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1.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49: Pub. 1831, 2021. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363715

ABSTRACT

Lymphoma is a neoplasm of hematopoietic origin that affects canines. The proper establishment of prognosis and rapid institution of treatment are essential for a better quality of life, and immunophenotyping is one of the tools used for this purpose. The objective of this study was to perform a clonality test for immunophenotypic characterization of canine lymphomas using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for antigen receptor rearrangements (PARR) technique in real-time from samples fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin. The 23 analyzed samples were fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin canine lymphoma from the collection Laboratory of Histopathology of the Animal Pathology Area of the Departament of Veterinary Medicine - Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (UFRPE). Samples were processed, their DNA was extracted, quantified, diluted, and standardized at a concentration of 50 ng/µL. After extraction, all samples were subjected to conventional PCR for endogenous control (detection of the IgM target region), in which the extracted DNA was amplified in a final volume of 25 µL. The 128 bp amplified product was detected by 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis. Of the 23 samples analyzed for the detection of the conserved region referring to the endogenous gene, 91.30% (21/23) amplified the conserved region Cµ by conventional PCR, and two samples 8.70% (2/23) were negative. Endogenous control positive samples were subjected to real-time PCR-PARR for detection of IgH Major and IgH Minor for B lymphocytes (LB), and TCRy for lymphocytes T (LT) target regions. All reactions were performed in duplicate to reduce the risk of false-positive or false-negative results due to technical errors. Samples previously confirmed by immunohistochemistry were used as positive controls for T cell and B cell lymphoma, and MilliQ water was used as a negative reaction control. After amplification, the melting curve gradually increased the temperature by 1o C/5 s to 95o C during continuous fluorescence monitoring. Of the 21 samples analyzed, 100.00% (21/21) demonstrated clonal amplification. Of these, 57.15% (12/21) were positive for phenotype B, and 42.85% (9/21) were positive for phenotype T. Due to the importance of researching and confirming samples from files fixed and embedded in paraffin samples in laboratories, PCR-PARR is a good tool for this purpose. In the present study, real-time PCR analysis demonstrated greater sensitivity in the characterization of the immunophenotype of lymphomas from old samples fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin. The temperature of melting curve analysis may vary depending on the amount of DNA and its quality. In the present study, it was found that the average melting temperature in the samples varied between ± 3o C when compared to that in the control sample for LB and LT, 83.5o C and 80o C, respectively: in the literature, there is a relative difference in this temperature, which may vary up to 4o C. Real-time PCR-PARR was satisfactory in the characterization of the immunophenotype of canine lymphomas from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples; therefore, its use is recommended for both retrospective studies. The use of PCR-PARR associated with histopathological and/or cytopathological examination in cases of canine lymphomas strongly helps pathologists, provide a safe establishment of the immunophenotype, minimize errors, and optimize the diagnosis, thus directly contributing to the establishment of the prognosis.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Immunophenotyping/veterinary , Dog Diseases/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Lymphoid Tissue , Lymphoma/veterinary , Dogs
2.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49: Pub. 1827, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363756

