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1.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(2): 85-93, abr. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1441410

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: En los últimos años se han estudiado diversos biomarcadores para determinar los casos graves de COVID-19. La proteína C-reactiva (PCR) ha mostrado alta sensibilidad en la identificación de pacientes con enfermedad grave y utilidad comparable a la tomografía. OBJETIVO: Determinar la utilidad de la PCR para predecir gravedad de la infección por SARS-CoV-2 en pacientes hospitalizados en el Centro Médico Naval del Perú durante el periodo enero-septiembre del año 2021. MÉTODOS: Se empleó un diseño de tipo cuantitativo, observacional, analítico, retrospectivo, y de tipo prueba diagnóstica. Se calculó un tamaño muestral de 503 pacientes, quienes fueron divididos en dos grupos de acuerdo a su gravedad. RESULTADOS: Se determinó un punto de corte óptimo de 10,92 mg/L de los valores de PCR para el diagnóstico de enfermedad grave por COVID-19. Se calculó un área bajo la curva (AUC) de 0,762 y se obtuvieron valores de sensibilidad, especificidad, valores predictores positivo, negativo y precisión diagnóstica de 78,88%, 66,4%; 41,42%; 87,01%; y 67,27%, respectivamente. El normograma de Fagan mostró una probabilidad posprueba de 41%. En el modelo ajustado fueron significativas la PCR (ORa = 4,853; IC95% 2,987-7,886; p = 0,001), además de la ferritina (ORa = 1,001; IC 95%: 1,001-1,002; p = 0,001) e hipotiroidismo (OR ajustado = 4,899; IC 95%: 1,272-18,872; p = 0,021). CONCLUSIONES: El presente estudio mostró la asociación entre la PCR y la gravedad de infección por SARS-CoV-2 en un modelo ajustado, mostrando su potencial utilidad y contribuyendo a determinar el punto de corte de la PCR en población peruana y su comparación a nivel internacional.


BACKGROUND: Recently, many biomarkers have been studied to determine severe cases of COVID-19. C-reactive protein (CRP) has shown high sensitivity in identifying patients with severe disease and utility comparable to computed tomography. AIM: To determine the usefulness of CRP to predict the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients hospitalized at the Naval Medical Center of Peru during the period January-September in the year 2021. METHODS: A quantitative, observational, analytical, retrospective, and diagnostic test type design was used. A sample size of 503 patients was calculated, which were divided into two groups according to their severity. RESULTS: An optimal cut-off point of 10.92 mg/L for CRP levels was determined for the diagnosis of severe COVID-19. An area under the curve (AUC) of 0.762 was calculated and sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and diagnostic accuracy values of 78.88%, 66.4%; 41.42%; 87.01%; and 67.27%; respectively. Fagan's normogram showed a post-test probability of 41%. In the adjusted model, CRP (aOR = 4.853; 95% CI 2.987-7.886; p = 0.001), ferritin (aOR = 1.001; 95% CI: 1.001-1.002; p = 0.001) and hypothyroidism (adjusted OR = 4899; 95% CI: 1272-18872; p = 0.021) showed significance. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed an association between CRP and the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection in an adjusted model, showing its potential utility and contributing to determine the cut-off point of CRP in the Peruvian population and its international comparison.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Peru , Biomarkers , Multivariate Analysis , Predictive Value of Tests , Regression Analysis , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Area Under Curve , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Patient Acuity , Hospitalization
2.
Pan Afr. med. j ; 44(NA): NA-NA, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1425120

ABSTRACT

Introduction: during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Mozambique, there was a surge in pediatric hospitalizations at a time when there was relatively little evidence, but significant concern about clinical outcomes in African children, particularly in higher-risk infants requiring, and health system capacity to respond. Methods: a retrospective cohort study was conducted for patients 1-12 months of age admitted to the Breastfeeding ward at Hospital Central de Maputo from January-February 2021. All had routine SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing performed. For patients with positive results, hospital charts were retrospectively reviewed. Descriptive analyses were performed. Results: of 209 patients that had SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing performed, 102 (48.8%) received results, of which 37 (36.3%) were positive. Positive results were received prior to discharge for 14 patients (37.8%). Median duration of hospitalization was 3 days. There were two deaths in COVID-positive patients (5.4%), both with complex comorbidities. For the 35 COVID-19 positive patients whose charts were located, the principal admission diagnosis was respiratory for 22 (62.9%), and 14 (40.0%) had oxygen saturation <94% at admission. The white blood cell count was >12.0 x 103cells/mL in 10 patients (28.6%) and the most common abnormal finding on chest radiograph was peribronchial thickening (38.5% of patients with results). Oxygen therapy was needed for 20 patients (57.1%). Conclusion: the majority of infants with COVID-19 had a mild, short-duration respiratory illness that did not exceed ward capacity for care, including oxygen treatment. Laboratory capacity for PCR testing was overwhelmed, delaying the return of results and complicating inpatient infection control measures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pediatrics , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units , Polymerase Chain Reaction
3.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-5, 01/jan./2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411474

ABSTRACT

Objective: The study aimed to evaluate molecular and immunological methods and to propose a workflow using them for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis routine. Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective study was performed, including 121 liquid cultures from a TB laboratory located in the extreme south of Brazil. All cultures were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) by in-house Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using DNA extracted by the CTAB method (PCR-CTAB) for IS6110 detection. These cultures were subjected to faster tests than this one, the immunological MPT64 assay and the PCR using DNA extracted by thermal lysis method (PCR-TL), and these were evaluated for MTBC identification using PCR-CTAB as a reference method. Results: The sensitivity of MPT64 assay and PCR-TL to identify MTBC in positive cultures by PCR-CTAB were 73.6% (89/121) and 98.3% (119/121), respectively. We proposed a workflow based on the use of MPT64 assay in liquid cultures suggestive of MTBC, and in case of a negative result, we suggest the performance of PCR-TL. The PCR-CTAB is suggested only if faster tests are negative. Conclusions: Methods capable of confirming MTBC in cultures should continue to be standardized, tested, and optimized to meet the ideal requirements of simplicity, quickness, and effectiveness. The molecular and immunological methods evaluated have differences in the execution and detection of MTBC in cultures, but they are rapid tools for laboratory TB diagnosi


