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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878783

ABSTRACT

A split-plot experiment was conducted to study the optimum planting density of Nuomi yam in directional groove shallow cultivation. Nuomi yam was the main local cultivar of Dioscorea. The study of this paper may help to give valuable instructions of local production. Three different planting densities and shallow groove diameter were designed in the experiment. The results showed that the fresh weight of aerial part per plant, yield and planting benefit of Nuomi yam tuber were the highest when the planting density was 12 000 plants/hm~2 and the diameter of shallow growth groove was 11.0 cm, while they were the lowest when the planting density was 22 500 plants/hm~2 and the diameter of shallow growth groove was 7.5 cm. Along with the increase of planting density, the fresh weight of aerial part, tuber, fresh yield, benefit and commercial tuber rate of Nuomi yam also decreased. The commercial tuber rate of Nuomi yam of 11.0 cm diameter in shallow growing pot was the highest, while it was the lowest with no shallow growing pot. On the contrary, the content of amylopectin and mucin was the highest when there was no shallow groove, and was the lowest when the diameter of shallow groove was 7.5 cm, although there was no significant difference between the two treatments. Therefore, Nuomi yam with the directional cultivation combination of planting density of 12 000 plants/hm~2 and shallow groove diameter of 11.0 cm showed high yield, good appearance quality, high planting benefit and no obvious adverse effect on internal quality.


Subject(s)
Dioscorea
2.
Acta amaz ; 49(3): 167-172, jul. - set. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119019

ABSTRACT

The Amerindian yam (Dioscorea trifida) is a food plant native to the Amazon region. Several local varieties are cultivated by traditional family farmers for consumption and local trade. However, socioeconomic processes may be causing species genetic erosion. Knowledge about species sexual reproduction is essential for its conservation and genetic improvement. The objective of this study was to observe the floral phenology, to assess the germination and dormancy of seeds, to conduct controlled pollinations and to select hybrid plants of D. trifida with agronomic potential. Seed dormancy was confirmed and was broken by after-ripening at 28 oC and 80% RH. We carried out controlled pollinations between local landraces and cultivated the resulting hybrid plants in the field. The new genotypes showed high phenotypic variability and tubers with new characteristics, which permitted the selection of genotypes with agronomic potential for further studies. The results contribute to the conservation of agrobiodiversity and genetic improvement for added value of Amazonian native food plants. (AU)


Subject(s)
Plants, Edible , Germination , Amazonian Ecosystem , Dioscorea , Pollination , Plant Breeding
3.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 261-267, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760562

ABSTRACT

The rhizomes of Dioscorea japonica Thunb. are widely consumed as food and also used to treat diabetes and polyuria in Korea. This study was undertaken to study the anti-atopic dermatitis effects of a 95% ethanolic extract (DJE) of D. japonica in an oxazolone-stimulated murine model of atopic dermatitis (AD). The therapeutic effects of DJE on AD-like skin lesions were assessed on both ears. DJE (1%) or dexamethasone (0.5%; the positive control) were applied to skin lesions for three weeks. Serum levels of IgE and IL-4 were assessed by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Histopathological examinations were performed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and toluidine blue staining and revealed DJE significantly reduced dermal thickness and inflammatory cell infiltration when applied to oxazolone-treated ear skin. DJE-treated AD mice also showed lower serum levels of IgE and IL-4 than oxazolone-stimulated controls. Our findings demonstrate DJE might be a useful safe, topical agent for the treatment of atopic diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dermatitis , Dermatitis, Atopic , Dexamethasone , Dioscorea , Ear , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Ethanol , Hematoxylin , Immunoglobulin E , Interleukin-4 , Korea , Mice , Oxazolone , Polyuria , Rhizome , Skin , Therapeutic Uses , Tolonium Chloride
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758411

