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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(2): 118-121, abril 2022. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1363788

ABSTRACT

Se realizó un estudio observacional y prospectivo en el Hospital Garrahan, cuyos objetivos fueron conocer la portación asintomática del coronavirus de tipo 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV-2, por su sigla en inglés) en niños oncológicos y/o en sus cuidadores al hospitalizarse para realizar quimioterapia, y describir el impacto en la continuación del tratamiento en aquellos con prueba positiva para SARS-CoV-2 o con síntomas compatibles con la infección por el virus durante la internación. Se incluyeron los pacientes con enfermedad oncohematológica y sus cuidadores, a quienes se les realizó una prueba de detección de SARS-CoV-2 por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcripción inversa. Se analizaron 733 hospitalizaciones. La tasa de positividad para SARS-CoV-2 fue del 2,2 % (IC95%: 1,35-3,52). Todos los pacientes con prueba detectable completaron la quimioterapia. El 7,7 % de los pacientes presentó síntomas compatibles de caso sospechoso con prueba no detectable y el 77 % de ellos pudo continuar su tratamiento.


An observational, prospective study was carried out at Hospital Garrahan. Its objectives were to establishtherateofasymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among children with cancer and/or their caregivers during hospitalization for chemotherapy, and describe the impact of ongoing treatment among those positive for SARS-CoV-2 or with symptoms compatible with infection during hospitalization. Patients with onco-hematological disease and their caregivers were included. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2 was done. A total of 733 hospitalizations were analyzed. The SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate was 2.2% (95% confidence interval: 1.35-3.52). All patients with a detectable test result completed chemotherapy. Also, 7.7% of patients developed symptoms compatible with a suspected case although they had an undetectable test result, and 77% of them were able to continue treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , COVID-19 , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Early Detection of Cancer , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitalization
2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(2): 478-485, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364331

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A relação direta entre a doença arterial coronariana (DAC) e o câncer de pulmão não é bem conhecida. Objetivo Investigar a associação entre a gravidade anatômica da DAC e do câncer de pulmão. Métodos Trezentos pacientes, incluindo 75 recém-diagnosticados com câncer de pulmão e 225 pacientes correspondentes sem câncer, foram submetidos à angiografia coronária durante a internação, sem intervenção coronária percutânea (ICP) prévia nem enxerto de bypass da artéria coronária (CABG). O escore SYNTAX foi utilizado para avaliar a gravidade da DAC. Uma pontuação alta no escore foi definida como > 15 (o maior quartil do escore SYNTAX). O teste de tendência de Cochran-Armitage foi utilizado para verificar a distribuição dos escores dos pacientes. Uma análise de regressão logística foi utilizada para avaliar a associação entre a gravidade da DAC e o câncer de pulmão. Os valores de p foram estabelecidos quando o nível de significância era 5%. Resultados A tendência de distribuição dos escores SYNTAX dos pacientes por quartis foi diferente entre aqueles com câncer de pulmão e controles (do quartil mais baixo ao mais alto: 20,0%; 20,0%; 24,0%; 36,0% vs. 26,7%; 26,2%; 25,8%; 21,3%; p=0,022). A pontuação no escore SYNTAX foi mais alta em pacientes com câncer do que nos pacientes controle (36,0% vs. 21,3%, p=0,011).O maior quartil do escore demonstrou mais riscos de desenvolver câncer de pulmão em comparação ao quartil mais baixo (OR: 2.250, IC95%: 1.077 a 4.699 ; P -trend= 0,016). Após ajustes, os pacientes no maior quartil do escore SYNTAX tinham mais risco de desenvolver câncer de pulmão (OR: 2.1o49, IC95%: 1.008 a 4.584; P -trend= 0,028). Pacientes com escores SYNTAX alto (> 15) tinham 1.985 mais chances de ter câncer de pulmão (IC95%: 1.105-3.563, P= 0,022). Conclusão A gravidade anatômica da DAC está associada ao risco de câncer de pulmão, o que indica que um rastreamento completo deste tipo de câncer possa ser mais significativo entre pacientes com DAC.


