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1.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20210209, 2022. tab, graf, ilus, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339658

ABSTRACT

Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) has a considerable economic impact on the pork industry worldwide for more than two decades. In 2016, a new circovirus, porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3), was described; since then, it has been reported to be associated with diseased or even in clinically healthy swine in several countries. Considering the importance of wild boars as reservoirs of swine pathogens and the extensive distribution of these animals in Rio Grande do Sul and throughout the national territory, we searched for PCV2 and PCV3 in twenty-six wild boars coupled with necropsy and histologic examination of the sampled animals. Using PCR, 182 tissue samples were analyzed, including the heart, kidneys, liver, lung, lymph nodes, spleen, and tonsils. PCV2 and PCV3 were detected in 57.7% (15/26) and 15.4% (4/26) of wild boars, respectively. Furthermore, co-infection with PCV2 and PCV3 was detected in one of these animals, with PCV2 or PCV3 DNA detection in multiple organs. Histological examination showed mild to moderate and multifocal lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis distributed randomly throughout the renal cortex, apparently unrelated to PCV2 or PCV3 detection. The wild boar population in Brazil is extensive, indicating the presence of a larger number of swine pathogen hosts. In the present study, more than half of the wild boars harbored PCV2; and although less frequently, PCV3 was also detected. Therefore, free-living wild boars can serve as reservoirs of swine circoviruses in southern Brazil.


O circovírus suíno 2 (PCV2) tem causado impacto econômico na indústria suína em todo o mundo por mais de duas décadas. Em 2016, um novo circovírus foi descrito - circovírus suíno 3 (PCV3) - e desde então tem sido relatado em vários países associado a doenças ou mesmo suínos saudáveis. Diante da importância dos javalis como reservatórios de patógenos suínos, e da ampla distribuição desses animais no Rio Grande do Sul e em todo o território nacional, foi realizada pesquisa de PCV2 e PCV3 em vinte e seis javalis (10 fêmeas e 16 machos). Necropsia e exame histológico foram realizados. Utilizando PCR, foram analisadas 182 amostras de tecidos incluindo: coração, rins, fígado, pulmão, linfonodos, baço e tonsila. PCV2 e PCV3 foram detectados por PCR em 57,7% (15/26) e 15,4% (4/26) dos javalis, respectivamente. Um destes animais estava co-infectado por PCV2 e PCV3. O DNA do PCV2 ou PCV3 foi detectado em multiplos órgãos. No exame histológico foi observada nefrite intersticial linfoplasmocitária multifocal leve a moderada, distribuída aleatoriamente pelo córtex renal, aparentemente sem relação com a detecção de DNA viral. A população de javalis no Brasil é extensa, resultando em maior número de hospedeiros para patógenos de suínos. No presente estudo, mais da metade dos javalis capturados abrigavam PCV2 e, embora menos frequente, PCV3 também foi detectado. Os javalis de vida livre podem servir como reservatórios de circovírus suínos no sul do Brasil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Circovirus/isolation & purification , Circoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Sus scrofa/virology , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
3.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 79: 1-10, 31 mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1293153

ABSTRACT

As esponjas de banho podem carrear contaminação, pois sua estrutura favorece a multiplicação microbiana. Desse modo, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verifica a eficiência de dois métodos de desinfecção para diminuir a quantidade de microrganismos de importância clínica nas esponjas de banho. Foram analisadas 30 esponjas de banho (15 vegetais e 15 sintéticas) que foram cortadas em três partes iguais. Uma delas serviu como controle. As demais partes foram submetidas à desinfecção por fervura durante cinco minutos e à imersão em hipoclorito de sódio 200 ppm. Os resultados demonstraram média de contaminação de bactérias heterotróficas de 4,1 LogUFC/mL e 4,7 LogUFC/mL, para as vegetais e sintéticas, respectivamente. A maioria (80%) das esponjas (10 sintéticas e 14 vegetais) apresentou contaminação por microrganismos de importância clínica. Os métodos de desinfecção reduziram as contagens de bactérias heterotróficas em 3,3 LogUFC/mL com fervura durante cinco minutos e 1,8 LogUFC/mL com desinfecção em hipoclorito de sódio 200 ppm. Conclui-se, portanto, que as esponjas de banho possuem contaminação microbiológica de importância clínica e que a fervura por cinco minutos é um método de fácil execução, baixo custo e capaz de controlar a quantidade de bactérias nas esponjas utilizadas para banho, reduzindo a disseminação de doenças. (AU)