ABSTRACT

Dioscorea tokoro has long been used in Korean traditional medicine as a pain killer and anti-inflammatory agent. A 53-year-old male who consumed water that had been boiled with raw tubers of D. tokoro as tea presented with numbness and spasm of both hands and feet. Laboratory results showed hypocalcemia, hypoparathyroidism, and vitamin D insufficiency. During his hospital stay, colitis, acute kidney injury, and toxic encephalopathy developed. The patient received calcium gluconate intravenous infusion and oral calcium carbonate with alfacalcidol. His symptoms improved gradually, but hypocalcemia persisted despite the calcium supplementation. We suggest that ingestion of inappropriately prepared D. tokoro can cause symptomatic hypocalcemia in patients with unbalanced calcium homeostasis.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Calcium , Calcium Carbonate , Calcium Gluconate , Colitis , Dioscorea , Eating , Foot , Hand , Homeostasis , Humans , Hypesthesia , Hypocalcemia , Hypoparathyroidism , Infusions, Intravenous , Length of Stay , Male , Medicine, Korean Traditional , Middle Aged , Neurotoxicity Syndromes , Spasm , Tea , Vitamin D , Water
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716522

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Oral allergy syndrome (OAS) is a type of allergic reaction that mainly occurs on oral contact with raw fruit, vegetables, or nuts. The most common type of OAS is birch pollen-related food allergy. Although OAS is a common food allergy in adults, only few epidemiologic studies have been reported in Korea. Here we investigate the prevalence and triggers of birch pollen-related food allergy. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 1,427 patients who underwent a skin prick test for inhalant allergens at the Asthma and Allergy Clinic in Seoul National University Bundang Hospital from January 2011 to December 2016. RESULTS: Of 1,427 patients, 125 (8.7%) were sensitized to birch pollen. Among them, 20.0% developed OAS, which was the most common food allergy (96.2%). The prevalence of OAS was higher in females, and was 18.2% in birch pollen-sensitized allergic rhinoconjunctivitis patients. Further, 72.0% OAS patients had rhinoconjunctivitis, 20.0% had asthma, and 12.0% had chronic urticaria. Apple (68.0%), peach (56.0%), nuts (36.0%), kiwi (20.0%), persimmon (20.0%), plum (16.0%), and cherry (16.0%) were frequent triggers; however, Chinese yam, kudzu vine, bellflower root, codonopsis, and ginseng were also revealed as triggers. Patients (60.0%) showed OAS with ≥ 3 foods at the same time. Only 3 patients showed mono-sensitivity to birch pollen, while others were multi-sensitized to trees, grasses, weed, or house dust mite allergens. CONCLUSION: OAS was the most common food allergy in birch pollen-sensitized patients. This study revealed the unique triggers of OAS in Korea in addition to well-known triggers.


Subject(s)
Adult , Allergens , Asthma , Betula , Codonopsis , Dioscorea , Diospyros , Epidemiologic Studies , Female , Food Hypersensitivity , Fruit , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Korea , Nuts , Panax , Poaceae , Pollen , Prevalence , Prunus domestica , Prunus persica , Pueraria , Pyroglyphidae , Retrospective Studies , Seoul , Skin , Trees , Urticaria , Vegetables
6.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): e4-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-750129

ABSTRACT

Yam (Dioscorea opposita) is commonly consumed in East Asia, but allergic reaction to this plant food is rare. To date, there is no report of anaphylactic reaction after ingestion of cooked yam. We described 3 cases with anaphylaxis after eating boiled yam and 1 present with oral allergy syndrome as well. Basophil activation test in patients showed positive reactivity to boiled yam extract. In immunoblotting, a 30-kDa protein was recognized by all patients' sera and a 17-kDa band was detected by 1 patient. N-terminal amino acid revealed the 30-kDa IgE reacted band was DB3S, dioscorin in Dioscorea tuber. It promoted us that DB3S was a thermal stable oral allergen to trigger anaphylactic reaction and oral allergy syndrome in cooked yam (D. opposita) allergy. Patients with this plant food allergy should avoid both raw and well-cooked yam.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , Basophils , Dioscorea , Eating , Far East , Food Hypersensitivity , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Immunoblotting , Immunoglobulin E , Plants
7.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 1020-1024, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812839