Abstract Background The direct relationship between coronary artery disease (CAD) and lung cancer is not well known. Objective To investigate the association between the anatomical severity of CAD and lung cancer. Methods Three-hundred study patients, including 75 recently diagnosed lung cancer patients and 225 matched non-cancer patients, underwent coronary angiography during hospitalization without previous percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The SYNTAX score (SXscore) was used to assess the severity of CAD. A high SXscore (SXhigh) grade was defined as SXscore > 15 (the highest quartile of the SXscore). The Cochran-Armitage test for trend was used to assess the distribution of patients' SXscores. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between the severity of CAD and lung cancer. P-values were set when significance level was 5%. Results The distribution trend of patients' SXscore by quartiles was different between lung cancer patients and control patients (from the lowest to the highest quartile: 20.0%, 20.0%, 24.0%, 36.0% vs. 26.7%, 26.2%, 25.8%, 21.3%, p=0.022). The SX high rate was higher in lung cancer patients than in control patients (36.0% vs. 21.3%, p=0.011).The highest quartile of the SXscore showed higher risk of lung cancer in comparison to the lowest quartile (OR: 2,250, 95%CI: 1,077 to 4,699 ; P-trend= 0.016). After adjustment, patients in the highest quartile of the SXscore had higher risk of lung cancer (OR: 2,149, 95%CI: 1,008 to 4,584; P-trend= 0.028). Patients with high SXscore (> 15) had 1,985 times more chances of having lung cancer (95%CI: 1,105-3,563, P= 0.022). Conclusions The anatomical severity of CAD is associated with the risk of lung cancer, which indicates that a thorough lung cancer screening may be significant among severe CAD patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Severity of Illness Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Coronary Angiography , Early Detection of Cancer , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
3.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(1): e00304820, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355972

ABSTRACT

Cervical cancer screening is a multistage process, therefore access to both the primary test and subsequent diagnostic procedures is essential. Considering women undergoing screening on the public health system in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, we aimed to estimate the proportion of women accessing colposcopy within six months of an abnormal smear result. We retrieved records from two administrative databases, the Information System on Uterine Cervical Cancer (SISCOLO) that contains smear results and the Outpatient Information System of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SIA/SUS) that records colposcopies. A reference cohort consisted of women, aged 25 years or older, with an abnormal smear result between May 1, 2014, and June 30, 2014. We excluded prevalent cases. We linked the reference cohort and records in the SIA/SUS extending to December 31, 2014. After excluding prevalent cases, 1,761 women with abnormal cytology results were left. A total of 700 (39.8%) women were linked to a colposcopy record within the follow-up period; this dropped to 671 (38.1%) women when follow-up was censored at six months. We could notice a slightly higher attendance in women living in the metropolitan region of São Paulo compared with residents of the rest of the state. We found no association between colposcopy attendance and age or cytology class. These results emphasize that access to colposcopy in the public health system in São Paulo is limited. This compromises the quality of screening, and the issue needs to be prioritized in service planning.


A triagem do câncer de colo uterino é um processo que envolve múltiplas etapas. É essencial o acesso ao teste primário e aos procedimentos diagnósticos subsequentes. Com foco nas mulheres que fazem triagem no sistema de saúde pública no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, buscamos estimar a proporção daquelas que acessam a colposcopia dentro de seis meses após um resultado anormal no teste de Papanicolau. Recuperamos os registros de duas bases de dados administrativos: o Sistema de Informação do Controle do Câncer do Colo do Útero (SISCOLO), que contém os resultados de Papanicolau, e o Sistema de Informação Ambulatorial do Sistema Único de Saúde (SIA/SUS), com os registros das colposcopias. Uma coorte de referência foi constituída de mulheres com idade de 25 anos ou mais com Papanicolau anormal entre 1º de maio de 2014 e 30 de junho de 2014. Excluímos casos prevalentes. Relacionamos a coorte de referência aos registros no SIA/SUS, estendendo até 31 de dezembro de 2014. Após a exclusão dos casos prevalentes, restaram 1.761 mulheres com citologia anormal. Setecentas delas (39,8%) foram relacionadas a um registro de colposcopia dentro do período de seguimento; esse número diminuiu para 671 (38,1%) quando o seguimento foi censurado aos seis meses. Foi observada uma cobertura ligeiramente maior entre mulheres residentes na Grande São Paulo, em comparação com mulheres residentes do interior do estado. Não houve associação entre realização de colposcopia e idade ou classe citológica. Os resultados destacam o acesso restrito à colposcopia no sistema público de saúde no Estado de São Paulo. O cenário compromete a qualidade da triagem, e a questão deve ser priorizada no planejamento dos serviços.


