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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936359

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the clinical efficacy of Huangqi Sijunzi decoction (HQSJZD) for treating cancer-related fatigue (CRF) of spleen and stomach Qi deficiency type after chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer.@*METHODS@#A total of 94 breast cancer patients who developed CRF of spleen and stomach Qi deficiency type after chemotherapy were randomized into chemotherapy group (n=47) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) + chemotherapy group (n=47). The patients in chemotherapy group received the AC or EC regimen and non-drug interventions including psychological counseling, and those in TCM + chemotherapy group received oral administration of HQSJZD in addition to chemotherapy for 21 days as a treatment cycle, after which improvement of fatigue was assessed using Modified Piper Fatigue Scale. The active ingredients and targets of HQSJZD were screened using the TCM System Pharmacology Analysis Platform (TCMSP); the CRF- and breast cancer-related disease targets were retrieved based on data from the GeneCards, NCBI gene and OMIM databases to construct the component-target network and the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. GO functional enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of the target genes were performed to construct the component-disease-pathway-target biological network. The binding strength of the major drug ingredients and CRF key targets were predicted using AutoDock software.@*RESULTS@#The scores for somatic fatigue, emotional fatigue and cognitive fatigue, along with the overall fatigue score, showed more significant improvements in TCM+chemotherapy group than in chemotherapy group (P < 0.001), and the response rate reached 89.4% in the combined treatment group. We identified 250 targets for HQSJZD, 2653 CRF-related genes, 15 329 breast cancer-related genes and 161 prescription-disease intersected targets, from which topological analysis identified 66 potential key targets. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses predicted multiple pathways related with the disease. Molecular docking results suggested that the core ingredients of HQSJZD showed high affinities to the key targets AKT1, CASP3, IL6, JUN and VEGFA, among which AKT1 might be the most important target for HQSJZD to treat CRF.@*CONCLUSION@#HQSJZD can obviously improve CRF symptoms in breast cancer patients possibly by regulating multiple signaling pathways including PI3K-Akt through AKT1.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Female , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Network Pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936297

ABSTRACT

The Chinese Pharmacopoeia began to apply fingerprints (specific chromatogram) to quality control of traditional Chinese medicine in its 2010 edition, and in its 2015 and 2020 editions, new fingerprints (specific chromatogram) were added for improvement of the Pharmacopoeia-based national standards for drugs. This review analyzes the traditional Chinese medicine fingerprints (specific chromatogram) in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010-2020) in terms of the number of varieties listed, application of fingerprints (specific chromatogram), selection of evaluation method, determination method, the selection of extraction or preparation solvents of the test samples. With the expansion of the application of fingerprints (specific chromatogram), the evaluation indicators are constantly improving. The future development of the fingerprints (specific chromatogram) is also discussed in light of the selection of appropriate extraction or preparation solvents to obtain effective substances, which is the basis for the establishment of the fingerprints; multiple fingerprints for one drug based on different functional indications or basic sources, which expands the application of the fingerprints; addition of technical guidelines for traditional Chinese medicine fingerprints to standardize the use of the fingerprints; and the regular revision, update and application expansion of the fingerprints to ensure its essential role in quality control of traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
China , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control , Solvents
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936280