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To clarify the roles of yam polysaccharide (YPS) in improving sperm viability and protecting sperm DNA integrity in vitro and provide a new approach to the treatment of oligoasthenozoospermia.@*METHODS@#We collected samples by masturbation from 36 normal fertile males aged 27-39 years. Each sample was divided into six groups: blank control or treated with normal saline, vitamin C solution, and YPS solution at low (0.25 mg/ml), medium (1.0 mg/ml) or high concentration (5.0 mg/ml). Using eosin-Y staining, sperm hypotonic swelling (HOS) and sperm chromatin diffusion (SCD) test, we observed the effects of different concentrations of YPS on sperm viability, membrane integrity and nuclear DNA.@*RESULTS@#After 24 and 48 hours of treatment, sperm viability was markedly reduced in the vitamin C ([28.5 ± 3.1] and [6.5 ± 1.2]%), low-YPS ([31.3 ± 3.5] and [6.5 ± 2.2]%), medium-YPS ([37.1 ± 3.5] and [9.5 ± 2.8]%) and high-YPS groups ([38.3 ± 3.3] and [9.0 ± 3.2]%) as compared with the blank control ([17.3 ± 2.1] and [3.2 ± 1.3]%) (P 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Yam polysaccharide can improve sperm viability and protect sperm DNA integrity in vitro.


Subject(s)
Adult , Ascorbic Acid , Pharmacology , DNA , DNA Fragmentation , Dioscorea , Chemistry , Humans , Male , Polysaccharides , Pharmacology , Semen Analysis , Sperm Motility , Spermatozoa , Physiology , Vitamins , Pharmacology
8.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(4): e17006, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889417

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Dioscorea pentaphylla L., a wild tuber is used both as food and medicines among different ethnic groups of Similipal Biosphere Reserve, India. Tubers are used against skin infections. In order to establish and confirm tribal claims, methanol extract was subjected to fractionation. The active fraction (DP1) was subsequently used for further purification and NMR (Nuclear magnetic resonance) characterization. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponin groups. The antibacterial activity of DP1 was done against selected bacterial strains (Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus mutans and Vibrio cholerae) using DD (disc diffusion), AWD (agar well diffusion) and broth dilution assay. The activity was compared with antibiotics Penicillin and Kanamycin. It was observed that DP1 showed significant inhibitory activity against the tested bacteria. The characterization of DP1 through NMR analysis and presence of proton in carbon position at C-3, C-19, C-18, C-21 and C-27 was same as the known compound "Diosgenin". Therefore, isolated compound was confirmed to be Diosgenin. The study for the first time showed that, diosgenin present in D. pentaphylla tuber was responsible for antibacterial and antioxidant potential. Present study highlights the importance of Dioscorea species as sources of diverse secondary metabolites for the isolation of active compound(s).


Subject(s)
Dioscorea/adverse effects , India , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Plant Tubers , Transcription Factor DP1/analysis , Anti-Infective Agents , Antioxidants/analysis
9.
Rev. luna azul ; (42): 30-43, ene.-jun. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-791174

ABSTRACT

El níquel es un metal pesado altamente contaminante que por sus efectos toxicológicos es materia de gran preocupación, por lo que toma importancia la búsqueda de alternativas para su remoción, siendo la adsorción una alternativa aplicable para la remoción metálica, interesante por su eficiencia y bajo costo. Se propone así la adsorción de Ni (II) usando dos materiales de desecho altamente disponibles en la región Caribe colombiana: cáscaras de ñame y bagazo de palma, ambas biomasas tratadas con ácido cítrico. Los experimentos fueron llevados a cabo en sistema batch en solución acuosa de níquel a una concentración de 100 ppm. La concentración residual de la solución fue medida mediante espectroscopia de absorción atómica, encontrando que el proceso de adsorción es altamente dependiente del pH, con un valor óptimo de 6. Por otra parte, se encontró que el Ni (II) presenta una sorción rápida los primeros 50 minutos, además el modelo de Elovich fue el de mejor ajuste. La capacidad máxima de adsorción según la isoterma de Langmuir fue de 68,14; 47,93; 103,3 y 58,7 mg/g para las cáscaras de ñame y el bagazo de palma sin modificar, y modificados químicamente respectivamente, mostrando el valor potencial del uso de estos biomateriales en la remoción de Ni (II) presente en soluciones acuosas.


