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1.
Medwave ; 22(4): e002511, 30-05-2022.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1371693

ABSTRACT

Introducción Debido a la respuesta de los servicios de salud a la pandemia por COVID- 19, se han suspendido cirugías electivas como la artroplastía de rodilla. El objetivo de este estudio es determinar la incidencia de artroplastías de rodilla en 2020 reflejando el efecto de la pandemia, y estimar el tiempo y el costo para recuperar la situación de lista de espera previa a marzo de 2020. Métodos Estudio transversal. Se analizaron las bases de datos del Departamento de Estadística e Información en Salud de Chile de 2019 y 2020, identificando pacientes asociados a códigos de artroplastía de rodilla. Se calculó el número mensual de artroplastias realizadas durante 2019 para estimar el tiempo que tomará recuperar las cirugías no realizadas en 2020. El costo asociado a artroplastía de rodilla se hizo según el método de pago utilizado por el Fondo Nacional de Salud estimado por grupos relacionados por diagnóstico. Resultados En 2020 la tasa de incidencia de artroplastía de rodilla por 100 000 habitantes disminuyó 64% comparado con 2019. El impacto fue mayor en el sistema público (68%) y en beneficiarios del Fondo Nacional de Salud (63%). Un aumento en la productividad en 30% respecto a 2019 haría que en 27 meses se recuperen las cirugías no realizadas en 2020, significando un costo adicional mensual en el sistema público de 318 262 530 pesos chilenos (equivalentes a 378 mil dólares americanos, USD). Conclusiones Hubo una importante disminución de la tasa de artroplastías de rodilla en 2020, estimándose una caída del 64% en la incidencia por 100 000 habitantes. Esto muestra un incremento importante de personas que esperan la resolución a la artrosis de rodilla. Un aumento entre 20 y 40% respecto de 2019 permitiría recuperar las cirugías no realizadas en un plazo entre 20 y 41 meses, a un costo mensual en el sistema público que varía entre 210 y 425 millones pesos chilenos (de 250 a 506 mil dólares americanos, USD).


Introducción Debido a la respuesta de los servicios de salud a la pandemia por COVID- 19, se han suspendido cirugías electivas como la artroplastía de rodilla. El objetivo de este estudio es determinar la incidencia de artroplastías de rodilla en 2020 reflejando el efecto de la pandemia, y estimar el tiempo y el costo para recuperar la situación de lista de espera previa a marzo de 2020. Métodos Estudio transversal. Se analizaron las bases de datos del Departamento de Estadística e Información en Salud de Chile de 2019 y 2020, identificando pacientes asociados a códigos de artroplastía de rodilla. Se calculó el número mensual de artroplastias realizadas durante 2019 para estimar el tiempo que tomará recuperar las cirugías no realizadas en 2020. El costo asociado a artroplastía de rodilla se hizo según el método de pago utilizado por el Fondo Nacional de Salud estimado por grupos relacionados por diagnóstico. Resultados En 2020 la tasa de incidencia de artroplastía de rodilla por 100 000 habitantes disminuyó 64% comparado con 2019. El impacto fue mayor en el sistema público (68%) y en beneficiarios del Fondo Nacional de Salud (63%). Un aumento en la productividad en 30% respecto a 2019 haría que en 27 meses se recuperen las cirugías no realizadas en 2020, significando un costo adicional mensual en el sistema público de 318 262 530 pesos chilenos (equivalentes a 378 mil dólares americanos, USD). Conclusiones Hubo una importante disminución de la tasa de artroplastías de rodilla en 2020, estimándose una caída del 64% en la incidencia por 100 000 habitantes. Esto muestra un incremento importante de personas que esperan la resolución a la artrosis de rodilla. Un aumento entre 20 y 40% respecto de 2019 permitiría recuperar las cirugías no realizadas en un plazo entre 20 y 41 meses, a un costo mensual en el sistema público que varía entre 210 y 425 millones pesos chilenos (de 250 a 506 mil dólares americanos, USD).