Bath sponges can carry contamination, because their structure favors microbial multiplication. Thus, the objective of this work was to verify the efficiency of two disinfection methods to decrease the number of microorganisms of clinical importance in bath sponges. Thirty bath sponges (15 loofah and 15 synthetic) were analyzed and cut in three equal parts. One served as control. The other parts were boiled disinfected for five minutes and immersed in 200 ppm sodium hypochlorite. The results showed a mean contamination of heterotrophic bacteria of 4.1 LogUFC/mL and 4.7 LogUFC/mL, for plants and synthetic, respectively. The majority (80%) of the sponges (10 synthetic and 14 loofah) presented contamination by microorganisms of clinical importance. Disinfection methods reduced the counts of heterotrophic bacteria by 3.3 LogUFC/mL with boiling for five minutes and 1.8 LogUFC/mL with disinfection with 200 ppm sodium hypochlorite. It is concluded, therefore, that bath sponges present microbiological contamination of clinical importance and that boiling for five minutes is an easily executed low-cost method that is able to control the amount of bacteria in sponges used for bathing, reducing the risk of dissemination of disease. (AU)


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Disease Reservoirs , Disinfection , Luffa , Personal Hygiene Products , Noxae
4.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(2): 129-133, Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1098445

ABSTRACT

Enterococcus are recognized worldwide as significant nosocomial agents that have been continuously envolving to adapt to different niches and acquire resistance to several antibiotic classes. Vancomycin and gentamicin-resistant strains of E. faecalis and E. faecium have been associated with nosocomial human infections. Some epidemiological studies suggest the participation of pets as reservoirs of vancomycin and gentamicin-resistant Enterococcus strains. However, the role of companion birds as reservoirs of these strains has been poorly studied. In this study, 126 psittacine birds were evaluated and 26.9% carried Enterococcus spp., including the species E. faecalis, E. faecium, E. hirae, E. phoeniculicola, E. gallinarum and E. casseliflavus. The antibiotic resistance profile showed four high-level gentamicin-resistance (HLGR) strains. In addition, two strains presented intermediate levels of vancomycin resistance. Resistant strains were isolated from fecal and oropharynx samples of sick and clinically healthy birds, suggesting that psittacine birds may act as reservoirs of HLGR Enterococcus spp. However, sick birds appear to be more implicated in the enterococci transmission than healthy birds.(AU)


Enterococcus são reconhecidos mundialmente como significantes agentes nosocomiais, que têm continuamente se adaptado a diferentes nichos e adquirido resistência a várias classes de antibióticos. Cepas de E. faecalis e E. faecium vancomicina e gantamicina-resistentes têm sido associadas a infecções nosocomiais em humanos. Alguns estudos epidemiológicos sugerem a participação de aves como reservatórios de cepas de Enterococcus vancomicina e gentamicina-resistentes. Entretanto, a relação das aves de companhia como reservatórios destas cepas tem sido pouco estudada. Neste estudo, 126 psitacídeos foram avaliados, e 26,9% destes eram portadores de Enterococcus spp., incluindo as espécies E. faecalis, E. faecium, E. hirae, E. phoeniculicola, E. gallinarum e E. casseliflavus. O perfil de resistência antibiótica mostrou quatro cepas com alto nível de resistência a gentamicina (ANRG). Além de duas cepas com nível intermediário de resistência a vancomicina. As cepas resistentes foram isoladas de amostras fecais e de orofaringe de aves doentes e clinicamente saudáveis, sugerindo que psitacídeos podem estar atuando como reservatórios para Enterococcus spp. com ANRG. Contudo, Aves doentes parecem estar mais relacionadas à transmissão de enterococcus, do que aves saudáveis.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Parrots/microbiology , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Gentamicins , Vancomycin Resistance , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Pets/microbiology , Enterococcus/isolation & purification
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190511, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136814