Nickel is a highly polluting heavy metal which, because of its toxicological effects, is a matter of great concern and the reason why the search for alternatives for its removal, being adsoption an applicative alternative for metal removal which is considered interesting due to its efficiency and low cost. In this way, the Ni (II) adsoption is proposed using two highly available waste materials in the Colombian Caribbean region: yam peels and oil palm pulp, both biomaBes treated with citric acid. The experiments were carried out in batch system using nickel aqueous solution at a concentration of 100 ppm. The residual concentration of the solution was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy, and it was found that the adsorption proceB is highly dependent of pH with an optimum value of 6. What is more, it was found that Ni (II) presents a quick sorption the first 50 minutes, and Elovich model showed the best fit. The maximum adsorption capacity according to Langmuir isotherm was 68.14, 47.93, 103.3 and 58.7 mg/g for unmodified chemically modified yam peels and oil palm pulp respectively showing a potential value of use of these biomaterials in the removal of Ni (II) present in aqueous solutions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adsorption , Dioscorea , Chemical Phenomena , Nickel
10.
Rev. luna azul ; (42): 54-67, ene.-jun. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-791176

ABSTRACT

Con el objetivo de conocer y rescatar la historia, usos y manejo dado a Dioscorea bulbifera L. por las comunidades campesinas del distrito de Donoso (provincia de Colón, Panamá) se llevó a cabo un estudio etnobotánico en el primer semestre de 2012. El mismo se desarrolló a partir de grupos focales, recorridos de campo y entrevistas semiestructuradas a personajes clave (ancianos, curanderos y personas que cultivan D. bulbifera). Se realizaron cinco grupos focales y 11 entrevistas semiestructuradas, abordando aspectos relativos a historia, nombres, manejo tradicional, usos y formas de consumo de la papa de aire en la región. Como resultados destacados se tiene que D. bulbifera es una especie de muy vieja presencia en las comunidades, teniendo como uso principal la alimentación humana. Igualmente, los agricultores dan cuenta de la importancia de esta especie como alimento altamente nutritivo y con algunos usos medicinales. La información recabada sugiere un conocimiento erosionado respecto de esta especie, lo cual se refleja en el nivel de conocimiento de su manejo y la disminución de su cultivo. No obstante, el conocimiento rescatado resulta de gran utilidad para el establecimiento de ensayos que se orienten a la sistematización de prácticas de cultivo de esta especie.


In order to know and rescue the history, uses and management of Dioscorea bulbifera L. given by peasant communities in the district of Donoso (Colón Province, Panamá) an ethno-botanical study was conducted in the first semester 2012. The study was developed from focus groups, field observations and semi-structured interviews to key figures (elders, healers and people who plant D. bulbifera). Five focus groups and eleven semi-structured interviews were conducted, addressing aspects of history, names, traditional management, uses and forms of consumption of air potatoes in the region. Some outstanding results, demonstrate that Dioscorea bulbifera is a species of very old presence in the communities, used mainly for human consumption. Furthermore, farmers report the importance of this species as a highly nutritious food and having some medicinal uses. The information gathered suggests an eroded knowledge about this species, which is reflected in the level of knowledge of its handling and decreased cultivation. However, the rescued knowledge is useful for establishing essays that aim to systematize practices for cultivation of this species.