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Registries , Disease Outbreaks , Cross-Sectional Studies
2.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud. Viceministerio de Salud Pública. Centro Nacional de Epidemiología, Prevención y Control de Enfermedades; 1 ed; Mar. 2022. 29 p. ilus.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS, MINSAPERU | ID: biblio-1373366

ABSTRACT

La publicación describe las pautas para fortalecer las acciones de vigilancia epidemiológica y de diagnóstico para la detección temprana, investigación epidemiológica y monitoreo de brotes y de conglomerados de casos de Síndrome de Guillain Barre. Asimismo, los procedimientos de obtención, conservación y transporte de muestras biológicas para el diagnóstico etiológico de los casos de ese Síndrome


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Epidemiological Monitoring
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927866

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess the psychological status of staff at the centers for disease control and prevention(CDC) in Sichuan during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) and explore the influencing factors. Methods The staff at Sichuan provincial,municipal,and county(district)-level CDC were selected by convenience sampling.Their basic information,work status,training status,work difficulties,and support from the work group were collected from the self-filled questionnaires online.The Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale and the 9-question Patient Health Questionnaire were respectively employed to measure the anxiety and depression of the staff.The stepwise Logistic regression was carried out to analyze the influencing factors of anxiety and depression in CDC staff. Results Among the 653 staff,58.35% and 50.06% presented anxiety and depression,respectively.The regression results showed that age(OR=0.95,95%CI=0.92-0.97) and mental support from the work group(OR=0.61,95%CI=0.45-0.82) were the protective factors while physical fatigue(OR=1.82,95%CI=1.20-2.74),work pressure(OR=1.61,95%CI=1.21-2.12),and insufficient protective equipment(OR=1.92,95%CI=1.06-3.49) were the risk factors for depression of CDC staff.Age(OR=0.97,95%CI=0.94-0.99),length of sleep per day(OR=0.74,95%CI=0.56-0.96),and participation in technical training(OR=0.33,95%CI=0.12-0.95) were the protective factors while mental fatigue(OR=1.68,95%CI=1.18-2.41),work pressure(OR=2.94,95%CI=2.08-4.17),and unclear incentive system for overtime(OR=1.99,95%CI=1.23-3.23) were the risk factors for the anxiety of CDC staff. Conclusion The anxiety and depression status of CDC staff during the COVID-19 outbreak were worrying,which were mainly affected by age,sleep,supply of protective equipment,incentive system,fatigue,and work pressure.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927322

ABSTRACT

In China, the incidence rate of Hepatitis A has decreased from 56/100 000 in 1991 to 1.05/100 000 in 2020. The number of Hepatitis A outbreaks in China has decreased significantly, however, it has also happened in the last 5 years, and the risk still remains. In order to strengthen the technical guidance for the investigation and control of Hepatitis A outbreak, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC) organized experts in related fields to compile this guideline. The main contents included outbreak definition, outbreak detecting and reporting, outbreak investigation and response, making conclusion and communication. This guideline is intended for use by staff at public health administrative departments, medical and health institutions, centers for disease control and prevention, health supervision agencies at different levels, and other relevant institutions, units and individuals. China CDC will update this guideline periodically based on the progress in this field and feedbacks during the implementation of this guideline.


Subject(s)
China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Humans , Public Health , United States
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922537

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Some epidemic diseases such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have caused many physical, psychological, and social challenges, despite the existence of treatment strategies. Many people are looking for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to prevent such diseases. The present study was performed to determine how some types of CAM were being used during the COVID-19 epidemic in Iran.@*METHODS@#The present study had a cross-sectional descriptive correlational design. All Iranian residents above 17 years old were eligible to participate in the study. A total of 782 participants completed a demographic information questionnaire, a questionnaire about their use of CAMs and a questionnaire about their satisfaction with the CAMs they used. Web-based sampling was conducted from 20 April 2020 to 20 August 2020.@*RESULTS@#Of the participants, 84% used at least one type of CAM during the COVID-19 outbreak. The most used CAMs were dietary supplements (61.3%), prayer (57.9%), and herbal medicines (48.8%). The majority of the participants (50%-66%) have used CAMs to prevent the transmission of COVID-19 or to reduce anxiety caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. CAM use was associated with sex, having children, place of residence, COVID-19 status, and source of gathering information about CAM (P < 0.05). All 32 participants who had been infected with COVID-19 used at least one type of CAM for treatment or alleviation of the disease symptoms.@*CONCLUSION@#During the COVID-19 outbreak, some types of CAM, particularly nutritional supplements, medicinal herbs, and prayer, were commonly used to prevent COVID-19 and reduce pandemic-related anxiety.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , COVID-19 , Child , Complementary Therapies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Iran , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(1): e00000521, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355974

