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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011010

ABSTRACT

Polysaccharides, predominantly extracted from traditional Chinese medicinal herbs such as Lycium barbarum, Angelica sinensis, Astragalus membranaceus, Dendrobium officinale, Ganoderma lucidum, and Poria cocos, represent principal bioactive constituents extensively utilized in Chinese medicine. These compounds have demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory capabilities, especially anti-liver injury activities, while exhibiting minimal adverse effects. This review summarized recent studies to elucidate the hepatoprotective efficacy and underlying molecular mechanisms of these herbal polysaccharides. It underscored the role of these polysaccharides in regulating hepatic function, enhancing immunological responses, and improving antioxidant capacities, thus contributing to the attenuation of hepatocyte apoptosis and liver protection. Analyses of molecular pathways in these studies revealed the intricate and indispensable functions of traditional Chinese herbal polysaccharides in liver injury management. Therefore, this review provides a thorough examination of the hepatoprotective attributes and molecular mechanisms of these medicinal polysaccharides, thereby offering valuable insights for the advancement of polysaccharide-based therapeutic research and their potential clinical applications in liver disease treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Liver Diseases/drug therapy , Antioxidants , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970518

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to explore the effects of Huangqin Tang(HQT) on the NLRP3/Caspase-1 signaling pathway in mice with DSS-induced ulcerative colitis(UC). C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into a blank group, a model group(DSS group), and low-, medium-and high-dose HQT groups(HQT-L, HQT-M, and HQT-H), and western medicine mesalazine group(western medicine group). The UC model was induced in mice. Subsequently, the mice in the HQT-L, HQT-M, HQT-H groups, and the western medicine group were given low-, medium-, high-dose HQT, and mesalazine suspension by gavage, respectively, while those in the blank and DSS groups were given an equal volume of distilled water by gavage. After 10 days of administration, the body weight, DAI scores, and colonic histopathological score of mice in each group were determined. The levels of IL-6, IL-10, IL-1β, and TNF-α in serum were determined by ELISA. The mRNA expression of NLRP3 and Caspase-1 in colon tissues was determined by RT-qPCR. The protein expression of NLRP3 and Caspase-1 in colon tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that compared with the blank group, the DSS group showed decreased body weight of mice and increased DAI scores and intestinal histopathological score. Compared with the DSS group, the HQT groups and the western medicine group showed improved DAI scores, especially in the HQT-M, HQT-H, and the western medicine groups(P<0.05). The intestinal histopathological scores of the HQT groups and the western medicine group significantly decreased, especially in the HQT-M, HQT-H, and the western medicine groups(P<0.05). In addition, compared with the blank group, the DSS group showed elevated expression of NLRP3 and Caspase-1 in colon tissues, increased serum levels of IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α, and decreased IL-10 level. Compared with the DSS group, the HQT groups and the western medicine group displayed decreased expression of NLRP3 and Caspase-1 in colon tissues, reduced serum levels of IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α, and increased IL-10 level. The improvement was the most significant in the HQT-H group and the western medicine group(P<0.01). In conclusion, HQT may reduce the expression of NLRP3 and Caspase-1 in colon tissues, reduce the se-rum levels of IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α, and increase the expression of IL-10 by regulating the classic pyroptosis pathway of NLRP3/Caspase-1, thereby improving the symptoms of intestinal injury and inflammatory infiltration of intestinal mucosa in DSS mice to achieve its therapeutic effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Caspase 1/genetics , Colitis, Ulcerative/genetics , Colon , Dextran Sulfate/adverse effects , Disease Models, Animal , Interleukin-10/genetics , Interleukin-6/genetics , Mesalamine/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , Scutellaria baicalensis/chemistry , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970513

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the anti-depression mechanism of Zuojin Pills based on the plasma constituents, network pharmacology, and experimental verification. UHPLC-TOF-MS was used for qualitative analysis of Zuojin Pills-containing serum. Targets of the plasma constituents and the disease were retrieved from PharmMapper and GeneCards. Then the protein-protein interaction(PPI) network was constructed and core targets were screened for GO term enrichment and KEGG pathway enrichment. Cytoscape 3.7.2 was employed construct the "compound-target-pathway" network and the targets and signaling pathways of Zuojin Pills against depression were predicted. CUMS-induced depression mouse model was established to verify the key targets. The results showed that a total of 21 constituents migrating to blood of Zuojin Pills were identified, which were mainly alkaloids. A total of 155 common targets of the constituents and the disease and 67 core targets were screened out. KEGG enrichment and PPI network analysis showed that Zuojin Pills may play a role in the treatment of depression through AMPK/SIRT1, NLRP3, insulin and other targets and pathways. Furthermore, the results of animal experiments showed that Zuojin Pills could significantly improve the depression behaviors of depression, reduce the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in hippocampus and serum, activate AMPK/SIRT1 signaling, and reduce the protein expression of NLRP3. In conclusion, Zuojin Pills may play a role in the treatment of depression by activating AMPK/SIRT1 signaling pathway, and inhibiting NLRP3 activation and neuroinflammation in the hippocampus of mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Network Pharmacology , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Sirtuin 1 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970512

