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1.
Rev. Salusvita (Online) ; 40(1): 11-26, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411748

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A atual transição demográfica e epidemiológica no Brasil, refletida no envelhecimento populacional, apresenta maior prevalência de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis (DCNT) como as doenças cardiovasculares (DC), neoplasias, distúrbios metabólicos, doenças respiratórias crônicas e insuficiência renal crônica. Essas podem ser decorrentes de fatores risco modificáveis como dislipidemia, hipertensão arterial, diabetes, tabagismo, anemia, sedentarismo, estresse, obesidade e alcoolismo. A insuficiência renal no estágio crônico ocorre devido à perda lenta, progressiva e irreversível da função renal e tem as doenças cardiovasculares como principal causa de morbimortalidade ocasionada por ateromas decorrentes de dislipidemias. Objetivos: Embasados na dislipidemia como fator de risco modificável para as doenças cardiovasculares e na suscetibilidade do desenvolvimento da mesma por pacientes renais crônicos, o objetivo deste estudo foi analisar se o tratamento por hemodiálise com acompanhamento médico é eficiente para minimizar ou evitar a dislipidemia nesses pacientes. Metodologia: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo longitudinal realizado por meio da análise de dados laboratoriais dos exames relacionados ao perfil lipídico: Colesterol Total, HDL, LDL e Triglicérides de novembro de 2018 a junho de 2019. Resultados: Foram acompanhados e analisados 20 pacientes, sendo 50% idosos com idade entre 60 e 69 anos e com doença de base prévia como hipertensão arterial (45%), hipertensão associada à diabetes (25,0%) e diabetes isolada (10,0%). Para análise da presença de dislipidemia, os exames laboratoriais que mais apresentaram alterações foram o HDL com resultado abaixo do desejado (<40,0mg/dl) e o triglicérides com resultados considerados acima da normalidade (> 150,0 mg/dl ) com risco para DC. Do total de pacientes, apenas 1 (5,0%) do sexo feminino apresentou todos os resultados do perfil lipídico alterados durante todo o estudo mesmo fazendo uso do medicamento estatina, enquanto a maioria (95%) dos pacientes obteve resultados desejáveis. Ao analisar conjuntamente todos os resultados do perfil lipídico, observou-se que apenas um paciente do sexo masculino apresentou alteração em todo período de estudo com Triglicerídeos e HDL indesejáveis. No sexo feminino, destaca-se a paciente número 14 que apresentou alterações em todos os exames durante todo o período de análise, com Colesterol Total, Triglicerídeos e LDL-colesterol com valores indesejáveis acima da normalidade e HDL-colesterol indesejável com valor abaixo do desejável. O exame que mais apresentou alteração com resultados indesejáveis foi o de Triglicerídeos em 11 (55,0%) pacientes, principalmente no sexo feminino, com subsequente LDL acima da normalidade e HDL reduzidos, sendo considerado importante fator de risco cardiovascular pela formação de ateromas. Conclusão: Para os pacientes com IRC, é de extrema importância o acompanhamento médico e o tratamento por hemodiálise realizado em sua maioria pelo SUS no Brasil, demonstrado neste estudo como método eficaz para controle e prevenção das dislipidemias minimizando o risco para as doenças cardiovasculares na população vulnerável.


Introduction: The current demographic and epidemiological transition in Brazil, reflected in the aging population, has a higher prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular diseases (CD), neoplasms, metabolic disorders, chronic respiratory diseases, and chronic renal failure (CRF). These diseases may be due to mod-ifiable risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, diabetes, smoking, anemia, physical inactivity, stress, obesity, and alcoholism. Chronic renal failure occurs due to the slow, progressive, and irreversible loss of renal function, and cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of morbidity and mortality caused by atheroma resulting from dyslipidemia. Objectives: Based on dyslipidemia as a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and on the susceptibility of its development by chronic renal patients, the objective of this study was to analyze whether the hemodialysis treatment and the medical monitoring is efficient to minimize or avoid dyslipidemia in these patients. Methodology: This is a longi-tudinal descriptive study carried out through an analysis of laboratory data of tests related to the lipid profile: Total Cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and Triglycerides from November 2018 to June 2019. Results: Twenty patients were followed up and had their data analyzed, 50% were aged between 60 and 69 years old and had a previous underlying disease, such as arterial hypertension (45%), hypertension associated with diabetes (25.0%), and isolated diabetes (10.0%). The analysis of the presence of dyslipidemia showed the laboratory tests that had the most changes were HDL with a result under the desirable (<40.0mg / dl) and triglycerides with results considered above normal (> 150.0 mg / dl) with risk for DC. Only 1 female subject (5.0%) presented all the results of the lipid profile altered throughout the study, even using the statin drug, while the majority (95%) of the patients had desirable results. The analysis of all the results of the lipid profile showed that only one male subject presented changes in the entire study period with undesirable triglycerides and HDL, while in the female sex, patient number 14 presented changes in all tests throughout the anal-ysis period, with Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, and LDL-cholesterol with undesirable values above normal and undesirable HDL-cholesterol with values under the desirable. The triglycerides test showed the most alteration with undesirable results in 11 (55.0%) subjects, mainly female, with subsequent LDL above normal and reduced HDL, considered an important cardiovascular risk factor due to the formation of atheromas. Conclusion: For patients with CRF, medical follow-up and the hemodialysis treatment performed by the Brazilian Health System is extremely important. This study demonstrated it is as an effective method for the control and prevention of dyslipidemias, minimizing the risk for cardiovascular diseases in this vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Renal Dialysis , Dyslipidemias/therapy
2.
Femina ; 49(9): 525-529, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342321