ABSTRACT

A partir da reemergência da febre amarela em 2014/2015, o Brasil registrou nos anos sequentes sua maior epidemia de febre amarela das últimas décadas, atingindo principalmente a região sudeste. A febre amarela, doença viral hemorrágica, é causada por um flavivírus, transmitido por mosquitos silvestres (Haemagogus; Sabethes). Na ocorrência do ciclo urbano, erradicado no Brasil desde 1942, a transmissão se dá pelo Aedes aegypti. Primatas não humanos são os principais hospedeiros do vírus e constituem "sentinelas" na vigilância da febre amarela. Este artigo descreve as ações de controle e prevenção desencadeadas durante a epidemia de febre amarela no Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil, e a implementação da vacinação por meio de um estudo ecológico com abordagem espacial. O estudo evidenciou a falha na detecção de epizootias em primatas não humanos pelos serviços de vigilância do Espírito Santo, sendo simultânea à detecção em humanos. Apresentou a evolução das ações de vacinação, com alcance de 85% de cobertura vacinal geral para o estado em seis meses, sendo heterogênea entre os municípios (de 59% a 122%). Destaca-se que 55% dos municípios com ações de imunização em tempo oportuno, considerando o intervalo adotado para este estudo, não apresentaram casos em humanos. A intensificação das ações de vigilância, interlocução entre as áreas e equipes multidisciplinares na condução da epidemia otimizou a detecção e o diagnóstico dos casos em humanos e viabilizou o controle da epidemia. Foi possível reconhecer avanços, apontar algumas medidas tardias e lacunas na vigilância que necessitam melhorias.


Following the reemergence of yellow fever in 2014/2015, Brazil recorded its largest yellow fever epidemic in recent decades, mainly affecting the country's Southeast region. Yellow fever is a hemorrhagic viral disease caused by a flavivirus transmitted by sylvatic mosquitos (Haemagogus; Sabethes). In the urban cycle, eradicated in Brazil since 1942, the virus is transmitted by Aedes aegypti. Nonhuman primates are the principal hosts of the virus and constitute "sentinels" in yellow fever surveillance. This article describes the control and prevention activities launched during the yellow fever epidemic in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, and the implementation of vaccination, through an ecological study with a spatial approach. The study revealed the lack of detection of epizootics in nonhuman primates by surveillance services in Espírito Santo, with simultaneous detection in humans. The study presented the evolution of vaccination activities, reaching 85% overall coverage for the state in six months, varying widely, from 59% to 122%, between municipalities (counties). Importantly, 55% of the municipalities with timely immunization, considering the interval adopted for this study, did not present human cases. The intensification of surveillance activities, communication between areas, and multidisciplinary teams in managing the epidemic optimized the detection and diagnosis of human cases and allowed control of the epidemic. The study identifies progress and points to some late measures and gaps in surveillance that require improvements.


A partir del resurgimiento de la fiebre amarilla en 2014/2015, Brasil registró los años siguientes su mayor epidemia de fiebre amarilla de las últimas décadas, alcanzando principalmente la región sudeste. La fiebre amarilla, enfermedad viral hemorrágica, es causada por un flavivirus, transmitido por mosquitos silvestres (Haemagogus; Sabethes). Respecto a la ocurrencia del ciclo urbano, erradicado en Brasil desde 1942, la transmisión se produce por el Aedes aegypti. Primates no humanos son los principales huéspedes del virus, y constituyen "centinelas" en la vigilancia de la fiebre amarilla. Este artículo describe las acciones de control y prevención desencadenadas durante la epidemia de fiebre amarilla en el Estado de Espírito Santo, Brasil, y la implementación de la vacunación mediante un estudio ecológico con abordaje espacial. El estudio evidenció el fallo en la detección de epizootias en primates no humanos por los servicios de vigilancia de Espírito Santo, siendo simultánea a la detección en humanos. Presentó la evolución de las acciones de vacunación, con alcance de un 85% de cobertura en la vacunación general para el estado en seis meses, siendo heterogénea entre los municipios (de 59% a 122%). Se destaca que un 55% de los municipios con acciones de inmunización en tiempo oportuno, considerando el intervalo adoptado para este estudio, no presentaron casos humanos. La intensificación de las acciones de vigilancia, interlocución entre las áreas y equipos multidisciplinarios en la gestión de la epidemia optimizó la detección y diagnóstico de los casos humanos y viabilizó el control de la epidemia. Fue posible reconocer avances, apuntar algunas medidas tardías y lagunas en la vigilancia que necesitan mejorías.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Yellow Fever/prevention & control , Yellow Fever/veterinary , Yellow Fever/epidemiology , Aedes , Epidemics , Brazil/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary
8.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369231