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the mechanism of Qingkailing(QKL) Oral Preparation's heat-clearing, detoxifying, mind-tranquilizing effects based on "component-target-efficacy" network. To be specific, the potential targets of the 23 major components in QKL Oral Preparation were predicted by the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP) and SwissTargetPrediction. The target genes were obtained based on UniProt. OmicsBean and STRING 10 were used for Gene Ontology(GO) term enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment of the targets. Cytoscape 3.8.2 was employed for visualization and construction of "component-target-pathway-pharmacological effect-efficacy" network, followed by molecular docking between the 23 main active components and 15 key targets. Finally, the lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells were adopted to verify the anti-inflammatory effect of six monomer components in QKL Oral Preparation. It was found that the 23 compounds affected 33 key signaling pathways through 236 related targets, such as arachidonic acid metabolism, tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α) signaling pathway, inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels, cAMP signaling pathway, cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, Th17 cell differentiation, interleukin-17(IL-17) signaling pathway, neuroactive ligand-receptor intera-ction, calcium signaling pathway, and GABAergic synapse. They were involved in the anti-inflammation, immune regulation, antipyretic effect, and anti-convulsion of the prescription. The "component-target-pathway-pharmacological effect-efficacy" network of QKL Oral Preparation was constructed. Molecular docking showed that the main active components had high binding affinity to the key targets. In vitro cell experiment indicated that the six components in the prescription(hyodeoxycholic acid, baicalin, chlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid C, epigoitrin, geniposide) can reduce the expression of nitric oxide(NO), TNF-α, and interleukin-6(IL-6) in cell supernatant(P<0.05). Thus, the above six components may be the key pharmacodynamic substances of QKL Oral Preparation. The major components in QKL Oral Prescription, including hyodeoxycholic acid, baicalin, chlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid C, epigoitrin, geniposide, cholic acid, isochlorogenic acid A, and γ-aminobutyric acid, may interfere with multiple biological processes related to inflammation, immune regulation, fever, and convulsion by acting on the key protein targets such as IL-6, TNF, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2(PTGS2), arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase(ALOX5), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1(VCAM1), nitric oxide synthase 2(NOS2), prostaglandin E2 receptor EP2 subtype(PTGER2), gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha(GABRA), gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 1(GABBR1), and 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase(ABAT). This study reveals the effective components and mechanism of QKL Oral Prescription.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Chlorogenic Acid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Interleukin-6 , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970504

ABSTRACT

With the approach of untargeted metabolomics and correlation analysis, this study aimed to explore the mechanism of Aurantii Fructus from Lingnan region in alleviating dryness by analyzing the different effects of raw Aurantii Fructus(RAF) and processed Aurantii Fructus(PAF) on fecal endogenous metabolism in normal rats. Eighteen Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats were randomly divided into a control group(C), an RAF group(10 g·kg~(-1)), and a PAF group(10 g·kg~(-1)). After seven days of administration, the effects of RAF and PAF on dryness-related indexes were compared, including water intake, fecal water content, salivary secretion, the expression of AQP5, VIP, and 5-HT in the submandibular gland, as well as the expression of AQP3, VIP, and 5-HT in the colon. The fecal samples in each group were determined by LC-MS. Multivariate statistical analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for screening the differential metabolites and metabolic pathways in alleviating dryness of RAF. The results indicated that both RAF and PAF showed certain dryness, and the dryness of RAF was more significant. Moreover, PAF could alleviate dryness of RAF to a certain extent by reducing the water intake, fecal water content, and the expression of AQP3, VIP, and 5-HT in the colon and increasing the salivary secretion and the levels of AQP5, VIP, and 5-HT in the submandibular gland. According to the analysis of fecal metabolomics, 99 and 58 metabolites related to dryness were found in RAF and PAF respectively, where 16 of them played an important role in alleviating dryness of RAF. Pathway analysis revealed that the mechanism of PAF in alleviating dryness of RAF was presumably related to the regulation of riboflavin metabolism, purine metabolism, arginine biosynthesis, pyrimidine metabolism, alanine metabolism, aspartate metabolism, glutamate metabolism, and retinol metabolism pathways. This study suggested that PAF might alleviate dryness of RAF by affecting the metabolic levels of the body, which provides a new basis for further clarifying the processing mechanism of PAF.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Serotonin , Metabolomics , Water
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970485