ABSTRACT

A dislipidemia é um distúrbio metabólico frequente na síndrome dos ovários policísticos (SOP) e, possivelmente, contribui para um aumento do risco de doenças cardiovasculares. A avaliação do risco cardiovascular de cada paciente define as metas lipídicas a serem atingidas por meio da terapêutica recomendada para a correção da dislipidemia. Alimentação saudável, perda de peso e implementação de um programa regular de atividade física contribuem para a melhora do perfil lipídico. A terapia farmacológica deve ser reservada para as pacientes que não atingiram as metas lipídicas após modificações na dieta e regularização da atividade física ou nas pacientes com alto risco cardiometabólico.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome , Dyslipidemias/diagnosis , Dyslipidemias/diet therapy , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Dyslipidemias/therapy , Exercise , Heart Disease Risk Factors
3.
Salud pública Méx ; 62(2): 137-146, mar.-abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366013

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To describe in a national sample 1) the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of dyslipidemias 2) the prevalence of dyslipidemias through previous national surveys. Materials and methods: We analyzed data of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012, a representative cross-sectional study. Serum samples of 9 566 adults ≥20 years old with fasting ≥8 hours were analyzed for lipid fractions. Age-adjusted prevalences were calculated, by sociodemographic variables. Prevalence of awareness, treatment and control was estimated. A description of the dyslipidemia prevalence reported in previous surveys is reported. Results: Hypoalphalipoproteinemia and elevated LDL-C are the most prevalent dyslipidemias in Mexican adults. One in four adults had hypercholesterolemia at the moment of the interview without previous diagnosis. Awareness, treatment and control of dyslipidemia were 12.6, 3.7 and 3.1%, respectively. Conclusions: Dyslipidemias are the most prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in Mexico. Public policies to increase awareness, access to therapy and sustained control are urgently needed.


Resumen: Objetivo: Describir en una muestra nacional 1) la prevalencia de dislipidemias, su diagnóstico previo, tratamiento y control, y 2) la prevalencia de dislipidemias en las encuestas previas. Material y métodos: Se analizaron datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2012 con representatividad nacional. Se analizaron fracciones de lípidos séricos de 9 566 adultos ≥20 años con ayuno ≥8 horas. Se estimaron las prevalencias de dislipidemias, diagnóstico previo (DP), tratamiento y control, ajustadas por edad. Se presenta un análisis comparativo de las prevalencias de dislipidemias reportadas previamente. Resultados: Las dislipidemias más prevalentes en adultos mexicanos fueron hipoalfalipoproteinemia y LDL-C elevado. Uno de cada cuatro adultos tenía hipercolesterolemia al momento de la entrevista, sin DP. El DP, tratamiento y control de dislipidemias fue de 12.6, 3.7 y 3.1%, respectivamente. Conclusiones: Las dislipidemias son el factor de riesgo para enfermedades cardiovasculares más prevalente en adultos mexicanos. Se necesitan políticas públicas para incrementar el diagnóstico, acceso a terapia y control.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Young Adult , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Awareness , Prevalence , Dyslipidemias/therapy , Lipids/blood , Mexico/epidemiology
4.
Clinics ; 75: e1183, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089604

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the acute effects of a session of water-based aerobic exercise on the blood lipid levels of women with dyslipidemia and to compare these results according to their training status. METHOD: Fourteen premenopausal women with dyslipidemia, aged 40-50 years, participated in two water-based aerobic exercise sessions, the first when they were generally sedentary and the second after they were trained with a water-based aerobic training program for 12 weeks. Both experimental sessions were performed using the same protocol, lasted 45 min, and incorporated an interval method, alternating 3 min at a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of 13 and 2 min at an RPE of 9. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and lipoprotein lipase enzyme (LPL) were obtained through venous blood collection before and immediately after each session. A generalized estimating equation method and Bonferroni tests were conducted (with time and training status as factors) for statistical analyses. RESULTS: At enrollment, the mean age of the participants was 46.57 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 44.81−48.34). The statistical analyses showed a significant time effect for all variables (TC: p=0.008; TG: p=0.012; HDL: p<0.001; LPL: p<0.001) except for LDL (p=0.307). However, the training status effect was not significant for any variable (TC: p=0.527; TG: p=0.899; HDL: p=0.938; LDL: p=0.522; LPL: p=0.737). These results indicate that the TC and TG levels reduced and the HDL and LPL concentrations increased from pre- to post-session in similar magnitudes in both sedentary and trained women. CONCLUSIONS: A single water-based aerobic exercise session is sufficient and effective to beneficially modify the lipid profile of women with dyslipidemia, regardless of their training status.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Aged , Water , Exercise/physiology , Dyslipidemias/therapy , Physical Exertion/physiology , Lipids/blood , Triglycerides/blood , Dyslipidemias/blood , Lipoprotein Lipase/metabolism , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood
5.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 29(2): 148-154, abr.-jun. 2019. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1009485