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To identify traditional Chinese drugs that contain active ingredients for treatment of myocardial infarction (MI) and explore their therapeutic mechanisms using network pharmacology and molecular docking technology.@*METHODS@#The TCMSP database was used for screening the traditional Chinese drugs containing active ingredients for treating MI, and the related targets of MI and the candidate drugs were obtained from Genecards, OMIM, PharmGkb and PharmMapper databases. The common target network of the drug targets and disease targets was established using Venny2.1.0 software. GO and KEGG signal pathway enrichment analysis of the common targets was performed, and the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed for the targets. The targets in the PPI network were analyzed to identify the key targets, for which GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses were performed. Molecular docking was performed for the candidate ingredients and the key targets, and a total score ≥6 was used as the criteria for screening the therapeutic ingredients and their docking binding with key targets was verified. A human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) model of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) was used to validate the candidate ingredients and the key therapeutic targets for MI by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Our analysis identified Salvia miltiorrhiza and Dalbergiae odoriferae as the candidate drugs rich in active ingredients for treatment of MI. These ingredients involved 16 key therapeutic targets for MI, which participated in such biological processes as inflammatory response, angiogenesis, energy metabolism and oxidative stress and the pathways including HIF-1, VEGF, and TNF pathways. Sclareol and PTGS2 in Salvia miltiorrhiza and formononetin and KDR in Dalbergiae odoriferae all had high docking total scores. Western blotting showed that at medium and high doses, sclareol significantly inhibited PTGS2 expression and formononetin promoted KDR expressions in the cell models in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Both Salvia miltiorrhiza and Dalbergiae odoriferae have good therapeutic effects on MI. Sclareol in Salvia miltiorrhiza and formononetin in Dalbergiae odoriferae regulate the expressions of KDR and PTGS2, respectively, to modulate the inflammatory response, angiogenesis, oxidative stress and energy metabolism and thus produce myocardial protective effects.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Network Pharmacology
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936279

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the pharmacological mechanism of Bushen Huatan (BSHT) recipe in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).@*METHODS@#The active ingredients in the component drugs of the recipe were screened through TCMSP, and their potential targets were predicted by PubChem and Swiss target prediction. Genecards and OMIM were used to screen the therapeutic targets in the treatment of PCOS. The drug targets and disease targets were corrected using Uniprot, and the intersection targets were obtained. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed using STRING, and the intersection targets were analyzed with CytoNCA to screen the core targets. DAVID was used for GO enrichment analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, and the core components and core targets were verified using AutoDock. Animal experiment was performed to verify the results using a female C57BL/6J mouse model of PCOS, treated daily with 1 mg/kg BSHT recipe granule for 35 days, and the ovarian expressions of the core targets and pathways were detected using Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#We identified a total of 125 potential active ingredients from the 14 component drugs in the recipe, 990 drug targets, 4759 PCOS targets and 434 intersection targets. The core active ingredients of the recipe included β -Sitosterol, kaempferol, and quercetin, whose core targets included PIK3CA, PIK3R1, APP, AKT1, and MAPK1. GO enrichment analysis highlighted such processes as drug reaction, negative regulation of apoptosis, and positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase Ⅱ promoter. The enriched KEGG pathways included primarily the cancer pathway and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. Molecular docking showed that the core active ingredients had strong binding ability with the core targets. In the animal experiment, BSHT recipe was shown to improve the symptoms, down-regulate the expressions of PI3K and Akt proteins and up-regulate MAPK1 expression in the ovary of mice with PCOS.@*CONCLUSION@#The therapeutic mechanism of BSHT recipe for PCOS involves multiple active ingredients, multiple therapeutic targets and multiple pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Female , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Molecular Docking Simulation , Network Pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/drug therapy
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922754

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Numerous studies have demonstrated the close relationship between chronic stress and blood pressure (BP). Hypertensive subjects exhibit exaggerated reactions to stress, especially higher BP. The mechanisms by which stress affects pre-existing hypertension still need to be explored. Danzhi Xiaoyao Powder (DP), a historical traditional Chinese medicine formula, is a promising treatment for BP control in hypertensive patients under stress. The present study investigated the metabolomic disruption caused by chronic stress and the treatment effect and mechanism of DP.@*METHODS@#Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were subjected to chronic restraint stress (CRS) for 4 weeks. BP was measured via the tail-cuff method, and anxiety-like behavior was quantified using the elevated-plus-maze test. Meanwhile, DP was administered intragastrically, and its effects were observed. Global metabolomic analysis was performed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, followed by multivariate statistical analysis to detect differential metabolites and pathways.@*RESULTS@#DP alleviated the CRS-induced increase in BP and anxiety-like behavior. Systematic metabolic differences were found among the three study groups. A total of 29 differential plasma metabolites were identified in both positive- and negative-ion modes. These metabolites were involved in triglyceride metabolism, amino acid (phenylalanine, tryptophan, and glycine) metabolism, and steroid hormone pathways.@*CONCLUSION@#These findings expose the metabolomic disturbances induced by chronic stress in SHRs and suggest an innovative treatment for this disorder.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Powders , Rats , Rats, Inbred SHR
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922576