ABSTRACT

Mammary tumors (MTs) in bitches are similar to breast cancers in women. Thus, they can be used as a model for human breast cancer and findings can be extrapolated for use in human medicine. BRCA1 is a tumor suppressor gene. When the gene has a mutation, it cannot repair damaged DNA, which causes genetic instability and tumorigenesis. Therefore, we aimed to study the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the BRCA1 gene that are associated with distinct histological types of malignant MT in bitches. The study population consisted of 91 bitches, including a control group of 6 animals with healthy mammary glands and 85 animals with MTs. All animals underwent a presurgery evaluation consisting of a questionnaire administered to the person responsible for the animal, a physical examination, collection of peripheral blood for hematological and serum biochemistry evaluations, an electrocardiogram, and a preanesthesia evaluation. In addition, distant metastasis was studied via chest radiography and abdominal ultrasound. After evaluations were complete, the animals that could undergo surgery were administered general anesthesia and underwent a mastectomy or mammary gland sample collection. Histopathological examination and molecular analysis were performed to identify mutations in the BRCA1 gene. Histopathological examinations found 10 different types of malignant tumors in 36 sick animals. Tumor samples plus samples from the 6 control animals were subjected to DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, and genetic sequencing. The tumor with the highest incidence (33.33%) was a complex carcinoma, followed by carcinoma in mixed tumor (13.88), tubular carcinoma (13.88) and carcinosarcoma (13.88). Molecular analysis revealed 3 different SNP points in 5 samples (4006G>A, 3619A>G, and 3761C>T). The allelic variant 4006G>A (1/36) resulted in the alteration of the amino acid valine by isoleucine (V1336 I). The mutation 3619A>G (2/36) inserted the amino acid alanine instead of threonine (T1207 A). The mutation 3761C>T (2/36) led to the alteration of the amino acid serine by phenylalanine (S1254 F), a mutation for which there are no published reports. The histological types that showed BRCA1 mutations were complex carcinoma (1/5), carcinoma in mixed tumor (1/5), papillary carcinoma (1/5) and tubular carcinoma (2/5). Software analysis identified the new SNP (nucleotide 3761) in BRCA1 and 2 point mutations in nucleotides 4006 and 3619 and responsible for genetic instability. The development of breast cancer is caused by many endogenous and exogenous factors. The results of our study show that these factors have a greater presence in female, mixed breed, uncastrated, and older dogs, confirming the data in the veterinary literature. In the present study, we found different histological types of malignant breast tumors with mutations in the BRCA1 gene, as other authors have reported. However, we also found the mutation 3761C>T, which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been reported in the literature. This shows the need for studies in veterinary medicine that assess mutations in the BRCA1 gene and the most common histological types. In conclusion, SNPs in the BRCA1 gene cause genetic instability, resulting in additional mutations that lead to the development of breast tumors. They are point mutations that affect transcription, resulting in truncated proteins. These proteins may have a loss of function, leading to carcinogenesis.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Dogs , Mammary Neoplasms, Animal/genetics , Mammary Neoplasms, Animal/diagnostic imaging , Genes, BRCA1 , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Dog Diseases/genetics , Dogs
3.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 10(2): 59-62, abr. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-998973

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus in canines corresponds to a pathology whose etiopathogenesis has not yet been fully understood, since it has a great similarity with human type 1 diabetes mellitus, but the same risk factors have not been found. New diagnostic methods have been investigated in recent years in diabetic murine models, among which microRNAs have been studied as early markers of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In canines a homology has been found between microRNAs 21, microRNA 34, microRNA 29, and microRNA 146a with those studied in human and murine diabetics. This would imply that the study of these microRNAs may have a great impact on the early detection of diabetes in canines and be a model for the study of new microRNAs that may be implicated in the development of diabetes in humans.


Subject(s)
MicroRNAs/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus/veterinary , Dog Diseases/genetics , Early Diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus
4.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1): 301-306, Jan,-Mar. 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886632

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study investigated the frequency of infection by Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in dogs submitted to animal health centers in Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. E. canis and A. platys showed infection frequencies of 55.75% and 16.96%, respectively. The identity of the two species was confirmed by DNA sequencing.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Ehrlichiosis/veterinary , Ehrlichia canis/isolation & purification , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Anaplasma/isolation & purification , Anaplasmosis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Ehrlichiosis/genetics , Ehrlichiosis/epidemiology , Sequence Analysis, DNA/veterinary , Ehrlichia canis/genetics , Dog Diseases/genetics , Anaplasma/genetics , Anaplasmosis/genetics
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-86395