ABSTRACT

As doenças cardiovasculares continuam sendo a principal causa de morte no Brasil desde o final da década de 1960, a despeito da tendência de queda observada nos últimos anos. A mudança de estilo de vida relacionada à urbanização e globalização, com alta ingestão calórica e menor gasto energético, o rápido aumento da população idosa devido à maior expectativa de vida levaram à maior prevalência de obesidade e dislipidemias e, consequentemente, doenças cardiovasculares e metabólicas. Pesquisas de base populacional, estudos de coorte e de caso e de controle apontam para a importância do crescimento dos fatores de risco e diferenças regionais indicam que as políticas públicas e o atendimento médico devem priorizar intervenções de saúde tendo como objetivo a prevenção e controle dos fatores de risco mais prevalentes em nosso meio. A abordagem terapêutica da obesidade deve incluir não apenas a redução isolada do peso, e sim, atrelada à melhora metabólica ampla que se associe à diminuição do risco de complicações cardiovasculares. De um modo geral, a perda de peso é mais frequentemente alcançada ao longo dos primeiros meses ou do primeiro ano de exposição aos fármacos e embora alguns sejam mais efetivos, eventos adversos são frequentes, limitando o tratamento a longo prazo. O grande avanço e a maior segurança nos últimos anos vieram com o uso de medicamentos antiiperglicemiantes, como análogos de GLP-1, permitindo o uso a longo prazo com manutenção de resultados e adicionando benefícios cardiovasculares. A abordagem terapêutica das dislipidemias no paciente obeso é imperativa para a evolução desse perfil de pacientes, nos quais múltiplos fatores fisiológicos, bioquímicos, metabólicos e clínicos, estão interconectados e diretamente relacionados com aumentos substanciais do risco de diabetes, de doença aterosclerótica cardiovascular e mortalidade por todas as causas


Cardiovascular disease has been the no. 1 cause of death in Brazil since the late 1960s, despite the downtrend observed in recent years. Lifestyle changes related to urbanization and globalization, high calorie intake and lower energy expenditure, combined with a rapidly aging population due to increased life expectancy, have led to a greater prevalence of obesity and dyslipidemia, and consequently, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Population-based surveys, cohort and case-control studies underline the importance of the growth of risk factors, and regional differences indicate that public policies and medical care must prioritize health interventions in order to prevent and control the most prevalent risk factors in our country. The therapeutic approach to obesity must include not only weight reduction alone, but also in combination with comprehensive metabolic improvement, which is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular complications. In general, weight loss is more frequently achieved in the first few months or first year of exposure to medications, and although some drugs are more effective, adverse events are common, limiting treatment options to long-term therapy. The major advances and greater safety seen in recent years were achieved with the use of anti-hyperglycemic agents such as GLP-1 analogues, enabling long-term use with maintenance of results and adding cardiovascular benefits. The therapeutic approach to dyslipidemia in obese patients is imperative for the progress of this patient population, in which multiple physiological, biochemical, metabolic and clinical factors are interlinked and directly related to substantial increases in the risk of diabetes, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Diet , Dyslipidemias/therapy , Obesity/prevention & control , Obesity/therapy , Time Factors , Brazil , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Body Mass Index , Epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Atherosclerosis , Overweight/complications , Life Style
6.
Motriz (Online) ; 25(1): e101982, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002699

ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of the present study was to verify the agreement between the ventilatory method (VT) and the alternative method of heart rate deflection point (HRDP) in determining the anaerobic threshold (AT) during incremental treadmill test in dyslipidaemic patients. Methods: Twenty-seven dyslipidaemic patients (61.50 ± 10.46 years) performed an incremental treadmill test, in which the AT was determined using both methods. Bland-Altman statistics was adopted in order to verify the agreement between the methods. Results: Agreement in AT determination between the VT and HRDP methods was observed (p < 0.05) for heart rate (138.00 ± 23.80 and 136.26 ± 22.18 bpm, respectively), oxygen uptake (31.00 ± 10.33 and 31.00 ± 11.17 ml.kg−1.min−1), and treadmill velocity (7.67 ± 1.71 km.h-1and 8.00 ± 1.75 km.h-1). Conclusion: Our results suggest that the HRDP method can be adopted for the determination of the AT in dyslipidaemic patients, showing agreement with the VT method.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Anaerobic Threshold/physiology , Dyslipidemias/therapy , Heart Rate/physiology , Exercise/physiology
9.
Acta méd. (Porto Alegre) ; 39(1): 65-71, 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-910229

ABSTRACT

Novos fármacos para o tratamento da hipercolesterolemia foram desenvolvidos, que poderão ser incorporadas nas diretrizes, resultantes de estudos clínicos robustos que demonstraram redução de desfechos cardiovasculares adicionais aos resultados obtidos com a otimização terapêutica disponível com as estatinas. O objetivo deste artigo é atualizar o conhecimento para o tratamento das dislipidemias baseado nas melhores evidências e as novas opções terapêuticas para reduzir o risco de eventos cardiovasculares em pacientes com dislipidemia refratária à otimização do tratamento atual.


New drugs for dyslipidemia treatment have been developed in solid clinical studies, which demonstrated an additional reduction of cardiovascular outcomes compared to therapeutic treatment with statins, and might be incorporated in new treatment guidelines. The aim of this article is to update the knowledge for the treatment of dyslipidemias based on the best evidences and the new therapeutic options incorporated to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with dyslipidemia refractory to treatment optimization.