Subject(s)
Humans , Panama , Knowledge , Dioscorea , Food Supply
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-285280

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of total saponins of Dioscorea (TSD), an extract of the Chinese herbal Bi Xie, on hyperuricemia and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. The rat hyperuricemia model was established by administration of adenine. Thirty-two rats were randomly allocated into 4 groups: model group, low/high-dose TSD-treated groups, and allopurinol-treated group. Meanwhile, 8 rats were used as normal controls. Serum uric acid (UA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Scr), and organic anion transporting polypeptide 1A1 (OATP1A1) levels were measured. Comparison between the model group and treatment (allopurinol and TSD) groups showed the serum UA levels were significantly decreased in treatment groups. TSD had similar effects to allopurinol. It was found that the OATP1A1 protein expression levels in treatment groups were higher than in model group and normal controls. And different from the allopurinol-treated groups, TSD-treated group had elevated OATP1A1 expression levels in the stomach, liver, small intestine and large intestine tissues. It was suggested that TSD may facilitate the excretion of UA and lower UA levels by up-regulating OATP1A1 expression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Creatinine , Blood , Dioscorea , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Hyperuricemia , Drug Therapy , Intestines , Metabolism , Liver , Metabolism , Male , Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Independent , Genetics , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Saponins , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Stomach , Metabolism , Up-Regulation , Uric Acid , Blood
12.
Rev. cuba. farm ; 49(4)oct.-dic. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-780739

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: evaluar la capacidad emulsificante de almidón nativo, hidrolizados e hidrolizados˗lipofilizados a partir del tubérculo de ñame (Dioscorea rotundata). Método: el almidón se obtuvo por el método de rayado y decantación convencionales. Se evaluó el almidón de ñame nativo, que se hidrolizó en medio ácido (40 g almidón+100 mL Agua+3.4 g HCl por 6 horas a 50 °C). Parte del almidón hidrolizado se lipofilizó a dos niveles (10 y 15 mL) mediante reacción con anhídrido dodecenil succínico (DDSA). La capacidad emulsificante se calculó mezclando 25 mL de aceite de maíz, 25 mL de agua y 1 g de almidón por triplicado con fuerte homogenización ( Ultra Turrax®), midiéndose la cantidad de material aún emulsificado luego de 24 horas. Resultados: se apreciaron variaciones de las propiedades en la comparación del almidón nativo. Los porcentajes de sustitución de los almidones, se observa fácilmente la tendencia esperada, es decir, en tanto mayor cantidad de reactivo, mayor sustitución. Se demuestra que la lipofilización del almidón incrementa su capacidad emulsificante. Conclusiones: los almidones lipofilizados con anhidro dodecenil succínico (DDSA) pueden considerarse una nueva alternativa de materia prima en la industria cosmética(AU)


Objectives: to assess the emulsifying capacity of the native starch, the hydrolyzed and hydrolyzed-lipophilyzed products from the tuber Yam (Dioscorea rotundata), Methods: the starch was obtained by the conventional method of grating and decant. Native yam starch was evaluated. It was hydrolyzed in an acid medium (40 g starch+100 mL water+3,4 g HCl for 6 hours at 50 °C). Part of the hydrolyzed starch was lipophilyzed at two levels (10 and 15 mL) through reaction with dodecenyl succinic anhydride (DDSA). The emulsifying capacity was calculated by mixing 25 mL of corn oil, 25 mL of water and 1 g of starch in triplicate with strong homogenization (Ultra Turrax®), and the amount of material still emulsified after 24 hours was then measured. Results: there were observed variations in the native starch properties. It was easy to observe the expected tendency in the substitution percentages of starches, that is, the more reagent, the more substitution. The results showed that the lipophilitation of starch increases the emulsifying capacity. Conclusions: the starches lipophilyzed with dodecenyl succinic anhydride (DDSA) are raw materials that can be considered as a new alternative in the cosmetics industry(AU)


Subject(s)
Starch , Dioscorea , Emulsifying Agents
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(1): 104-113, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744343

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to verify the occurrence of Dioscorea trifida in Brazil and to obtain information concerning its distribution, management and diversity. Farmers from 21 communities were interviewed in the states of São Paulo, Santa Catarina and Mato Grosso. During the visits, semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect socio-economic, management and diversity data for this crop. Fifty-one collected accessions, plus two accessions obtained at local markets of Amazonas, were characterized using 12 morphological traits. Most the interviewed farmers were men (75%) with a mean age of 59.5 years. Just a few young people and labor force were available for agricultural activities, with an average of only three individuals per farm. Most farmers (56%) grew only one variety of D. trifida, although 44% had more than one variety in their fields, which aims to provide greater assurance at harvest. Many popular names were observed for D. trifida, and cará roxo (purple yam) was the name most used by farmers (43.4%). Characters referring to the tuber, such as skin and flesh color, were most relevant for the distinction of the accessions. The results of this study may collaborate to develop strategies for conservation, both ex situ and in situ, within the view of on farm conservation.