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La pandemia por Covid-19 ha generado cambios en la atención de salud nacional, observándose en este período cambios en las causas de egresos hospitalarios (EH). OBJETIVO: Analizar el impacto del brote de Covid-19 en las causas de EH por enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso Central (ESNC) en población pediátrica durante el primer año de pandemia. MÉTODO: Estudio transversal. Análisis de base de datos del Departamento de Estadística e Información en Salud en pacientes de 0 a 18 años, comparando años 2019 y 2020. RESULTADOS: En 2020 se redujeron EH por ESNC en un 39% comparado con 2019. Disminuyeron principalmente los EH por secuelas de enfermedades inflamatorias SNC, parálisis cerebral, migraña y paraplejia/cuadriplejia, aumentando los EH por isquemia cerebral transitoria, enfermedades desmielinizantes SNC y polineuropatía inflamatoria. El número EH por ESNC mensual se correlacionó con el número de casos Covid-19 (rho -0.774, p0.003) y con la movilidad mensual del país (rho 0.928, p 0.001). CONCLUSIONES: El impacto del brote Covid-19 se asoció con reducción de EH por ESNC, disminuyeron EH por patologías crónicas y aumentaron causas agudas.


INTRODUCTION: The Covid-19 pandemic has been associated with modifications in national health care, with changes in causes of hospital discharges (HD) in this period. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the impact of the Covid-19 outbreak on causes of HD due to Central Nervous System Diseases (CNSD) in pediatric population during the first year of pandemic. METHOD: Cross-sectional study. Analysis of database of the Department of Statistics and Health Information in patients aged 0 to 18 years, comparing 2019 and 2020. RESULTS: In 2020, HD due to CNSD were reduced in 39% compared to 2019. HD causes that mainly decreased were inflammatory CNS disease sequelae, cerebral palsy, migraine and paraplegia/cuadriplegia. The HD that increased were transient cerebral ischemia, CNS demyelinating diseases and inflammatory polyneuropathy. The monthly HD due to CNSD number was correlated with the number of Covid-19 cases (rho -0.774, p0.003) and with the country's monthly mobility (rho 0.928, p 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Covid-19 pandemic was associated with a reduction in HD due to CNSD, with decrease of EH due to chronic pathologies and increase of acute diseases


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Central Nervous System Diseases , COVID-19 , Pediatrics , Chile/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics
9.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(5): 817-836, oct. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351056

ABSTRACT

Resumen El síndrome de Guillain-Barré (SGB) es una enfermedad inmunológica del nervio periférico y las raíces nerviosas, poco frecuente, potencialmente mortal y que suele desencadenarse por infecciones. La incidencia del SGB puede aumentar durante el brote de enfermedades infecciosas, tal como se observó en las epidemias del virus Zika en la Polinesia Francesa en 2013 y en América Latina en 2015. El diagnóstico y el manejo clínico del SGB pueden ser complicados ya que su presentación y el curso de la enfermedad son heterogéneos, y actualmente no se cuenta con guías clínicas internacionales. Para respaldar a los médicos, especialmente en el contexto de un brote de una enfermedad infecciosa, hemos desarrollado una guía clínica aplicable en todo el mundo para el diagnóstico y el tratamiento del SGB. La guía se basa en literatura actualizada y el consenso de expertos, y tiene una estructura de diez pasos para facilitar su uso en la práctica clínica. Inicialmente, brindamos una introducción a los criterios de diagnóstico, variantes clínicas y diagnósticos diferenciales del SGB. Los diez pasos luego abordan el reconocimiento y el diagnóstico temprano del SGB, la admisión a la unidad de cuidados intensivos, indicación y selección de tratamiento, seguimiento y tratamiento de la progresión de la enfermedad, predicción del curso clínico, resultados y tratamiento de complicaciones y secuelas.


Abstract Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare, but potentially fatal, immune-mediated disease of the peripheral nerves and nerve roots that is usually triggered by infections. The incidence of GBS can therefore increase during outbreaks of infectious diseases, as was seen during the Zika virus epidemics in 2013 in French Polynesia and in 2015 in Latin America. Diagnosis and management of GBS can be complicated as its clinical presentation and disease course are heterogeneous, and no international clinical guidelines are currently available. To support clinicians, especially in the context of an outbreak, we have developed a globally applicable guideline for the diagnosis and management of GBS. The guideline is based on current literature and expert consensus, and has a ten-step structure to facilitate its use in clinical practice. We first provide an introduction to the diag nostic criteria, clinical variants and differential diagnoses of GBS. The ten steps then cover early recognition and diagnosis of GBS, admission to the intensive care unit, treatment indication and selection, monitoring and treatment of disease progression, prediction of clinical course and outcome, and management of complications and sequelae.


