors,hormone analogs and enzyme inhibitors in the diagnosis and treatment of neuroendocrine tumors.


Subject(s)
Diagnostic Imaging , Humans , Molecular Probes , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neuroendocrine Tumors/diagnostic imaging , Radionuclide Imaging
16.
Rev. cient. odontol ; 8(3): e036, sept.-dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1253442

ABSTRACT

La ecografía es una ayuda diagnóstica en el área de la salud que se usa para evaluar el desarrollo intrauterino, observar el comportamiento de lesiones, valorar órganos internos y acompañar procedimientos clínicos específicamente en la medicina, pero en la odontología es un campo en el que apenas se está explorando e incursionando para incluirlo como parte de los métodos diagnósticos de rutina en la consulta clínica. El creciente interés por investigar su uso como método diagnóstico y terapéutico en la odontología se basa en las bondades que tiene y en cómo puede facilitar muchos procesos por tratarse de una ayuda diagnóstica accesible, económica y poco nociva para la salud. En el presente artículo se exponen los diferentes usos que se le da a la ecografía en las diferentes especialidades odontológicas, y se la compara con otros métodos diagnósticos. (AU)


In medicine, ultrasound is especially useful to evaluate intrauterine development, cyst behavior, and internal organs, but the use of ultrasound in dentistry has only recently been explored and used in the daily routine diagnostic methods in clinical dental practice. The growing interest in the use of ultrasound as a diagnostic and therapeutic method in dentistry has led to studies investigating its benefits in relation to accessibility, cost and innocuousness to health. This review describes the current use of ultrasound in different dental specialties and compares it with other diagnostic methods. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Radiography, Dental/methods , Ultrasonography , General Practice, Dental , General Practice, Dental/methods , Review Literature as Topic
17.
Rev. cuba. inform. méd ; 12(2): e352, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144462

ABSTRACT

El Sistema para el Almacenamiento, Transmisión y Visualización de Imágenes Médicas XAVIA PACS, desarrollado por la Universidad de las Ciencias Informáticas, se utiliza en múltiples instituciones de salud de Cuba. El propósito de estas herramientas es manejar la imagen médica, por lo que no gestionan la información que se capta en los servicios de diagnóstico por imágenes, entre los que se encuentran los datos del paciente, del estudio imagenológico y el informe diagnóstico. En este trabajo se exponen los resultados del desarrollo de un sistema informático para la gestión de la información imagenológica integrado al sistema XAVIA PACS para garantizar el control automatizado de la información en los servicios de diagnóstico por imágenes. Para el desarrollo previsto fue determinante la necesidad de reutilizar el código fuente ya implementado en el sistema XAVIA PACS; se seleccionó Microsoft.NET Framework, ASP.NET 3.5, C# 3.5 como lenguaje de programación, PostgreSQL como sistema de gestión de Base de Datos. Adicionalmente, fueron tenidos en cuenta la portabilidad, el procesamiento complejo interno, la facilidad de la instalación, y la facilidad del cambio. El sistema desarrollado automatiza la gestión de las listas de trabajo en los servicios de diagnósticos por imágenes, la gestión de la información del paciente, las citaciones, la planificación del trabajo de las modalidades médicas, y especialistas de radiología. La implantación del sistema desarrollado en diferentes instituciones de salud que emplean el sistema XAVIA PACS, validó la pertinencia y aplicabilidad del mismo(AU)


The XAVIA PACS Medical Images Storage, Transmission and Visualization System, developed by the University of Computer Sciences is used in multiple Cuban health institutions. The purpose of these tools is to manage the medical image, so they do not manage the information that is captured in the diagnostic imaging services, among which are the patient's data, the imaging study and the diagnostic report. This article presents a computer system for the management of imaging information integrated into the XAVIA PACS system to ensure automated control of information in diagnostic imaging services. For the planned development, the need to reuse the source code already implemented in the XAVIA PACS system was decisive; Microsoft.NET Framework, ASP.NET 3.5, C # 3.5 were selected as the programming language, PostgreSQL as the Database management system. Additionally, portability, complex internal processing, ease of installation, and ease of change were considered. The developed system automates the management of work lists in diagnostic imaging services, the management of patient information, appointments, work planning of medical modalities, and radiology specialists. The implementation of the system developed in different health institutions that use the XAVIA PACS system, validated its relevance and applicability(AU)


Subject(s)
Software Design , Software , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted , Radiology Information Systems
18.
Acta méd. colomb ; 45(4): 29-33, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1278138

ABSTRACT

Abstract Infectious endocarditis (IE) is a multisystemic disease caused by an infection, generally bacterial, of the endocardial surface. Its incidence is three to nine cases per 100,000 persons. Objective: to characterize the patients with a diagnosis of infectious endocarditis seen at the Hospital Universitario San Rafael de Tunja. Materials and methods: a descriptive observational study. Patients seen at the Hospital Uni versitario San Rafael de Tunja between January 1, 2010 and January 1, 2019. Sociodemographic, clinical, paraclinical, imaging, treatment and outcome variables were gathered. Results: a total of 87 persons with a confirmed diagnosis of infectious endocarditis were seen. The average age was 38.77 years, with an SD ± 13.32 years. Leukocytosis was seen in 90%, neutrophilia in 85%, lymphocytosis in 3%, thrombocytopenia in 4%, elevated serum CRP in 85%, transaminitis in 45%, hyponatremia in 2% and hypernatremia in 4%. All patients received antibiotic treatment; only 23% required surgery. Conclusions: this case series found similar clinical and microbiological characteristics to those reported in other national and international studies. Males were affected more often than females, with the main etiological agent being Staphylococcus aureus. Fever and infectious vasculitis signs were the main clinical manifestations, most often affecting the mitral valve.