Las pruebas de detección del cáncer cervical forman parte de un proceso multietapa. El acceso a tanto el test primario, como a los subsiguientes procedimientos de diagnóstico, es esencial. Considerando a las mujeres que se realizan las pruebas de detección en el sistema público de la salud en el Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, el objetivo del estudio fue estimar la proporción de mujeres que acceden a una colposcopía dentro de los seis meses, tras el resultado anormal en una citología. Recuperamos los registros de dos bases de datos administrativas: el Sistema de Información del Cáncer de Cuello de Útero (SISCOLO), que contiene resultados citológicos, y el Sistema de Información Ambulatoria del Sistema Único de Salud (SIA/SUS), que registra colposcopías. La cohorte de referencia consistía en mujeres, con 25 años de edad o mayores, quienes recibieron un resultado anormal en su citología entre el 1º mayo de 2014 y el 30 de junio 2014. Excluimos los casos prevalentes. Vinculamos la cohorte de referencia y los registros en la SIA/SUS, extendiéndolos hasta el 31 de diciembre 2014. Tras excluir los casos prevalentes, quedaron 1.761 mujeres con resultados citológicos anormales; 700 (39.8%), vinculados a un registro de colposcopía dentro del periodo de seguimient. Esta cifra cayó a 671 (38.1%) cuando el seguimiento fue censurado a los seis meses. Se observó una participación ligeramente superior en mujeres que viven en la región metropolitana de la gran São Paulo, comparada con los residentes del resto del estado. No hubo asociación entre la participación en la colposcopía y edad o tipo de citología. Estos resultados resaltan que el acceso a la colposcopía en el sistema público de São Paulo es limitado. Esto compromete la calidad de las pruebas de detección por lo que se necesita darles prioridad en la planificación de los servicios sanitarios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Colposcopy , Vaginal Smears , Brazil/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Early Detection of Cancer
5.
Oncología (Ecuador) ; 31(3): 201-212, 30-diciembre-2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352465

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La supervivencia relativa a los cinco años para pacientes con cáncer colorrectal (CCR) se presenta entre el 60% en América del Norte y de 40% o menos en Argelia y Estonia. Es objetivo del presente estudio establecer la supervivencia a nivel local y determinar los factores asociados en un estudio de un centro nacional de referencia en Quito, Ecuador. Metodología: El presente estudio observacional se realizó en el Hospital de Especialidades Eugenio Espejo de la ciudad de Quito-Ecuador, en el período de enero del 2010 a diciembre del 2016. Se incluyeron pacientes con cáncer colorrectal. Las variables fueron descriptivas demográficas, variables clínicas y mortalidad. La muestra fue no probabilística, tipo censo. La variable mortalidad, fue estudiada con las variables Independientes clínicas, epidemiológicas con análisis actuarial de supervivencia. Resultados: Se incluyeron 395 casos, el 62.3% mujeres, con una edad 60 años (16 a 94). El 7.1% de casos refirieron algún tipo de exposición de riesgo relacionado a CCR. La supervivencia global fue del 56%, con una tasa de mortalidad del 7%. Casos con CCR estadio I sobrevida a los 6 años de 100%, con estadio II 96.5%, en el estadio III el 84%, estadio IV de 63% (P=0.001). Pacientes con instrucción secundaria o superior con supervivencia del 95% versus 88% en pacientes con instrucción primaria/analfabetos (P=0.048). La supervivencia es mayor en pacientes con diagnóstico temprano esta-dios (I y II) (P=0.007). Conclusión: La supervivencia en el presente estudio se asoció al nivel de instrucción de los pacientes, al estadiaje del cáncer, y al diagnóstico temprano sobre todo en pacientes con comorbilidades. No se evidenció relación con factores de riesgo como tabaco, alcohol, presencia de pólipos, etc.


Introduction: The five-year relative survival for patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) is between 60% in North America and 40% or less in Algeria and Estonia. The objective of this study is to estab-lish survival at the local level and determine the associated factors in a study of a national referral center in Quito, Ecuador. Methodology: The present observational study was carried out at the Eugenio Espejo Specialty Hospital in the city of Quito-Ecuador, in the period from January 2010 to December 2016. Patients with colorectal cancer were included. The variables were descriptive demographic, clinical variables and mortality. The sample was non-probabilistic, census type. The mortality variable was studied with the independent clinical and epidemiological variables with actuarial survival analysis. Results: A total of 395 patients were analyzed, 62.3% women, aged 60 years (16 to 94). 7.1% of cases referred to some type of risk exposure related to CRC. Overall survival was 56%, with a mortality rate of 7%. Cases with stage I CRC survival at 6 years of 100%, with stage II 96.5%, in stage III 84%, stage IV of 63% (P = 0.001). Patients with secondary education or higher with survival of 95% versus 88% in patients with primary education / illiterate (P= 0.048). Survival is higher in patients with early diagnosis stages (I and II) (P = 0.007). Conclusion: Survival in the present study was associated with the level of education of the patients, the staging of the cancer, and early diagnosis, especially in patients with comorbidities. There was no evidence of a relationship with risk factors such as tobacco, alcohol, presence of polyps, etc.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Survival Analysis , Risk Factors , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Early Detection of Cancer , Life Style
6.
Prensa méd. argent ; 107(7): 360-365, 20210000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1358943