O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a ocorrência de Dioscorea trifida no Brasil e obter informações a respeito da sua distribuição, manejo e diversidade. Para tanto, foram visitados e entrevistados agricultores de 21 comunidades, nos Estados de São Paulo, Santa Catarina, Mato Grosso. Durante as visitas, foram realizadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas visando obter dados sócioeconômicos, de manejo e diversidade da cultura. Cinquenta e um acessos, além de dois acessos adquiridos em feiras no Estado do Amazonas, foram caracterizados por meio de 12 descritores morfológicos. A maioria dos entrevistados era homem (75%) com média de idade de 59,5 anos. Observou-se um número reduzido de jovens e mão de obra disponível para as atividades agrícolas, cerca de três indivíduos por roça. A maior parte dos agricultores (56%) cultiva apenas uma variedade de D. trifida, embora 44% tenham declarado o cultivo de mais de uma variedade, procedimento que visa dar maior garantia de colheita. Vários nomes populares foram observados para D. trifida, sendo cará roxo, a denominação mais utilizada pelos agricultores (43,4%). Os caracteres referentes às túberas, como cor da casca e da polpa, foram os mais relevantes para a distinção dos acessos. Os resultados obtidos poderão colaborar para elaborar estratégias de conservação, tanto ex situ como in situ, dentro da visão de conservação on farm.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Biodiversity , Crops, Agricultural , Dioscorea/classification , Brazil , Dioscorea/anatomy & histology , Farmers/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812473

ABSTRACT

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common inflammatory arthritis and a major cause of disability. Presently, the clinical therapeutic medicines for inflammatory and arthritic diseases are unsatisfactory due to severe adverse effects or ineffectiveness. The Guge Fengtong formula (GGFT), containing the standardized extracts of Dioscoreae Nipponicae Rhizoma, Spatholobi Caulis, and Zingiberis Rhizoma, has long been used for RA treatment by Chinese doctorsin China. However, the detailed anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of GGFT has not been reported so far. In the present work, we aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of GGFT using three in vivo animal models, and tried to uncover its preliminarythe underlying mechanism of action mechanism in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The obtained results indicated that GGFT significantly attenuated ear edema, decreased carrageenan-induced paw edema, reduced the arthritis score, and reversed the weight loss of the complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)CFA-injected rats. Additionally, marked decrease of in synovial inflammatory infiltration and synovial lining hyperplasia in the joints and decline of inflammatory factors (TNF-α and IL-1β) in the serum were observed in the GGFT-treated rats. In lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW264.7 macrophages, GGFT reduced the production of NO, PGE2, and IL-6, and inhibited the expression of iNOS, COX-2, and NF-κB expression. Our results demonstrated that GGFT possessed considerable anti-inflammatory activity and have had potential therapeutic effects on adjuvant induced arthritis in rats, which provided providing experimental evidences for its traditional application in the treatment of RA and other inflammatory diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Antirheumatic Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Arthritis , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Pathology , Carrageenan , Cytokines , Blood , Dioscorea , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Fabaceae , Freund's Adjuvant , Inflammation , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Inflammation Mediators , Metabolism , Macrophages , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Phytotherapy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Zingiberaceae
15.
Mycobiology ; : 14-23, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729752