Subject(s)
Humans , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/therapy , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Incidence , Disease Outbreaks , Zika Virus
10.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 43(5): 494-503, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345466

ABSTRACT

Objective: The mental health problems and perceived needs of healthcare workers involved with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) may vary due to individual and contextual characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate healthcare workers' mental health problems during the common COVID-19 exposure scenario in Mexico, comparing those on the frontline with other healthcare workers according to gender and profession, determining the main risk factors for the most frequent mental health problems. Methods: A cross-sectional online study was conducted with a non-probabilistic sample of 5,938 Mexican healthcare workers who completed brief screening measures of mental health problems and ad hoc questions about sociodemographic professional characteristics, conditions related to increased risk of COVID-19 infection, life stressors during the COVID-19 emergency, and perceived need to cope with COVID-19. Results: The identified mental health problems were insomnia, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), all of which were more frequent in frontline healthcare workers (52.1, 37.7, and 37.5%, respectively) and women (47.1, 33.0 %, and 16.3%, respectively). A lack of rest time was the main risk factor for insomnia (OR = 3.1, 95%CI 2.6-3.7, p ≤ 0.0001). Mourning the death of friends or loved ones due to COVID-19 was the main risk factor for depression (OR = 2.2, 95%CI 1.8-2.7, p ≤ 0.0001), and personal COVID-19 status was the main risk factor for PTSD (OR = 2.2, 95%CI 1.7-2.9, p ≤ 0.0001). Conclusion: The most frequent mental health problems during the common exposure scenario for COVID-19 in Mexico included the short-term psychological consequences of intense adversity. A comprehensive strategy for preventing mental health problems should focus on individuals with cumulative vulnerability and specific risk factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Mental Health , COVID-19 , Anxiety , Disease Outbreaks , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Depression/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(10): 1472-1479, Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351443

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the data of Turkish health care workers practicing chest medicine on their coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) status and related parameters. METHODS: This descriptive study included online survey data that the Turkish Thoracic Society conducted with its members in two phases starting in June and December 2020. The 33-item survey included demographic data, smoking status, the presence of any chronic diseases, occupation, working status, and non-work-related and work-related COVID-19 exposure characteristics. RESULTS: Of 742 responses, 299 (40.3%) reported that they had contracted COVID-19. The second survey detected a higher frequency of health care workers who had contracted COVID-19 (12.1% versus 57.4%, p<0.001) than the first survey. The analysis of the association between study parameters and COVID-19 in health care workers using logistic regression revealed statistical significance with working at the onset of the outbreak (OR 3.76, 95%CI 1.09-12.98, p=0.036), not working at the time of survey (OR 5.69, 95%CI 3.35-9.67, p<0.001), COVID-19 history in colleagues (OR 2.27, 95%CI 1.51-3.41, p<0.001), any non-work-related COVID-19 exposure (OR 4.72, 95%CI 2.74-8.14, p<0.001), COVID-19 exposure at home (OR 6.52, 95%CI 3.52-12.08, p<0.001), and COVID-19 history in family members (OR 8.16, 95%CI 5.52-12.08, p<0.001) after adjusting for age and sex. The study also observed an inverse relationship between the use of aprons and goggles and COVID-19 in health care workers. CONCLUSION: Occupational and nonoccupational characteristics are related to COVID-19 in health care workers practicing chest medicine. Therefore, active surveillance to detect health care workers contracting COVID-19 and to document and control occupational and nonoccupational risks should be provided.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Surveys and Questionnaires , Health Personnel , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(7): 1010-1014, July 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346949

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study analyzes the suboptimal health status (SHS) and influencing factors of nurses in Wuhan Hospital, China during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. METHODS: This study was conducted through an online survey, from March 1-7, 2020, in Wuhan, China. The data collection tools, such as Suboptimal Health Status Questionnaires, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Chinese version of the Perceived Stress Scale, were used. RESULTS: The average value of suboptimal health status was 28.44 (standard deviation=15.15). The overall prevalence of SHS was 35.1%. Suboptimal health status of the nurses was significantly different based on their gender, age, whether they directly care for COVID-19 patients, anxiety level, and stress perception expect education. Multivariate analysis found that average sleep times per day, female, age, directly participate in the rescue of COVID-19, self-infection, and anxiety were the influencing factors of suboptimal health status. CONCLUSIONS: First-line nurses have poor suboptimal health status in Wuhan.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , COVID-19 , Nurses , Anxiety , China/epidemiology , Health Status , Disease Outbreaks , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Depression , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(supl.1): 100-112, mayo 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285452