Subject(s)
Dyslipidemias/therapy , Hypercholesterolemia/drug therapy , Cholesterol, LDL , Cardiovascular Diseases
10.
Faludi, André Arpad; Izar, Maria Cristina de Oliveira; Saraiva, José Francisco Kerr; Chacra, Ana Paula Marte; Bianco, Henrique Tria; Afiune Neto, Abrahão; Bertolami, Adriana; Pereira, Alexandre C; Lottenberg, Ana Maria; Sposito, Andrei C; Chagas, Antonio Carlos Palandri; Casella Filho, Antonio; Simão, Antônio Felipe; Alencar Filho, Aristóteles Comte de; Caramelli, Bruno; Magalhães, Carlos Costa; Negrão, Carlos Eduardo; Ferreira, Carlos Eduardo dos Santos; Scherr, Carlos; Feio, Claudine Maria Alves; Kovacs, Cristiane; Araújo, Daniel Branco de; Magnoni, Daniel; Calderaro, Daniela; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Mello Junior, Edgard Pessoa de; Alexandre, Elizabeth Regina Giunco; Sato, Emília Inoue; Moriguchi, Emilio Hideyuki; Rached, Fabiana Hanna; Santos, Fábio César dos; Cesena, Fernando Henpin Yue; Fonseca, Francisco Antonio Helfenstein; Fonseca, Henrique Andrade Rodrigues da; Xavier, Hermes Toros; Mota, Isabela Cardoso Pimentel; Giuliano, Isabela de Carlos Back; Issa, Jaqueline Scholz; Diament, Jayme; Pesquero, João Bosco; Santos, José Ernesto dos; Faria Neto, José Rocha; Melo Filho, José Xavier de; Kato, Juliana Tieko; Torres, Kerginaldo Paulo; Bertolami, Marcelo Chiara; Assad, Marcelo Heitor Vieira; Miname, Márcio Hiroshi; Scartezini, Marileia; Forti, Neusa Assumpta; Coelho, Otávio Rizzi; Maranhão, Raul Cavalcante; Santos Filho, Raul Dias dos; Alves, Renato Jorge; Cassani, Roberta Lara; Betti, Roberto Tadeu Barcellos; Carvalho, Tales de; Martinez, Tânia Leme da Rocha; Giraldez, Viviane Zorzanelli Rocha; Salgado Filho, Wilson.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(2,supl.1): 1-76, ago. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-887919
11.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(11): 1121-1126, Nov. 2016. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-842010

ABSTRACT

O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar os efeitos do Extrato Aquoso de Amendoim (EAA) no peso, bioquímica sérica e na histologia hepática de ratos Wistar submetidos a dietas normo e hiperlipídicas. A pesquisa foi realizada utilizando 40 ratos Wistar machos, divididos em quatro grupos (n=10): GA (dieta hiperlipídica), GB (dieta hiperlipídica +EAA), GC (dieta normolipídica) e GD (dieta normolipídica +EAA). Após 8 semanas, os animais foram eutanasiados e foram coletadas amostras sanguíneas para a avaliação de dados bioquímicos (Colesterol total e suas frações, triglicerídeos, uréia, creatinina, AST, ALT e glicemia) e fragmentos do fígado para análise histológica. Os animais do grupo GB tiveram um ganho de peso inferior quando comparados ao GA (XGB= versus XGA= p<0,05), já os grupos GC e GD não obtiveram diferenças estatísticas. Os animais que receberam o EAA tiveram uma redução nos níveis de colesterol (XGB= versus XGA= p<0,05 e XGD= versus XGA= p<0,01), dos triglicerídeos (XGB= versus XGA e XGD= versus XGA= p<0,001) e mais discretamente dos níveis de ALT. A glicemia, uréia e creatina permaneceram dentro dos valores de referência. As amostras hepáticas analisadas, dos ratos dos diferentes grupos, não apresentaram alterações histopatológicas. Conclui-se que O EAA apresentou efeitos preventivos sobre o ganho ponderal e dislipidemia.(AU)


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Aqueous Extract from Peanut (EAA) in weight, serum biochemistry and liver histology of Wistar rats with normal hearing and a high fat diet. The survey was conducted using 40 male Wistar rats divided into four groups (n=0): GA (high fat diet), GB (fat diet+EAA), GC (normolipídica diet), and GD (normolipídica diet+EAA). After 8 weeks, the rats were euthanized and blood samples were collected to evaluate biochemical data (total cholesterol and its fractions, triglycerides, urea, creatinine, AST, ALT and glucose) and liver fragments for histological analysis. The animals of the GB group had a lower weight gain when compared with GA (XGB versus XGA= p<0.05), but CG and GD did not obtain statistical differences. The rats that received EAA had a reduction in cholesterol levels (XGB= versus XGA= p<0.05 vs. XGA and XGD= p<0.01), triglycerides (=XGB versus XGA and =XGD versus XGA= p<0,001) and more discreetly ALT levels. Blood glucose, urea and creatine remained within the reference values. Liver samples analyzed, the rats of different groups showed no histopathological changes. In conclusion, the EAA had preventive effects on weight gain and dyslipidemia.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Arachis/chemistry , Diet, High-Fat/veterinary , Dyslipidemias/therapy , Dyslipidemias/veterinary , Weight Gain , Diet/veterinary
12.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 29(3): f:210-l:217, mai.-jun. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-831783