ABSTRACT

El cáncer de vesícula es la neoplasia maligna más frecuente del tracto biliar. Con un mal pronóstico, su enfoque terapéutico muchas veces se centra en el tratamiento paliativo debido a que los pacientes suelen recibir un diagnóstico en estadios avanzados de la neoplasia, en los cuales ya no son candidatos para tratamientos quirúrgicos curativos. Por esta razón se utilizan stents o drenajes vesiculares, a fin de reducir el principal síntoma que se presenta: la ictericia, con sus consecuencias, por obstrucción biliar maligna. Este artículo pretende hacer una revisión de la evidencia recolectada en los últimos 5 años (período 2016 - 2021) acerca de los diferentes abordajes mínimamente invasivos en el tratamiento paliativo del cáncer de vesícula, sus resultados clínicos, y las diferencias entre ellos.


Gallbladder cancer is the most common malignancy neoplasm of the bile ducts. With a poor prognosis, its therapeutic approach is often focused on palliative treatment because patients usually receive a diagnosis in advanced stages of the neoplasm, in which they are no longer candidates for curative surgical treatments. For this reason, stents or gallbladder drains are used in order to reduce the main symptom that occurs: jaundice, with its consequences, due to malignant biliary obstruction. This article aims to review the evidence collected in the last 5 years (period 2016 - 2021) about the different minimally invasive approaches in the palliative treatment of gallbladder cancer, their clinical results, and the differences between them.


Subject(s)
Humans , Palliative Care , Epidemiologic Studies , Stents , Drainage/methods , Cholestasis/therapy , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Early Detection of Cancer , Gallbladder Neoplasms/therapy
7.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(10): 4497-4509, out. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345699

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo analisa as políticas e ações de controle do câncer do colo do útero no Brasil e no Chile, com foco na prevenção e no rastreamento. Adotou-se a abordagem comparativa, buscando identificar semelhanças e diferenças entre as diretrizes e as estratégias de prevenção e rastreamento do câncer do colo do útero entre os países. A pesquisa compreendeu revisão bibliográfica, análise documental e de dados secundários e consultas a especialistas, técnicos e dirigentes do programa. Em que pesem as diferenças nas estratégias de rastreamento do câncer do colo do útero, o Chile possui um programa bem estruturado, com concentração de decisões no nível nacional e um sistema que permite o monitoramento das ações. O Brasil enfrenta recorrentes problemas relacionados à falta de uma coordenação das ações e falhas no segmento das mulheres com exames alterados. As principais dificuldades para a consolidação de programas de rastreamento do câncer do colo do útero (não realização da busca ativa da população em risco, ausência de sistema de controle de qualidade dos exames e seguimento inadequado de mulheres com resultados alterados) são mais evidentes no Brasil. Em ambos os países há necessidade de aumento da cobertura e implantação do rastreamento organizado.


Abstract This article analyzes cervical cancer control policies and actions in Brazil and Chile, focusing on prevention and screening. We adopted a comparative approach to identify similarities and differences in guidelines and cervical cancer prevention and screening strategies between the two countries. We used the following data collection techniques: analysis of official documents and secondary data, consultations with experts, government officials and program coordinators, and literature review. The findings show that Chile has a well-structured program with centralized decision-making and a system that permits monitoring of actions. Brazil on the other hand faces ongoing issues with lack of coordination and shortcomings in the follow-up of women with abnormal test results. The following challenges to consolidating cervical cancer screening stand out in Brazil: lack of active tracking of the target population; absence of a test quality assurance system; and inadequate follow-up of women with abnormal test results. Both countries need to increase coverage and implement organized screening.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Brazil , Chile , Mass Screening , Early Detection of Cancer
8.
Prensa méd. argent ; 107(6): 307-311, 20210000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1359098

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Presentar metodología diagnostica y resección atípica, con fines curativos de hepatocarcinoma. Caso clínico: Femenina de 82 años, con múltiples antecedentes entre el que se destaca, hepatitis a virus C de 15 años de evolución, que presenta por estudios complementarios alta sospecha de hepatocarcinoma, se realiza laparotomía exploradora con resección atípica de tumor en segmento 5 y 6 con radiofrecuencia quirúrgica y colecistectomía con colangiografía intraoperatoria. Cursa post operatorio sin complicaciones con alta sanatorial al 8vo dia. Conclusion: Hay que sospechar esta patología en pacientes con antecedentes de hepatopatía viral, plantear screening adecuado para un diagnóstico temprano y la mejor resolución adaptada a cada paciente. Dentro de las opciones terapéuticas encontramos la radiofrecuencia quirúrgica como una buena herramienta, con índice bajo de complicaciones