Objetivos: O estudo objetivou avaliar métodos molecular e imunológico e propor um fluxo de trabalho utilizando-os para a rotina de diagnóstico da tuberculose (TB). Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo transversal retrospectivo, incluindo 121 culturas líquidas de um laboratório de TB localizado no extremo sul do Brasil. Todas as culturas foram positivas para o complexo Mycobacterium tuberculosis (CMTB) por Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR) in-house para detecção do IS6110, usando DNA extraído pelo método CTAB (PCR-CTAB). Essas culturas foram submetidas a testes mais rápidos que este, o ensaio imunológico MPT64 e a PCR com DNA extraído pelo método de lise térmica (PCR-LT), e estas foram avaliadas para identificação de CMTB usando PCR-CTAB como método de referência. Resultados: A sensibilidade do ensaio MPT64 e da PCR-LT para identificar o CMTB em culturas positivas pela PCRCTAB foi de 73,6% (89/121) e 98,3% (119/121), respectivamente. Propusemos um fluxo de trabalho baseado no uso do ensaio MPT64 em culturas líquidas sugestivas de CMTB e, em caso de resultado negativo, sugerimos a realização de PCR-LT. Sugere-se a PCR-CTAB apenas se os testes mais rápidos forem negativos. Conclusões: Os métodos capazes de confirmar o CMTB em culturas devem continuar sendo padronizados, testados e otimizados para atender aos requisitos ideais de simplicidade, rapidez e eficácia. Os métodos molecular e imunológico avaliados apresentam diferenças na execução e detecção do CMTB em culturas, mas são ferramentas rápidas para o diagnóstico laboratorial da TB.


Subject(s)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis , DNA , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Cetrimonium , Mycobacterium
4.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 38(3): 194-201, sept. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423701

ABSTRACT

La situación epidemiológica y operacional de la tuberculosis en el mundo se vio afectada por la pandemia de COVID-19 durante los años 2020 y 2021. A nivel global, el número de casos de tuberculosis notificados disminuyó en un 18% el año 2020 con respecto al año anterior, y el número de muertes por esta causa mostró un aumento en el mismo año. En Chile, se observó una caída similar en el número de casos diagnosticados el año 2020, en directa relación con una disminución del 70% en el número de muestras procesadas para diagnóstico de tuberculosis pulmonar. El presente trabajo detalla indicadores epidemiológicos y operacionales del control de la tuberculosis en Chile para los años 2020 y 2021, y analiza su relación con el impacto de la pandemia COVID-19 sobre las actividades del Programa Nacional de Tuberculosis.


The COVID-19 pandemic during 2020 and 2021 affected the epidemiological and operational situation of tuberculosis control worldwide. Globally, there was a reduction of 18% in the number of notified cases of tuberculosis in 2020 in comparison to the previous year, and the number of deaths increased in the same year. In Chile, there was a similar fall in the number of notified cases, in direct relation to a decrease of 70% in the number of diagnostic tests performed for pulmonary tuberculosis at a national level. This article details the epidemiological and operational indicators of tuberculosis control in Chile during 2020-2021, and analyzes their relation with the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the activities of the National Tuberculosis Program.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Tuberculosis/mortality , Chile/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Age and Sex Distribution , Pandemics
5.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 61(1)mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408225

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La apendicitis aguda es una de las causas más comunes de abdomen agudo quirúrgico y dado que sigue siendo un reto diagnóstico, dispone de diversas escalas diagnósticas. Objetivo: Determinar la superioridad del nuevo score resultante frente al score de Alvarado en el diagnóstico de apendicitis aguda. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de pruebas diagnósticas con el uso de la base de datos del Servicio de Cirugía del Hospital Regional Docente de Trujillo, entre febrero y diciembre del año 2015. Con los datos extraídos se elaboró un nuevo score diagnóstico que fue evaluado con el informe histopatológico y luego comparado con el score de Alvarado para evaluar su aplicación. Se calculó la sensibilidad, especificidad y los valores predictivos de ambos scores. Resultados: Se incluyeron en el estudio 312 pacientes, 177 fueron hombres (56,73 por ciento) y 135 mujeres (43,27 por ciento), con edad media de 31 años (±11,3). Con un total de 267 (85,58 por ciento) pacientes con apendicitis aguda confirmada por estudio histopatológico. El nuevo score clínico resultante de una regresión logística según la prueba de Wald, estuvo compuesto por 4 variables: sexo masculino, vómitos, automedicación previa y signo de Blumberg. Los resultados del área bajo la curva para el nuevo score clínico y el score de Alvarado fueron 0,711 y 0,707, respectivamente. Conclusiones: El nuevo score clínico es superior al score de Alvarado según el área bajo la curva, pero no en un valor significativo(AU)


Introduction: Acute appendicitis is one of the most common causes of acute surgical abdomen. Since it remains a diagnostic challenge, it has several diagnostic scales available. Objective: To determine the superiority of a new resulting score versus the Alvarado score in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Methods: A study of diagnostic tests was carried out using the database of the surgery service of the Regional Teaching Hospital of Trujillo, between February and December 2015. With the data collected, a new diagnostic score was elaborated and assessed with the histopathological report; and then, to assess its application, it was compared with the Alvarado score. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of both scores were calculated. Results: 312 patients were included in the study, 177 were male (56.73 percent) and 135 were female (43.27 percent), with a mean age of 31 years (±11.3). A total of 267 (85.58 percent) patients had acute appendicitis confirmed by histopathological study. The new clinical score resulting from a logistic regression according to the Wald test was made up of four variables: male sex, vomiting, previous self-medication and Blumberg's sign. The results of the area under curve for the new clinical score and the Alvarado score were 0.711 and 0.707, respectively. Conclusions: The new clinical score is better than the Alvarado score, according to the area under curve, but not by a significant value(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Logistic Models , Area Under Curve , Research Report , Hospitals, Teaching
6.
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 16(1): 18-28, 20220111.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352923

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori es un microrganismo que se considera que afecta al 50% de la población. Se realizó un estudio con diseño no experimental, correlacional y transversal, con el objetivo de determinar la asociación de los resultados de pruebas diagnósticas de infección por H. pylori a través de biopsia obtenida por endoscopía superior y prueba de antígeno de la superficie en mues-tras de heces en 100 pacientes atendidos en el Servicio de Gastroenterología del Centro Clínico Quirúrgico Ambulatorio (Hospital del Día) Efrén Jurado López del Instituto Ecuatoriano de Seguridad Social (IESS), en la ciudad de Guayaquil, Ecuador, durante 2019. La media de la edad en la muestra de estudio fue 37,5 años, con un predominio del género femenino (78%). El 65% de las pruebas de antígeno para la detección de H. pylori en heces resultaron negativas. Los repor-tes de las pruebas de antígeno en heces e histopatología permitieron apreciar diferencias entre estos, pero con predominio de las coincidencias en los diagnósticos positivos. Existió una asocia-ción estadísticamente significativa entre las lesiones inflamatorias de la mucosa gástrica producto de la gastritis crónica atrófica y la infección por H. pylori. Los resultados de las dos pruebas diag-nósticas tuvieron una correlación lineal positiva y débil con significación estadística.