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the protective effects and underlying mechanisms of Xuebijing Injection (XBJ) on the lung endothelial barrier in hydrogen sulfide (H@*METHODS@#Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to H@*RESULTS@#The morphological investigation showed that XBJ attenuated H@*CONCLUSIONS@#XBJ ameliorated H


Subject(s)
Animals , Claudin-5 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Endothelial Cells , Hydrogen Sulfide , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/drug therapy
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922572

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the mechanisms of Dangua Recipe (DGR) in improving glycolipid metabolism based on transcriptomics.@*METHODS@#Sprague-Dawley rats with normal glucose level were divided into 3 groups according to a random number table, including a conventional diet group (Group A), a DGR group (Group B, high-calorie diet + 20.5 g DGR), and a high-calorie fodder model group (Group C). After 12 weeks of intervention, the liver tissue of rats was taken. Gene sequence and transcriptional analysis were performed to identify the key genes related to glycolipid metabolism reflecting DGR efficacy, and then gene or protein validation of liver tissue were performed. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (Nampt) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) proteins in liver tissues were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, fatty acid synthase (FASN) protein was detected by Western blot, and fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5)-mRNA was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, the functional verification was performed on the diabetic model rats by Nampt blocker (GEN-617) injected in vivo. Hemoglobin A@*RESULTS@#Totally, 257 differential-dominant genes of Group A vs. Group C and 392 differential-dominant genes of Group B vs. Group C were found. Moreover, 11 Gene Ontology molecular function terms and 7 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment pathways owned by both Group A vs. Group C and Group C vs. Group B were confirmed. The liver tissue target validation showed that Nampt, FASN, PEPCK protein and FABP5-mRNA had the same changes consistent with transcriptome. The in vivo functional tests showed that GEN-617 increased body weight, HbA@*CONCLUSION@#Nampt activation was one of the mechanisms about DGR regulating glycolipid metabolism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Glycolipids , Liver , Metabolic Diseases , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Transcriptome/genetics
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922568

ABSTRACT

Due to its complex pathogenesis and lack of effective therapeutic methods, Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become a severe public health problem worldwide. Recent studies have discovered the function of central nervous system lymphatic drainage, which provides a new strategy for the treatment of AD. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been considered as a cure for AD for hundreds of years in China, and its effect on scavenging β-amyloid protein in the brain of AD patients has been confirmed. In this review, the mechanism of central nervous system lymphatic drainage and the regulatory functions of CHM on correlation factors were briefly summarized. The advances in our understanding regarding the treatment of AD via regulating the central lymphatic system with CHM will promote the clinical application of CHM in AD patients and the discovery of new therapeutic drugs.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Brain , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922565

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effect of Tangshen Formula (, TSF), a Chinese herbal medicine, on interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in the colon of diabetic rats.@*METHODS@#Fifty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control (NC, n=14) and high-fat diet (HFD) groups (n=40). After 6 weeks, the rats in the HFD group were injected intraperitoneally streptozotocin once (30 mg/kg). Thirty rats with fasting blood glucose higher than 11.7 mmol/L were randomly divided into diabetes (DM) and TSF groups, 15 rats in each group. Rats in the NC and DM groups were intragastrically administered with saline, and those in the TSF group were given with TSF (2.4 g/kg) once daily for 20 weeks. Expression levels of Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3 in colonic smooth muscle layer were measured by Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. The number of ICC was determined by immunohistochemical staining. Immunofluorescence was used for analyzing the ratio of classically activated macrophages (M1) and alternatively activated macrophages (M2) to total macrophages. Electron microscopy was used to observe the epithelial ultrastructure and junctions.@*RESULTS@#TSF appeared to partially prevented loss of ICC in DM rats (P<0.05). Compared with the NC group, expression levels of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, and TNF-α as well as the ratio of M1 to total macrophages increased in DM rats (all P<0.05), and the ratio of M2 to total macrophages decreased (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with the DM group, TSF decreased the expression levels of abovementioned proteins and restore M2 to total macrophages ratio (P<0.05 or P<0.01). TSF appeared to attenuate the ultrastructural changes of epithelia and improve the tight and desmosome junctions between epithelia reduced in the DM rats.@*CONCLUSION@#Reduced number of ICC in DM rats may be associated with damage of the intestinal barrier. The protective effects of TSF on ICC may be through repair of the epithelial junctions, which attenuates inflammation and inflammation-initiated apoptosis in colon of DM rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Colon , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Male , Rats , Rats, Wistar
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922533