Objective: To present diagnostic methodology and atypical resection, for curative purposes of hepatocarcinoma. Clinical case: An 82-year-old female, with multiple history factors, among them, hepatitis C virus of 15 years of evolution, which presents high suspicion of hepatocarcinoma due to complementary studies, exploratory laparotomy is performed with atypical resection of tumor in segments 5 and 6 with surgical radiofrequency and cholecystectomy with intraoperative cholangiography. Post-operative course without complications with sanatorial discharge on the 8th day. Conclusion: This pathology must be suspected in patients with history of viral liver disease. We suggest an adequate screening for an early diagnosis and the best resolution adapted to each patient. Among the therapeutic options we find surgical radiofrequency as a good tool, with a low rate of complications


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Cholecystectomy/rehabilitation , Incidence , Aftercare/methods , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Laparotomy , Liver Neoplasms/therapy
9.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(4): 419-424, July-Aug. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341178

ABSTRACT

Abstract Musculoskeletal sarcomas are rare diseases that require attention. They often present high degree of malignancy at diagnosis and, if underestimated, they can evolve aggressively locally and systemically. They present as soft tissues arcoma and bone sarcomas, with soft tissue being four to five times more common. Most soft tissue sarcomas occur in the extremities. The most common subtypes in children and adolescents are rhabdomyosarcoma and synovial sarcoma; in adults, undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, liposarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, myxofibrosarcoma and synovial sarcoma; all with a high degree of histological malignancy. Many soft tissue sarcomas are confused with benign soft tissue tumors, 100 times more common, so they are resected without the necessary planning, resulting in amputation of a limb that could have been preserved. As in all cancers, the most important prognostic factor is metastatic disease. When it is present, the overall survival rate falls around 20 to 30%. Survival rates are generally similar between bone and soft tissue sarcomas. So soft tissue sarcomas, in addition to being more prevalent, are as aggressive as bones arcomas, deserving a lot of attention from orthopedic surgeons, who are often the first line of care of carriers of these tumors.


Resumo Os sarcomas musculoesqueléticos são doenças raras que exigem atenção. Frequentemente, apresentam alto grau de malignidade ao diagnóstico e se subestimados podem evoluir de forma agressiva local e sistemicamente. Apresentam-se como sarcoma de partes moles e sarcomas ósseos, sendo os de partes moles quatro a cinco vezes mais comuns. A maioria dos sarcomas de partes moles ocorre nos membros. Os subtipos mais comuns nas crianças e adolescentes são o rabdomiossarcoma e o sarcoma sinovial, nos adultos o sarcoma pleomórfico indiferenciado, lipossarcoma, leiomiossarcoma, mixofibrossarcoma e sarcoma sinovial; todos de alto grau de malignidade histológica. Muitos sarcomas de partes moles são confundidos com tumores benignos de partes moles, 100 vezes mais comuns, por isso são ressecados sem o planejamento necessário, acarretando em amputação de um membro que poderia ter sido preservado. Como em todos os cânceres, o fator prognóstico mais importante é a doença metastática. Na sua vigência, a taxa de sobrevida global cai em torno de 20 a 30%. As taxas de sobrevida no geral são parecidas entre os sarcomas ósseos e de partes moles, portanto o sarcoma de partes moles, além de mais prevalente, mostra-se tão agressivo quanto os sarcomas ósseos, por isso merece muita atenção dos ortopedistas que frequentemente são a primeira linha de atendimento dos portadores destes tumores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sarcoma/diagnosis , Sarcoma/therapy , Sarcoma/epidemiology , Neoplasms, Bone Tissue , Early Detection of Cancer , Neoplasm Metastasis
10.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(3): 301-307, July-Sept. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346416

ABSTRACT

Over the past decade, there has been a great interest in postcolonoscopy colorectal cancer (PCCRC). Its etiology is complex and multifactorial. Monitoring for PCCRC is even more complex. The strategies to decrease the incidence of PCCRC start by defining the problem, identifying the factors contributing to its development, followed by an attempt to define methods to decrease its incidence.We believe that the quality of the colonoscopy and the endoscopist's expertise are the key factors in decreasing the incidence of PCCRC. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colonoscopy , Colitis, Ulcerative/complications , Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis/complications , Clinical Competence , Early Detection of Cancer
11.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 24(277): 5803-5818, jun.2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1253727