Helicobacter pylori is a microorganism that affects 50% of the population worldwide. A study with a non-experimental, correlational, and cross-sectional design was carried out in order to determine the association of the results of diagnostic tests for H. pylori infection through biopsy obtained by upper endoscopy and surface antigen test in samples of feces in 100 patients. These ones were treated at the Gastroenterology Service of the Ambulatory Surgical Clinic Center (Hospital del Día) Efrén Jurado López of the Ecuadorian Institute of Social Security (IESS), in the city of Guayaquil, Ecuador, during 2019. The mean age in the study sample was 37.5 years old, with a predominance of the female gender (78%). 65% of stool antigen tests for H. pyloriwere negative. The reports of the stool antigen test and histopathology allowed to appreciate differences between them, but with a predominance of the coincidences in the positive diagno-ses. There was a statistically significant association between the inflammatory lesions of the gastric mucosa because of chronic atrophic gastritis and the infection by H. pylori. The results of the two diagnostic tests had a positive and weak linear correlation with statistical significance


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Helicobacter pylori , Gastric Mucosa , Gastritis, Atrophic , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Gastritis , Infections
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-972048

ABSTRACT

@#In Evidence-based Family Practice, requesting a diagnostic test should be based on two issues. First is whether the test is accurate and thus will significantly help in clinical decision making. Second is whether the test is appropriate and acceptable for the patient. This involves careful discussion of risks and benefits based on the physician’s knowledge and experience and the patient’s values and preferences.


Subject(s)
Diagnostic Tests, Routine
8.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 31(2): e20211050, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384889

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Determinar a razão oferta/necessidade de procedimentos relacionados com o diagnóstico e assistência à doença renal crônica no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), no estado de São Paulo, Brasil, 2019. Métodos: Estudo descritivo, utilizando dados dos sistemas de informações ambulatoriais e hospitalares do SUS. Os números de consultas médicas e exames diagnósticos e de acompanhamento da doença renal realizados no período foram comparados com as estimativas de necessidade obtidas por diretrizes ministeriais. Resultados: Usuários exclusivos do SUS eram 28.791.244, e indivíduos com hipertensão e/ou diabetes mellitus, 5.176.188. O número de procedimentos realizados e a razão entre esse número e a necessidade da população foram de 389.414 consultas com nefrologista (85%); 11.540.371 dosagens de creatinina sérica (223%); 705.709 dosagens de proteinúria (14%); 438.123 ultrassonografias renais (190%); e 1.045 biópsias renais (36%). Conclusão: Na assistência à doença renal crônica no SUS existem, simultaneamente, falta de oferta, desperdício e rastreamento deficiente de procedimentos importantes.


Objetivo: Determinar la relación oferta/necesidad de procedimientos relacionados con el diagnóstico y atención de la enfermedad renal crónica en Sistema Único de Salud (SUS) del Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, en 2019. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo utilizando datos de los sistemas de información ambulatoria y hospitalaria del SUS. Se comparó el número de consultas médicas, pruebas de diagnóstico y seguimiento de la enfermedad renal realizados con las estimaciones de necesidad recomendadas por directrices ministeriales. Resultados: Los usuarios exclusivos de SUS fueron 28.791.244 e hipertensos y/o diabéticos, 5.176.188. El número de procedimientos realizados y la relación entre este número y la necesidad de la población fueran de 389.414 consultas con nefrólogo (85%); 11.540.371 determinaciones de creatinina sérica (223%); 705.709 determinaciones de proteinuria (14%); 438.123 ecografías renales (190%); y 1.045 biopsias renales (36%). Conclusión: En la atención de enfermedad renal en SUS existe, simultáneamente, falta de oferta, desperdicio y seguimiento deficiente de procedimientos importantes.


Objective: To determine the supply/demand ratio for procedures related to diagnosis and treatment for chronic kidney disease in the Brazilian National Health System (SUS), in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, 2019. Methods: This was a descriptive study, using data from the SUS outpatient and hospital information systems. The numbers of medical consultations, diagnostic and chronic kidney disease monitoring tests, performed in the period, were compared with the demand estimation, obtained through ministerial guidelines. Results: Exclusive SUS users were 28,791,244, and individuals with arterial hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus, 5,176,188. The number of procedures performed and the ratio between this number and the needs of the population were 389,414 consultations with nephrologists (85%); 11,540,371 serum creatinine tests (223%); 705,709 proteinuria tests (14%); 438,123 kidney ultrasounds (190%); and 1,045 kidney biopsies (36%). Conclusion: In the chronic kidney disease care in the SUS it could be seen simultaneous existence of lack of supply, waste and inadequate screening of important procedures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Primary Health Care , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation/statistics & numerical data , Unified Health System , Brazil , Utilization Review , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Research , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology
9.
Rev. Investig. Salud. Univ. Boyacá ; 9(2): 173-193, 20220000. tab, ilust
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1445040

ABSTRACT

Introducción: A diario, los profesionales de la salud se enfrentan a importantes retos diagnósticos cuando atienden a sus pacientes, por lo que se apoyan en exámenes paraclínicos que complementan su ejercicio semiológico, porque les permiten confirmar o descartar una enfermedad. Objetivo: Explicar a los especialistas en rehabilitación cardiopulmonar los conceptos requeridos para interpretar de forma crítica los resultados de las pruebas diagnósticas. Materiales y métodos: Revisión narrativa de la literatura, que expone conceptos actualizados, ejemplos y gráficas con enfoque académico y didáctico. Resultado: Se realizó la actualización y explicación de los conceptos de sensibilidad, especificidad, valores predictivos positivo y negativo y los likelihood ratio positivo y negativo y su interpretación en el normograma de Fagan, a través de ejemplos del día a día del especialista. Conclusión: Comprender los conceptos que acompañan la evaluación de pruebas diagnósticas ayuda a que los especialistas en rehabilitación cardiopulmonar analicen críticamente los resultados de las ayudas paraclínicas funcionales y estructurales que acompañan a sus pacientes y, de esta manera, puedan caracterizar bien el diagnóstico y seguimiento de las personas


Introduction: Health professionals face important diagnostic challenges daily when they care for their patients, which is why they rely on paraclinical tests that complement their semiological exercise by confirming or ruling out a disease. Objective: Explain to cardiopulmonary rehabilitation specialists, the concepts necessary to critically interpret the results of diagnostic tests. Materials and methods: narrative review of the literature was carried out, which exposes updated concepts, examples, and graphs with an academic and didactic approach.Result: The concepts of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and the positive and negative Likelihood Ratio and their interpretation in the Fagan normogram were updated and explained, through examples of the specialists day-to-day. Conclusion: understanding the concepts that accompany the evaluation of diagnostic tests help car-diopulmonary rehabilitation specialists to critically analyze the results of the functional and structural paraclinical aids that accompany their patients, and thus be able to properly characterize the diagno-sis and follow-up. of people