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a worldwide life-threatening pandemic. Lianhua Qingwen is believed to possess the ability to treat or significantly improve the symptoms of COVID-19. These claims make it important to systematically evaluate the effects of using Lianhua Qingwen with Western medicine to treat COVID-19.@*OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the safety and efficacy of combination therapy, employing Lianhua Qingwen with Western medicine, to treat COVID-19, using a meta-analysis approach.@*SEARCH STRATEGY@#China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Database, VIP Database, PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for studies evaluating the effect of Lianhua Qingwen-Western medicine combination therapy in the treatment of COVID-19.@*INCLUSION CRITERIA@#(1) Research object: hospitalized patients meeting the diagnostic criteria of COVID-19 were included. (2) Intervention measures: patients in the treatment group received Lianhua Qingwen treatment combined with Western medicine, while the control group received either Western medicine or Chinese medicine treatment. (3) Research type: randomized controlled trials and retrospective study were included.@*DATA EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS@#Two researchers extracted the first author, the proportion of males and females, age, body temperature, course of treatment, rate of disappearance of main symptoms, duration of fever, adverse reactions, and total effectiveness from the literature. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used as the effect value for count data, and mean difference (MD) and 95% CI were used as the effect value for measurement data.@*RESULTS@#Six articles met the inclusion criteria, including a total of 856 COVID-19 patients. The meta-analysis showed that Lianhua Qingwen combination therapy achieved higher rates of fever reduction (OR = 3.43, 95% CI [1.78, 6.59], P = 0.0002), cough reduction (OR = 3.39, 95% CI [1.85, 6.23], P < 0.0001), recovery from shortness of breath (OR = 10.62, 95% CI [3.71, 30.40], P < 0.0001) and recovery from fatigue (OR = 2.82, 95% CI [1.44, 5.53], P = 0.003), higher total effectiveness rate (OR = 2.51, 95% CI [1.73, 3.64], P < 0.00001), and shorter time to recovery from fever (MD = -1.00, 95% CI [-1.04, 0.96], P < 0.00001), and did not increase the adverse reaction rate (OR = 0.65, 95% CI [0.42, 1.01], P = 0.06), compared to the single medication control.@*CONCLUSION@#The Lianhua Qingwen and Western medicine combination therapy is highly effective for COVID-19 patients and has good clinical safety. As only a small number of studies and patients were included in this review, more high-quality, multicenter, large-sample-size, randomized, double-blind, controlled trials are still needed for verification.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Female , Humans , Male , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929270

ABSTRACT

Andrographis Herba, the aerial part of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees (Acanthaceae), has a wide geographic distribution and has been used for the treatment of fever, cold, inflammation, and other infectious diseases. In markets, sellers and buyers commonly inadvertently confuse with related species. In addition, most Chinese medicinal herbs are subjected to traditional processing procedures, such as steaming and boiling, before they are sold at dispensaries; therefore, it is very difficult to identify Andrographis Herba when it is processed into Chinese medicines. The identification of species and processed medicinal materials is a growing issue in the marketplace. However, conventional methods of identification have limitations, while DNA barcoding has received considerable attention as a new potential means to identify species and processed medicinal materials. In this study, 17 standard reference materials of A. paniculata, 2 standard decoctions, 27 commercial products and two adulterants were collected. Based on the ITS2 sequence, it could successfully identify A. paniculata and adulterants. Moreover, a nucleotide signature consisting of 71 bp was designed, this sequence is highly conserved and specific within A. paniculata while divergent among other species. Then, we used these new primers to amplify the nucleotide signature region from processed materials. In conclusion, the DNA barcoding method developed in the present study for authenticating A. paniculata is rapid and cost-effective. It can be used in the future to guarantee the quality of Andrographis Herba of each regulatory link for clinical use.