ABSTRACT

The influences of temperature and nutritional conditions on the mycelium growth of oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (PO) and Pleurotus cystidiosus (PC) were investigated in laboratory experiment during the summer season of 2014. The results of the experiment indicated that potato dextrose agar (PDA) and yam dextrose agar (YDA) were the most suitable media for the mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PO while four media (PDA, YDA, sweet potato dextrose agar, and malt extract agar medium) were not significantly different in supporting mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PC. The optimal temperature for mycelium growth of both oyster mushroom species was obtained at 28degrees C. Mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PO was improved by carbon sources such as glucose, molasses, and at 1~5% sucrose concentration, mycelium colony diameter of mushroom PO was achieved the highest value. Whereas glucose, dextrose, and sucrose as carbon sources gave the good mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PC, and at 1~3% sucrose concentration, mycelium colony diameter of PC was achieved the maximum value. Ammonium chloride concentrations at 0.03~0.09% and 0.03~0.05% also gave the greatest values in mycelium colony diameter of mushroom PO and PC. Brown rice was found to be the most favourable for mycelium growth of two oyster mushroom species. In addition, sugarcane residue, acasia sawdust and corn cob were selected as favourable lignocellulosic substrate sources for mycelium growth of both oyster mushrooms.


Subject(s)
Agar , Agaricales , Ammonium Chloride , Carbon , Dioscorea , Glucose , Ipomoea batatas , Molasses , Mycelium , Pleurotus , Saccharum , Seasons , Solanum tuberosum , Sucrose , Zea mays
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351280

ABSTRACT

To breed a new yam cultivar of Dioscorea alata, the different and excellent germplasm resources were investigated within artificially cultivated population and some superior individuals, with a higher yield and medicinal properties, were selected. Considering results of the yield and medicinal properties during 2006-2013 cropping season, strains and lines were established and selected. As a result, the yield of the new developed cultivar (Wenshanyao No. 1, WSY01-1) reached 2217. 0 kg per 667 m2 (fresh weight) and 348.3 kg per 667 m2 (dry weight), and increased 23.8% and 23.9% comparing with control cultivars (landraces). Comparing with control cultivars, the level of polysaccharide, allantoin, and dioscin increased 36.9%, 48.3%, 20.9%, and reached 12.2%, 1.30%, 579.7 µg · g(-1), respectively. This result showed that the systematic selection method can significantly improve yield and medicinal properties of D. alata, and the developed " Wenshanyao No. 1" exhibits wide spreading prospects.


Subject(s)
Allantoin , Breeding , Dioscorea , Chemistry , Genetics , Diosgenin , Polysaccharides
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351220

ABSTRACT

To study the potential effect of Dioscorea nipponica(DN) in intervening peripheral system of rats based on metabolomic analysis. The identification of the potential intervention targets of DN in peripheral system may facilitate its safe application and therapeutic potential exploitation. Totally 20 male SD rats were randomly divided into the blank group and the DN-treated groups, with 10 rates in each group. The DN-treated group was orally administrated with DN extracts once a day for 5 days, with the dose of 80 mg x kg(-1) (equivalent to 15 g crude drug in human), and the blank group was given equal volume of saline once a day for 5 days. Heart, liver, spleen, lung, and kidney tissues and serum samples were collected from each rat 24 h later after the last administration. The ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry based metabolomics was used to investigate the effect of DN in intervening peripheral system of rats. After the treatment with DN, 5 modulated metabolites in heart tissue, 6 in liver tissue, 5 in spleen tissue, 3 in lung tissue, 5 in kidney tissue and 6 in serum sample were identified and considered as the potential intervention targets of DN. Effect of DN in regulating some endogenous metabolites was beneficial for protecting peripheral system, while that in other endogenous metabolites produced potential toxicity to peripheral system. The metabolomic analysis revealed the coexistence of protective and toxic effects of DN on peripheral system, which may be a practical guidance for its safe application and beneficial to the expansion of its application scope.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dioscorea , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Heart , Kidney , Chemistry , Metabolism , Liver , Chemistry , Metabolism , Lung , Chemistry , Metabolism , Male , Metabolomics , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spleen , Metabolism
18.
Dominguezia ; 31(1): 41-47, 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-910895