ABSTRACT

Based on network pharmacology, molecular docking, and in vitro experimental verification, this study aims to explore the effect of Albiziae Cortex-Tribuli Fructus combination on HSC-LX2 pyroptosis. Specifically, the targets of Albiziae Cortex, Tribuli Fructus, and hepatic fibrosis were retrieved from an online database and CNKI, and "drug-component-target" network and "drug-component-target-disease" network were constructed. Protein-protein interaction(PPI) network was established based on STRING. Metascape was employed for Gene Ontology(GO) term enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment, and the mechanism of Albiziae Cortex-Tribuli Fructus combination against liver fibrosis was predicted. Molecular docking was used to verify some of the results of network pharmacology, and in vitro experiment was carried out to further verify the above conclusions. According to the results of network pharmacological analysis, 25 active components and 439 targets of Albiziae Cortex-Tribuli Fructus combination and 152 anti-liver fibrosis targets were screened out, including nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain and leucine-rich-repeat-and pyrin-domain-containing 3(NLRP3) and caspase-1. The key targets were involved in 194 KEGG pathways in which the NOD-like receptor signaling pathway topped. The binding common targets were related to pyroptosis. The results of in vitro experiment showed that the pair-containing serum reduced the proliferation rate of HSC-LX2 and the content of reactive oxygen species(ROS), interleukin-18(IL-18), and interleukin-1β(IL-1β)(P<0.05). Western blot and qRT-PCR suggested that the protein and gene expression of NLRP3, caspase-1, α-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA), and gasdermin D(GSDMD) in HSC-LX2 increased after AngⅡ stimulation, and the expression decreased after the intervention of pair-containing serum(P<0.05). In summary, the pair-containing serum can inhibit the classic pathway of pyroptosis, which may be the anti-liver fibrosis mechanism. This is consistent with the predicted results of network pharmacology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Network Pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Caspase 1/genetics , Fibrosis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010979

ABSTRACT

Pien Tze Huang (PTH) was documented as an imperial prescription composed of Notoginseng Radix, Calculus Bovis, Snake Gallbladder, and Musk. It is famous in China and Asian countries due to its excellent effects in heat clearing, detoxifying, swelling reduction, and pain relieving. Modern pharmacological studies demonstrate that PTH shows excellent effects against various inflammatory diseases, liver diseases, and cancers. This review summaries the pharmacological effects, clinical applications, and mainchemical components of PTH. More importantly, its potential quality markers (Q-markers) were then analyzed based on the "five principles" of Q-markers under the guidance of Traditional Chinese Medicine theory, including transfer and traceability, specificity, efficacy, compatibility, and measurability. As a result, ginsenosides Rb1, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Rd, ginsenoside Re, notoginsenoside R1, dencichine, bilirubin, biliverdin, taurocholic acid, and muscone are considered as the Q-markers of PTH. These findings will provide guidance and assistance for the construction of a quality control system for PTH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Neoplasms , Quality Control , China
8.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 561-574, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010964

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Xiaotan Sanjie recipe (XTSJ), a Chinese herbal compound medicine, exerts a significant inhibitory effect on gastric cancer (GC) metastasis. This work investigated the mechanism underlying the XTSJ-mediated inhibition of GC metastasis.@*METHODS@#The effect of XTSJ on GC metastasis and the associated mechanism were investigated in vitro, using GC cell lines, and in vivo, using a GC mouse model, by focusing on the expression of Glc-N-Ac-transferase V (GnT-V; encoded by MGAT5).@*RESULTS@#The migration and invasion ability of GC cells decreased significantly after XTSJ administration, which confirmed the efficacy of XTSJ in treating GC in vitro. XTSJ increased the accumulation of E-cadherin at junctions between GC cells, which was reversed by MGAT5 overexpression. XTSJ administration and MGAT5 knockdown alleviated the structural abnormality of the cell-cell junctions, while MGAT5 overexpression had the opposite effect. MGAT5 knockdown and XTSJ treatment also significantly increased the accumulation of proteins associated with the E-cadherin-mediated adherens junction complex. Furthermore, the expression of MGAT5 was significantly lower in the lungs of BGC-823-MGAT5 + XTSJ mice than in those of BGC-823-MGAT5 + solvent mice, indicating that the ability of gastric tumors to metastasize to the lung was decreased in vivo following XTSJ treatment.@*CONCLUSION@#XTSJ prevented GC metastasis by inhibiting the GnT-V-mediated E-cadherin glycosylation and promoting the E-cadherin accumulation at cell-cell junctions. Please cite this article as: Huang N, He HW, He YY, Gu W, Xu MJ, Liu L. Xiaotan Sanjie recipe, a compound Chinese herbal medicine, inhibits gastric cancer metastasis by regulating GnT-V-mediated E-cadherin glycosylation. J Integr Med. 2023; 21(6): 561-574.