Introdução: Diariamente, os profissionais da saúde enfrentam desafios diagnósticos, recorrendo a exames que complementem a sua prática semiológica, permitindo-lhes confirmar ou excluir uma doença. Objetivo: Explicar aos especialistas em reabilitação cardiopulmonar os conceitos necessários para interpretar criticamente os resultados dos testes de diagnóstico. Materiais e métodos: Revisão narrativa da literatura, fornecendo conceitos atualizados, exemplos e gráficas com uma abordagem académica e didática. Resultado: Os conceitos de sensibilidade, especificidade, valores preditivos positivos e negativos e razões de verossimilhança positivas e negativas e a sua interpretação no normograma de Fagan foram atualizados e explicados com exemplos do trabalho diário do especialista. Conclusão: A compreensão dos conceitos que acompanham a avaliação dos testes de diagnóstico ajuda aos especialistas em reabilitação cardiopulmonar na analise critica dos resultados das ajudas clínicas funcionais e estruturais dos pacientes e, desta forma, caracterizar bem o diagnóstico e o acompanhamento dos indivíduos


Subject(s)
Cardiac Rehabilitation , Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine , Epidemiology , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Diagnostic Tests, Routine
10.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 23(4): 1-10, 2022. tables, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1396409

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a major global health challenge that has affected all age groups and gender, with over 5 million deaths reported worldwide to date. The objective of this study is to assess available information on COVID-19 in children and adolescents with respect to clinical characteristics, co-morbidities, and outcomes, and identify gaps in the literatures for appropriate actions. Methodology: Electronic databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched for observational studies such as case series, cross-sectional and cohort studies published from December 2019 to September 2021, using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guide. Data extracted included (i) patient demography (age and gender), (ii) clinical characteristics including vaccination status and presence of co-morbidities, (iii) clinical management including the use of sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores, oxygen requirement, use of mechanical ventilation, and (iv) disease outcomes including length of hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) admission, recovery, complications with sequelae, or death. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: A total of 11 eligible studies were included with a total of 266 children and adolescents; 137 (51.5%) females and 129 (48.5%) males. The mean age of the children was 9.8 years (range of 0 ­ 19 years), and children ≥ 6 years were more affected (40.7%) than age groups 1 ­ 5 years (31.9%) and < 1 year (27.4%). The major co-morbidities were respiratory diseases including pre-existing asthma (3.4%), neurologic conditions (3.4%) and cardiac pathology (2.3%). Majority (74.8%, 199/266) of the patients were discharged without sequelae, 0.8% (2/266) were discharged with sequalae from one study, and mortality of 1.9% (5/266) was reported, also from one study. SOFA scores of patients at admission were not stated in any of the study, while only one study reported patient vaccination status. Conclusion: It is recommended that safe vaccines for children < 1 year of age should be developed in addition to other preventive measures currently in place. SOFA scores should be used to assess risk of COVID-19 severity and monitor prognosis of the disease, and vaccination status of children should be documented as this may impact the management and prognosis of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Child , Treatment Outcome
11.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 55(4): 439-443, dic. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1393747

ABSTRACT

Resumen El objetivo del trabajo fue analizar los valores de hemoglobina glucosilada en el tercer trimestre de embarazo como predictores alternativos de la diabetes gestacional en pacientes del Noreste de México. Se trata de un estudio retrospectivo de casos y controles a partir de 121 expedientes de pacientes embarazadas, divididos en dos grupos, pacientes con diabetes gestacional (casos) y gestantes con valores glucémicos normales (controles). Se analizaron los factores de riesgo asociados a la diabetes gestacional y se obtuvo un punto de corte para la hemoglobina glucosilada. Se encontró que la obesidad materna, la edad y el antecedente del padecimiento fueron asociados significativamente con la diabetes gestacional. Valores de hemoglobina glucosilada ≥5% incrementaron el riesgo de padecer diabetes mellitus gestacional 4 veces y, aunado a un factor de riesgo, la probabilidad se incrementó 7 veces. Se concluye que los valores de hemoglobina glucosilada en el tercer trimestre de embarazo podrían emplearse como prueba diagnóstica de la diabetes gestacional en pacientes del Noreste de México. Sin embargo, aunque las diferencias encontradas fueron estadísticamente significativas, los resultados se deben interpretar con cautela y requieren su confirmación con estudios que incluyan una muestra mayor.


Abstract The objective of this study was to analise glycosylated hemoglobin values in the third trimester of pregnancy as an alternative predictor of gestational diabetes in North East Mexican cohort patients. This is a retrospective case-control study based on 121 records of pregnant patients, divided into two groups, patients with gestational diabetes (cases) and pregnant women with normal glycemic values (control). The risk factors associated with gestational diabetes were analised and a cut-off point for glycosylated hemogestaglobin was obtained. It was found that maternal obesity, age and a history of the condition were significantly associated with gestational diabetes. Values of glycosylated hemoglobin ≥5% increased the risk of suffering from gestational diabetes 4 times, and coupled with a risk factor, the risk increased 7 times. It is concluded that glycosylated hemoglobin values in the third trimester of pregnancy could be used as a diagnostic test for gestational diabetes in patients from the North East of Mexico. Although the differences found were statistically significant, our results must be interpreted with caution and require confirmation by studies with a larger sample.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os valores da hemoglobina glicada no terceiro trimestre de gestação como preditores alternativos do diabetes gestacional em pacientes na região nordeste do México. Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo de casos e controles utilizando 121 prontuários de gestantes divididas em dois grupos; pacientes com diabetes gestacional (casos) e gestantes com valores de glicemia normais (controles). Foram analisados os fatores de risco associados a diabetes gestacional obtendo-se um ponto de corte para a hemoglobina glicada. Descobriu-se que a obesidade materna, idade e antecedentes da doença foram associados significativamente ao diabetes gestacional. Valores da hemoglobina glicada ≥ 5% aumentaram o risco de padecer diabetes mellitus gestacional 4 vezes, e juntamente a um fator de risco, a probabilidade aumentou 7 vezes. Conclui-se que os valores da hemoglobina glicada no terceiro trimestre de gestação poderiam ser usados como teste diagnóstico do diabetes gestacional em pacientes da região nordeste do México. Embora as diferenças encontradas tenham sido estatisticamente significativas, os resultados devem ser interpretados com cautela e requerem confirmação através de estudos que incluam uma amostra maior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Glycated Hemoglobin , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Women , Case-Control Studies , Probability , Risk Factors , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Courtship , Pregnant Women , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Lipid Metabolism Disorders , Obesity, Maternal
12.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 55(4): 475-483, dic. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1393751