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The Amazon tropical rainforest has the most dense and diverse ecosystem worldwide. A few studies have addressed rodent-borne diseases as potential hazards to humans in this region. METHODS: A retrospective survey was conducted using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting mammarenavirus and orthohantavirus antibodies in 206 samples collected from rural settlers of the Brazilian Western Amazonian region. RESULTS: Six (2.91%) individuals in the age group of 16 to 36 years were found to possess antibodies against mammarenavirus. CONCLUSION: Evidence of previous exposure to mammarenavirus in the rural population points to its silent circulation in this region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Arenaviridae/immunology , Rodentia/virology , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Orthohepadnavirus/immunology , Arenaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/epidemiology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Arenaviridae/classification , Rodentia/classification , Rural Population , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Orthohepadnavirus/classification , Arenaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Arenaviridae Infections/transmission , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/diagnosis , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/transmission , Middle Aged
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190169, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057265

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Leishmania infantum was considered to be absent from Amapá until 2017 when canine infection was detected. However, there is a lack of knowledge about which reservoir species are involved in transmission in this region. METHODS: Between 2014 and 2016, 86 samples from wild mammals and 74 from domestic dogs were collected in Wajãpi Indigenous Territory and were tested for the presence of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of Leishmania. RESULTS: The DNA of Le. infantum was detected in two rodent samples, Dasyprocta sp. and Proechimys cuvieri. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first evidence characterizing a sylvatic transmission cycle of Le. infantum in the State of Amapá.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Rodentia/parasitology , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Leishmania infantum/genetics , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , DNA, Protozoan , Leishmania infantum/isolation & purification , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/transmission
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190486, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057302

ABSTRACT

Abstract This review focuses on reports of hepatitis E virus, hantavirus, rotavirus, coronavirus, and arenavirus in synanthropic rodents (Rattus rattus, Rattus norvegicus, and Mus musculus) within urban environments. Despite their potential impact on human health, relatively few studies have addressed the monitoring of these viruses in rodents. Comprehensive control and preventive activities should include actions such as the elimination or reduction of rat and mouse populations, sanitary education, reduction of shelters for the animals, and restriction of the access of rodents to residences, water, and food supplies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats/virology , Rotavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Hepatitis E/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Arenaviridae Infections/transmission , Hantavirus Infections/transmission , Mice/virology , Urban Population
9.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 574-581, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057998

ABSTRACT

Abstract Leishmaniases are a group of diseases of zoonotic importance caused by over 20 species of protozoa of the genus Leishmania, in which domestic dogs are considered to be the main reservoir for the disease. However, the involvement of other vertebrates as reservoirs for these parasites has also been investigated. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to carry out a systematic review with meta-analysis on occurrences of leishmaniasis in equids. The case reports described animals with cutaneous symptoms of leishmaniasis (papules, nodules, ulcers or crusts) that regressed spontaneously, located mainly on the head and limbs, from which three species of protozoa were identified in the lesions: Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania siamensis. In turn, the meta-analysis showed a combined prevalence of 25%, although with high heterogeneity among the studies, which was attributed to the use of different methods for diagnosing the disease. Leishmaniasis in equids is a benign disease but it should be included in the differential diagnosis of cutaneous diseases among these species. Seroepidemiological studies are important in investigating and monitoring suspected exposure of these hosts to the parasite, especially in endemic areas. However, there is also a need to standardize diagnostic methods.


Resumo As leishmanioses são um grupo de doenças de importância zoonótica causadas por mais de 20 espécies de protozoários do gênero Leishmania, sendo o cão doméstico considerado o principal reservatório da doença. No entanto, diversas pesquisas têm investigado o envolvimento de outros vertebrados como reservatórios do parasita. Portanto, o objetivo do presente estudo foi realizar uma revisão sistemática com meta-análise da ocorrência de leishmaniose em equídeos. Os relatos de caso descreviam animais com sintomas cutâneos de leishmaniose (pápulas, nódulos, úlceras, crostas) que regrediam espontaneamente, localizadas principalmente na cabeça e membros, sendo identificadas três espécies do protozoário nas lesões: Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania infantum e Leishmania siamensis. Por sua vez, a meta-análise evidenciou uma prevalência combinada de 25%, porém com alta heterogeneidade entre os estudos, atribuída às diferenças nos métodos utilizados no diagnóstico da doença. A leishmaniose em equídeos é uma doença benigna, porém deve ser incluída no diagnóstico diferencial de doenças cutâneas nessas espécies. Os estudos soroepidemiológicos são importantes para investigar e monitorar a suspeita de exposição desses hospedeiros ao parasita, principalmente em áreas endêmicas, porém há necessidade de padronização dos métodos de diagnóstico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Leishmaniasis/veterinary , Horse Diseases/parasitology , Horses/parasitology , Leishmania/isolation & purification , Disease Reservoirs , Leishmania/classification
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190210, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101271