Subject(s)
Male , Mice , Animals , Stomach Neoplasms/genetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Glycosylation , Cell Line, Tumor , Cadherins/metabolism
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981508

ABSTRACT

Prunus mume is an edible and medicinal material, and Mume Fructus is its processed product, which was first recorded in Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica(Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing). It is an effective drug for stopping diarrhea with astringents and promoting fluid production to quiet ascaris. By consulting the ancient herbal works of the past dynasties, modern codes, and other rela-ted literature, this paper sorted out the medicinal evolution of Mume Fructus, examined the ancient efficacy of Mume Fructus and the main indications, and summarized the inclusion of Mume Fructus in national and provincial standards. It is recorded in the ancient herbal works of the past dynasties that Mume Fructus can be processed by various methods such as roasting, stir-frying or micro-frying, stir-frying with charcoal, single steaming, steaming with wine, and steaming after soaking in wine or vinegar, and prepared into pills, powders, and ointments, which are used in the treatment of fatigue, diabetes, malaria, dysentery, ascariasis, and other diseases. Mume Fructus has been included in nine editions of Chinese Pharmacopoeia and 19 provincial and municipal preparation specifications. The processing method of Mume Fructus is determined, namely, clean P. mume should be softened by moistening in water or steaming and pitted. By reviewing the effects of processing on its chemical composition, pharmacological effects, and its modern clinical application, this paper identified the following issues. The ancient application methods of Mume Fructus are diverse but less commonly used in modern times, there is a lack of standardized research on the processing, and the research on the changes caused by the difference in Mume Fructus before and after processing is not deep. Therefore, it is necessary to further investigate the change pattern of its chemical composition before and after processing and its correlation between its medicinal activity to standardize the processing technology and provide a solid basis for the use of Mume Fructus in parts and its quality control.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Materia Medica/analysis , Fruit/chemistry , Quality Control , Prunus/chemistry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981507

ABSTRACT

Radiation-induced intestinal injury(RIII), a common complication of radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies, affects the quality of life and the radiotherapy efficacy for cancer. Currently, the main clinical approaches for the prevention and treatment of RIII include drug therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and surgical treatment. Among these methods, drug therapy is cost-effective. Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) containing a variety of active components demonstrates mild side effects and good efficacy in preventing and treating RIII. Studies have proven that TCM active components, such as flavonoids, terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and alkaloids, can protect the intestine against RIII by inhibiting oxidative stress, regulating the expression of inflammatory cytokines, modulating the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, adjusting intestinal flora, and suppressing cell apoptosis. These mechanisms can help alleviate the symptoms of RIII. The paper aims to provide a theoretical reference for the discovery of new drugs for the prevention and treatment of RIII by reviewing the literature on TCM active components in the last 10 years.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Quality of Life , Intestines , Alkaloids
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981502

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory material basis and molecular mechanism of Artemisia stolonifera based on the analysis of the chemical components in different extracted fractions of A. stolonifera and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in combination with network pharmacology and molecular docking. Thirty-two chemical components were identified from A. stolonifera by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Among them, there were 7, 21 and 22 compounds in water, n-butanol and ethyl acetate fractions, respectively. The antio-xidant capacity of different extracted fractions was evaluated by measuring their scavenging ability against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazyl(DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)(ABTS) free radicals and total antioxidant capacity [ferric reducing antioxidant power(FRAP) assay]. The inflammatory model of RAW264.7 cells was induced by lipopolysaccharide(LPS), and the levels of nitrite oxide(NO), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-6(IL-6) in the supernatant and the mRNA expression of related inflammatory factors in cells were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects. The results revealed that ethyl acetate fraction of A. stolonifera was the optimal antioxidant and anti-inflammatory fraction. By network pharmacology, it was found that flavonoids such as rhamnazin, eupatilin, jaceosidin, luteolin and nepetin could act on key targets such as TNF, serine/threonine protein kinase 1(AKT1), tumor protein p53(TP53), caspase-3(CASP3) and epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR), and regulate the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-protein kinase B(PI3K-AKT) and mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPK) signaling pathways to exert the anti-inflammatory effects. Molecular docking further indicated excellent binding properties between the above core components and core targets. This study preliminarily clarified the anti-inflammatory material basis and mechanism of ethyl acetate fraction of A. stolonifera, providing a basis for the follow-up clinical application of A. stolonifera and drug development.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Artemisia , Network Pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Interleukin-6
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981498