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: identificar os fatores associados à masculinidade no diagnóstico precoce do câncer de próstata. Método: trata-se de uma revisão narrativa realizada nas seguintes bases de dados: SCIELO, LILACS e PUBMED. Após a aplicação dos critérios de elegibilidade, a amostra do estudo foi composta por 14 artigos publicados entre 2000 e 2021. Resultados: os estudos abordam fortemente a influência dos aspectos socioeconômicos e culturais na busca preventiva dos homens pelo autocuidado. Os padrões estipulados pela sociedade dificultam a adesão masculina fazendo-os diminuir a procurar por serviços de saúde em relação às mulheres dificultando o diagnóstico precoce do câncer de próstata. O exame de toque retal encontra-se atrelado à transgressão de sua masculinidade repercutindo no medo de realizá-lo. Conclusão: concepções socioculturais acerca da masculinidade associam-se negativamente à saúde dos homens impondo dificuldades no diagnóstico precoce do câncer e, conseqüentemente, aumentando a mortalidade masculina.(AU)


Objective: to identify the factors associated with masculinity in the early diagnosis of prostate cancer. Method: this is a narrative review conducted in the following databases: SCIELO, LILACS and PUBMED. After applying the eligibility criteria, the study sample was composed of 14 articles published between 2000 and 2021. Results: the studies strongly address the influence of socioeconomic and cultural aspects on men's preventive search for self-care. The standards set by society hinder male adherence, making them less likely to seek health services than women, hindering the early diagnosis of prostate cancer. The rectal examination is linked to the transgression of their masculinity, resulting in the fear of performing it. Conclusion: sociocultural conceptions about masculinity are negatively associated with men's health, imposing difficulties in the early diagnosis of cancer and consequently increasing male mortality.(AU)


Objetivo: identificar los factores asociados a la masculinidad en el diagnóstico precoz del cáncer de próstata. Método: se trata de una revisión narrativa realizada en las siguientes bases de datos: SCIELO, LILACS y PUBMED. Tras aplicar los criterios de elegibilidad, la muestra del estudio estuvo compuesta por 14 artículos publicados entre 2000 y 2021. Resultados: los estudios abordan la influencia socioeconómica y cultural en la búsqueda preventiva del autocuidado por los hombres. Las normas estipuladas por la sociedad dificultan la adherencia masculina haciendo que reduzcan la búsqueda de servicios sanitarios en relación con las mujeres dificultando el diagnóstico precoz del cáncer de próstata. El tacto rectal está vinculado a la transgresión de su masculinidad, lo que provoca miedo a realizarlo. Conclusión: las concepciones socioculturales sobre la masculinidad se asocian negativamente con la salud del hombre imponiendo dificultades en el diagnóstico precoz del cáncer y, en consecuencia, aumentando la mortalidad masculina.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms , Early Detection of Cancer , Masculinity , Self Care , Digital Rectal Examination , Men's Health , Sociological Factors
12.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(3): 558-565, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154500

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Incidence and mortality of prostate cancer (PCa) are still increasing in developing countries. Limited access to the health system or more aggressive disease are potential reasons for this. Ethnic and social differences in developed countries seem to make inappropriate to extrapolate data from other centers. We aim to report the epidemiological profile of a PSA-screened population from a cancer center in Brazil. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively selected 9.692 men enrolled in a PCa prevention program, comprising total PSA level and digital rectal examination at the first appointment, associated with complementary tests when necessary. Men aged over 40 years-old were included after shared decision-making process. Prostate biopsy (TRUS) was performed when clinically suspected for PCa. After the diagnosis, patients underwent appropriate treatment. Results: TRUS was performed in 5.5% of men and PCa incidence was 2.6%. Overall ratio between number of patients who needed to be screened in order to diagnose one cancer was 38.9 patients, with 2.1 biopsies performed to diagnose a cancer. Positive predictive value (PPV) of TRUS biopsy in this strategy was 47.2%, varying from 38.5% (<50 years-old) to 60% (>80 years-old). We evidenced 70 patients (27.9%) classified as low risk tumors, 74 (29.5%) as intermediate risk, and 107 (42.6%) as high-risk disease. Conclusions: PSA-screening remains controversial in literature. In front of a huge miscegenated people and considering the big proportion of high-risk PCa, even in young men diagnosed with the disease, it is imperative to inform patients and health providers about these data particularities in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostate-Specific Antigen/analysis , Biopsy , Brazil/epidemiology , Public Health , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Early Detection of Cancer , Middle Aged
13.
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 109(1): 49-58, ene.-abr. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1281314