ABSTRACT

Resumen Un diagnóstico rápido y seguro de la infección por Trypanosoma cruzi permite la administración inmediata de un tratamiento etiológico específico, en los casos clínicamente manifiestos. En el presente trabajo, en 100 sueros de pacientes con diagnóstico presuntivo de infección por T. cruzi, se evaluó el desempeño de la prueba rápida Chagas Ab Rapid SD Bioline (PDR) para el diagnóstico serológico, se la comparó con el estándar diagnóstico (par serológico) y se la valoró para su empleo en la rutina del laboratorio. La PDR reveló un índice de concordancia muy bueno respecto del estándar diagnóstico (Kappa=0,989 [IC95% 0,965-1,000]) y los parámetros de sensibilidad, especificidad, valores predictivos positivos y negativos revelaron un buen desempeño. El índice de Youden informó un buen rendimiento de la prueba (J=0,98 [IC95% 0,93-1,02]); y en el mismo sentido, tanto la razón de verosimilitud positiva (RV (+)= infinito), como la negativa (RV (-)= 0,02 [IC95% 0,00-0,16]), mostraron aumentada la probabilidad que la enfermedad blanco esté presente o ausente, cuando la técnica así lo determinaba. El empleo de una PDR, por su simpleza y buen desempeño (con resultados disponibles el mismo día) produciría una optimización de recursos, podría realizarse en lugares donde el acceso al diagnóstico es limitado y donde su incorporación no requeriría de una infraestructura importante. Por otro lado, en nuestro caso, podría ser utilizada como segunda prueba, para incrementar la especificidad del diagnóstico serológico de la infección por T. cruzi.


Abstract A quick and safe diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection allows the immediate etiological treatment in clinically manifested cases. In the present work, the performance of the rapid Chagas Ab Rapid SD Bioline (PDR) test for serological diagnosis was evaluated in 100 sera from patients with a presumptive diagnosis of T. cruzi infection, it was compared with the diagnostic standard (serological pair) and this technique was valued to be used within the laboratory routine. The PDR revealed a very good concordance index with respect to the diagnostic standard (Kappa=0.989 [95% CI 0.965-1.000]) and the parameters of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values revealed good performance. The Youden index reported good performance of the diagnostic test (J = 0.98 [95% CI 0.93-1.02]); and in the same sense, both the positive likelihood ratio (RV (+) = infinity), and the negative (RV (-) = 0.02 [95% CI 0.00-0.16]) showed an increased probability whether the target disease was present or absent, when the technique so determined. The use of a PDR, due to its simplicity and good performance (with results available on the same day) would produce an optimization of resources, could be carried out in places where access to the diagnosis is limited and where its incorporation would not require an important infrastructure. On the other hand, in our case, it could be used as a second test, to increase the specificity of the serological diagnosis of T. cruzi infection.


Resumo Um diagnóstico rápido e seguro da infecção pelo Trypanosoma cruzi permite a administração imediata de um tratamento etiológico específico nos casos clinicamente manifestos. No presente trabalho, o desempenho do teste rápido Chagas Ab Rapid SD Bioline (PDR) para o diagnóstico sorológico foi avaliado em 100 soros de pacientes com diagnóstico provável de infecção por T. cruzi, foi comparado com o padrão diagnóstico (par sorológico) e essa técnica foi avaliada para ser utilizada na rotina do laboratório. O PDR revelou um índice de concordância muito bom em relação ao padrão diagnóstico (Kappa=0,989 [IC 95% 0,965-1.000]) e os parâmetros de sensibilidade, especificidade, valores preditivos positivos e negativos revelaram bom desempenho. O índice de Youden informou um bom desempenho do teste diagnóstico (J = 0,98 [IC 95% 0,93-1,02]); e, no mesmo sentido, tanto a razão de verossimilhança positiva (RV (+) = infinito), quanto a negativa (RV (-) = 0,02 [IC 95% 0,00-0,16]), mostraram uma probabilidade aumentada de a doença-alvo estar presente ou ausente, quando a técnica assim o determinar. A utilização de um PDR, pela sua simplicidade e por um bom desempenho (com resultados disponíveis no mesmo dia) produziria uma otimização de recursos, podendo ser realizado em locais onde o acesso ao diagnóstico é limitado, e onde a sua incorporação não exigiria um infraestrutura importante. Por outro lado, no nosso caso, poderia ser utilizado como segundo teste, para aumentar a especificidade do diagnóstico sorológico da infecção pelo T. cruzi.


Subject(s)
Humans , Trypanosoma cruzi/growth & development , Chromatography, Affinity , HIV , Parasitology , Rutin , Disease , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Chagas Disease , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Efficiency , Health Resources , Infections , Laboratories , Methods
13.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 5(4): 395-408, out.dez.2021. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399798

ABSTRACT

Introdução: É necessário conhecer a situação de alergistas/ imunologistas nos diferentes cenários de atuação, identificando perfis e eventuais dificuldades. O conhecimento destes dados poderá servir de subsídio para fomentar a implementação de políticas que garantam a integralidade na atenção à saúde do paciente com doenças alérgicas e erros inatos da imunidade (EII). Objetivo: Verificar o perfil dos especialistas em Alergia e Imunologia no Brasil, em relação ao local de atuação, acesso a exames, terapias e o impacto da pandemia COVID-19 sobre o seu exercício profissional. Métodos: Estudo descritivo-exploratório, com dados coletados por inquérito on-line, utilizando-se a ferramenta Google Forms. Todos os associados adimplentes da ASBAI foram convidados a participar. O questionário abordou aspectos sociodemográficos e profissionais. As informações foram analisadas no programa SPSS versão 20.0. Resultados: Quatrocentos e sessenta associados responderam ao questionário. Observou-se predomínio de mulheres (73%), com mediana de idade de 47 anos. A maioria dos participantes atua no setor privado (95%), e 47% no setor público. Aproximadamente 80% dos que atendem no setor público referiram ter acesso a algum exame diagnóstico para doenças alérgicas e EII. Apenas 35% dos especialistas do sistema público têm acesso a imunoterapia alérgeno específica, contra 96% dos que atuam no setor privado. Já aos medicamentos imunobiológicos, 53% e 72% dos especialistas que atuam no serviço público e privado, respectivamente, referiram acesso. Mais de 60% dos associados participantes da pesquisa tiveram redução no número de consultas em pelo menos 50%, e 56% tem realizado atendimento por teleconsulta durante a pandemia de COVID-19. Conclusão: Os associados da ASBAI têm incorporado na sua prática clínica os avanços na terapia das doenças imunoalérgicas, mas vários métodos diagnósticos ainda são pouco acessíveis. A presença do especialista em Alergia e Imunologia no SUS, também precisa ser ampliada. A pandemia do coronavírus trouxe a discussão da telemedicina como um método de atendimento clínico em nossa especialidade.