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The influence of Plasmodium spp. infection in the health of Southern brown howler monkey, Alouatta guariba clamitans, the main reservoir of malaria in the Atlantic Forest, is still unknown. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to investigate the positivity rate of Plasmodium infection in free-living howler monkeys in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Joinville/SC and to associate the infection with clinical, morphometrical, haematological and biochemical alterations. METHODS Molecular diagnosis of Plasmodium infection in the captured monkeys was performed by Nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (18S rRNA and coxI). Haematological and biochemical parameters were compared among infected and uninfected monkeys; clinical and morphometrical parameters were also compared. FINDINGS The positivity rate of Plasmodium infection was 70% among forty captured animals, the highest reported for neotropical primates. None statistical differences were detected in the clinical parameters, and morphometric measures comparing infected and uninfected groups. The main significant alteration was the higher alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in infected compared to uninfected monkeys. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Therefore, Plasmodium infection in howler monkeys may causes haematological/biochemical alterations which might suggest hepatic impairment. Moreover, infection must be monitored for the eco-epidemiological surveillance of malaria in the Atlantic Forest and during primate conservation program that involves the animal movement, such as translocations.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Disease Reservoirs/parasitology , Alouatta/parasitology , Malaria/veterinary , Monkey Diseases/parasitology , Brazil/epidemiology , Alouatta/blood , Malaria/blood , Malaria/epidemiology , Animals, Wild , Monkey Diseases/blood , Monkey Diseases/epidemiology
11.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 16(3): 30-34, dic. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-998314

ABSTRACT

En Paraguay, no se han registrado casos autóctonos de malaria desde el 2011. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo observacional transversal en 6 monos y 23 aves que vivían en una región históricamente endémica de Paraguay para buscar presencia de reservorios silvestres de parásitos plasmodios causantes de la malaria. El ADN se extrajo por el método de Chelex a partir de una gota de sangre en un papel de filtro, y la detección del parásito se realizó mediante la PCR múltiple semianidada. Por este método, no se detectaron parásitos en ninguna de las 29 muestras. Se evaluó el riesgo potencial de circulación selvática de los parásitos que causan la malaria. Teniendo en cuenta la presencia de mosquitos anofelinos vectores en la zona, el hecho de que no se hayan observado casos positivos es un buen indicador teniendo en cuenta que nuestro país fue declarado recientemente como país libre de malaria por la OMS(AU)


In Paraguay, autochthonous cases of malaria have not been recorded since 2011. A cross-sectional observational descriptive study was conducted in 6 monkeys and 23 birds living in a historically endemic region of Paraguay to identify wild reservoirs of plasmodium parasites that cause malaria. DNA was extracted by the Chelex method from a blood drop in a filter paper, and parasite detection was performed by the seminested multiplex PCR. By this method, parasites were not detected in any of the 29 samples. The risk of potential sylvatic circulation of the parasites causing malaria was evaluated. Considering the presence of anopheline mosquitoes in the area, the fact that we did not find any positive cases is a good indicator as our country was recently certified as a malaria-free country by the WHO(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Birds/parasitology , Disease Reservoirs , Macaca/parasitology , Malaria/transmission , Paraguay , Cross-Sectional Studies , Endemic Diseases , Malaria/epidemiology
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 609-614, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951605