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Los desórdenes de mucosa bucal potencialmente malignos pueden presentar áreas displásicas. En estos casos, la biopsia es un procedimiento imprescindible para un correcto diagnóstico. La inspección visual y la palpación, como método de selección del área de biopsia, ofrecen sensibilidad y especificidad adecuadas pero mejorables. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar una serie de casos clínicos en los que se describen el empleo y la interpretación de la tinción vital con azul de toluidina como método complementario para contribuir a una mejor elección del área de biopsia. Casos clínicos: Se trata de siete casos de lesiones con sospecha de displasia epitelial en mucosa bucal. En cada uno se detalla la correlación de las áreas teñidas con las manifestaciones clínicas y con el diagnóstico de displasia. Además, se muestran patrones de tinción considerados falsos positivos. En la interpretación de la tinción positiva, se tuvieron en cuenta el aspecto superficial y el color de la lesión teñida. El empleo combinado de inspección, palpación y tinción vital podría constituir un procedimiento integral de utilidad para obtener mayor precisión en la determinación del sitio de biopsia en comparación con los mismos procedimientos aplicados de manera individual. En la interpretación de la tinción positiva con azul de toluidina deberían considerarse el aspecto superficial y el color de la lesión teñida (AU)


Aim: Potentially Malignant Disorders in the oral cavity can present dysplastic areas. In these cases, the biopsy is an essential procedure for a correct diagnosis. Visual inspection and palpation, are adequate methods to select the area for the biopsy, however there is margin for improvement. The objective of this article is to present a series of clinical cases in which the use and interpretation of vital staining with Toluidine Blue is described as a complementary method to contribute to a better choice of the biopsy area. Clinical cases: Seven clinical cases that presented lesions with suspected epithelial dysplasia in the oral mucosa were presented. The correlation of the stained areas with the clinical manifestations and with the diagnosis of dysplasia is detailed in each case. Staining patterns considered false positives are also shown. In the interpretation of the positive staining, the superficial appearance and color of the stained lesion were considered. The combined use of inspection, palpation and vital staining could constitute a useful comprehensive procedure to obtain greater precision in determining the biopsy site in relation to the same procedures applied individually. In the interpretation of the positive staining with Toluidine Blue, the superficial appearance and color of the stained lesion should be considered (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Precancerous Conditions/classification , Tolonium Chloride , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Mouth Mucosa/injuries , Palpation , Biopsy/methods , Lip Neoplasms/diagnosis , Clinical Diagnosis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/diagnosis
14.
Acta méd. colomb ; 46(1): 27-33, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1278152

ABSTRACT

Resumen Propósito: determinar la efectividad de detección de lesiones orales potencialmente malignas de cuatro métodos por medio de revisión sistemática tipo paraguas. Fuente de los datos: la búsqueda fue realizada con bases de datos Pubmed y EBSCOhost. Restricción de los años 2013-2018. Estrategia de búsqueda: (early detection of cáncer) AND (mouth neoplasms), (early detection of cáncer) AND (diagnostic techniques and procedures), (mouth neoplasms) AND (diagnostic techniques and procedures). Selección de los estudios: fueron seleccionadas a través de lectura crítica y la lista de chequeo del formato PRISMA, aquellas revisiones sistemáticas cuyo objetivo sea evaluar la efectividad de al menos uno de los métodos de detección de lesiones orales potencialmente malignas, seis estudios cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Extracción de datos: mediante la realización de lectura crítica de las revisiones sistemáticas seleccionadas previamente. Resultado de síntesis de los datos: se determina la efectividad a través de la comparación de las medias de porcentajes de sensibilidad y especificidad. Las medias de sensibilidad y especificidad de Vizilite fueron de 81.31 y 25.4%, de Microlux DL de 82.63 y 69.52%, de azul de toluidina de 82.07 y 66.27% y de citología exfoliativa de 76.77 y 80.87%, respectivamente. Conclusiones: los métodos de detección de lesiones orales premalignas evaluados en el presente estudio requieren mayor respaldo de evidencia científica para validar su efectividad. El método con mayor eficacia es el Microlux/DL, debido a sus altos niveles de sensibilidad y especificidad.