Introduction: It is necessary to know the situation of allergists/ immunologists in different scenarios of action, identifying profiles and possible difficulties. The knowledge of these data can serve as a subsidy to promote the implementation of policies that ensure comprehensive health care for patients with allergic diseases and inborn errors of immunity (IEI). Objective: To verify the profile of specialists in Allergy and Immunology in Brazil, concerning the place of work, access to tests, therapies, and the impact of the pandemic on their professional practice. Methods: Descriptive-exploratory study, with data collected through an online survey, using the Google Forms tool. All compliant ASBAI members were invited to participate. The questionnaire addressed sociodemographic and professional aspects. The information was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results: Four hundred and sixty associates answered the questionnaire. Women were predominant (73%), and the median age was 47 years. Most participants work in the private sector (95%) and 47% in the public sector. Approximately 80% of those who work in the public sector reported having access to some diagnostic tests for allergic diseases and IEI. Only 35% of specialists in the public system have access to specific allergen immunotherapy, against 96% of those working in the private sector. As for immunobiological drugs, 53% and 72% of specialists working in the public and private service, respectively, reported access. More than 60% of the members participating in the survey had a reduction in the number of consultations by at least 50% and 56% have been assisted by teleconsultation during the Covid19 pandemic. Conclusion: ASBAI associates have incorporated advances in the therapy of immune allergic diseases into their clinical practice, but several diagnostic methods are still inaccessible. The presence of specialists in Allergy and Immunology in the Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS) also needs to be expanded. The coronavirus pandemic brought the discussion of telemedicine as a method of clinical care practice in our specialty.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 21st Century , Brazil , Comprehensive Health Care , Allergy and Immunology , Allergists , COVID-19 , Patients , Referral and Consultation , Societies, Medical , Therapeutics , Unified Health System , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine , Public Sector , Private Sector , Remote Consultation , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Health Services Needs and Demand , Hypersensitivity , Immunity , Immunotherapy
14.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(4): 489-493, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350813

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Low levels of neutrophils can be an intrinsic condition, with no clinical consequences or immunity impairment. This condition is the benign constitutional neutropenia (BCN), defined as an absolute neutrophils count (ANC) ≤2000 cells/mm. Diagnosis of BCN is of exclusion where patients are submitted to blood tests and possibly to invasive diagnostic search until secondary causes of neutropenia are ruled out. The natural history of the disease suggests benign evolution and Brazilian study showed an overall frequency of 2.59%. The main mechanisms include reduced neutrophil production, increased marginalization, extravasation to the tissues and immune destruction. Genetic studies showed strong association between the single nucleotide variant rs2814778 located on chromosome 1q23.2 in the promoter region of the atypical chemokine receptor 1 (Duffy blood group system) gene (ACKR1, also termed DARC) and BCN. The aim of this study is to evaluate FY phenotypes and genotypes including the analysis of the rs2814778 SNP in Brazilian patients with BCN in order to determine an effective diagnostic tool, allowing reassurance of the patient and cost reduction in their care. Methods: Case control study, with 94 individuals (18 patients and 76 controls). Phenotyping was performed by gel test and genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP. Results: White blood cell (WBC) and absolute neutrophils (AN) counts showed lower levels in patients compared to controls. In the patient group 83.3% were genotyped as FY*B/FY*B. The SNP rs2814778 (-67T > C) was identified in 77.8% of the patients genotyped as FY*B-67C/FY*B-67C. In the control group, 72.7% were homozygous for the wild type and 23.3% were heterozygous. Conclusion: This study reinforces that FY phenotyping and genotyping can be used to detect most people with BCN, avoiding excessive diagnostic investigation. Besides, this procedure may reduce health costs and be reproductible in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Duffy Blood-Group System , Genotyping Techniques , Neutropenia , Immunophenotyping , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Neutrophils
15.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(6)dic. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1409424

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease of interest to public health because of its social and economic burden. Identifying infected and sick people with Chagas disease constitutes the first step towards achieving World Health Ooganization's goals for 2020. Objective: To evaluate the reproducibility with gold standard of a rapid diagnostic test for detection of antibodies to T. cruzi; and to propose a diagnostic algorithm for Chagas disease under the point-of-care concept in an area with limited access to health care coverage. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed to detect antibodies to T. cruzi in 151 indigenous volunteers belonging to three ethnic groups of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. Rapid tests-PDR SD BIOLINE Chagas Ab were implemented in the field versus confirmation in the laboratory using two standardized serological methods (ELISAs). Results: The results show that 19,2 percent seroreactivity for T. cruzi was found among the entire population screening. The highest rate of human infection with T. cruzi was detected in the Wiwa community. No significant differences between rapid diagnostic test and the standard techniques (ELISAs) were found. Sensitivity, specificity and concordance for RDT were 100 percent (Kappa: 1,0). Conclusions: The Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta continues to be a hyperendemic area for Chagas disease. The area is difficult to access and has low or no primary health care coverage, making the assessed rapid diagnostic test a useful tool for screening programs and defining treatment and control plans, which represents the first approach at establishing a point-of-care testing strategy for endemic countries for Chagas disease(AU)


Introducción: La enfermedad de Chagas es una enfermedad desatendida de interés en salud pública por su carga social y económica. Identificar personas infectadas y enfermas con el mal de Chagas constituye el primer paso para alcanzar los objetivos de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para el 2020. Objetivo: Evaluar la reproducibilidad de una prueba de diagnóstico rápida para la detección de anticuerpos contra T. cruzi; y proponer un algoritmo de diagnóstico para enfermedad de Chagas bajo el concepto de uso de tecnologías en el lugar de atención en áreas de acceso limitados a los servicios de salud. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal para la detección de anticuerpos para T. cruzi a 151 indígenas voluntarios pertenecientes a tres grupos étnicos de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. Se implementó pruebas rápidas-PDR SD BIOLINE Chagas Ab en campo versus la confirmación en el laboratorio mediante dos métodos serológicos estandarizados (ELISAs). Resultados: Se encontró el 19,2 por ciento de seroreactividad para T. cruzi entre toda la población estudiada. La tasa más alta de infección humana por T. cruzi se detectó en la comunidad Wiwa. No hubo diferencias significativas entre la prueba de diagnóstico rápida y las técnicas estandarizadas (ELISAS). La sensibilidad, especificidad y concordancia para la PDR fue del 100 por ciento (Kappa: 1,0). Conclusiones: La Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta continúa siendo un área hiperendémica para la enfermedad de Chagas. Dado que es un área de difícil acceso, con baja o nula cobertura en atención primaria en salud, la prueba de diagnóstico rápida evaluada se convierte en una herramienta útil como prueba de elección para programas de tamización y definir planes de acción de tratamiento y control, y representa el primer acercamiento de uso de tecnologías en el sitio de atención para el diagnóstico rápido en países endémicos para la enfermedad(AU)


Subject(s)
Primary Health Care , Public Health , Chagas Disease , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Health Services Accessibility , Cross-Sectional Studies
16.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 60(3): e1147, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347386