ABSTRACT

Abstract | Introduction: Malaria is a vector-borne disease widely distributed in the Amazon region and the coastal area of northern Ecuador. Its epidemiology involves related factors such as human settlements, vector reproduction sites, mobility, productive activity, and the response capacity of health systems, among others. Objective: To describe malaria transmission by Plasmodium vivax in a non-endemic area of Ecuador by analyzing the epidemiological and entomological factors involved. Materials and methods: We conducted the epidemiological study of the cases reported in the Salinas canton and the characterization of vector breeding sites through captures of larvae and adult mosquitoes by human capture of resting mosquitoes. Results: We detected 21 cases of malaria with local transmission related to the presence of initial cases in Venezuelan migrant patients and identified Anopheles albimanus as the predominant vector in natural breeding sites such as estuaries, wells, and water channels. Conclusions: We detected an outbreak of malaria triggered by imported cases from Venezuela. Climatic, social, environmental, and ecological conditions have favored the development of the vector maintaining the transmission cycle. Strategies to control imported malaria should be multiple including early case detection and control of productive breeding sites to avoid local transmission.


Resumen | Introducción. La malaria o paludismo es una enfermedad transmitida por vectores, ampliamente distribuida en la región amazónica y en la zona costera del norte del Ecuador. Su epidemiología involucra factores relacionados, como asentamientos humanos, sitios de reproducción del vector, movilidad, actividad productiva y capacidad de respuesta de los sistemas de salud, entre otros.Objetivo. Describir la transmisión de malaria por Plasmodium vivax en un área no endémica de Ecuador, mediante el análisis de los factores epidemiológicos y entomológicos involucrados. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo el estudio epidemiológico de los casos reportados en el cantón de Salinas y la caracterización de criaderos del vector con capturas de larvas y adultos mediante la captura de mosquitos en reposo. Resultados. Se detectaron 21 casos de malaria con transmisión local relacionados con la presencia de casos iniciales importados de Venezuela. Se identificó Anopheles albimanuscomo el vector predominante en criaderos naturales como estuarios, pozos y canales de agua. Conclusiones. Se detectó un brote de malaria desencadenado por casos importados de Venezuela. Las condiciones climáticas, sociales, ambientales y ecológicas han favorecido el desarrollo del vector, manteniendo el ciclo de transmisión. Las estrategias para controlar la malaria importada deben ser multifacéticas, e incluir la detección temprana de casos y el control de criaderos productivos para evitar la transmisión local.


Subject(s)
Malaria/epidemiology , Plasmodium vivax , Transients and Migrants , Disease Outbreaks
14.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(2): e3133, mar.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251804

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El dengue es la enfermedad metaxénica con mayor velocidad de propagación en el mundo, siendo un problema creciente de salud pública de países de áreas tropicales. En países endémicos se evidencian bajos niveles de conocimientos de dengue; por ello en Lambayeque, región endémica con brotes importantes en los últimos años, es necesario determinar el nivel de conocimientos sobre dengue. Objetivo: Valorar el nivel de conocimientos sobre el dengue, signos de alarma y prevención en pobladores. Material y Métodos: Estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo transversal. Diseño no experimental. El estudio se realizó en 618 pobladores de un distrito de Chiclayo en 2018, seleccionados mediante muestreo probabilístico aleatorio por conglomerados multietápico. Se utilizó un instrumento que evalúa los conocimientos globales comprendidos por conocimientos generales, signos de alarma, y prevención. Se utilizó la prueba Chi-cuadrado para asociar nivel de conocimientos con características sociodemográficas. Resultados: El nivel de conocimientos sobre el dengue fue bajo en 76,2 por ciento de pobladores. El nivel de conocimientos generales, resultó nivel intermedio en 57,4 por ciento; 45 por ciento desconoce la transmisión de la enfermedad, y 34 por ciento no reconoce al agente etiológico; de las manifestaciones clínicas, la más relacionada con el dengue fue la fiebre, seguido de cefalea y dolor osteomuscular. El 74,9 por ciento presentó un nivel bajo conocimientos sobre signos de alarma. El nivel de conocimientos de prevención fue intermedio y bajo en 93 por ciento. Conclusiones: El nivel de conocimientos de dengue en pobladores de un distrito de reciente brote es bajo(AU)