Abstract Objective: to determine the effectiveness of four methods for detecting potentially malignant oral lesions through an umbrella systematic review. Source of data: the search was performed in the PubMed and EBSCOhost databases. Years of search limited to 2013-2018. Search strategy: (early detection of cancer) AND (mouth neoplasms), (early detection of cancer) AND (diagnostic techniques and procedures), (mouth neoplasms) AND (diagnostic techniques and procedures). Study selection: using critical reading and the PRISMA checklist, systematic reviews with the objective of evaluating the effectiveness of at least one of the detection methods for potentially malignant oral lesions were selected; six studies met the inclusion criteria. Data extraction: through critical reading of the previously selected systematic reviews. Results of data synthesis: effectiveness was determined by comparing the mean percentages of sensitivity and specificity. Vizilite's sensitivity and specificity means were 81.31 and 25.4%, Microlux DL's were 82.63 and 69.52%, toluidine blue's were 82.07 and 66.27%, and exfoliative cytology's were 76.77 and 80.87%, respectively. Conclusions: the detection methods for pre-malignant oral lesions evaluated in this study need greater scientific evidence to validate their effectiveness. The method with the greatest effectiveness is Microlux/DL, due to its high levels of sensitivity and specificity.


Subject(s)
Mouth Neoplasms , Early Detection of Cancer , Sensitivity and Specificity , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Cell Biology
17.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 796-803, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922149

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality globally, which is the biggest menace to the health and life of the population. Screening and early detection of lung cancer are effective in reducing its mortality, and the measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has become a promising clinical means for early detection, course detection and prognosis management of lung cancer, with advantages of rapid speed, non-invasiveness and convenience. Now, a variety of VOCs collection ways and analysis methods have emerged at home and abroad. This report summarized three aspects, including VOCs collection, multiple methods of analysis and progress in the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. At last, we discussed the limitations and prospects of VOCs analysis.
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Subject(s)
Breath Tests , Early Detection of Cancer , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Volatile Organic Compounds
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3042-3060, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921405

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths and the fifth most common cancer worldwide. Clinically therapeutic options for HCC are very limited, and the overall survival rate of patients is very low. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment of HCC have important impact on overall survival of patients. At present, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is one of the most widely used serological markers for HCC. Many evidences have shown that as a specific onco-protein, AFP has great research value in the occurrence, development, diagnosis and treatment of HCC. Here, we briefly introduce the molecular mechanism of AFP in the regulation of HCC occurrence and development, and its role in tumor escape from immune surveillance. We focus on the application of AFP as an important HCC target or carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) in HCC clinical diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/therapy , Early Detection of Cancer , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/therapy , alpha-Fetoproteins
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887907

ABSTRACT

The advent of the digital era brings new challenges and opportunities for cervical cancer prevention and research.With the development of digital techniques in China,the construction of an information platform for cervical cancer prevention based on the current achievements has become an important trend.This paper expounds the importance,existing problems,and challenges of the data integration of population-based cervical cancer screening and the information platform construction,and puts forwards effective measures to promote its construction.The establishment of an information platform for cervical cancer prevention in the digital era has far-reaching significance for the global elimination of cervical cancer.


Subject(s)
China , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control
20.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1838-1844, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887613

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Cervical cancer remains a major public health issue for the Uyghur women and other women living mainly in rural areas of Xinjiang. This study aims to investigate the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer in rural areas of Xinjiang, China.@*METHODS@#Cervical cancer screening was performed on rural women aged 35 to 64 years from Xinjiang, China in 2017 through gynecological examination, vaginal discharge smear microscopy, cytology, and HPV testing. If necessary, colposcopy and biopsy were performed on women with suspicious or abnormal screening results.@*RESULTS@#Of the 216,754 women screened, 15,518 received HPV testing. The HPV-positive rate was 6.75% (1047/15,518). Compared with the age 35-44 years group, the odds ratios (ORs) of HPV positivity in the age 45-54 years and 55-64 years groups were 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.37) and 1.84 (95% CI: 1.53-2.21), respectively. Compared with women with primary or lower education level, the ORs for HPV infection rates of women with high school and college education or above were 1.37 (95% CI: 1.09-1.72) and 1.62 (95% CI: 1.23-2.12), respectively. Uyghur women were less likely to have HPV infection than Han women, with an OR (95% CI) of 0.78 (0.61-0.99). The most prevalent HPV types among Xinjiang women were HPV 16 (24.00%), HPV 33 (12.70%), and HPV 52 (11.80%). The detection rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)2+ was 0.14% and the early diagnosis rate of cervical cancer was 85.91%. The detection rates of vaginitis and cervicitis were 19.28% and 21.32%, respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The HPV infection rate in Xinjiang is low, but the detection rate of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions is higher than the national average level. Cervical cancer is a prominent public health problem in Xinjiang, especially in southern Xinjiang.


Subject(s)
Adult , Alphapapillomavirus , China/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rural Population , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology
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