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Dentro de la atención al lesionado con trauma torácico se cuenta con varios medios diagnósticos, entre ellos la evaluación por ecografía focalizada en trauma extendido a tórax, el cual ha mostrado una alta sensibilidad, aun realizado por médicos no radiólogos como cirujanos generales, emergencistas e intensivistas. Objetivo: Determinar la utilidad de la ecografía torácica extendida realizada por cirujanos en lesionados con traumatismo torácico. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo de evaluación de pruebas diagnósticas con un diseño transversal, en 1052 pacientes ingresados en la sala de emergencia. Se les realizó la evaluación por ecografía torácica extendida en el Hospital Universitario "General Calixto García", durante el período comprendido entre enero de 2020 y febrero de 2021. Resultados: Fueron realizados en un periodo de 1 año un total de 1052 ultrasonidos torácicos, 221 casos fueron positivos, de ellos 81 neumotórax (7,7 por ciento) y 62 hemoneumotórax (5,9 por ciento) todos confirmados por tomografía de tórax. La edad promedio fue de 45,27 (18-97), el sexo masculino prevaleció con 772 casos (73,4 por ciento). Los mecanismos productores de trauma más frecuentes fueron: caída de altura 273 casos (26 por ciento) y trauma contuso 181 casos (17,2 por ciento). La ecografía torácica extendida obtuvo una sensibilidad de un 95,24 por ciento y una especificidad de 99,88 por ciento en el diagnóstico lesiones torácicas. Conclusiones: La ecografía torácica extendida demostró que en manos de los cirujanos generales es una herramienta confiable, segura, no invasiva, poco costosa, repetible, que permite diagnosticar rápidamente lesiones torácicas y tratarlas(AU)


Introduction: Within care for the injured patient with thoracic trauma there are several diagnostic means. For example, extended focused assessment with sonography for thoracic trauma has shown high sensitivity, even when performed by non-radiologists such as general surgeons, emergency specialists and intensivists. Objective: To determine the usefulness of extended thoracic sonography performed by surgeons on injured patients with thoracic trauma. Methods: An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study of diagnostic tests assessment was carried out in 1052 patients admitted to the emergency room. They were assessed by extended thoracic sonography at General Calixto García University Hospital, during the period between January 2020 and February 2021. Results: A total of 1052 thoracic ultrasounds were performed in a period of one year, of which 221 cases were positive. Of them, 81 were pneumothorax (7.7 percent) and 62 were hemopneumothorax (5.9 percent), all confirmed by chest tomography. The average age was 45.27 (18-97). The male sex prevailed, with 772 cases (73.4 percent). The most frequent trauma-producing mechanisms were altitude fall, accounting for 273 cases (26 percent), and blunt trauma, accounting for 181 cases (17.2 percent). Extended thoracic ultrasound showed a sensitivity of 95.24 percent and a specificity of 99.88 percent in the diagnosis of thoracic injuries. Conclusions: Extended thoracic ultrasound showed that, in the hands of general surgeons, it is a reliable, safe, noninvasive, inexpensive and repeatable tool that allows rapid diagnosis and treatment of thoracic injuries(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Thoracic Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/methods , Emergency Service, Hospital , Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma/methods , Hemopneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Tomography/adverse effects , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Observational Studies as Topic
17.
Rev. cub. inf. cienc. salud ; 32(2): e1680, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289345

ABSTRACT

Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar las métricas disponibles de las herramientas digitales que fomentan el autocuidado para comprender sus efectos en la población en tiempos de COVID-19. Se realizó una búsqueda sobre sitios web, aplicaciones móviles y redes sociales que ofrecían información a la población sobre la COVID-19, los cuales debían pertenecer al gobierno peruano o a instituciones oficiales relacionadas con la salud. Se revisaron las métricas disponibles de cada herramienta digital para una posterior evaluación de uso. Los sitios web identificados brindaban información referente a la COVID-19, así como datos actualizados sobre los casos existentes, la autoevaluación para descartar la enfermedad y el reporte de resultados de la prueba para su diagnóstico. El sitio web más visitado fue el del Gobierno del Perú, el cual contenía la página web del Ministerio de Salud. Asimismo, la aplicación móvil del Gobierno del Perú PerúEnTusManos fue la más descargada por parte de la población peruana. Las redes sociales, en colaboración con estas herramientas digitales en el Perú, vienen siendo utilizadas activamente para informar e interactuar con la población en estos tiempos de COVID-19. Por lo tanto, por la rápida adaptabilidad que tienen los sitios web y las aplicaciones móviles, estas se han convertido en el Perú en una herramienta informativa ideal para hacer frente a la pandemia de la COVID-19(AU)


The purpose of the study was to analyze the metrics available for digital tools fostering self-care to understand their effects on the population in the time of COVID-19. A search was conducted about websites, mobile applications and social networks offering information to the population about COVID-19 and belonging to the Peruvian government or health-related official institutions. A review was performed of the metrics available for each digital tool with a view to an eventual evaluation of their use. The websites identified provided information about COVID-19 as well as updated data about existing cases, self-evaluation to rule out the disease and the report of results of diagnostic tests. The most visited website was that of the Government of Peru, which contained the website of the Ministry of Health. The mobile application of the Government of Peru PerúEnTusManos was the most commonly downloaded by the Peruvian population. Social networks, in joint cooperation with these digital tools, are actively used in Peru to inform and interact with the population in the time of COVID-19. Due to the rapid adaptability of websites and mobile applications, these have become an ideal information tool in Peru to face the COVID-19 pandemic(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Self Care , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Social Networking , Mobile Applications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Peru , Research Report
18.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 37(2): e1297, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289428

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La enfermedad granulomatosa crónica es una inmunodeficiencia primaria congénita del sistema inmune innato, originada por defectos en el complejo enzimático nicotinamida adenina dinucleótido fosfato oxidasa presente en células fagocíticas. Estos defectos funcionales causan incapacidad para producir especies reactivas del oxígeno en los fagocitos, que afectan la eliminación de algunos microorganismos patógenos dentro del fagolisosoma. El diagnóstico de esta enfermedad se realiza actualmente mediante la prueba de 1,2,3-dihidrorodamina asistida por citometría de flujo multiparamétrica, o la tinción de fagocitos con nitroazul de tetrazolio asistida por microscopio óptico. Objetivos: Describir los aspectos fisiopatológicos y moleculares de la enfermedad granulomatosa crónica; y discutir aspectos relacionados con las pruebas de diagnóstico antes mencionadas. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación bibliográfica-documental a partir de artículos científicos publicados desde 1933 hasta 2018, para ello fueron consultadas las bases de datos SciELO, PubMed y Springer. Desarrollo: Se exponen las características fisiopatológicas de la enfermedad granulomatosa crónica, así como la relación entre las mutaciones genéticas más abundantes en la población afectada y la gravedad de las manifestaciones clínicas que presentan los pacientes. Además, se analizan críticamente los beneficios y las deficiencias de dos técnicas que se utilizan actualmente para diagnosticar la enfermedad. Conclusiones: La enfermedad granulomatosa crónica puede generar consecuencias inmunológicas e inflamatorias graves, que se hallan en consonancia con las características genéticas expresadas en el complejo enzimático dañado. El diagnóstico de la enfermedad resulta más confiable, exhaustivo y específico, mediante la citometría de flujo y su prueba de 1,2,3-dihidrorodamina(AU)