Introduction: Dengue is the fastest-spreading metaxenic disease in the world and a growing public health problem in tropical countries. Low levels of knowledge of dengue are evidenced in endemic countries; for this reason, it is necessary to determine the level of knowledge in relation to this disease in Lambayeque since it is an endemic region with important outbreaks in recent years. Objective: To assess the level of knowledge of dengue, warning signs and prevention in residents of a district with a recent outbreak. Material and Methods: A quantitative, descriptive cross-sectional study with non-experimental design was carried out in 618 residents of a district of Chiclayo in 2018. The participants were selected by random probability sampling through multistage conglomerate sampling. An instrument was used to assess global knowledge understood by general knowledge, warning signs, and prevention. The Chi-square test was used to associate the level of knowledge with sociodemographic characteristics. Results: The results show that 76.2 percent of residents had a low level of knowledge of dengue and 57.4 percent of them had an intermediate level of general knowledge; also 45 percent did not know about the transmission of the disease and 34 percent did not recognize the etiologic agent. Fever was the most common clinical manifestation related to dengue, followed by headaches and musculoskeletal pain. In addition, 74.9 percent of people presented a low level of knowledge of warning signs and 93 percent had intermediate and low levels of knowledge of prevention measures. Conclusions: There is a low level of knowledge of dengue in residents of a district with evidence of a recent outbreak(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Disease Outbreaks , Musculoskeletal Pain , Headache , Peru , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dengue/epidemiology
15.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(1): 41-51, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249057

ABSTRACT

Resumen | Introducción. Salmonella entérica subsp. entérica serovar Give se encuentra en mamíferos rumiantes, cerdos, aves y ambientes acuáticos, pero rara vez en humanos. En Colombia este serotipo ocupó el decimoprimer lugar en frecuencia en la vigilancia por laboratorio de la enfermedad diarreica aguda entre el 2000 y el 2013. Objetivo. Caracterizar el fenotipo y el genotipo de S. Give en aislamientos relacionados con un brote de enfermedad transmitida por alimentos en el departamento de Vichada en la quinta semana epidemiológica del 2015. Materiales y métodos. Se buscó Salmonella spp. en 37 muestras de materia fecal con el método de estudio del Instituto Nacional de Salud. La muestra de sardinas enlatadas fue procesada según la norma ISO6579:2002 Cor.1:2004. Se determinó el serotipo en los aislamientos confirmados mediante serología o PCR en tiempo real, y se hicieron pruebas de sensibilidad a antimicrobianos y electroforesis en gel de campo pulsado con las enzimas Xbal y BlnI. Resultados. Todos los aislamientos de origen humano (11) y el aislamiento del alimento (1), se identificaron como S. Give y este último presentó resistencia a la tetraciclina. El análisis por PFGE-XbaI agrupó bajo el patrón COIN15JEXX01.0005 diez aislamientos de origen humano y a los restantes bajo el COIN15JEXX01.0006, con un 96,3 % de similitud. Los resultados de todos los aislamientos se confirmaron con la enzima BlnI; cuatro de ellos (tres humanos y el del alimento) se agruparon bajo el patrón COIN15JEXA26.002, con un porcentaje de similitud del 95,65 %. Conclusión. El estudio confirmó que las sardinas enlatadas se relacionaron con la transmisión de S. Give en el brote, que es el tercero ocasionado por este serotipo en Colombia.


Abstract | Introduction: Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Give is found in ruminants, pigs, poultry, and aquatic environments, but rarely in humans. In Colombia, this serotype was ranked 11th. in the laboratory surveillance of acute diarrheal disease between 2000 and 2013. Objective: To characterize phenotypic and genotypic isolates of Salmonella related to an outbreak of foodborne Illness in the department Vichada in the fifth epidemiological week of 2015. Materials and methods: Following the Instituto Nacional de Salud method, we tested 37 fecal samples for Salmonella spp. while the sample of canned sardines was processed according to the ISO 6579:2002 Cor.1:2004 standard. The isolates were confirmed by serology and/or real-time PCR, antimicrobial susceptibility tests, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with the XbaI and BlnI enzymes. Results: All human isolates (11) and that from food (1) were identified as S. Give. The food isolate exhibited tetracycline resistance. PFGE analysis with XbaI grouped ten isolates from samples of human origin in pattern COIN15JEXX01.0005 and the remaining isolates in COIN15JEXX01.0006 with 96.3% similarity. All isolates were confirmed with the BlnI enzyme, and four (three human isolates and the one from food) were matched to the pattern COIN15JEXA26.002 with 95.65% similarity. Conclusion: Our study confirmed that canned sardines were related to the transmission of S. Give in the outbreak, which is the third one caused by this serotype in Colombia.