ABSTRACT

Increasing evidence suggests that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance. Additionally, it is becoming apparent that cyclooxygenase (COX) signaling is associated with canine mammary tumor development. The goals of the present study were to investigate COX-2 expression patterns and their effect on CSC-mediated tumor initiation in primary canine mammary tissues and tumorsphere models using immunohistochemistry. Patterns of COX-2, CD44, octamer-binding transcription factor (Oct)-3/4, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression were examined in malignant mammary tumor (MMT) samples and analyzed in terms of clinicopathological characteristics. COX-2 and Oct-3/4 expression was higher in MMTs compared to other histological samples with heterogeneous patterns. In MMTs, COX-2 expression correlated with tumor malignancy features. Significant associations between COX-2, CD44, and EGFR were observed in low-differentiated MMTs. Comparative analysis showed that the levels of COX-2, CD44, and Oct-3/4 expression varied significantly among TSs of three histological grades. Enhanced COX-2 staining was consistently observed in TSs. Similar levels of staining intensity were found for CD44 and Oct-3/4, but EGFR expression was weak. Our findings indicate the potential role of COX-2 in CSC-mediated tumor initiation, and suggest that COX-2 inhibition may help treat canine mammary tumors by targeting CSCs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Female , Hyaluronan Receptors/genetics , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/genetics , Cyclooxygenase 2/genetics , Dog Diseases/genetics , Immunohistochemistry/veterinary , Mammary Neoplasms, Animal/genetics , Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental/genetics , Neoplastic Stem Cells/metabolism , Octamer Transcription Factor-3/genetics , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Retrospective Studies
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-67597

ABSTRACT

The canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is found mainly in dogs' sexual organs. Currently, it is widely accepted that all samples of CTVT show similar histopathological characteristics and share common genetic alterations. Despite the common genetic origin of CTVT, mutations in the P53 gene have been reported. In this study, we proposed that tumor samples can be genetically grouped using this gene. The presence of different subgroups of CTVT was determined in Mexican dogs using the TP53 gene sequence in CTVT samples. Four new polymorphisms were found and therefore, the CTVT samples were classified in five subgroups.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Base Sequence , Dog Diseases/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/physiology , Molecular Sequence Data , Mutation , Polymorphism, Genetic , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics , Venereal Tumors, Veterinary/genetics
8.
J Genet ; 2007 Dec; 86(3): 241-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-114350

ABSTRACT

GATA4 is expressed early in the developing heart where it plays a key role in regulating the expression of genes encoding myocardial contractile proteins. Gene mutations in the human GATA4 have been implicated in various congenital heart defects (CHD), including atrial septal defect (ASD). Although ASD is the third most common CHD in humans, it is generally rare in dogs and cats. There is also no obvious predilection for ASD in dogs and cats, based on sex or breed. However, among dogs, the incidence rate of ASD is relatively high in Samoyeds and Doberman Pinschers, where its inheritance and genetic aetiology are not well understood. In this study, we identified and investigated the genetic aetiology of an ASD affected family in a pure breed dog population. Although the GATA4 gene was screened, we did not find any mutations that would result in the alteration of the coding sequence and hence, the predicted GATA4 structure and function. Although the aetiology of ASD is multifactorial, our findings indicate that GATA4 may not be responsible for the ASD in the dogs used in this study. However, this does not eliminate GATA4 as a candidate for ASD in other dog breeds.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Base Sequence , DNA Mutational Analysis , DNA Primers/genetics , Dog Diseases/genetics , Dogs/classification , Female , GATA4 Transcription Factor/genetics , Heart Septal Defects, Atrial/genetics , Male , Molecular Sequence Data , Pedigree , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Species Specificity
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-213960