ABSTRACT

Abstract Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL), caused by protozoans of the genus Leishmania, it is a worldwide of great importance disease. In the northeast region of Brazil, the state of Alagoas has an endemic status for ZVL. Thus, this work aimed to analyze the epidemiological situation of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in Alagoas, Northeast, Brazil, from 2007 to 2013. We conducted a descriptive, observational, retrospective study using secondary data from the Notifiable Diseases Information System, the Center of Zoonosis Control of Maceió, and the Central Laboratory of Public Health of Alagoas. During the studied period, it was observed that the highest incidence of human visceral leishmaniasis was in 2011 and the lowest in 2013. On the other hand, canine visceral leishmaniasis had its highest incidence in 2007 and its lowest in 2012. Of the 55 municipalities in the State of Alagoas that showed human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL), São José da Tapera presented an average of 4.4 cases over the past five years, being classified as of intense transmission. Regarding canine visceral leishmaniasis, in the same studied period, 45,112 dogs were examined in the State, of which 4,466 were positive. It resulted, thus, in a 9.9% positivity rate. Conclusions: Our data are important because canine infection is an important risk factor for the human disease.


Resumo Leishmaniose visceral zoonótica, causada por protozoários do gênero Leishmania, é uma doença importante no mundo. Na região nordeste do Brasil, do estado de Alagoas é endêmico para LVZ. Neste sentido, este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a situação epidemiológica da leishmaniose visceral humana e canina em Alagoas, Nordeste, Brasil, no período de 2007 a 2013. Foi realizado um estudo descritivo, observacional, retrospectivo, usando-se secundário do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN), Centro de Controle de Zoonoses de Maceió (CCZ) e Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública de Alagoas (LACEN/AL). Durante o período de estudo, observou-se que o ano de maior incidência de Leishmaniose visceral humana (LVH) foi o de 2011 e o de menor foi no ano de 2013. Já a LVC teve maior incidência em 2007 e menor em 2012. Dos 55 municípios do Estado de Alagoas que apresentaram LVH, São José da Tapera apresentou uma média de casos de 4,4 nos últimos cinco anos classificado como de transmissão intensa; No que diz respeito à leishmaniose visceral canina (LVC), no mesmo período de estudo, foram examinados 45.112 cães no Estado, dos quais 4.466 foram positivos. Resultou assim, em uma taxa de 9,9% de positividade. Nossos dados são importantes porque a infecção canina é um importante fator de risco para a doença humana.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Infant , Child , Adult , Middle Aged , Dogs , Endemic Diseases/veterinary , Endemic Diseases/statistics & numerical data , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Neglected Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Disease Reservoirs/parasitology , Risk Factors , Cities , Disease Progression , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Dog Diseases/transmission , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/transmission
13.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(4): 386-394, ago. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978049

ABSTRACT

Resumen La fiebre hemorrágica argentina (FHA) es una enfermedad zoonótica endémica en una amplia zona de la pampa húmeda de Argentina. El agente etiológico es el virus Junin que es mantenido en la naturaleza por el roedor Calomys musculinus y transmitido, principalmente, al humano a través de aerosoles generados de las secreciones y excreciones. Objetivos: Caracterizar la composición y diversidad de los ensambles de pequeños roedores, determinar la abundancia del hospedador C. musculinus y la prevalencia del virus de la FHA en las zonas epidémica, histórica y no endémica de dicha enfermedad en Argentina. Métodos: Para el muestreo de roedores en cada una de las zonas se demarcaron un área central y dos periféricas para 18 localidades de la región central de Argentina (incluyendo las provincias de Córdoba, Buenos Aires y Santa Fe) muestreadas en dos años. Se comparó la abundancia de C. musculinus entre zonas y entre las áreas dentro de cada zona y áreas cercanas entre zonas, utilizando modelos de análisis de varianza anidados. Resultados. Dentro de cada zona, el ensamble de roedores mostró diferencia espacial en la composición específica, diversidad y abundancia de C. musculinus. La zona epidémica registró mayor número de especies y mayor abundancia del hospedador. En zona histórica se capturó el menor número de especies (de roedores) y Akodon azarae fue la más abundante. En zona no endémica la composición del ensamble y la abundancia de C. musculinus variaron entre los dos años. Sólo se detectó infección por virus Junin en C. musculinus correspondientes a la zona epidémica con una prevalencia de 2,7 y 1,1% para los años 2007 y 2008, respectivamente. Conclusión: En este sistema, la abundancia del hospedador estaría afectando la dinámica espacial de este virus, más que la diversidad del ensamble o la presencia de A. azarae.