Subject(s)
Salmonella , Foodborne Diseases , Disease Outbreaks , Colombia , Epidemiological Monitoring
16.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(1): 255-281, mar. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154318

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las "enfermedades infecciosas emergentes y reemergentes" constituyen una creciente amenaza para la hegemonía de la biomedicina, al suscitar no pocos interrogantes sobre la idoneidad de su discurso y prácticas para afrontar el desafío global que representan. Se analiza el proceso de construcción de esta nueva categoría nosológica, y se examinan ejemplos destacados del impacto de las enfermedades (re)emergentes en la salud pública, la seguridad alimentaria y el desarrollo humano a escala global. Se refiere a prácticas irresponsables de sectores de la industria farmacéutica y agropecuaria, determinantes en su desencadenamiento y diseminación; y a algunos fallos cruciales de enfoque y manejo de los tiempos en las políticas de salud global en relación al VIH/sida con desastrosas consecuencias para el África subsahariana.


Abstract "Emerging and reemerging infectious diseases" pose a growing threat to the hegemony of biomedicine, raising questions about whether its discourse and practices can handle the global challenge they represent. The construction of this new nosological category is analyzed in this article, which examines some notable examples of the impact of (re)emerging diseases on public health, food security and human development on a global scale. It discusses irresponsible practices by sectors of the pharmaceutical and agricultural industries which led to the emergence and spread of these diseases; and points to some crucial failures of approach and time management in global health policies on HIV/AIDS, with disastrous consequences for sub-Saharan Africa.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Global Health , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/history , Public Health , Disease Outbreaks
19.
Brasília; Brasil. Ministério da Saúde; 2021.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1373489

ABSTRACT

Este Manual é um instrumento que subsidia o treinamento em vigilância epidemiológica das doenças de transmissão hídrica e alimentar (VE-DTHA), direcionado para profissionais de saúde que atuam na investigação de surtos ou de casos de doenças de notificação compulsória relacionadas à transmissão hídrica e alimentar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Waterborne Diseases/epidemiology , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Foodborne Diseases/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Waterborne Diseases/prevention & control , Foodborne Diseases/prevention & control
20.
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1255156

ABSTRACT

The gold standard for the laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19 is the reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay, which searches for SARS­CoV-2 target genes in nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal (NP/OP) samples, and its performance depends on the quantity and quality of the RNA input. This study compared the performance and cost-effectiveness of three different kits/reagents for RNA extraction used in COVID-19 diagnosis in Sao Paulo, Brazil. A total of 300 NP/OP samples belonging to suspected cases of COVID-19 stored in a biorepository were randomly selected, and RNA was extracted using (i) automated extraction (Loccus, Extracta Kit FAST), (ii) manual extraction (BioGene Kit, Bioclin, Quibasa), and (iii) quick extraction methods (Lucigen, Quick DNA Extract Kit). Next, the samples were tested using RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2 with the Allplex 2019-nCoV modified assay and the Charité-Berlin protocol. All assays/kits were used according to the manufacturer's instructions. For the Allplex kit, the sensitivity in detecting SARS-CoV-2 with previously extracted RNA by different procedures was 100.0% for Loccus, 100.0% for BioGene and 91.9% for Quick. Using the Charité-Berlin protocol, the sensitivities were 81.4% for Loccus, 81.2% for BioGene and 60.7% for Quick. The least sensitive target gene and the gene most affected by RNA extraction procedures was the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene (Charité-Berlin protocol). No false-positive SARS-CoV-2 results were detected using RNA obtained from any of the different protocols. In conclusion, Loccus and BioGene RNA extractions were efficient for RT-qPCR assays, and although the BioGene procedure is less expensive, Loccus is the best choice because it allows the rapid handling of hundreds or thousands of samples, a desirable feature during pandemics. Although less sensitive, the Quick extraction is useful during outbreaks coupled with the Allplex amplification kit for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis (κ = 0.925).


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks , Costs and Cost Analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Indicators and Reagents
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