ABSTRACT

El crecimiento desordenado de las poblaciones debido al desarrollo urbano y rural sin procesos de planificación adecuados, así como el avance de la agricultura y la ganadería, ocasionan presiones sobre los recursos naturales; así, se produce la destrucción y la fragmentación del hábitat y la extinción de las especies. Las plantas medicinales, además, sufren la sobreexplotación, en procesos que amenazan aún más su conservación. En Paraguay existen estudios preliminares referentes a la categorización del estado de conservación de las especies nativas, especialmente las que utiliza la industria como materia prima en la elaboración de fitofármacos y medicamentos herbarios, aunque hasta el momento la categorización de las especies sea un proceso subjetivo. El Plan Estratégico para la Conservación Biológica 2010-2020 y la Meta nº 12 de Aichi propone que "para el 2020 se habrá evitado la extinción de especies en peligro, identificadas y su estado de conservación se habrá mejorado y sostenido, especialmente para las especies en mayor declive"; e indica la necesidad de identificar las especies en riesgo de extinción. Este estudio forma parte del que se realiza para categorizar el estado de conservación de los recursos fitogenéticos de Paraguay, y es de tipo no experimental, observacional, descriptivo, prospectivo y transversal. Se seleccionaron tres especies cuyo órgano empleado con fines medicinales es subterráneo y se analizaron siguiendo los patrones establecidos por la Unión Internacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza (UICN), con los subcriterios modificados para adecuarlos a este grupo especial de plantas. Esas especies medicinales, comercializadas por sus nombres populares fueron "mechoaka", "cangorosa" y "santalucía". Los resultados demuestran que bajo un mismo nombre común se comercializan varias especies, cada una con características especiales de conservación. La aplicación de los criterios y subcriterios modificados constituyen un valioso aporte para determinar el grado de amenaza de estos recursos fitogenéticos. Los resultados pueden contribuir en la preparación de planes estratégicos para el cumplimiento de la meta propuesta.


Subject(s)
Biodiversity , Dioscorea , Plants, Medicinal , Paraguay
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-255235

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of ethanol extracts from Dioscoreae Nipponicae Rhizoma on hyperuricemic mice.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The hyperuricemia was induced by gavage of hypoxanthine and subcutaneous injection of potassium oxonate (model A) or subcutaneous injection of uric acid (model B) in ICR male mice. The mice in ethanol extracts groups were administrated with Dioscoreae Nipponicae Rhizoma ethanol extracts 5.4 g/kg by gavage, the positive control groups were given with 10 mg/ml allopurinol or 5 mg/ml benzbromarone by gavage, respectively. The plasma uric acid levels were measured by using HPLC.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The plasma uric acid levels of model group, control group and ethanol extract group in model A mice were (40.03±27.24), (4.08±1.47) and (18.10±8.87) g/mL (compared with model group, P <0.05), respectively. The plasma uric acid levels of model group, control group and ethanol extract group in model B mice were (18.57±3.83), (4.29±2.36) and (15.36±2.71) g/mL (compared with model group, P <0.05), respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The ethanol extracts from Dioscoreae Nipponicae Rhizoma have certain hypouricemic effect in hyperuricemic mice induced by hypoxanthine and potassium oxonate or by uric acid.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Dioscorea , Chemistry , Disease Models, Animal , Hyperuricemia , Drug Therapy , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Uric Acid , Blood
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-237687

ABSTRACT

Based on the results of the morphologic studies on genus Dioscorea, the paper summarized the entire chemical constituent that isolated from this genus and analyzed it with the methods of chemotaxonomy. The rules of the chemical constituent and pharmacodynamic effects were analyzed. Seventeen species which belong to Sect. Stenophora Uline of Dioscorea contain steroidal sapogenin. Other species with different main components such as polysaccharide and tannin have have different effects. This chemotaxonomic view point will conduce to establish a phylogeny of the genus Dioscorea.


Subject(s)
Animals , China , Dioscorea , Chemistry , Classification , Genetics , Humans , Phylogeny , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology
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