Background. The Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever (AHF) is a zoonotic disease endemic in a wide area of the humid pampa of Argentina. The etiologic agent is the Junin virus that is maintained in the wild by the rodent Calomys musculinus and transmitted to humans, mainly, through aerosols generated from secretions and excretions. Aims: To characterize and compare the assemblages of small rodent composition and diversity inside the epidemic, historic and non-endemic zone of AHF and to register C. musculinus abundance in each zone and in each area within each zone, registering the prevalence of infection in rodent populations. Method: One central and two peripheral areas were delimited to sample rodents in each zone with different incidence of AHF. Thus, 18 localities were selected to do the sampling in two years. Host abundance between zones and among areas inside each zone and among nearby areas between zones were compared applying nested ANOVA's. Results: In each zone, the rodent assemblage showed differences in composition, diversity and numeric representation of C. musculinus. The epidemic zone was the richest of the three, registering also great host abundance; meanwhile in the historic zone, A. azarae was the dominant numeric species with less number of other species. Regarding the non-endemic zone, the assemblage composition and C. musculinus abundance varied respect the sampled year. Junin virus infection was only detected in C. musculinus individuals corresponding to the epidemic zone, with a prevalence of 2.7 and 1.1% for the years 2007 and 2008, respectively. Conclusion: In this system, the abundance of C. musculinus could be impacting over the pathogen dynamic, rather than the assemblage diversity or the A. azarae presence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rodentia/virology , Disease Reservoirs/classification , Junin virus/isolation & purification , Hemorrhagic Fever, American/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Rodentia/classification , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Incidence , Prevalence , Population Density , Spatial Analysis , Hemorrhagic Fever, American/transmission
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(4): 445-451, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957436

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION The National Park of Serra das Confusões (NPSC) is a protected area of natural landscape located in Southern Piauí, Brazil, and it is considered as one of the largest and most important protected areas in the Caatinga biome. METHODS The natural occurrences of trypanosomatids from hemocultures on small mammals and cultures from intestinal contents triatomines were detected through molecular diagnoses of blood samples, and phylogenetic relationship analysis of the isolates parasites using the trypanosome barcode (V7V8 SSUrDNA) were realized. RESULTS Only two Galea spixii (8.1%) and six Triatoma brasiliensis (17.6%) were positive by hemoculture, and the isolates parasites were cryopreserved. All the isolates obtained were positioned on the Trypanosoma cruzi DTU TcI branch. CONCLUSIONS Research focused on studying the wild animal fauna in preserved and underexplored environments has made it possible to elucidate indispensable components of different epidemiological chains of diseases with zoonotic potential.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rodentia/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Disease Reservoirs/parasitology , Triatominae/parasitology , Animals, Wild/parasitology , Marsupialia/parasitology , Phylogeny , Rodentia/classification , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Brazil , Biodiversity , Parks, Recreational , Genotype , Marsupialia/classification
15.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 78(3): 151-157, jun. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-954970

ABSTRACT

Se describe un brote de síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus en el departamento de Burruyacú, provincia de Tucumán. La detección en 2016 de un caso de hantavirosis en una joven de 23 años -en ese momento considerado el primero ocurrido en dicha provincia- promovió un estudio epidemiológico exhaustivo, que permitió detectar retrospectivamente otro caso ocurrido en un niño de 5 años, un mes antes, en el mismo departamento. La infección fue confirmada por serología en ambos casos (caso 1 en muestras de 4 y 7 días de evolución, caso 2 en muestra a los 4 días). En ambos casos el genotipo viral fue caracterizado como HU39694 y los contactos fueron serológicamente negativos. En las áreas fueron identificados roedores pertenecientes a los géneros Akodon y Calomys y a la especie Mus musculus, pero no a Oligoryzomys, el reservorio habitual del genotipo HU39694. Tampoco se detectaron anticuerpos anti-hantavirus en suero de los roedores capturados. La ausencia de registro de viajes a área endémica de este genotipo y los hábitos recreacionales de los pacientes, sumados a los resultados serológicos negativos para hantavirus en los contactos, permiten inferir la posible exposición de los pacientes a fluidos de roedores infectados durante actividades recreativas o sociales al aire libre en sus respectivas áreas de residencia. En conclusión, se demuestra la circulación en Tucumán del genotipo viral HU39694, hasta ahora considerado restringido a la región pampeana central. Se extiende así a Tucumán el área endémica de hantavirosis, pero no se identificó el reservorio en el área.