ABSTRACT

According to the traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) theory, Qi is the essential component maintaining life. Mitochondria are the cellular organelles that generate energy. Qi exhibits abundant common characteristics in bioenergetics compared with mitochondria which control the cellular energy through fusion and fission. Studies have proven that the qi-tonifying function of Chinese medicinal plants and their components facilitates mitochondrial fusion, therefore enhancing ATP synthesis. These studies provide a framework for deciphering the pharmacological mechanisms of Qi-tonifying herbs. This article introduces the common source and function shared by Qi and mitochondria and the regulatory effects of herbal remedies on energy from mitochondria dynamics. This review aims to interpret the connotation of tonifying qi in TCM theory based on the modern biomedical theory.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Qi , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Plants, Medicinal
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981489

ABSTRACT

Network pharmacology, molecular docking, and in vivo and in vitro experiments were employed to study the molecular mechanism of Blaps rynchopetera Fairmaire in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC). The components of B. rynchopetera were collected by literature review, and the active components were screened out through the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP). PharmMapper was used to obtain the targets of the active components. The targets of NSCLC were obtained from DrugBank, GeneCards, OMIM, TTD, and PharmGKB. The Venn diagram was drawn to identify the common targets shared by the active components of B. rynchopetera and NSCLC. The "drug component-target" network and protein-protein interaction(PPI) network were constructed by Cytoscape, and the key targets were screened by Centiscape. Gene Ontology(GO) annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) enrichment of the above key targets were performed by DAVID. AutoDock and PyMOL were used for the molecular docking between the key targets and corresponding active components. A total of 31 active components, 72 potential targets, and 11 key targets of B. rynchopetera against NSCLC were obtained. The active components of B. rynchopetera had good binding activity with key targets. Further, the serum containing B. rynchopetera was prepared and used to culture human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The CCK-8 assay was employed to determine the inhibition rates on the growth of A549 cells in blank control group and those exposed to different concentrations of B. rynchopetera-containing serum, cisplatin, and drug combination(B. rynchopetera-containing serum+cisplatin) for different time periods. The cell migration and invasion of A549 cells were detected by cell scratch assay and Transwell assay, respectively. Western blot was employed to determine the expression levels of B-cell lymphoma-2(Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X(Bax), caspase-3, cell division cycle 42(CDC42), proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase SRC, and vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) in A549 cells. C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with Lewis cells and randomly assigned into a model control group, a B. rynchopetera group, a cisplatin group, and a drug combination(B. rynchopetera+cisplatin) group, with 12 mice per group. The body weight and the long diameter(a) and short diameter(b) of the tumor were monitored every other day during treatment, and the tumor volume(mm~3) was calculated as 0.52ab~2. After 14 days of continuous medication, the mice were sacrificed for the collection of tumor, spleen, and thymus, and the tumor inhibition rate and immune organ indexes were calculated. The tissue morphology of tumors was observed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining, and the positive expression of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, CDC42, SRC, and VEGF in the tumor tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that B. rynchopetera and the drug combination regulated the expression levels of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, CDC42, SRC, and VEGF to inhibit the proliferation, migration, and invasion of A549 cells and Lewis cells, thus playing a role in the treatment of NSCLC via multiple ways.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Caspase 3 , Network Pharmacology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Cisplatin , Molecular Docking Simulation , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Cell Proliferation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981404

ABSTRACT

To optimize the extraction process of Chuanxiong Rhizoma-Gastrodiae Rhizoma herb pair by network pharmacology combined with analytic hierarchy process(AHP)-entropy weight method and multi-index orthogonal test. The potential active components and targets of Chuanxiong Rhizoma-Gastrodiae Rhizoma were screened by network pharmacology and molecular docking, and the process evaluation indexes were determined with reference to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition). The core components of Chuanxiong Rhizoma-Gastrodiae Rhizoma were determined as gastrodin, parishin B, parishin C, parishin E, ferulic acid, and 3-butylphthalide. With the extraction volume of each indicator and yield of dry extract as comprehensive evaluation indicators, the extraction conditions were optimized by the AHP-entropy weight method and orthogonal test as the ethanol volume of 50%, the solid-liquid ratio of 1∶8(g·mL~(-1)), extraction for three times, and 1.5 h each time. Through network pharmacology and molecular docking, the process evaluation index was determined, and the optimized process was stable and reproducible for the extraction of Chuanxiong Rhizoma-Gastrodiae Rhizoma herb pair, which could provide reference for in-depth research.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Network Pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Rhizome
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981384