ABSTRACT

Fundamentos: Dislipidemia e obesidade estão associadas com insuficiente consumo de frutas, verduras e legumes, e com desequilíbrio do estado antioxidante. Objetivos: Avaliar o consumo dietético das vitaminas A, E e C e dos macronutrientes, correlacionando-os com biomarcadores em dislipidêmicos com excesso de peso. Métodos: Foram selecionados indivíduos dislipidêmicos de ambos os sexos, com idade ≥ 20 anos e índice de massa corporal (IMC) ≥ 25 kg/m2. Foram excluídos aqueles em uso de medicamentos anorexígenos e/ou realizando dieta hipoenergética. Analisaram-se as variáveis antropométricas [massa corporal, estatura, circunferência da cintura (CC), IMC] e bioquímicas [colesterol total, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglicerídeos (TGs) e F2-isoprostano plasmático]. Avaliou-se o consumo alimentar pelo questionário de frequência alimentar. Testou-se a normalidade das variáveis pelo teste não paramétrico de Kolmogorov-Smirnov e realizou-se a correlação de Spearman, empregando-se o pacote estatístico SPSS18 com nível de significância de 5%.Resultados: Dos 284 participantes, 264 (93,1%) eram mulheres. As médias do IMC e da CC foram 36,0 ± 5,8 kg/m2 e 106,2 ± 12,7cm, respectivamente. O consumo de vitaminas A e C, carboidratos, proteínas, açúcar, ácidos graxos (AG) saturados e AG trans foi superior às recomendações, enquanto os consumos de vitamina E e AG poli- e monoinsaturados não alcançaram 50% das recomendações. Evidenciou-se correlação negativa entre as seguintes variáveis: vitamina E com LDL-C e colesterol total; açúcar e HDL-C; AG poli-insaturados e colesterol total e LDL-C. Observaram-se correlações positivas entre colesterol dietético, CC e IMC, e entre massa gorda e TGs. Conclusão: Observou-se inadequação no consumo dietético de vitamina E, açúcar, AG poli-insaturados e trans, o mesmo não acontecendo com as vitaminas A e C. Não houve correlação de biomarcadores e variáveis dietéticas com F2-isoprostano plasmático


Background: Insufficient consumption of fruits, vegetables and pulses is associated with dyslipidemia and obesity and with antioxidant status imbalance. Objective: To assess the dietary intake of vitamins A, E and C and of macronutrients, correlating them with biomarkers in dyslipidemic overweight individuals. Methods: Dyslipidemic individuals of both sexes, aged ≥ 20 years, with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 were selected. Individuals on anorectic drugs and/or hypocaloric diets were excluded. Anthropometric [body mass, height, waist circumference (WC), BMI] and biochemical variables [total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides, and plasma F2-isoprostane) were assessed. Food intake was assessed using the Food Frequency Questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS 18. Results: Of the 284 participants, 264 (93.1%) were women. Mean BMI and WC values were 36.0 ± 5.8kg/m2 and 106.2 ± 12.7cm, respectively. The intakes of vitamins A and C, carbohydrates, proteins, sugar, saturated and trans fatty acids were above the recommended values; the intakes of vitamin E, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and monounsaturated fatty acids were below 50% of the recommended values. There was a negative correlation between the following variables: vitamin E, LDL-C and TC; sugar and HDL-C; and polyunsaturated fatty acids, TC and LDL-C. Positive correlations were observed between dietary cholesterol, WC and BMI; and between fat mass and triglycerides. Conclusion: Inappropriate intakes of vitamin E, sugar, polyunsaturated and trans fatty acids were observed, but not of vitamins A and C. No correlation of biomarkers and dietary variables was observed with plasma F2-isoprostane


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Antioxidants , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cholesterol/blood , Dyslipidemias/complications , Dyslipidemias/therapy , Obesity/therapy , Vitamins , Blood Chemical Analysis/methods , Body Mass Index , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet/methods , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Vitamin A/analysis , Vitamin E/analysis , Waist Circumference
14.
In. Kalil Filho, Roberto; Fuster, Valetim; Albuquerque, Cícero Piva de. Medicina cardiovascular reduzindo o impacto das doenças / Cardiovascular medicine reducing the impact of diseases. São Paulo, Atheneu, 2016. p.451-465.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-971549
15.
Rev. cuba. plantas med ; 20(3): 290-300, jul.-set. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-764381

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: la evaluación de plantas con efecto reductor en los lípidos plasmáticos, constituye una herramienta muy valiosa para el control de las dislipidemias. OBJETIVOS: comprobar la efectividad farmacológica como hipolipemiante, de Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd(Talinaceae) y Abelmoschus esculentus moench (Malvaceae), en dos biomodelos de ensayo. MÉTODOS: se utilizó el fruto verde de A. esculentus y hojas frescas de Talinum triangulare. El material vegetal previo secado, se pulverizó para preparar extractos hidroalcohólicos, que una vez rotoevaporados, fueron suspendidos en agua para ser administrados a los modelos experimentales. El efecto hipolipémico de las plantas estudiadas se comprobó, en animales de experimentación, sometidos a dos modelos de inducción de hiperlipidemia; administración de solución de sacarosa al 63 % durante 16 semanas y administración vía intraperitoneal del detergente no iónico Poloxamer 338, durante 48 horas a una dosis de 0,6 g/kg. RESULTADOS: el extracto hidroalcohólico de A. esculentus (400 mg/kg) en el modelo de hiperlipemia por Dieta Rica en Sacarosa, mostró un efecto reductor de triacilglicéridos, superior al ácido nicotínico. En el modelo de hiperlipidemia por inducción con detergente no iónico, el extracto hidroalcohólico de Talinum triangulare (400 mg/kg), manifestó un efecto reductor de colesterol y triacilglicéridos, mayor que el ácido nicotínico y la atorvastatina. CONCLUSIONES: los extracto hidroalcohólicos de A. esculentus y de Talinum triangulare expresaron efectos reductores de triacilglicérios por mecanismos de acción diferentes, superiores al ácido nicotínico en cada caso. El extracto hidroalcohólico de Talinum triangulare manifestó un potente efecto reductor de colesterol mayor que el ácido nicotínico y la atorvastatina.