Subject(s)
Andrographis , Andrographis paniculata , DNA Primers , Drugs, Chinese Herbal
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929265

ABSTRACT

Cancer is a complex disease associated with multiple gene mutations and malignant phenotypes, and multi-target drugs provide a promising therapy idea for the treatment of cancer. Natural products with abundant chemical structure types and rich pharmacological characteristics could be ideal sources for screening multi-target antineoplastic drugs. In this paper, 50 tumor-related targets were collected by searching the Therapeutic Target Database and Thomson Reuters Integrity database, and a multi-target anti-cancer prediction system based on mt-QSAR models was constructed by using naïve Bayesian and recursive partitioning algorithm for the first time. Through the multi-target anti-cancer prediction system, some dominant fragments that act on multiple tumor-related targets were analyzed, which could be helpful in designing multi-target anti-cancer drugs. Anti-cancer traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and its natural products were collected to form a TCM formula-based natural products library, and the potential targets of the natural products in the library were predicted by multi-target anti-cancer prediction system. As a result, alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were predicted to act on multiple tumor-related targets. The predicted targets of some representative compounds were verified according to literature review and most of the selected natural compounds were found to exert certain anti-cancer activity in vitro biological experiments. In conclusion, the multi-target anti-cancer prediction system is very effective and reliable, and it could be further used for elucidating the functional mechanism of anti-cancer TCM formula and screening for multi-target anti-cancer drugs. The anti-cancer natural compounds found in this paper will lay important information for further study.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Bayes Theorem , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Neoplasms/drug therapy
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929246

ABSTRACT

Three new ursane-type triterpenoids, 3-oxours-12-en-20, 28-olide (1), 3β-hydroxyurs-12-en-20, 28-olide (2) and 3β-hydroxyurs-11, 13(18)-dien-20, 28-olide (3), were isolated from a potent anti-inflammatory and antibacterial fraction of the ethanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, MS data and comparisons with literature reports. Compounds 1-3 exhibited significantly inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated mouse RAW264.7 macrophages, but no antibacterial activity was found at a concentration of 128 μg·mL-1.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Mice , Molecular Structure , Rosmarinus , Triterpenes/chemistry
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929240

ABSTRACT

The infiltration of immune cells into the hepatocellular carcinoma microenvironment is the main reason why hepatocellular carcinoma patients are prone to carcinoma recurrence and the disease are incurable. Notably, the infiltration of Treg cells is the main trigger. Dahuang Zhechong pill (DHZCP) is a traditional Chinese herbal compound successful in the treatment of hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. DHZCP can heal and nourish while slowing the onset of the disease, thereby strengthening the body's immune function. It can localize tumors and ultimately achieve the goal of eliminating tumors. In this study, an orthotopic liver cancer model of mice was used to explore the mechanism of DHZCP enhancing anti-tumor immunity, which showed more Th1 cells in the peripheral blood and spleen after DHZCP treatment, while more IFN-γ was secreted to activate CD8+ T cells and Treg cell production was inhibited, thereby suppressing the growth of HCC. Finally, we also analyzed the potential components of DHZCP from the perspective of modern targets using network pharmacology methods and experimental results.