We describe an outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the Burruyacú Department, Province of Tucumán. The detection in 2016 of a case of hantavirosis affecting a 23-year-old woman, considered at that time to be the first case occurred in that province, promoted a thorough epidemiological study. The investigation allowed the retrospective detection of another case occurred one month earlier in a 5-year-old child in the same Department. In both cases, the infection was confirmed by serology (case 1 at days 4 and 7 of disease onset, case 2 at day 4) and the viral genotype was characterized as HU39694. The contacts of both cases were serologically negative for hantavirus. The rodents captured in the area belonged to genus Akodon, genus Calomys and species Mus musculus. Oligoryzomys, the known reservoir for this viral genotype, was not found. Specific anti-hantavirus antibodies were not detected in the captured rodents. Given that the patients had not visited hantavirus endemic areas and their contacts were negative for hantavirus, we infer that the patients were locally exposed to fluids of infected rodents during their usual social or recreational outdoor activities. In conclusion, we demonstrate that hantavirus HU39694 -a genotype until now considered to be restricted to the Central Pampas of the country- is circulating in the North Western province of Tucumán. The endemic area of hantavirosis is thus expanded to this province but the viral reservoir in the area has not yet been identified.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Young Adult , Rodentia/virology , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Hantavirus/genetics , Hantavirus/immunology , Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome/epidemiology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Argentina/epidemiology , Rodentia/classification , Disease Reservoirs/classification , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Disease Outbreaks , Retrospective Studies , Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(3): 143-152, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894907

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Angiostrongyliasis is an infection caused by nematode worms of the genus Angiostrongylus. The adult worms inhabit the pulmonary arteries, heart, bronchioles of the lung, or mesenteric arteries of the caecum of definitive host. Of a total of 23 species of Angiostrongylus cited worldwide, only nine were registered in the American Continent. Two species, A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis, are considered zoonoses when the larvae accidentally parasitise man. OBJECTIVES In the present study, geographical and chronological distribution of definitive hosts of Angiostrongylus in the Americas is analysed in order to observe their relationship with disease reports. Moreover, the role of different definitive hosts as sentinels and dispersers of infective stages is discussed. METHODS The study area includes the Americas. First records of Angiostrongylus spp. in definitive or accidental hosts were compiled from the literature. Data were included in tables and figures and were matched to geographic information systems (GIS). FINDINGS Most geographical records of Angiostrongylus spp. both for definitive and accidental hosts belong to tropical areas, mainly equatorial zone. In relation to those species of human health importance, as A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis, most disease cases indicate a coincidence between the finding of definitive host and disease record. However, in some geographic site there are gaps between report of definitive host and disease record. In many areas, human populations have invaded natural environments and their socioeconomic conditions do not allow adequate medical care. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Consequently, many cases for angiostrongyliasis could have gone unreported or unrecognised throughout history and in the nowadays. Moreover, the population expansion and the climatic changes invite to make broader and more complete range of observation on the species that involve possible epidemiological risks. This paper integrates and shows the current distribution of Angiostrongylus species in America, being this information very relevant for establishing prevention, monitoring and contingency strategies in the region.


Subject(s)
Strongylida Infections/parasitology , Strongylida Infections/epidemiology , Angiostrongylus/classification , Disease Reservoirs , Disease Notification , Geographic Information Systems
17.
Salud pública Méx ; 60(1): 29-40, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-903844

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To compare the genetic determinants involved in plant colonization or virulence in the reported genomes of K. variicola, K. quasipneumoniae and K. pneumoniae. Materials and methods: In silico comparisons and Jaccard analysis of genomic data were used. Fimbrial genes were detected by PCR. Biological assays were performed with plant and clinical isolates. Results: Plant colonization genes such as cellulases, catalases and hemagglutinins were mainly present in K. variicola genomes. Chromosomal β-lactamases were characteristic of this species and had been previously misclassified. K. variicola and K. pneumoniae isolates produced plant hormones. Conclusions: A mosaic distribution of different virulence- and plant-associated genes was found in K. variicola and in K. quasipneumoniae genomes. Some plant colonizing genes were found mainly in K. variicola genomes. The term plantanosis is proposed for plant-borne human infections.