ABSTRACT

Color-dilution alopecia is a relatively uncommon hereditary skin disease seen in "Blue" and other color-diluted dogs. This syndrome is associated with a color-dilution gene. The initial clinical signs are the gradual onset of a dry, dull and poor hair coat quality. Hair shafts and hair regrowth are poor, and follicular papules may develop and progress to frank comedones. Hair loss and comedo formation are usually most severe on the trunk, especially color-diluted area on the skin. Six cases of color-dilution alopecia are reported in 3 months to 10 years old dogs. The breeds of dogs are blue Doberman Pinscher, Miniature Pinscher, Dachshund, and Schnauzer. Grossly, extensive partial hair loss was seen on the skin. Histopathologically, the epidermis is relatively normal but may be hyperplastic. Hair follicles are characterized by atrophy and distortion. Heavily clumped melanin is present in the epidermis, dermis and hair follicles.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Female , Male , Alopecia/genetics , Dog Diseases/genetics , Hair Color/genetics , Skin/pathology
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 37(11): 1673-1681, Nov. 2004. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-385862

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present investigation was to study the expression of c-erbB-2 and MIB-1 and try to associate them with morphological features of the cell such as nuclear pleomorphism, mitotic count and histological grade in a series of 70 canine mammary gland tumors, 22 of them benign and 48 malignant. Tumors were collected at the Veterinary Hospital of UFMG (Brazil) and the Veterinary Faculty of Porto University (Portugal). c-erbB-2 expression was determined according to the guidelines provided by the manufacturer of the HercepTest system and nuclear pleomorphism, mitotic count and histological grade according the Elston and Ellis grading system. The HercepTest is the FDA-approved in vitro diagnostic test marketed by Dako. It is a semi-quantitative immunohistochemical assay used to determine overexpression of HER2 protein (human epidermal growth factor receptor) in breast cancer tissue. MIB-1 expression was also evaluated in 28 malignant tumors. Seventeen (35.4 percent) of the malignant tumors were positive for c-erbB-2 expression, which was positively associated with nuclear pleomorphism (P < 0.0001), histological grade (P = 0.0017) and mitotic count (P < 0.05). Nuclear pleomorphism also showed a positive association with MIB-1 index (P < 0.0001). These results suggest that some of the biological and morphological characteristics of the tumor are associated in canine mammary gland tumors, as also reported for human breast cancer. It was also possible to show that the immunoexpression of c-erbB-2 can be a factor in mammary carcinogenesis. This fact opens the possibility of using anti-c-erbB-2 antibodies in the treatment of canine mammary tumors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Dogs , Dog Diseases/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/genetics , /genetics , /genetics , Mammary Neoplasms, Animal/genetics , Dog Diseases/pathology , Genetic Markers , Immunohistochemistry , Mammary Neoplasms, Animal/pathology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-178956

ABSTRACT

Inherited copper toxicosis in Bedlington Terriers (CTBT) is a copper associated hepatopathy caused by an autosomal recessive genetic defect of gene involving copper metabolism. To compare clinical and histopathological findings with previous reports and to expand our knowledge for future genetic studies, 18 terriers were clinically and histopathologically examined in this study. Pedigree information and dietary history were obtained from the owners before a thorough clinical examination was undertaken. Following the examination, a blood sample was collected for haematology, biochemistry and genetic analysis and a urine sample for urinalysis. Seven dogs were also liver biopsied for histopathology, histochemistry and electron microscopy. In this study, plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) activity was highly concordant with DNA marker test results and was the most reliable and sensitive biochemical test measured. Also clinical and biochemical copper toxicosisaffected states were noticed in a genotyped carrier dog. Histopathological and electron microscopy findings showed that the severity of the lesion was more closely correlated to the presence of clinical signs than to hepatic copper concentration. In addition, the involvement of apoptosis and p53 gene was observed in electron microscopy. The general findings related to CT-BT in this study was similar to those previously reported except few differences in histopathology and electron microscopy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Female , Male , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Biopsy/veterinary , Blood Chemical Analysis/veterinary , Copper/metabolism , Dog Diseases/genetics , Histocytochemistry/veterinary , Leukocyte Count/veterinary , Liver/metabolism , Metal Metabolism, Inborn Errors/genetics , Microscopy, Electron/veterinary , Urinalysis/veterinary
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-172450