INTRODUCTION: assessment of plants with low plasmatic lipids effect is a power instrument to dislipidemias control. OBJECTIVES: to establish the pharmacological effectiveness as hipolipidemic agents of Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd (Portulacaceae) and Abelmoschus esculentus Moench (Malvaceae) in two biomodel assays. METHODS: in the present study we have researched the hypolipemic effect of Talinum triangulare (false spinach) and A. esculentus (okra) in experimental animals subjected to two models of hyperlipidemia induction; an intake of 63 % sucrose solution for 16 weeks and an intake of Poloxamer 338 nonionic detergent via intraperitoneal for 48 hours at a dose of 0,6 g/kg. RESULTS: the hydroalcoholic extract of A. esculentus, at a dose of 400 mg/kg showed triacilglicéridos reducing effect greater than nicotinic acid in the model of hyperlipidemia induction by a sucrose-rich diet. In the model of hyperlipidemia by induction with nonionic detergent, the hydroalcoholic extract of Talinum triangulare at a dose of 400 mg/kg, showed a powerful cholesterol and triacilglicéridos lowering effect, greater than nicotinic acid and atorvastatin. CONCLUSIONS: the hydroalcoholic extract of A. esculentus and T. triangulare showed hypotriglyceridemic effect for different action mechanisms, higher than the nicotinic acid, in each case. The extract hidroalcohólico of Talinum triangulare showed a potent hipocholesterolemic effect even more than the nicotinic acid and the atorvastatin.


Subject(s)
Animals , Abelmoschus/drug effects , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Dyslipidemias/therapy
16.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 104(4): 324-331, 04/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-745737

ABSTRACT

Statin treatment in association with physical exercise practice can substantially reduce cardiovascular mortality risk of dyslipidemic individuals, but this practice is associated with myopathic event exacerbation. This study aimed to present the most recent results of specific literature about the effects of statins and its association with physical exercise on skeletal musculature. Thus, a literature review was performed using PubMed and SciELO databases, through the combination of the keywords “statin” AND “exercise” AND “muscle”, restricting the selection to original studies published between January 1990 and November 2013. Sixteen studies evaluating the effects of statins in association with acute or chronic exercises on skeletal muscle were analyzed. Study results indicate that athletes using statins can experience deleterious effects on skeletal muscle, as the exacerbation of skeletal muscle injuries are more frequent with intense training or acute eccentric and strenuous exercises. Moderate physical training, in turn, when associated to statins does not increase creatine kinase levels or pain reports, but improves muscle and metabolic functions as a consequence of training. Therefore, it is suggested that dyslipidemic patients undergoing statin treatment should be exposed to moderate aerobic training in combination to resistance exercises three times a week, and the provision of physical training prior to drug administration is desirable, whenever possible.


A associação do tratamento medicamentoso por estatinas com a prática de exercícios físicos pode reduzir substancialmente o risco de mortalidade cardiovascular de indivíduos dislipidêmicos, porém sua realização vem sendo associada à exacerbação de quadros miopáticos. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo apresentar os resultados mais recentes da literatura específica sobre os efeitos da associação de estatinas ao exercício físico na musculatura esquelética. Para tanto, realizou-se levantamento da literatura nas bases de dados PubMed e SciELO, utilizando a combinação dos unitermos: “estatina/estatinas” AND “exercício” AND “músculo” (“statin” AND “exercise” AND “muscle”), sendo selecionados apenas artigos originais publicados entre janeiro de 1990 e novembro de 2013. Foram analisados 16 artigos que avaliaram o efeito da associação das estatinas com exercício agudo ou crônico na musculatura esquelética. Os resultados dos estudos apontaram que atletas podem experimentar efeitos deletérios na musculatura esquelética quando do uso de estatinas, visto que os quadros de exacerbação da lesão muscular pelo exercício foram mais frequentes com treinamento intenso ou exercícios agudos excêntricos e extenuantes. O treinamento físico moderado, por sua vez, quando associado às estatinas, não aumenta os relatos de dor nem os níveis de creatina quinase, além de acarretar ganhos nas funções musculares e metabólicas advindas do treinamento. Sugere-se, portanto, que pacientes dislipidêmicos em tratamento com estatinas sejam expostos ao treinamento físico aeróbio combinado a exercícios resistidos, de intensidade moderada, em três sessões semanais, sendo que a oferta do treinamento físico previamente à administração do tratamento medicamentoso, quando possível, faz-se desejável.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dyslipidemias/therapy , Exercise Therapy , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Muscle, Skeletal/drug effects , Muscular Diseases/chemically induced , Creatine Kinase/physiology , Exercise/physiology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Muscle, Skeletal/injuries , Musculoskeletal Pain/chemically induced
17.
Rev. cuba. plantas med ; 20(1): 38-47, ene.-mar. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-753003