ABSTRACT

Via network pharmacology, molecular docking, and cellular experiment, this study explored and validated the potential molecular mechanism of ginsenoside Rg_1(Rg_1) against radiation enteritis. Targets of Rg_1 and radiation enteritis were retrieved from BATMAN-TCM, SwissTargetPrediction, and GeneCards. Cytoscape 3.7.2 and STRING were employed for the construction of protein-protein interaction(PPI) network for the common targets, and screening of core targets. DAVID was used for Gene Ontology(GO) term and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment to predict the possible mechanism, followed by molecular docking of Rg_1 with core targets and cellular experiment. For the cellular experiment, ~(60)Co-γ irradiation was performed for mo-deling of IEC-6 cells, which were then treated with Rg_1, protein kinase B(AKT) inhibitor LY294002, and other drugs to verify the effect and mechanism of Rg_1. The results showed that 29 potential targets of Rg_1, 4 941 disease targets, and 25 common targets were screened out. According to the PPI network, the core targets were AKT1, vascular endothelial growth factor A(VEGFA), heat shock protein 90 alpha family class A member 1(HSP90AA1), Bcl-2-like protein 1(BCL2L1), estrogen receptor 1(ESR1), etc. The common targets were mainly involved in the GO terms such as positive regulation of RNA polymerase Ⅱ promoter transcription, signal transduction, positive regulation of cell proliferation, and other biological processes. The top 10 KEGG pathways included phosphoinositide 3-kinase(PI3K)/AKT pathway, RAS pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPK) pathway, Ras-proximate-1(RAP1) pathway, and calcium pathway, etc. Molecular docking showed that Rg_1 had high binding affinity to AKT1, VEGFA, HSP90AA1, and other core targets. Cellular experiment indicated that Rg_1 can effectively improve cell viability and survival, decrease apoptosis after irradiation, promote the expression of AKT1 and B-cell lymphoma-extra large(BCL-XL), and inhibit the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bcl-2-associated X protein(BAX). In conclusion, through network pharmacology, molecular docking, and cellular experiment, this study verified the ability of Rg_1 to reduce radiation enteritis injury. The mechanism was that it regulated PI3K/AKT pathway, thereby suppressing apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/genetics , Network Pharmacology , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Molecular Docking Simulation , Radiation Injuries , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981378

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of various adjuvant rice on the quality of rice-steamed Rehmanniae Radix(RSRR) with Japonica rice, millet, yellow rice, black rice, and glutinous rice as raw materials, and analyze the anti-osteoporosis effect of RSRR by the optimal adjuvant rice. On the basis of the established UPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of the content of catalpol and rehmannioside D, comprehensive weighted scoring method was employed to evaluate the effect of various auxiliary rice on the quality of RSRR with the content of catalpol and rehmannioside D, character score, and taste score as indicators to optimize adjuvant rice. The osteoporosis model was induced by ovariectomy in rats. SD rats were randomly divided into a sham operation group, a model group, a positive control group, and low-dose and high-dose groups of Rehmanniae Radix, RSRR, steamed Rehmanniae Radix, and Epimedii Folium-RSRR. After treatment for 12 weeks, body weight, bone calcium content, and bone mineral density were mea-sured. The results showed that Japonica rice was selected as the optimal adjuvant due to the highest comprehensive score of RSRR steamed by Japonica rice. Rehmanniae Radix, RSRR, steamed Rehmanniae Radix, as well as Epimedii Folium-RSRR, could improve osteoporosis by increasing bone calcium content and bone mineral density. RSRR was superior to Rehmanniae Radix in improving osteo-porosis. However, there was no significant difference between RSRR and steamed Rehmanniae Radix. This study confirmed that Japo-nica rice was the optimal adjuvant rice of RSRR and verified the anti-osteoporosis effect of RSRR, which laid a foundation for further research on the pharmacological action and mechanism of RSRR.