Introduction: Chronic granulomatous disease is a congenital primary immunodeficiency of the innate immune system, caused by defects in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase enzyme complex present in phagocytic cells. These functional defects cause inability to produce reactive oxygen species in phagocytes, affecting the elimination of some pathogenic microorganisms within the phagolysosome. The diagnosis of this disease is currently made by means of the 1,2,3-dihydrorodamine test assisted by multiparametric flow cytometry, or the staining of phagocytes with nitro-blue tetrazolium assisted by light microscopy. Objectives: To characterize molecular and pathophysiologically the chronic granulomatous disease; and to discuss aspects related to the aforementioned diagnostic tests. Methods: In this work, a bibliographic-documentary research was carried out from scientific articles published from 1933 to 2018, for which the SciELO, PubMed and Springer databases were consulted. Development: The pathophysiological characteristics of chronic granulomatous disease are exposed, as well as the relationship between the most abundant genetic mutations in the affected population, and the severity of the clinical manifestations presented by the patients. In addition, the benefits and deficiencies of two techniques currently used to diagnose the disease are critically analyzed. Conclusions: Chronic granulomatous disease can generate severe immunological and inflammatory consequences, which are in line with the genetic characteristics expressed in the damaged enzyme complex. The diagnosis of the disease is more reliable, exhaustive and specific, using flow cytometry and its 1,2,3-dihydrorodamine test(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Reactive Oxygen Species , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Nitroblue Tetrazolium/therapeutic use , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Flow Cytometry/methods , Granulomatous Disease, Chronic/physiopathology , Granulomatous Disease, Chronic/genetics
19.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 53(2): 21-30, June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376404

ABSTRACT

Abstract The National Quality Control Program in Mycology (PNCCM) of Argentina was establishedin 1996 to improve the quality of the mycological diagnosis, to help establish and to setup standardized procedures and continuous training of laboratory staff. The aim of this studywas to assess the effectiveness of the PNCCM in the 1996---2018 period. Data from the NationalMycology Laboratory Network (NMLN) and PNCCM database was used to estimate the increasein the number of controlled laboratories and jurisdictions, the percentage of participation, theimprovement in the quality of results and the adherence to the program. Satisfaction surveyswere performed to assess user satisfaction. The number of controlled laboratories increasedfrom 29 to 146; participation increased from 49% to 93% and general adherence was 72% inthe evaluated period (1996---2018). Improvement in the quality of the results was 15% for lowcomplexity samples; 7% for intermediate complexity samples and 14% for the identification ofhigh complexity strains. Up to 84% of the users consider the PNCCM to be ''very good'' and 16%''satisfactory''. These results show the importance of the PNCCM, which is widely accepted bymycological diagnostic laboratories from Argentina.


Resumen En 1996 se creó el Programa Nacional de Control de Calidad en Micología (PNCCM)de Argentina con el objetivo de mejorar la calidad del diagnóstico micológico, colaborar enel establecimiento de procedimientos estandarizados en aquellos laboratorios que carecen deellos y contribuir a la capacitación continua del personal.El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la efectividad del PNCCM en el período 1996-2018.Se utilizaron los datos de la base de la Red Nacional de Laboratorios de Micología (RNLM) ydel PNCCM para estimar el aumento en el número de laboratorios controlados y el porcentajede participación, la mejora de la calidad de los resultados y la adhesión al programa. Paraevaluar el grado de satisfacción de los usuarios, se analizaron las encuestas de satisfacción delos participantes. En el período evaluado, el número de laboratorios controlados aumentó de 29a 146, la participación aumentó de 49% a 93% y la adherencia general de los participantes fue del72%. La mejora de la calidad de los resultados de los laboratorios fue del 15% para muestras debaja complejidad, 7% para muestras de complejidad intermedia y 14% para la identificación decepas de alta complejidad. El 84% de los usuarios considera que el PNCCM es muy bueno y el 16%que es satisfactorio. Estos resultados evidencian la importancia del PNCCM, que es ampliamenteaceptado por los laboratorios que realizan diagnóstico micológico en nuestro país.


Subject(s)
Humans , Laboratories , Mycology , Argentina , Quality Control , Diagnostic Tests, Routine
20.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(5): e522-e525, oct. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1292701

ABSTRACT

La tuberculosis bovina es una zoonosis causada por Mycobacterium bovis. El bovino es el huésped primario. Otras especies pueden ser infectadas (cerdos, cabras y caballos, entre otras). En el ser humano, el contagio puede ser por vía aérea (enfermedad pulmonar), clínicamente indistinguible de la producida por Mycobacterium tuberculosis, o por vía oral o cutánea, (formas extrapulmonares: digestiva, ganglionar, cutánea). Su contagio se ha relacionado principalmente al contacto con el ganado y al consumo de lácteos sin pasteurizar. También se notificó el posible contagio interpersonal.Se describe el caso de una paciente adolescente, proveniente de la provincia de Buenos Aires, con síndrome febril prolongado y conglomerado ganglionar abdominal, con antecedente de ingestión de leche no pasteurizada. Es fundamental alertar acerca de la importancia del procesamiento correcto de los alimentos, sobre todo en esta época en la que las nuevas tendencias alimentarias (ingestión de lácteos caseros o comprados en ferias informales) pueden poner en riesgo la salud.


Bovine tuberculosis is an infectious, zoonotic disease, caused by Mycobacterium bovis. The bovine is the primary host. Other species can be infected (pigs, goats, horses, etc). Man can be infected by air (lung disease), clinically indistinguishable from that produced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis or by oral or cutaneous route (extrapulmonary forms: digestive, lymph node, skin). Contagion has been mainly related to contact with livestock and the consumption of unpasteurized dairy products. It was also reported the possible contagion between people. It is described the case of an adolescent patient, from the province of Buenos Aires, with prolonged febrile syndrome and abdominal lymph node conglomerate, with a history of ingestion of unpasteurized milk. We consider the importance of warning about the correct processing of food, especially at this time when new food trends (homemade dairy intake or bought at informal fairs) could put the health of the population at risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Child , Mycobacterium bovis , Swine , Cattle , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Food
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