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: knowing patients 'believes about the medicinal utility of plants may provide a basis for educating them for a rational use of herb preparations. OBJECTIVE: to characterize the plants that are considered useful for antidiabetic, antihypertensive or hypolipidemic treatment among patients with peripheral vascular diseases. METHODS: a survey was performed among patients of the National Institute of Angiology and Vascular Surgery from February through April 2007. The characteristics of the use of plants as medicinal remedies and the names of species considered useful for the treatment of diabetes, arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia were recorded. RESULTS: two hundred and forty five both sex adult volunteers (142 female/103 male), aged 44 to 72 years) were included in the study. More than 80 % of them used medicinal plants at least occasionally and confided on their efficacy to treat different illnesses Fifteen species, mainly Allium sativum L., Citrus aurantifolia Ch., Justicia pectoralis Jacq.., Morinda citrifolia L., Ocinum sanctum L and Salvia officinalis L, from 11 botanical families, were mentioned by participants. Most patients' claims about plants´ properties have been scientifically supported in some extent, nevertheless, the majority of the pharmacological evidence relays on pre-clinical studies and results of clinical trials are not conclusive. The lack of standardized plant preparations with identified active principles and demonstrated clinical effectiveness are limitations for recommending their therapeutic use. CONCLUSION: this study has provided the first characterization of the use of plant products by patients with peripheral vascular diseases for medicinal purposes and confirmed that physicians should be aware about the possibility of herb-drug interactions that should be diagnosed. This information would aid the scientifically supported integration of Phytotherapy to the clinical practice.


INTRODUCCIÓN: el conocimiento tradicional de los pacientes sobre la utilidad de las plantas medicinales puede servir de base para su educación en el uso racional de las preparaciones herbarias. OBJETIVO: caracterizar las plantas que los pacientes con enfermedades vasculares consideran útiles para el tratamiento de la diabetes, la hipertensión y como hipolipemiante. MÉTODOS: se realizó una encuesta a los pacientes del Instituto Nacional de Angiología y Cirugía Vascular entre febrero y abril de 2007. Las características del empleo de las plantas con fines medicinales y los nombres de las especies consideradas útiles para tratar la diabetes, la hipertensión arterial y la dislipidemia fueron tabulados. RESULTADOS: doscientos cuarenta y cinco adultos voluntarios de ambos sexos (142 femeninos/103 masculinos, edad 44 a 72 años) fueron incluidos en el estudio. Más del 80 % de ellos utilizaban las plantas medicinales al menos ocasionalmente y confiaban en su eficacia para tratar diferentes enfermedades. Quince especies, fundamentalmente Allium sativum L., Citrus aurantifolia Ch., Justicia pectoralis Jacq., Morinda citrifolia L., Ocinum sanctum L. y Salvia officinalis L., pertenecientes a 11 familias botánicas, fueron mencionadas por los participantes en la encuesta. La mayoría de los planteamientos de los pacientes sobre las propiedades de estas plantas tienen algún fundamento científico, sin embargo, las evidencias farmacológicas disponibles son fundamentalmente de tipo pre-clínico y los resultados de los ensayos clínicos efectuados no son concluyentes. La carencia de preparaciones derivadas de plantas estandarizadas, con principios activos identificados y efectividad clínica demostrada, son limitaciones para recomendar su utilización terapéutica. CONCLUSIONES: esta es la primera caracterización del uso de productos de plantas con fines medicinales por pacientes con enfermedades vasculares periféricas, y confirma que los facultativos deben conocer sobre la posibilidad de interacciones planta-medicamento que deben ser diagnosticadas. Esta información ayudaría a la integración de la Fitoterapia a la práctica clínica sustentada científicamente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plants, Medicinal/drug effects , Peripheral Vascular Diseases/therapy , Dyslipidemias/therapy
18.
Rev. bras. cardiol. (Impr.) ; 27(6): 418-422, nov.-dez. 2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-752231

ABSTRACT

Fundamentos: A doença arterial coronariana (DAC) é uma das principais causas de internação no SUS e importante fator de risco para a disfunção ventricular. Os pacientes portadores de DAC são classificados como de alto risco cardiovascular, apresentando metas terapêuticas cada vez mais rigorosas.Objetivo: Avaliar o controle dos fatores de risco tradicionais e metas terapêuticas em pacientes com DAC.Métodos: Foi realizada análise retrospectiva de prontuários de pacientes atendidos no ambulatório da residência médica de uma unidade terciária de saúde, hospital referência em cardiologia na rede pública, no período de abril de 2013 a abril de 2014. Preencheram os critérios de inclusão 110 pacientes.Resultados: Dentre os pacientes incluídos, 68,1% eram do sexo masculino. A média de idade foi 60,1±9,2 anos. Tinham diagnóstico de HAS, 90,9% dos pacientes; 42,7% de DM, 81,8% de dislipidemia (DLP), 25,4% eram tabagistas e 32,7% apresentavam história familiar positiva para DAC. A maior parte (61%) recebeu tratamento clínico mais cirúrgico, seguindo-se o tratamento clínico mais percutâneo (20,9%) e por último o tratamento clínico exclusivo (18,1%). Em relação ao controle de metas, 78,1% estavam com pressão arterial controlada (PAS <140 mmHg e PAD <90 mmHg), 65,4% com TG <150 mg/dL; 87,2% com CT <200 mg/dL; 29,1% com HDL >45 mg/dL; 65,4% com LDL <100 mg/dL; e 27,2% com LDL <70 mg/dL.Conclusão: Apesar de serem pacientes de alta complexidade e alto risco, obteve-se boa resposta no controle pressórico, enquanto no controle da dislipidemia os resultados foram insatisfatórios, o que pode em parte ser explicado pelas opções terapêuticas disponíveis na rede pública de saúde.


Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of hospitalization in Brazil’s Unified National Health System (SUS) and an important risk factor for ventricular dysfunction. CAD patients are rated as high cardiovascular risks, with increasingly tighter treatment targets.Objective: To assess traditional CAD risk factor controls and treatment targets among CAD patients.Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted of the medical records of patients seen at the residency outpatient clinic at a tertiary healthcare facility that is a cardiology reference center in the SUS from April 2013 to April 2014. The inclusion criteria were met by 110 patients.Results: Among the included patients, 68.1% were male, with an average age of 60.1±9.2 years; 90.9% were diagnosed with hypertension; 42.7% with DM, 81.8% with dyslipidemia (DLP), 25.4% were smokers and 32.7% had positive family histories of CAD. Most (61%) received surgical and clinical treatment, followed by clinical and percutaneous treatment (20.9%) and finally clinical treatment only (18.1%). Regarding target controls, 78.1% had controlled blood pressure (SBP <140 mmHg and DBP <90 mmHg), 65.4% with TG <150 mg/dL; 87.2% with TC <200 mg/dL; HDL with 29.1%> 45 mg/dL; 65.4% with LDL <100 mg/dL; LDL and 27.2% with <70 mg/dL.Conclusion: Despite being high-complexity and high-risk patients, a good response was obtained only for blood pressure control, while the dyslipidemia control findings were unsatisfactory, which may be partly explained by the treatment options available in the SUS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/therapy , Risk Factors , Therapeutics/methods , Coronary Angiography/methods , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Dyslipidemias/therapy , Epidemiologic Factors , Hypertension/therapy , Observational Study , Tertiary Care Centers
19.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 85(3): 367-377, jun. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-719145

ABSTRACT

La prevalencia de dislipidemias ha aumentado en niños y adolescentes, muchas de ellas asociadas al incremento de la obesidad. Puesto que constituyen un factor de riesgo cardiovascular futuro, deben conocerse las bases de su tratamiento. En la gran mayoría de los pacientes, éste consiste en cambios de estilo de vida, con dieta específica y aumento de la actividad física, presentando habitualmente una respuesta favorable. Solo una minoría requiere tratamiento medicamentoso, el que debe ser realizado por especialista en el contexto de una evaluación completa del perfil de riesgo cardiovascular, con la inclusión del paciente y su familia. Sin embargo, la prevención de los factores de riesgo cardiovascular debe ser realizada por todos los miembros del equipo de salud. Este artículo presenta las recomendaciones de la Rama de Nutrición de la Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría para el diagnóstico, tamizaje y tratamiento de las dislipidemias en la niñez.


The prevalence of dyslipidemia has dramatically increased in children and adolescents, and many of these cases are associated with increased obesity. As this condition represents cardiovascular risk in the future, the bases of its treatment should be widely known. In the vast majority of patients, there will be lifestyle changes, specific diet and increased physical activity, usually all of these resulting in a favorable response. Only a minority will require drug treatment, which must be prescribed by a specialist in the context of a comprehensive cardiovascular risk assessment, including the patient and his family. The prevention of cardiovascular risk factors should be performed by all members of the health team. This article presents the recommendations of the Nutrition specialists of the Chilean Society of Pediatrics for screening, diagnosis and treatment of dyslipidemia in childhood.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Child , Adolescent Nutrition , Child Nutrition , Dyslipidemias/diagnosis , Dyslipidemias/prevention & control , Algorithms , Dyslipidemias/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Hypercholesterolemia , Hypertriglyceridemia , Mass Screening
20.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 31(1): 143-150, ene.-mar. 2014. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-705974

ABSTRACT

Recientemente se han publicado en el “Octavo reporte del Joint National Commitee”; la “Guía de hipertensión arterial” y la “Guía de manejo de dislipidemia”. Ambas son basadas en la evidencia y han guiado sus recomendaciones exclusivamente en resultados de ensayos clínicos, dejando de lado, en lo posible, recomendaciones formuladas por expertos. Ambas han introducido cambios metodológicos importantes, en la forma de catalogación y al resumir la evidencia utilizada. La “Guía de hipertensión arterial” ha sido realizada para hacer de ella una guía confiable, tiene como característica resaltante la simplificación de recomendaciones y, la guía misma, es un documento simple, de fácil implementación. Un cambio potencialmente interesante en la guía de dislipidemia constituye el abandono de la meta terapéutica numérica para emplear la modificación del nivel de riesgo, que podría promover una discusión sobre la intensidad del tratamiento, tomando en cuenta las preferencias, y así impulsarr la toma de una decisión compartida.


Updates to the Guidelines for the Management of High Blood Pressure and the Guidelines for the Management of Dyslipidemia have been recently published in the eighth report of the Joint National Committee. Both are evidence-based and rely on clinical trial results, leaving aside, when possible, recommendations made by experts. Both have introduced important methodological changes in the form of cataloging and summarizing the evidence used. The High Blood Pressure Guideline is considered to be a reliable guide; it has simplified recommendations and is easy to implement. A potentially interesting change in the Dyslipidemia Guideline is the abandonment of the numerical therapeutic target in order to use the modification of the level of risk, which could promote a discussion about the intensity of treatment, and initiate shared decision-making.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dyslipidemias/therapy , Hypertension/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards
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