Subject(s)
Animals , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Mice , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Tumor Microenvironment
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929235

ABSTRACT

Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy of the urinary system. Compound Kushen Injection (CKI) is a Chinese medicinal preparation that has been widely used in the treatment of various types of cancers in the past two decades. However, the pharmacological effect of CKI on bladder cancer is not still completely understood. In the current study, network pharmacology combined with bioinformatics was used to elucidate the therapeutic mechanism and potential targets of CKI in bladder cancer. The mechanism by which CKI was effective against bladder cancer was further verified in vitro using human bladder cancer cell line T24. Network pharmacology analysis identified 35 active compounds and 268 target genes of CKI. Bioinformatics data indicated 5500 differentially expressed genes associated with bladder cancer. Common genes of CKI and bladder cancer suggested that CKI exerted anti-bladder cancer effects by regulating genes such as MMP-9, JUN, EGFR, and ERK1. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that CKI exerted therapeutic effects on bladder cancer by regulating certain biological processes, including cell proliferation, cell migration, and cell apoptosis. In addition, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis implicated pathways related to cancer, bladder cancer, and the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. Consistently, cell experiments indicated that CKI inhibited the proliferation and migration of T24 cells, and induced their apoptosis. Moreover, RT-qPCR and Western blot results demonstrated that CKI was likely to treat bladder cancer by down-regulating the gene and protein expression of MMP-9, JUN, EGFR, and ERK1. CKI inhibited the proliferation and migration, and induced the apoptosis of T24 bladder cancer cells through multiple biological pathways and targets. CKI also exhibited significant effects on the regulation of key genes and proteins associated with bladder cancer. Overall, our findings provide solid evidence and deepen current understanding of the therapeutic effects of CKI for bladder cancer, and further support its clinical use.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Network Pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/genetics
16.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 204-212, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929226

ABSTRACT

In recent years, new preparations of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have been developed, increasing the need for their clinical trials. Using placeboes rather than control drugs is increasingly popular in clinical trials of TCMs, as the therapeutic effects of the tested TCMs can be more properly judged. The basic attributes of TCM placeboes include similarity, safety, applicability and controllability. In particular, it is necessary to have similarities in appearance, color, smell and taste between the tested TCMs and placeboes. This is quite difficult for some TCMs due to their distinctive smell and taste. On the other hand, according to the TCM theory on homology of medicine and food, many foods also have certain bioactivities, potentially further complicating the selection of materials for TCM placeboes. In this review, firstly, studies on the special smell and taste of TCMs were introduced. Then, the preparation quality evaluation processes for TCM placeboes were summarized and discussed, based on the relevant literature published in recent years and the research results from our own lab. This review will facilitate the further research and development of TCM placeboes.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control
17.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 126-134, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929217

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#High on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity could be partially explained by loss-of-function alleles of CYP2C19, the enzyme that converts clopidogrel into its active form. Shexiang Tongxin Dropping Pill (STDP) is a traditional Chinese medicine to treat angina pectoris. STDP has been shown to improve blood flow in patients with slow coronary flow and attenuate atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. However, whether STDP can affect platelet function remains unknown.@*OBJECTIVE@#The purpose of this study is to examine the potential effects of STDP on platelet function in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for unstable angina. The interaction between the effects of STDP with polymorphisms of CYP2C19 was also investigated.@*DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTION@#This was a single-center, randomized controlled trial in patients undergoing elective PCI for unstable angina. Eligible subjects were randomized to receive STDP (210 mg per day) plus dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with clopidogrel and aspirin or DAPT alone.@*MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES@#The primary outcome was platelet function, reflected by adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation and platelet microparticles (PMPs). The secondary outcomes were major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) including recurrent ischemia or myocardial infarction, repeat PCI and cardiac death; blood biomarkers for myocardial injury including creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme (CK-MB) and high-sensitive troponin I (hsTnI); and biomarkers for inflammation including intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and galectin-3.@*RESULTS@#A total of 118 subjects (mean age: [66.8 ± 8.9] years; male: 59.8%) were included into analysis: 58 in the control group and 60 in the STDP group. CYP2C19 genotype distribution was comparable between the 2 groups. In comparison to the control group, the STDP group had significantly lower CK-MB (P < 0.05) but similar hsTnI (P > 0.05) at 24 h after PCI, lower ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MCP-1 and galectin-3 at 3 months (all P < 0.05) but not at 7 days after PCI (P > 0.05). At 3 months, the STDP group had lower PMP number ([42.9 ± 37.3] vs. [67.8 ± 53.1] counts/μL in the control group, P = 0.05). Subgroup analysis showed that STDP increased percentage inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation only in slow metabolizers (66.0% ± 20.8% in STDP group vs. 36.0% ± 28.1% in the control group, P < 0.05), but not in intermediate or fast metabolizers. The rate of MACEs during the 3-month follow-up did not differ between the two groups.@*CONCLUSION@#STDP produced antiplatelet, anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effects. Subgroup analysis indicated that STDP inhibited residual platelet reactivity in slow metabolizers only.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#This study was registered on www.chictr.org.cn: ChiCTR-IPR-16009785.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Diphosphate , Angina, Unstable/chemically induced , Animals , Biomarkers , Clopidogrel , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19/genetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Galectin 3 , Humans , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 , Male , Mice , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/adverse effects , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/genetics
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929066