Resumen La endocarditis infecciosa (EI) es una enfermedad multisistémica que resulta de una infección, generalmente bacteriana, de la superficie endocárdica. Su incidencia es de tres a nueve casos por cada 100 000 personas. Objetivo: realizar una caracterización de los pacientes atendidos en el Hospital Universitario San Rafael de Tunja con diagnóstico de endocarditis infecciosa. Material y métodos: estudio observacional descriptivo. Pacientes atendidos en el Hospital Universitario San Rafael de Tunja entre el 1°. de enero del 2010 a 1°. de enero del 2019. Se tomaron variables sociodemográficas, clínicas, paraclínicas, imagenológicos, terapéuticas y de desenlaces. Resultados: en total se atendieron 87 personas que presentaron diagnóstico confirmado de endocarditis infecciosa. La edad promedio fue 38.77 años con una DE ± 13.32 años. Se observó leucocitosis en 90%, neutrofilia en 85%, linfocitosis en 3%, trombocitopenia en 4%, aumento de los valores séricos de PCR en 85%, transaminitis en 45%, hiponatremia en 2% e hipernatremia en 4%. Todos los pacientes recibieron manejo antibiótico, tan solo 23% requi rieron manejo quirúrgico. Conclusiones: en esta serie de casos se encontraron características clínicas y microbiológicas similares a lo reportado en otras investigaciones nacionales e internacionales. Afectando con mayor frecuencia a personas del sexo masculino, siendo el principal agente causal el Staphylococcus aureus, el agente causal. La fiebre y los signos de vasculitis infecciosa fueron las principales manifestacio nes clínicas, afectado con mayor frecuencia la válvula mitral.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Endocarditis , Diagnostic Imaging , Bacteremia , Heart Valves , Mitral Valve
20.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 40(3): 243-246, July-Sept. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134995

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Endometriosis is defined as endometrial glands and stroma that occur outside the uterine cavity. Although not malignant, ectopic endometrial tissue and the resulting inflammation can cause dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, chronic pain, and infertility. The diagnostic imaging tests most used are nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMR) and ultrasonography (USG). Methods: Correlate the findings of three-dimensional anorectal ultrasound with the NMR findings of the pelvis with intestinal preparation in women with deep endometriosis, through a retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study, evaluating 63 female patients with suspected deep endometriosis with probable involvement intestinal. The evaluation period was from March 2016 to April 2018. Statistical analysis was performed using the kappa agreement to assess the degree of agreement between 3D NMR and USG in relation to the degree of infiltration in the rectal muscle layer, with a confidence interval of 0.272-0.579, p < 0.001. Results and conclusion: According to the results presented, three-dimensional anorectal ultrasonography proved to be a good diagnostic test in the evaluation of the middle and posterior compartments of deep lesions of endometriosis, and there was a correlation between the NMR findings of the pelvis with intestinal preparation in relation to injuries that invade the muscularis propria of the rectum.


Resumo Introdução: A endometriose é definida como glândulas endometriais e estroma que ocorrem fora da cavidade uterina. Embora não maligno, tecido endometrial ectópico e a inflamação resultante podem causar dismenorreia, dispareunia, dor crônica e infertilidade. Exames de diagnóstico por imagem mais utilizados são Ressonância Nuclear Magnética e ultrassonografia. Métodos: Correlacionar os achados da ultrassonografia anorretal tridimensional com os achados da ressonância magnética nuclear de pelve com preparo intestinal em mulheres portadoras de endometriose profunda, através de um estudo retrospectivo, observacional, transversal, avaliou 63 pacientes do sexo feminino com suspeita de endometriose profunda com provável acometimento intestinal. O período de avaliação foi Março de 2016 a Abril de 2018. Foi realizada análise estatística por meio do Coeficiente de Concordância de Kappa para se avaliar o grau de concordância entre RNM × USG 3D em relação ao grau de infiltração na camada muscular retal com cálculo de intervalo de confiança de 0,272-0,579; p < 0,001. Resultados e conclusão: Segundo os resultados apresentados a ultrassonografia anorretal tridimensional mostrou-se um bom exame diagnóstico na avaliação dos compartimentos médio e posterior de lesões profundas de endometriose e há correlação entre os achados da ressonância magnética nuclear de pelve com preparo intestinal em relação a lesões que invadem a muscular própria do reto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Diagnostic Imaging , Endometriosis/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Ultrasonography/methods
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