ABSTRACT

We concentrated ourselves to evaluate the prognostic significance of the p53 gene mutations, its protein expression and MIB-1 index as a proliferative marker in canine mammary tumors. In the present study, a total of 20 cases were examined, among which there were 5 malignant mixed tumors, 4 mammary gland adenocarcinomas, 1 papillary adenocarcinoma, 8 benign mixed tumors and 2 mammary gland adenomas. Positive immunostaining for p53 with PAb240 antibody was found in 2 benign (20%) and 3 malignant (30%) tumors. However, PAb421 antibody did not give positive result at all. In Western blot analysis, the p53 expression in benign and malignant tumors was detected in 4 and 3 cases, respectively. p53 mutations were found in 6 cases out of the cases with detected p53 protein expression. The MIB-1 index in benign and malignant tumors were 17.6+/-20.8% and 29.0+/-27.2%, respectively and there was no significant difference between tumor types. There was a significant correlation between p53 mutations and p53 overexpression (correlation coefficient = 0.5, p < 0.05). In Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, the p53 index was associated with significantly shortened survival time (p < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, p53 overexpression was only an independent factor for indicator of worse prognosis in canine mammary tumors (p = 0.01). These results demonstrated that p53 gene mutations and protein overexpression using the PAb240 anti-p53 antibody were useful predictors of increased malignant potential and poor prognosis in canine mammary tumors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Female , Antibodies, Antinuclear/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Blotting, Western/veterinary , Dog Diseases/genetics , Genes, p53/genetics , Immunohistochemistry/veterinary , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Mammary Neoplasms, Animal/genetics , Mutation , Predictive Value of Tests , Proportional Hazards Models , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/biosynthesis
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-148811

ABSTRACT

LINEs (long interspersed nuclear elements or long interspersed repeated DNA elements) contains two open reading frames (ORFs), ORF1 and ORF2. We analysed the ORF2 located in the 5' region to the first exon of oncogene c-myc in canine transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) cell. We also showed the transcription activation was induced by this TVT-LINE sequence using CAT assay. To identify the mutation of tumor suppressor gene, sequence analysis of p53 from TVT cell was performed. We identified the point mutation of 964 nucleotide (T-->C) resulting in the change of amino acid (Phe-->Ser) of p53 tumor suppressor protein.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cricetinae , Dogs , Amino Acid Sequence , Base Sequence , Cells, Cultured , DNA, Neoplasm/chemistry , Dog Diseases/genetics , Long Interspersed Nucleotide Elements/genetics , Molecular Sequence Data , Point Mutation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Alignment , Transcription, Genetic , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/chemistry , Venereal Tumors, Veterinary/chemistry
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-148807

ABSTRACT

Mutation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene has been related in the pathogenesis of numerous human and canine cancers, including breast cancers and mammary tumors. We have investigated exons 5-8 of the p53 gene for mutations in 20 spontaneous canine mammary tumors using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with direct sequence analysis to evaluate the role of this gene in canine mammary tumorigenesis and analyzed to compare with other clinicopathological parameters including age, histology, stage, recurrence and death from tumor. Four missense (one case had two missense mutations) and one nonsense mutations were detected in 10 malignant lesions (40%), and two missense and one silent mutations were found in 10 benign mammary tumors (30%). Five of the missense mutations were located in highly conserved domains II, III, IV and V. After a follow-up period, four dogs showed a progression and three of these patients revealed death from mammary carcinoma with p53 mutation. These results demonstrated that the p53 gene mutations might be involved in the development of canine mammary tumors and contribute to the prognostic status in canine mammary carcinomas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Female , Codon, Nonsense/genetics , DNA, Neoplasm/chemistry , Dog Diseases/genetics , Genes, p53/genetics , Mammary Neoplasms, Animal/genetics , Mutation, Missense/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Survival Analysis , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics
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