Subject(s)
Female , Rats , Animals , Oryza , Chromatography, Liquid , Calcium , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Osteoporosis/drug therapy , Rehmannia , Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981377

ABSTRACT

Ulcerative colitis(UC) is a recurrent, intractable inflammatory bowel disease. Coptidis Rhizoma and Bovis Calculus, serving as heat-clearing and toxin-removing drugs, have long been used in the treatment of UC. Berberine(BBR) and ursodeoxycholic acid(UDCA), the main active components of Coptidis Rhizoma and Bovis Calculus, respectively, were employed to obtain UDCA-BBR supramolecular nanoparticles by stimulated co-decocting process for enhancing the therapeutic effect on UC. As revealed by the characterization of supramolecular nanoparticles by field emission scanning electron microscopy(FE-SEM) and dynamic light scattering(DLS), the supramolecular nanoparticles were tetrahedral nanoparticles with an average particle size of 180 nm. The molecular structure was described by ultraviolet spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and hydrogen-nuclear magnetic resonance(H-NMR) spectroscopy. The results showed that the formation of the supramolecular nano-particle was attributed to the mutual electrostatic attraction and hydrophobic interaction between BBR and UDCA. Additionally, supramolecular nanoparticles were also characterized by sustained release and pH sensitivity. The acute UC model was induced by dextran sulfate sodium(DSS) in mice. It was found that supramolecular nanoparticles could effectively improve body mass reduction and colon shortening in mice with UC(P<0.001) and decrease disease activity index(DAI)(P<0.01). There were statistically significant differences between the supramolecular nanoparticles group and the mechanical mixture group(P<0.001, P<0.05). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to detect the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and interleukin-6(IL-6), and the results showed that supramolecular nanoparticles could reduce serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels(P<0.001) and exhibited an obvious difference with the mechanical mixture group(P<0.01, P<0.05). Flow cytometry indicated that supramolecular nanoparticles could reduce the recruitment of neutrophils in the lamina propria of the colon(P<0.05), which was significantly different from the mechanical mixture group(P<0.05). These findings suggested that as compared with the mechanical mixture, the supramolecular nanoparticles could effectively improve the symptoms of acute UC in mice. The study provides a new research idea for the poor absorption of small molecules and the unsatisfactory therapeutic effect of traditional Chinese medicine and lays a foundation for the research on the nano-drug delivery system of traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Ursodeoxycholic Acid/adverse effects , Berberine/pharmacology , Interleukin-6 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Colon , Nanoparticles , Dextran Sulfate/adverse effects , Disease Models, Animal , Colitis/chemically induced
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981363

ABSTRACT

Xiao Chaihu Decoction combined with Maxing Shigan Decoction is a classic herbal formula. All of them are derived from Treatise on Cold Damage(Shang Han Lun) by ZHANG Zhong-jing. This combination has the effects of harmonizing lesser yang, relieving exterior syndrome, clearing lung heat, and relieving panting. It is mainly used for treating the disease involving the triple-Yang combination of diseases and accumulation of pathogenic heat in the lung. Xiao Chaihu Decoction combined with Maxing Shigan Decoction is a classic combination for the treatment of exogenous diseases involving the triple-Yang combination. They are commonly used in exogenous diseases, especially in the north of China. This combination is also the main treatment strategy for coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) accompanied by fever and cough. Maxing Shigan Decoction is a classical herbal formula for treating the syndrome of phlegm-heat obstructing the lung. "Dyspnea after sweating" suggests the accumulation of pathogenic heat in the lung. Patients with mild symptoms may develop cough and asthma along with forehead sweating, and those in critical severe may develop whole-body sweating, especially the front chest. Modern medicine believes that the above situation is related to lung infection. "Mild fever" refers to syndromes rather than pathogenesis. It does not mean that the heat syndrome is not heavy, instead, it suggests that severe heat and inflammation have occurred. The indications of Xiao Chaihu Decoction combined with Maxing Shigan Decoction are as follows.(1) In terms of diseases, it is suitable for the treatment of viral pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, lobar pneumonia, mycoplasma pneumonia, COVID-19 infection, measles with pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome(SARS), avian influenza, H1N1 influenza, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with acute exacerbation, pertussis, and other influenza and pneumonia.(2) In terms of syndromes, it can be used for the syndromes of bitter mouth, dry pharynx, vertigo, loss of appetite, vexation, vomiting, and fullness and discomfort in the chest and hypochondrium. It can also be used to treat alternate attacks of chill and fever and different degrees of fever, as well as chest tightness, cough, asthma, expectoration, dry mouth, wanting cold drinks, feeling agitated, sweating, yellow urine, dry stool, red tongue, yellow or white fur, and floating, smooth, and powerful pulse, especially the right wrist pulse.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Cough , Syndrome , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Lung , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Asthma , Critical Care , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981362