Resumen: Objetivo: Comparar genes de colonización de plantas o de virulencia en los genomas reportados de K. variicola, K. quasipneumoniae y K. pneumoniae. Material y métodos: Se utilizaron análisis in silico y de Jaccard. Por PCR se detectaron genes de fimbrias. Se realizaron ensayos biológicos con aislados de plantas y clínicos. Resultados: Los genes de colonización de plantas como celulasas, catalasas y hemaglutininas se encontraron principalmente en genomas de K. variicola. Las β-lactamasas cromosómicas son características de la especie y en algunos casos estaban mal clasificadas. K. variicola y K. pneumoniae producen hormonas vegetales. Conclusiones: Se encontró una distribución en mosaico de los genes de asociación con plantas y de virulencia en K. variicola y K. quasipneumoniae. Principalmente en K. variicola se encontraron algunos genes involucrados en la colonización de plantas. Se propone el término plantanosis para las infecciones humanas de origen vegetal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plants/microbiology , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella/physiology , Bacterial Proteins/physiology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Virulence/genetics , Computer Simulation , Disease Reservoirs , Adaptation, Biological/genetics , Genome, Bacterial , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Gene Ontology , Genes, Bacterial , Klebsiella/enzymology , Klebsiella/genetics , Klebsiella/pathogenicity
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758819

ABSTRACT

Bovine abortion, diarrhea, and respiratory disease complexes, caused by infectious agents, result in high and significant economic losses for the cattle industry. These pathogens are likely transmitted by various vectors and reservoirs including insects, birds, and rodents. However, experimental data supporting this possibility are scarce. We collected 117 samples and screened them for 44 bovine abortive, diarrheal, and respiratory disease complex pathogens by using Dembo polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is based on TaqMan real-time PCR. Fifty-seven samples were positive for at least one pathogen, including bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine enterovirus, Salmonella enterica ser. Dublin, Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium, and Neospora caninum; some samples were positive for multiple pathogens. Bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine enterovirus were the most frequently detected pathogens, especially in flies, suggesting an important role of flies in the transmission of these viruses. Additionally, we detected the N. caninum genome from a cockroach sample for the first time. Our data suggest that insects (particularly flies), birds, and rodents are potential vectors and reservoirs of abortion, diarrhea, and respiratory infectious agents, and that they may transmit more than one pathogen at the same time.


Subject(s)
Animals , Birds , Cattle , Cockroaches , Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral , Diarrhea , Diptera , Disease Reservoirs , Disease Vectors , Enterovirus , Enterovirus, Bovine , Genome , Insecta , Neospora , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rodentia , Salmonella enterica , Virulence Factors
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690631

ABSTRACT

Chinese ferret badger (FB)-transmitted rabies is a serious threat to public health in southeast China. Although mostly associated with dogs, the rabies virus (RABV) presents genetic diversity and has a significantly wide host range in China. Instead of the dog- and wildlife-associated China II lineage in the past decades, the China I lineage has become the main epidemic group hosted and transmitted by dogs. In this study, four new lineages, including 43 RABVs from FBs, have been classified within the dog-dominated China I lineage since 2014. FB RABVs have been previously categorized in the China II lineage. Moreover, FB-hosted viruses seem to have become the main independent FB-associated clade in the phylogenetic tree. This claim suggests that the increasing genetic diversity of RABVs in FBs is a result of the selective pressure from coexisting dog rabies. FB transmission has become complicated and serious with the coexistence of dog rabies. Therefore, apart from targeting FB rabies, priority should be provided by the appropriate state agencies to perform mass immunization of dog against rabies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , Virology , China , Epidemiology , Disease Reservoirs , Virology , Dog Diseases , Epidemiology , Virology , Dogs , Ferrets , Virology , Genetic Linkage , Genetic Variation , Phylogeny , Phylogeography , Rabies , Epidemiology , Virology , Rabies virus , Genetics
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