ABSTRACT

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the main regulator of physiological angiogenesis during embryonic development, bone growth, and reproductive function, and it also participates in a series of pathological changes. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), with a history of more than 2000 years, has been widely used in clinical practice, while the exploration of its mechanisms has only begun. This review summarizes the research of recent years on the influence of TCM on VEGF. It is found that many Chinese medicines and recipes have a regulatory effect on VEGF, indicating that Chinese medicine has broad prospects as a complementary and alternative therapy, providing new treatment ideas for clinical applications and the theoretical basis for research on the mechanisms of TCM.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929059

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer is one of the most malignant tumors and is associated with high mortality rates among women. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) is an extract from the fruits of the traditional Chinese herb, L. barbarum. LBP is a promising anticancer drug, due to its high activity and low toxicity. Although it has anticancer properties, its mechanisms of action have not been fully established. Ferroptosis, which is a novel anticancer strategy, is a cell death mechanism that relies on iron-dependent lipid reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. In this study, human breast cancer cells (Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) and MD Anderson-Metastatic Breast-231 (MDA-MB-231)) were treated with LBP. LBP inhibited their viability and proliferation in association with high levels of ferroptosis. Therefore, we aimed to ascertain whether LBP reduced cell viability through ferroptosis. We found that the structure and function of mitochondria, lipid peroxidation, and expression of solute carrier family 7 member 11 (SLC7A11, also known as xCT, the light-chain subunit of cystine/glutamate antiporter system Xc-) and glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) were altered by LBP. Moreover, the ferroptosis inhibitor, Ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1), rescued LBP-induced ferroptosis-associated events including reduced cell viability and glutathione (GSH) production, accumulation of intracellular free divalent iron ions and malondialdehyde (MDA), and down-regulation of the expression of xCT and GPX4. Erastin (xCT inhibitor) and RSL3 (GPX4 inhibitor) inhibited the expression of xCT and GPX4, respectively, which was lower after the co-treatment of LBP with Erastin and RSL3. These results suggest that LBP effectively prevents breast cancer cell proliferation and promotes ferroptosis via the xCT/GPX4 pathway. Therefore, LBP exhibits novel anticancer properties by triggering ferroptosis, and may be a potential therapeutic option for breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Female , Ferroptosis , Glutathione/metabolism , Humans , Iron/metabolism
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929036

ABSTRACT

With the recent upsurge of studies in the field of microbiology, we have learned more about the complexity of the gastrointestinal microecosystem. More than 30 genera and 1000 species of gastrointestinal microflora have been found. The structure of the normal microflora is relatively stable, and is in an interdependent and restricted dynamic equilibrium with the body. In recent years, studies have shown that there is a potential relationship between gastrointestinal microflora imbalance and gastric cancer (GC) and precancerous lesions. So, restoring the balance of gastrointestinal microflora is of great significance. Moreover, intervention in gastric premalignant condition (GPC), also known as precancerous lesion of gastric cancer (PLGC), has been the focus of current clinical studies. The holistic view of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is consistent with the microecology concept, and oral TCM can play a two-way regulatory role directly with the microflora in the digestive tract, restoring the homeostasis of gastrointestinal microflora to prevent canceration. However, large gaps in knowledge remain to be addressed. This review aims to provide new ideas and a reference for clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Precancerous Conditions/pathology , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology
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