ABSTRACT

Zhenwu Decoction is recorded in Treatise on Febrile Diseases by an outstanding physician ZHANG Zhong-jing in the Han dynasty. With effect of warming yang, transforming Qi, and promoting urination, Zhenwu Decoction is mainly used to treat edema due to yang deficiency. The studies of the severe and critical cases and the pathophysiological mechanisms have demonstrated that the record of Zhenwu Decoction in Treatise on Febrile Diseases describes the clinical symptoms and therapeutic regimen of acute heart failure. The syndrome treated by this formula may be related to the misdiagnosis and wrong treatment. Due to the difficult distinguishing between cardiogenic dyspnea and pulmonary dyspnea, high doses of Ephedrae Herba may be misused for inducing sweating, which may finally lead to the acute aggravation of heart failure, electrolyte disorder, and pulmonary infection. The syndrome treated by Zhenwu Decoction can illustrate the lack of experience of ancient physicians in treating acute heart failure. The description of "trembling and shivering" may be the clinical manifestation of heart failure, which is an upgraded version of "trembling and shaking" treated by Linggui Zhugan Decoction.(1)In terms of diseases, Zhenwu Decoction is suitable for the treatment of acute or chronic heart failure, cardiorenal syndrome, and diuretic resistance. The decoction is especially suitable for treating whole heart failure, acute heart failure, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, and heart failure with the syndrome of sold and dampness. In addition, it can be used to treat both type Ⅱ and type Ⅳ cardiorenal syndrome.(2)In terms of symptoms, Zhenwu Decoction can be used for treating chest tightness, palpitations, lower limb edema, difficult urination or increased urine output, fear of cold, pale fat tongue with teeth marks, white and slippery tongue fur, and deep or slow pulse.(3)In terms of the pharmacological mechanism, Zhenwu Decoction treats heart failure following the principle of promoting urination, expanding blood vessels, and invigorating heart in modern medicine. Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praparata is the sovereign herb in the formula, with the recommended dosage of 30-60 g. However, arrhythmia may be caused by high doses of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praparata, which should be used with concern. In addition to Zhenwu Decoction, Shenqi Pills, Renshen Decoction, Wuling Powder, and Fangji Huangqi Decoction with the effect of invigorating spleen, replenishing Qi, warming Yang, and promoting urination can be used in the recovery stage. The therapy of reinforcing Yang was the last choice for critical cases due to the lack of medical conditions, unclear clinical diagnosis in history, which should be treated objectively now.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardio-Renal Syndrome/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/drug therapy , Critical Care
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981353

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to explore the main active components and underlying mechanisms of Marsdenia tenacissima in the treatment of ovarian cancer(OC) through network pharmacology, molecular docking, and in vitro cell experiments. The active components of M. tenacissima were obtained from the literature search, and their potential targets were obtained from SwissTargetPrediction. The OC-related targets were retrieved from Therapeutic Target Database(TTD), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man(OMIM), GeneCards, and PharmGKB. The common targets of the drug and the disease were screened out by Venn diagram. Cytoscape was used to construct an "active component-target-disease" network, and the core components were screened out according to the node degree. The protein-protein interaction(PPI) network of the common targets was constructed by STRING and Cytoscape, and the core targets were screened out according to the node degree. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses of potential therapeutic targets were carried out with DAVID database. Molecular docking was used to determine the binding activity of some active components to key targets by AutoDock. Finally, the anti-OC activity of M. tenacissima extract was verified based on SKOV3 cells in vitro. The PI3K/AKT signaling pathway was selected for in vitro experimental verification according to the results of GO function and KEGG pathway analyses. Network pharmacology results showed that 39 active components, such as kaempferol, 11α-O-benzoyl-12β-O-acetyltenacigenin B, and drevogenin Q, were screened out, involving 25 core targets such as AKT1, VEGFA, and EGFR, and the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway was the main pathway of target protein enrichment. The results of molecular docking also showed that the top ten core components showed good binding affinity to the top ten core targets. The results of in vitro experiments showed that M. tenacissima extract could significantly inhibit the proliferation of OC cells, induce apoptosis of OC cells through the mitochondrial pathway, and down-regulate the expression of proteins related to the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. This study shows that M. tenacissima has the characteristics of multi-component, multi-target, and multi-pathway synergistic effect in the treatment of OC, which provides a theoretical basis for in-depth research on the material basis, mechanism, and clinical application.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Marsdenia , Molecular Docking Simulation , Network Pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Ovarian Neoplasms/genetics , Databases, Genetic , Plant Extracts , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology
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